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Sample records for american countries partner

  1. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219

  2. Partnering for Geospatial Innovations in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhon Goes in Center, . D.

    2003-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Native America. As a thirty year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. A recent relationship building endeavor that utilized a recent Executive Order to empower federal agencies to work hand in hand with tribal colleges has resulted in a formal Memorandum of Understanding with the United States Geologic Survey. This relationship has paved the way toward significant progress that is measured in the enhanced educational services and relevant research for Sinte Gleska University and the Lakota Nation. As an institution of higher learning for the region in the Great Plains, SGU's leadership is unparalleled. Sinte Gleska University proposes to share a vision of collaboration with not only sister institutions but with the greater national and global community. This vision is already in place with SGU's leadership in developing and participating in the World Indigenous Higher Education Consortium. As a recent recipient of the NASA REASoN CAN award and ongoing projects with the NSF and NOAA, SGU will exemplify the culmination of these endeavors to illustrate and promote innovative partnerships with Federal Agencies, Industry Partners, mainstream academic institutions and other tribal colleges.

  3. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: analysis of prevalence data from 19 countries.

    PubMed

    Devries, Karen M; Kishor, Sunita; Johnson, Holly; Stöckl, Heidi; Bacchus, Loraine J; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Watts, Charlotte

    2010-11-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy across 19 countries, and examine trends across age groups and UN regions. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (20 surveys from 15 countries) and the International Violence Against Women Surveys (4 surveys from 4 countries) carried out between 1998 and 2007. Our data suggest that intimate partner violence during a pregnancy is a common experience. The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy ranged from approximately 2.0% in Australia, Cambodia, Denmark and the Philippines to 13.5% in Uganda among ever-pregnant, ever-partnered women; half of the surveys estimated prevalence to be between 3.9 and 8.7%. Prevalence appeared to be higher in African and Latin American countries relative to the European and Asian countries surveyed. In most settings, prevalence was relatively constant in the younger age groups (age 15-35), and then appeared to decline very slightly after age 35. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is more common than some maternal health conditions routinely screened for in antenatal care. Global initiatives to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health must devote increased attention to violence against women, particularly violence during pregnancy. PMID:21111360

  4. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy. PMID:26617449

  5. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy. PMID:26617449

  6. Fungal infection in Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Rios-Fabra, A; Moreno, A R; Istúriz, R E

    1994-03-01

    Fungal infections remain a frequent health problem in Latin American countries. Although these diseases exhibit an extraordinary heterogeneity, they have certain features in common. Most patients belong to low socioeconomic groups and live in rural areas. This article presents a general view of the most prevalent subcutaneous mycoses, with emphasis on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment options in the developing countries of Latin America. PMID:8021441

  7. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  8. Aroma components of American country ham.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Cadwallader, K R

    2008-01-01

    The aroma-active compounds of American country ham were investigated by using direct solvent extraction-solvent assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE), dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated the involvement of numerous volatile constituents in the aroma of country ham. For DHDA, 38 compounds were identified as major odorants, among them, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 1-nonen-3-one, decanal, and (E)-2-nonenal were the most predominant, having FD-factors >or= 125 in all 3 hams examined, followed by 3-methylbutanal, 1-hexen-3-one, octanal, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and Furaneol. For the DSE-SAFE method, the neutral/basic fraction was dominated by 1-octen-3-one, methional, guaiacol, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-decenal, p-cresol as well as 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, phenylacetaldehyde, and gamma-nonalactone. The acidic fraction contained mainly short-chain volatile acids (3-methylbutanoic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, and acetic acid) and Maillard reaction products (for example, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone). The above compounds identified were derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, and Maillard/Strecker and associated reactions. Both methods revealed the same nature of the aroma components of American country ham. PMID:18211346

  9. Qualitative Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care. PMID:26514253

  10. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  11. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  12. Frequency and Types of Partner Violence among Mexican American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…

  13. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  14. Factors Influencing Help-Seeking from Informal Networks among African American Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Katherine E.; Luchok, Kathryn J.; Richter, Donna L.; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges African-American women in abusive relationships face when they consider seeking-help from their informal networks. Data are reported from interviews with 15 African-American women who were self-identified as having survived physical intimate partner violence. A 13-item,…

  15. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  16. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  17. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  18. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory: Country Cases from EU and ETF Partner Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Certificates, diplomas and titles are commonly known as qualifications. Their purpose is to show employers, training providers, and individuals what the person holding the qualification has learned and can do. Every country issues many different qualifications, but for the European labor market to work as intended--that is for European citizens to…

  19. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  20. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  1. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  2. Partner violence and major depression in women: a community study of Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Li, Zhonghe

    2003-11-01

    This cross-sectional, retrospective study used epidemiological and anthropological methods toward two aims: 1) to examine associations between partner violence and major depression in a community probability sample of women and 2) to provide new data on partner violence in Chinese Americans. In this study, 181 Chinese American women were interviewed, with 178 completing structured sections on CIDI 2.1 major depression and on partner violence history. Results indicate that a history of partner violence is associated with significantly higher rates of lifetime, 12-month, and current major depression in this community population. This effect is specific and independent of other factors. Partner violence also has a dose-response relationship with the severity of major depression episodes, increasing risk for severe and moderate episodes. The strength and specificity of this association, its dose-response effect, and its commonality across different populations suggest a possible causal role for partner violence needing further investigation in research on major depression in women. PMID:14614339

  3. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Duran, Bonnie M; Montgomery, Juliann M

    2004-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate) attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7%) of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native). Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9). Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7). Conclusions Native American women in our sample experienced

  4. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  5. Sexual Satisfaction, Perceived Availability of Alternative Partners, and Marital Quality in Newlywed African American Couples

    PubMed Central

    Stanik, Christine E.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal for this project was to examine the manner in which husbands’ and wives’ sexual satisfaction was related to their perceptions of the availability of alternative partners and overall marital quality. Participants were 470 newlywed African Americans couples residing in the southern region of the United States. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine actor (individuals’ sexual satisfaction on their own outcomes) and partner (individuals’ sexual satisfaction on their partners’ outcomes) effects. Wives’ and husbands’ sexual satisfaction was strongly positively associated with their own reports of marital quality, though it was not associated with their partners’ reports of marital quality. For both wives and husbands, higher sexual satisfaction was associated with lowered perceptions that they would be able to find other acceptable partners should their current relationship end. Perceived availability of alternative partners was, in turn, negatively associated with reports of marital quality. PMID:21516593

  6. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  7. Partner Incarceration and African-American Women's Sexual Relationships and Risk: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Caruso, Bethany; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Dauria, Emily; Clark, Claire D; Comfort, Megan L

    2015-06-01

    Racialized mass incarceration is associated with racial/ethnic disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative study was to learn about the processes through which partner incarceration affects African-American women's sexual risk. Four waves of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010-2011 with 30 women in Atlanta, Georgia (US) who had recently incarcerated partners. Approximately half the sample misused substances at baseline. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. For over half the sample (N = 19), partner incarceration resulted in destitution, and half of this group (N = 9) developed new partnerships to secure shelter or food; most misused substances. Other women (N = 9) initiated casual relationships to meet emotional or sexual needs. When considered with past research, these findings suggest that reducing incarceration rates among African-American men may reduce HIV/STIs among African-American women, particularly among substance-misusing women, as might rapidly linking women with recently incarcerated partners to housing and economic support and drug treatment. PMID:25694224

  8. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors. PMID:9574497

  9. Partners.

    PubMed

    Westover, P F

    1986-01-01

    The Salt Lake Clinic's problem was one of balance. Although the organizational values of the clinic were well developed, the organizational structure was not. The board of directors historically was accountable to its partners or shareholders, but the competitive, consumer-oriented environment also called for recognition of community, business, and consumer interest. To achieve a more balanced approach to clinic governance, a lay advisory board was appointed, made up of members active in civic affairs who each had a unique contribution to make and represented a business, community, or consumer perspective. PMID:10278455

  10. Injury Outcomes in African American and African Caribbean Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096

  11. Complex personhood as the context for intimate partner victimization: one American Indian woman's story.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and convicted felon. The aim of the current case study was to uncover implicit and explicit meanings embedded in the experiences of moving from a victim of IPV to an off ender by applying a framework of hermeneutic phenomenology as the methodology. Three relational themes emerged from the interview data: "Getting out of Hand," "They're in my Footstep all the Way Now," and "What's a Miranda Right"? Lastly, this article begins an exploration into the complex link between victimization and offending as it applies to one battered woman. PMID:19340765

  12. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  13. Motivational interviewing at the intersections of depression and intimate partner violence among African American women.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally tailored, multi-faceted intervention that used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a community-based participatory research approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  14. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  15. Chicago partners in the American dream: A local effort within the national homeownership strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, E.; Cavallo, J.; Peterson, N.; Nelson, M.

    1997-03-01

    President Clinton and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have set a goal of increasing homeownership in America. Currently the rate of homeownership is approximately 64 percent of the population. The goal is to raise that rate to 67.5 percent by the year 2000, a higher rate than ever recorded in U.S. history. Achieving the goal will require about 8 million families to acquire homes of their own. HUD has developed a plan for reaching the national homeownership goal. The plan is known as the National Homeownership Strategy. It was formulated with input from more than 50 public- and private-sector groups and consists of 100 objectives designed to make homeownership easier and affordable for American families. Among the objectives are expanded use of energy conservation and new construction technologies. The groups participating in the formulation of the National Homeownership Strategy formed a collaboration that was named the National Partners in Homeownership. Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a collaboration of Chicago organizations implementing the National Homeownership Strategy on a local level. It has made achieving the objectives of the Strategy the foundation for its local partnership. The Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a grassroots collaboration, combining the experience, resources, and expertise of a variety of local organizations. The fundamental goal of the Chicago Partners in the American Dream is to create 5,000 homeownership opportunities in nine to twelve focused areas within Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Communities in the Chicagoland market by the end of the year 2000.

  16. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911

  17. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    PubMed

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration. PMID:12335526

  18. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  19. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  20. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants. PMID:23175395

  1. Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

  2. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah J.; Bangi, Audrey; Sheon, Nicolas; Harper, Gary W.; Catania, Joseph A.; Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents often engage in concurrent sexual partnerships as part of a developmental process of gaining experience with sexuality. The authors qualitatively examined patterns of concurrency and variation in normative and motivational influences on this pattern of sexual partnering among African American adolescents (31 males; 20 females), ages 15 to 17 years. Using content analysis, gender and contextual differences in social norms and motivations for concurrency were explored. Findings describe the normative influences on adolescent males and females with regard to sexual concurrency and the transfer of these norms from one generation to the next. PMID:22505843

  3. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  4. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Southern Mediterranean. A Tempus Study. Issue 07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The attached descriptions of higher education systems in the Tempus partner countries provide a tool for those who are either planning or already carrying out projects within Tempus. This document forms part of a series of four publications which have been produced for each of the regions covered by Tempus. The descriptions have been drafted by…

  5. Are immigrants more likely than native-born Americans to perpetrate intimate partner violence?

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Cooper-Sadlo, Shannon; Maynard, Brandy R; Larson, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Despite an emerging body of research indicating that immigrants are less likely than native-born Americans to engage in crime and antisocial behavior, less attention has focused specifically on intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant populations. We address this gap by using data from Wave II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans with respect to multiple forms of IPV. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that in the aggregate, immigrants are significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV. However, examination of major world regions indicates these results are driven by Latin American immigrants. Immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Europe report a lower prevalence of IPV perpetration than native-born Americans. This study extends prior research on the immigrant paradox and suggests that future studies take into account regional heterogeneity when examining IPV and other forms of violence in immigrant populations. PMID:25217226

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

  7. 47 CFR 1.570 - AM broadcast station applications involving other North American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM broadcast station applications involving other North American countries. 1.570 Section 1.570 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... AM broadcast station applications involving other North American countries. See § 73.3570....

  8. Do support groups members disclose less to their partners? The dynamics of HIV disclosure in four African countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent efforts to curtail the HIV epidemic in Africa have emphasised preventing sexual transmission to partners through antiretroviral therapy. A component of current strategies is disclosure to partners, thus understanding its motivations will help maximise results. This study examines the rates, dynamics and consequences of partner disclosure in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, with special attention to the role of support groups and stigma in disclosure. Methods The study employs mixed methods, including a cross-sectional client survey of counselling and testing services, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with HIV-positive individuals in stable partnerships in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, recruited at healthcare facilities offering HIV testing. Results Rates of disclosure to partners varied between countries (32.7% – 92.7%). The lowest rate was reported in Malawi. Reasons for disclosure included preventing the transmission of HIV, the need for care, and upholding the integrity of the relationship. Fear of stigma was an important reason for non-disclosure. Women reported experiencing more negative reactions when disclosing to partners. Disclosure was positively associated with living in urban areas, higher education levels, and being male, while being negatively associated with membership to support groups. Conclusions Understanding of reasons for disclosure and recognition of the role of support groups in the process can help improve current prevention efforts, that increasingly focus on treatment as prevention as a way to halt new infections. Support groups can help spread secondary prevention messages, by explaining to their members that antiretroviral treatment has benefits for HIV positive individuals and their partners. Home-based testing can further facilitate partner disclosure, as couples can test together and be counselled jointly. PMID:23773542

  9. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among American Indian Women from Southwest Tribes in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Bonnie; Oetzel, John; Parker, Tassy; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of intimate partner violence (IPV) with mental disorders was investigated among 234 American Indian/Alaska Native female primary care patients. Results indicated that unadjusted prevalence ratios for severe physical or sexual abuse (relative to no IPV) were significant for anxiety, PTSD, mood, and any mental disorder. Adjusted…

  11. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    PubMed Central

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  12. Factors Influencing Resource Use by African American and African Caribbean Women Disclosing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Mana-Ay, Margarita; Bertrand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Coverston, Catherine R.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Many victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) do not access services. Education and severity of physical violence have previously been shown to predict resource utilization, but whether these hold true specifically among women of African descent is unknown. This paper furthers our understanding of the relationship between IPV and resource use, considering socio-demographics and aspects of IPV by presenting results from a study conducted with African American and African Caribbean women in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Of the 545 women included in this analysis, 95 (18%) reported emotional abuse only, 274 (50%) reported experiencing physical abuse only, and 176 (32%) had experienced both physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner. Resource utilization was relatively low among these women, with only 57% seeking any help. Among those who did, 13% sought medical, 18% DV, 37% community and 41% criminal justice resources. Generalized linear model results indicated that older age, severe risk for lethality from IPV and PTSD were predictive of certain types of resource use, while education, insurance status, and depression had no influence. Perceived availability of police and shelter resources varied by site. Results suggest that systems that facilitate resource redress for all abused women are essential, particularly attending to younger clients who are less likely to seek help, while building awareness that women accessing resources may be at severe risk for lethality from the violence and may also be experiencing mental health complications. In addition, greater efforts should be made on the community level to raise awareness among women of available resources. PMID:23295377

  13. Intimate partner violence and mental health symptoms in African American female ED patients#

    PubMed Central

    Houry, Debra; Kemball, Robin; Rhodes, Karin V.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) victims often seek care in the ED, whether for an injury from abuse or other sequelae such as mental health symptoms. Objectives The objective of the study was to assess whether depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality were associated with physical, sexual, or emotional IPV in African American female ED patients and to determine if experiencing multiple types of abuse was associated with increased mental health symptoms. Methods All eligible African American female patients were approached in the ED waiting room during study periods. Patients participated in the screening process via a computer kiosk. Questions regarding IPV and mental health symptoms were asked using validated tools. Results In this prospective cohort, 569 participated and 36% of those in a relationship in the past year (n = 461) disclosed that there were victims of IPV in the past year. In the past year, 22% experienced recent physical abuse, 9% recent sexual abuse, and 32% recent emotional abuse. A Pearson correlation was conducted and showed that all mental health symptoms were positively correlated with each type of IPV and each type of mental health symptom category. Mental health symptoms increased significantly with amount of abuse: depression (odds ratio [OR], 5.9 for 3 types of abuse), PTSD (OR, 9.4 for 3), and suicidality (OR, 17.5 for 3). Conclusions Emotional, sexual, and physical IPV were significantly associated with mental health symptoms. Each type of abuse was independently associated with depression, suicidality, and PTSD. Experiencing more than 1 type of abuse was also correlated with increased mental health symptoms. PMID:16787803

  14. A Study Focusing on American Expatriates' Learning in Host Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, In-Sun; Paprock, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 70 U.S. expatriate workers found that most learned the culture of their host country through reflective learning. Factors helping their adjustment included previous cross-cultural experience, language competence, long-term relationship with hosts, and information about the host country from both home and host sources. (Contains 29…

  15. Substance use and intimate partner violence victimization among White, African American, and Latina women.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women. PMID:23946141

  16. On helping Latin American countries in education in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2002-11-01

    The science and applications of acoustics are just as important in Latin America as they are in North America and elsewhere. However, resources in academia are harder to come by in nearly all of the Central American and South American nations; and therefore it would behoove U.S. and European acousticians to help their Latin-American counterparts in achieving their goals of quality education in acoustics, particularly in architectural acoustics, noise control, biomedical usages of ultrasound, signal analyses, and measurement techniques. Among the means of helping are scholarly exchanges, more support by the U.S. government for such exchanges (particularly through Fulbright programs--it is unfortunate that the Fulbright Senior Specialist Program does not recognize acoustics as being one of the environmental sciences), collaboration on research projects, long-term equipment loans and/or outright donations, etc. Advice by experienced practitioners in establishing or improving acoustics laboratories can optimize equipment selection and development of the curriculum.

  17. Sustainable transfer of biotechnology to developing countries: fighting poverty by bringing scientific tools to developing-country partners.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Poverty and social inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious and other diseases but also the course of disease in those affected. The lack of proper diagnosis and access to adequate health services only compounds the problem. In low-resource settings, the burden of disease can be reduced if the basic human and material resources exist to support the use of low-cost interventions by appropriately trained personnel. For 20 years, the Sustainable Sciences Institute has built scientific capacity in developing countries to recognize, prevent, and respond to the threats posed by disease. PMID:17954678

  18. The Status of Girls' Education in Education for All Fast Track Initiative Partner Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Prema

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint examines girls' performance in primary education in the countries that joined the Education for All Fast Track Initiative between 2002 and 2008. At the time they joined the initiative, a first group of countries (high performers) had already achieved high and equal enrollment of girls and boys. Significant progress is evident in a…

  19. For God and Country: Conservatism and American School Policy. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    The election of Ronald Reagan to President in 1980 marked the political zenith of modern American conservative ideology in the 20th century. This book presents a historical analysis of conservative ideology and its influence on federal school policies during Reagan's first administration, 1981-1984. It examines various conservative social agendas…

  20. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  1. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    PubMed

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle. PMID:23907305

  2. Relationship of Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Risk Behaviors, and Powerlessness in African-American Women of Childbearing Age.

    PubMed

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Westbrook, Sue

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and the phenomenon of powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age, and (2) to investigate the differences between type and severity of IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age who have and have not reported IPV This study used the theory of gender and power as a conceptual framework. A purposive sample of 130 African-American women ranging from 18 to 49 years of age from southeastern Louisiana was recruited from community clinics. A correlation/comparative analysis design was used in this study. Three self-report, self-administered surveys were used: The Abuse Assessment Screen-Revised, the HIV-Risk Screening Instrument-Revised, items from the subscale of powerlessness in the Trauma-Related Belief Questionnaire, and a demographics questionnaire. Statistically significant relationships between IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness were identified. Participants who had experienced emotional or physical abuse by their partners were identified to be at risk for HIV infection and a statistically significant relationship between IPV and powerlessness was identified. Participants who feared their partner or ex-partner reported higher degrees of powerlessness. Findings emphasized that for women who are identified as survivors of IPV, nurses need to screen for HIV infection, provide access to care and community resources, and teach skills for effective coping and risk-reduction decision-making. PMID:26371359

  3. Tailoring Information Strategies for Developing Countries: Some Latin American Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Warren

    This article addresses the conditions of developing countries which must be taken into account in developing information strategies for their public and educational institutions or projects. Its central argument is that newer information science concepts, although they demand technological and conceptual sophistication, can be useful in the…

  4. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  5. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

  6. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  7. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  8. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  9. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  10. African American Adolescents Meeting Sex Partners Online: Closing the Digital Research Divide in STI/HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Laura B.; Brown, Larry K.; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Valois, Robert F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2–3.6,). A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95%% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95 % CI [1.5,5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention. PMID:22293979

  11. African American adolescents meeting sex partners online: closing the digital research divide in STI/HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention. PMID:22293979

  12. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344

  13. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence in Mexican-American Women with Disabilities: A Secondary Data Analysis of Cross-Language Research

    PubMed Central

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L.; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovosky’s Salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55–75, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: Abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; “Violencia tan cruel”: Threatened sense of coherence; “Salutogenic” choices within the context of IPV; A quest for peace; and Strength amidst struggle. PMID:23907305

  15. Engaging Secondary School and University Teachers in Modelling: Some Experiences in South American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Luaces, Victor E.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses mathematical modelling from several different perspectives and contrasts modelling with problem solving. Then it describes the ways in which modelling, applications, and problem solving are approached in several Latin American countries. It further describes workshops for secondary schools and for university teachers in which…

  16. Music therapy research in Ibero-American countries: an overview focused on assessment and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sabbatella, Patricia L

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present an overview of some contemporary ideas concerning the status of music therapy research in Ibero-American countries, with a focus on assessment and clinical evaluation of music therapy clinical practice. PMID:16597778

  17. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  18. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  19. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  20. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  1. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  2. Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Institutional Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The role of social partner organizations in vocational education and training (VET) has been compared for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In these countries, a system of industrial relations comparable to those existing in western Europe is emerging gradually.…

  3. Qualification Challenges in the Partner Countries and Member States. Proceedings of the Workshop on Curriculum Innovation (1st, Turin, Italy, September 26-27, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    These proceedings present 10 presentations and 3 working group reports from a workshop on the challenges of the new learning culture and their consequences for the partner countries of the European Union (EU). "Introduction and Summary of the Workshop" (Bernhard Buck) begins with a brief overview of distinctions between the vocational education…

  4. Differences on Primary Care Labor Perceptions in Medical Students from 11 Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R.; Abudinén A., Gabriel; Azucas-Peralta, Rita; Barrezueta-Fernandez, Jorge; Cerna-Urrutia, Luis; DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrián; Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Moya, Geovanna; Valverde-Solano, Christian D.; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vizárraga-León, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Background The shortage in Latin-American Primary Care (PC) workforce may be due to negative perceptions about it. These perceptions might be probably influenced by particular features of health systems and academic environments, thus varying between countries. Methods Observational, analytic and cross-sectional multicountry study that evaluated 9,561 first and fifth-year medical students from 63 medical schools of 11 Latin American countries through a survey. Perceptions on PC work was evaluated through a previously validated scale. Tertiles of the scores were created in order to compare the different countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance. Results Approximately 53% of subjects were female; mean age was 20.4±2.9 years; 35.5% were fifth-year students. Statistically significant differences were found between the study subjects’ country, using Peru as reference. Students from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay perceived PC work more positively, while those from Ecuador showed a less favorable position. No differences were found among perceptions of Bolivian, Salvadoran, Honduran and Venezuelan students when compared to their Peruvian peers. Conclusions Perceptions of PC among medical students from Latin America vary according to country. Considering such differences can be of major importance for potential local specific interventions. PMID:27414643

  5. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. PMID:26709109

  6. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian. PMID:26861958

  7. Toward relationship-directed parenting: an example of North American born second-generation Korean-American mothers and their partners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lana; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Tuttle, Amy

    2014-03-01

    Historically, parenting has been constructed hierarchically; however, contemporary parenting models frequently emphasize parenting as relationship (Siegel & Hartzell [2004] Parenting from the inside out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive; Tuttle, Knudson-Martin, & Kim [2012] Family Process, 51, 73-89). Drawing on interviews with 20 North American born second-generation Korean-American mothers and their partners, and sensitized by TP-CRO, a social constructionist framework for conceptualizing parent-child relational orientations, this grounded theory analysis identified three main processes that facilitate relational connection as a parenting orientation rather than the rule-directed approach historically associated with first-generation immigrant Asian families. These include: (a) emphasizing dominant culture values; (b) inviting open communication; and (c) promoting mutuality. Results also show how parents integrate collectivist cultural values of their first generation immigrant parents' traditional culture into North American parenting ideals with which they primarily identify. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the TP-CRO for understanding parent-child relationships within multicultural parenting contexts and offers suggestions for working with second-generation Korean families. PMID:24215341

  8. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  9. Preventing the transmission of American trypanosomiasis and its spread into non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, is caused by the flagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. An estimated eight million people infected with T. cruzi currently reside in the endemic regions of Latin America. However, as the disease has now been imported into many non-endemic countries outside of Latin America, it has become a global health issue. We reviewed the transmission patterns and current status of disease spread pertaining to American trypanosomiasis at the global level, as well as recent advances in research. Based on an analysis of the gaps in American trypanosomiasis control, we put forward future research priorities that must be implemented to stop the global spread of the disease. PMID:26715535

  10. The effect of partner characteristics on HIV infection among African American men who have sex with men in the Young Men's Survey, Los Angeles, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Trista A; Harawa, Nina T; Johnson, Denise F; Secura, Gina M; MacKellar, Duncan A; Valleroy, Linda A

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies have documented disparities in HIV prevalence by race among men who have sex with men (MSM), even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In this analysis of data collected for the 1999-2000 Los Angeles Young Men's Survey, a cross-sectional venue-based survey of MSM aged 23-29, we investigated whether information on male sex-partner characteristics accounts for some of the racial/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence. In this sample of survey participants, we observed that African American MSM reported similar or lower levels of HIV risk behaviors compared with White MSM but much higher HIV prevalence (26% vs. 7.4%, respectively). In an unadjusted logistic regression model, African American participants had 4.4 times higher odds of HIV infection compared with White participants. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusting for participant behaviors, we observed elevation of the relative odds of HIV infection for African Americans compared with Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 6.9, 95% confidence limits [CL] = 2.5, 19). In a fully adjusted model, controlling for the effects of having older partners and more African American partners, we observed a 20% reduction in the relative odds of HIV for African American participants compared with White participants (OR = 5.5, 95% CL = 1.8, 17). Our findings suggest that differences in male partner types, namely older and African American partners, may account for some of the observed racial disparity in HIV infection, especially for African American MSM compared with White MSM in Los Angeles. PMID:12630598

  11. Intimate partner violence among Asian Americans and their use of mental health services: comparisons with white, black, and Latino victims.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunkag; Kim, Woo Jong

    2012-10-01

    Studies have been conducted on intimate partner violence (IPV) among Asian Americans, but knowledge on their use of mental health services is limited. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a national sample to examine Asian victims' use of mental health services. We analyzed data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. The dependent variable was use of mental health services. The independent variables included race, employment, and the type of IPV. Results showed that Asian victims used the service less than other racial groups. The rates of use of mental health services were lower among older people and men. The lowest rate of mental health service use among Asian victims indicates a possible gap between their needs to be met and mental health services available to them. It is crucial to increase access to mental health services for ethnic minorities. PMID:22527745

  12. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy

  13. Abuse Impedes Prevention: The Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/STI Risk Among Young African American Women.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Robinson, LaShun S; Raiford, Jerris L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control condition were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs. PMID:25399033

  14. Civic Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pew Partnership for Civic Change, Charlottesville, VA.

    This issue of "Civic Partners" is a call to action on behalf of American's cities. The issue opens with John W. Gardner's discussion of the "responsibles" whose vision and energy sustain communities. He stresses that all of us are "responsibles." Among the many tasks that face those responsible for urban improvement is the teaching of conflict…

  15. Evaluating a Community-Partnered Cancer Clinical Trials Pilot Intervention with African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Michaels, Margo; Blakeney, Natasha; Odulana, Adebowale A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Richmond, Alan; Long, Debra G.; Robinson, William S.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer Clinical Trial (CCT) accrual and retention rates remain disproportionately low among African Americans. Awareness and access to trials are crucial facilitators of trial participation. Strategies developed within a community-based participatory framework (CBPR) are potential solutions to increase awareness and access to CCTs. In this study, we describe the pilot phase of three innovative community-centered modules to improve basic CCT knowledge, awareness of locations to access CCT information, and opportunities to participate in CCTs. Design Four community organizations completed Community Bridges to CCTs training-of-the trainer and recruited adult African American volunteers to participate in one of three CCT education modules: a workshop about CCTs; a role-play describing one person's experience with CCTs; or a call and response session reviewing myths and facts about CCTs. Pre- and post-test surveys were collected and analyzed using McNemar agreement statistic to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding trials. Results Trainers enrolled 125 participants in the Call and Response (n=22), Role-play (n=60), and Workshop (n=43) modules. Module participants were mostly African American, female, and mean age of 53 years. Comparison of pre and post-test responses demonstrates favorable changes in awareness of CCTs and where to access to CCTs across the sample. Analysis by module type indicates significant increases for participants in the Call and Response (p < 0.01) and Role-Play modules (p < 0.001), but not the Workshop module. Conclusion Despite measures taken to increase the participation and retention rate of African Americans in clinical trials, little advancement has been made. Developing tailored community education modules on CCTs within the CBPR framework is a promising innovation to increase knowledge about CCTs and favorable attitudes about participation that are known precursors to trial enrollment. PMID:25564207

  16. A comparative analysis of prenatal care and fetal growth in eight South American countries.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Cristina; Lopez Camelo, Jorge; Wehby, George L

    2014-01-01

    There has been little work that comprehensively compared the relationship between prenatal care and infant health across multiple countries using similar data sources and analytical models. Such comparative analyses are useful for understanding the background of differences in infant health between populations. We evaluated the association between prenatal care visits and fetal growth measured by birth weight (BW) in grams or low birth weight (<2500 grams; LBW) adjusted for gestational age in eight South American countries using similarly collected data across countries and the same analytical models. OLS and logistic regressions were estimated adjusting for a large set of relevant infant, maternal, and household characteristics and birth year and hospital fixed effects. Birth data were acquired from 140 hospitals that are part of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) network. The analytical sample included 56,014 live-born infants (∼69% of total sample) with complete data born without congenital anomalies in the years 1996-2011 in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Uruguay. Prenatal care visits were significantly (at p<.05) and positively associated with BW and negatively associated with LBW for all countries. The OLS coefficients ranged from 9 grams per visit in Bolivia to 36 grams in Uruguay. The association with LBW was strongest for Chile (OR = 0.87 per visit) and lowest for Argentina and Venezuela (OR = 0.95). The association decreased in the recent decade compared to earlier years. Our findings suggest that estimates of association between prenatal care and fetal growth are population-specific and may not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, as one of the indicators for a country's healthcare system for maternal and child health, prenatal care is a highly variable indicator between countries in South America. PMID:24625630

  17. Public responses to intimate partner violence: comparing preferences of Chinese and American college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuning; Button, Deeanna M; Smolter, Nicole; Poteyeva, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Based on data collected from college students in Beijing and Hong Kong (China) and in Newark and Detroit (United States), this study assesses and explains citizen preferences of 2 major formalized responses to intimate partner violence (IPV)--law enforcement and social services intervention--in a cross-cultural context. Results show that Chinese respondents have lower support for law enforcement responses. Regional variation is only observed within China with students from Hong Kong supporting both law enforcement and social services responses more than their Beijing counterparts. Results also show that social attitudinal variables--including male dominance ideology, perceptions of IPV causation, support for the criminalization of IPV, and tolerance of IPV--influence public preferences of responses to IPV more than do demographic and experiential variables. PMID:23763114

  18. Intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy: related demographic and psychosocial factors and postpartum depressive symptoms among Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Corrie L; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Coonrod, Dean V

    2015-02-01

    Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the United States were more likely to report IPV than foreign-born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24958135

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  20. Risk factors for suicide attempts among African American women experiencing recent intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Martie P; Kaslow, Nadine J; Kingree, J B

    2002-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify risk factors for suicide attempts among 200 African American abused women (100 attempters, 100 nonattempters) and to test a cumulative risk model to determine if a woman's likelihood of making a suicide attempt increased as the number of risk factors increased. Results revealed that attempters were significantly more likely than nonattempters to report high levels of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, drug abuse, and childhood abuse and neglect. Results from the cumulative risk model revealed a linear association between the number of risk factors and the odds of making a suicide attempt. Compared to women with no risk factors, women with two risk factors, women with three risk factors, and women with four to five risk factors were 10, 25, and 107 times, respectively, more likely to attempt suicide. The identification of risk variables highlights the importance of designing interventions to address these factors in order to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in abused, African American women. PMID:12102054

  1. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. . Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  2. Do health partnerships with organisations in lower income countries benefit the UK partner? A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health partnerships between institutions in the UK and Low or Lower- middle Income Countries are an increasingly important model of development, yet analysis of partnerships has focused on benefits and costs to the Low and Lower- Middle Income partner. We reviewed the evidence on benefits and costs of health partnerships to UK individuals, institutions & the NHS and sought to understand how volunteering within partnerships might impact on workforce development and service delivery. Methods A systematic review of both published literature and grey literature was conducted. Content relating to costs or benefits to the UK at an individual, institutional or system level was extracted and analysed by thematic synthesis. The benefits of volunteering described were mapped to the key outcome indicators for five different UK professional development structures. A framework was developed to demonstrate the link between volunteer experience within partnerships and improved UK service delivery outcomes. Results The literature review (including citation mapping) returned 9 published papers and 32 pieces of grey literature that met all inclusion criteria. 95% of sources cited benefits and 32% cited costs. Most literature does not meet high standards of formal academic rigor. Forty initial individual benefits codes were elicited. These were then grouped into 7 key domains: clinical skills; management skills; communication & teamwork; patient experience & dignity; policy; academic skills; and personal satisfaction & interest. A high degree of concordance was shown between professional benefits cited and professional development indicators within UK work force development frameworks. A theoretical trajectory from volunteer experience to UK service delivery outcomes was demonstrated in most areas, but not all. 32% of sources cited costs, yielding 15 initial codes which were grouped into 5 domains: financial; reputational; health & security; loss of staff; and opportunity

  3. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; de-la-Mora, R.; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-10-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services.

  4. Patentability of human genes: the conceptual differences between the industrialised and Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-07-01

    The patenting of human genes has generated considerable controversy, both in the doctrinal field and in the legal and administrative. In the core countries, particularly the USA and the European Union, a favourable criterion to patentability has been increasing, contrasting with the criteria adopted by Latin American countries, which almost unanimously banned the patentability of genes and gene sequences. This issue not only has legal connotations, but also ethical issues come into play. Particularly in the USA, the recent decision of the Supreme Court in the Myriad case is part of a pro-patent movement, even when its superficial reading seems to be oriented in the opposite direction. In the European Union, the criterion that favours human intervention, whatever its gravitation in the results, tips the balance in favour of patentability. PMID:25929592

  5. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  6. Availability and affordability of new medicines in Latin American countries where pivotal clinical trials were conducted

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n = 18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609

  7. Coca-paste smoking in some Latin American countries: a severe and unabated form of addiction.

    PubMed

    Jeri, F R

    1984-01-01

    Coca paste is an intermediary product in the chemical extraction of cocaine from coca leaves. Abusers smoke coca paste in a dried form, which contains from 40 to 91 per cent cocaine. Over the past 10 years, this pattern of drug abuse has attained epidemic proportions in some Latin American countries, particularly in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Addiction to coca paste develops in a few months and has serious health, social and economic consequences. The problem is particularly acute in Latin American countries because of the high doses of coca paste involved. The smoking of coca paste causes four distinct successive phases of mental disorder: euphoria, dysphoria, hallucinosis and paranoid psychosis. It can produce severe intoxication, prolonged or relapsing psychosis and, in some cases, death. Cocaine has been found in the blood of coca-leaf chewers, coca-paste smokers and users of cocaine hydrochloride. Excessive coca-paste smoking is often resistant to therapeutic interventions and there is a high rate of relapse after treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:6569819

  8. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system. PMID:26438812

  9. Sex Partner Type, Drug Use and Condom Use Self-Efficacy Among African Americans from Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Are Associations with Consistent Condom Use Moderated by Gender?

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Elifson, Kirk; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Gender inequalities in sexual behavior are explored from the perspective of the theory of gender and power. This study focused on the effect of sex partner type (steady versus casual), drug use, and condom use self-efficacy regarding consistent condom use (CCU) among a community-based sample of adults. The sample included 1,357 African American men and women (M age 37.0, SD 13.1 years; 44% women, 66% men) from 61 disadvantaged census block groups in Atlanta, GA as part of a study of individual and neighborhood characteristics and HIV risk-taking. Having a steady partner decreased the odds of CCU, while higher condom use self-efficacy increased the odds of CCU. Among non-drug users, having a drug-using partner was associated with decreased odds of condom use for women only. Women with drug-using partners, especially a steady partner, were least likely to report CCU. Therefore, interventions intended to empower CCU among women need to expand beyond acknowledging the reduced control that women who use drugs demonstrate to also consider those who have drug-using sexual partners. PMID:26580813

  10. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti D; Galsky, Matthew D; Chagpar, Anees B; Pyle, Doug; Loehrer, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a global community of health care professionals whose stated purpose is to "make a world of difference" by improving cancer care around the world. Unfortunately, cancer survival rates vary significantly among countries with differing financial and infrastructural resources. Because ASCO is a professional oncology society committed to conquering cancer through research, education, prevention, and delivery of high-quality patient care, it is ideally suited to address this issue. ASCO could bring together oncology professionals and other necessary stakeholders from around the world to improve cancer care and lessen suffering for patients worldwide. As part of the ongoing commitment of ASCO to the future of cancer care, the Leadership Development Program was created to foster the leadership skills of early and midcareer oncologists and provide these participants with a working knowledge of the depth and breadth of the organization. As participants in the inaugural class of the ASCO Leadership Development Program, we were charged with investigating how ASCO might favorably affect cancer prevention and treatment in resource-poor countries in a cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable fashion. ASCO can significantly influence cancer care in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive approach that promotes cancer awareness and education, improves clinical practice by identifying and removing barriers to delivery of quality cancer care, and fosters innovation to initiate novel solutions to complex problems. PMID:21709190

  11. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. PMID:22789097

  12. The Contribution of European Vocational Training Policy to Reforms in the Partner Countries of the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments in EU vocational education and training (VET) policy, and of the issues and challenges faced by VET systems in the Western Balkans, Turkey, and other countries covered by the "wider European neighbourhood" policy. The purpose is to emphasise the relevance for these countries of the EU…

  13. A multiple indicators multiple causes model of late-life depression in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Brailean, Anamaria; Guerra, Mariella; Chua, Kia-Chong; Prince, Martin; Prina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Euro-D depression scale consists of symptom clusters that may be differentially related to demographic and cognitive characteristics in older adults. This hypothesis needs further investigation and the role of measurement bias on substantive conclusions remains to be established. Method The study sample comprised 10,405 community-dwelling older adults from six Latin American countries. We applied a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model for a concurrent investigation of measurement bias and of the association between Euro-D symptom clusters and background variables. Results The factorial validity of Euro-D, with a two-dimensional structure – affective suffering and motivation disturbance, was consistently supported in all countries. Although complete measurement invariance could not be assumed across countries, measurement bias was minor. Both Euro-D factors were unrelated to age, but related to gender, as well as to impairment in memory and verbal fluency. Gender differences were larger for affective suffering than for motivation disturbance, whereas differences in verbal fluency impairment were more strongly related to motivation disturbance. Limitations Our analytic strategies could only examine invariance at the level of indicator thresholds. The generalisability of current findings needs to be examined in clinical populations. A wider set of cognitive tests is needed. We did not examine the compositional factors that could have accounted for the variation in Euro-D scores across countries, as this was beyond the aims of the paper. Conclusion The current study adds evidence for the construct validity of Euro-D and for the possible differential association of depression symptom-clusters with gender and verbal fluency in older adults. An understanding of the heterogeneity of late-life depression may carry clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of depression in old age. PMID:26092097

  14. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  15. [Production of scientific articles about health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, A; Goldbaum, M; Silvi, J

    1997-01-01

    citation index of 4.36 per article. It is concluded that, despite the inherent limitations, this type of study reveals some general trends in the development of research in the six Latin American countries with the greatest scientific production and makes it possible to formulate hypotheses on the factors that influence these trends. Taken with the paper caution, the results of studies like this one can be of great value in defining health science and technology policies. PMID:9162579

  16. Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Barnett, Nancy; Parker, Sharon; Barnes, Arti; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer S; Nunn, Amy S

    2016-06-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African American sample of STI clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi. We assessed condom non-use at last intercourse with up to three recent sexual partners reported by participants between January and June 2011. Participant- and partner-level correlates of condom non-use were examined using generalized estimating equations. The 1295 participants reported 2880 intercourse events, of which 1490 (51.7 %) involved condom non-use. Older age, lower educational attainment, reporting financial or material dependence on a sex partner, sex with a primary partner, and higher frequency of sex were associated with increased odds of condomless sex. HIV prevention efforts in the South should address underlying socioeconomic disparities and structural determinants that result in partner dependency and sexual risk behavior. PMID:26683032

  17. Biotechnology for developing countries. The case of the Central American isthmus.

    PubMed

    León, P E

    1993-12-21

    Recent developments in the fields of chemistry, molecular biology, computer science, and communications promise to transform the way that many things will be done in the near future in diverse fields of scientific R&D. Fortunately for less developed countries (LDCs) some of the technologies involved are user friendly and safe, avoiding the need for radioactive precursors, large machines, or expensive reagents. For instance, tissue culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), dideoxi-sequencing, and recombinant DNA techniques have already invaded clinical laboratories, agricultural field stations, and natural history museums, even in some developing nations. Somatic cell culture for plant biotechnology and immunologic techniques for diagnosis have had wide applications for over a decade in all countries in the Central American Isthmus. More recently, recombinant DNA techniques, including PCR, have been introduced for diagnostic purposes and research at the two largest universities in Costa Rica and at other public institutions and are also used in Guatemala and Panama. Honduras and Nicaragua are only now acquiring these technologies for diagnostic purposes. Biotechnological applications in industry seem to be lagging behind, and presently no good links exist between research laboratories and industry for advanced applications. The application of biotechnologies in environmental problems is slowly underway, with molecular studies of natural wildlife populations and primary forest trees. A major effort is needed to create safe and effective ways of dealing with environmental degradation, wastes, and byproducts of tropical agriculture and industry. The creation of the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) in Costa Rica to elaborate an inventory of flora and fauna and to prospect for useful substances provides a unique opportunity for biotechnological applications. In addition, government policies to promote biotechnological development are supported by CONICIT (National

  18. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  19. Closer look at our neighbors to the south: Air quality trends, standards, and monitoring programs of Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.O.; Medina-Vera, M.; Mitchell, W.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS/Air) is a program in which air monitoring data from over 50 countries throughout the world are collected and analyzed. The GEMS/Air program is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of a technical systems agreement between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UNEP/WHO, collaborative reviews of eighteen Latin American cities were conducted over the past two years. The countries visited include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The findings of these reviews and the future direction of air pollution monitoring programs in these countries are presented.

  20. Making the Most of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: A Guide for Full-Service School Leaders and Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughen, Katherine; Stewart, Nichole H.; LaVallee, Robert; Zvara, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To address the economic crisis facing the country, the President signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law on February 17, 2009. The ARRA offers numerous opportunities for full-service school leaders and may provide the necessary funding to prevent significant decreases in operating budgets. One of the largest investments…

  1. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    PubMed

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women. PMID:26892099

  2. Gaps In Primary Care And Health System Performance In Six Latin American And Caribbean Countries.

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Guanais, Frederico C; Mullachery, Pricila; Jimenez, Geronimo

    2016-08-01

    The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health system for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality primary care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health system performance. We applied a validated survey on access, use, and satisfaction with health care services to nationally representative samples of the populations of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Respondents reported considerable gaps in the ways in which primary care is organized, financed, and delivered. Nearly half reported using the emergency department for a condition they considered treatable in a primary care setting. Reports of more primary care problems were associated with worse perceptions of health system performance and quality and less receipt of preventive care. Urgent attention to primary care performance is required as the region's population continues to age at an unprecedented rate. PMID:27503978

  3. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    PubMed

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-01

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. PMID:25458734

  4. Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Avibacterium paragallinarum Isolates from Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Luna-Galaz, G A; Morales-Erasto, V; Peñuelas-Rivas, C G; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2016-09-01

    The antimicrobial sensitivity of 11 reference strains and 66 Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from four Latin American countries was investigated. All 11 reference strains were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The 11 reference strains were all resistant to lincomycin. All isolates (100%) from Mexico, Panama, and Peru were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and fosfomycin. The Ecuadorian isolates showed some level of resistance to all 16 agents tested. The Ecuadorian isolates were significantly more sensitive to erythromycin, lincomycin, and streptomycin, and significantly more resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, than the Mexican isolates. A total of 57.5% (38/66) of tested isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with 16 MDR patterns detected in 88.4% (23/26) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Ecuador, and 8 MDR patterns detected in 42.8% (15/35) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Mexico. In conclusion, the variation in antimicrobial sensitivity patterns between isolates from Ecuador and Mexico emphasizes the importance of active, ongoing monitoring of A. paragallinarum isolates. PMID:27610729

  5. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  6. Impact of Intimate Partner Forced Sex on HIV Risk Factors in Physically Abused African American and African Caribbean Women.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Lucea, Marguerite B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Paterno, Mary T; Bertrand, Desiree R; Sharps, Phyllis W; Campbell, Doris W; Stockman, Jamila K

    2015-10-01

    We examined associations between intimate partner forced sex (IPFS) and HIV sexual risk behaviors among physically abused Black women. Women aged 18-55 in intimate relationships were interviewed in health clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Of 426 physically abused women, 38% experienced IPFS; (Baltimore = 44 and USVI = 116). USVI women experiencing IPFS were more likely to have 3+ past-year sex partners (AOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.03-4.14), casual sex partners (AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.42-5.17), and concurrent sex partners (AOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.73) compared to their counterparts. Baltimore women reporting IPFS were more likely to have exchanged sex (AOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.19-10.75). Women experiencing IPFS were more likely to report their abuser having other sexual partners in Baltimore (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.22-8.88) and USVI (AOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.20-3.44). Clinicians should consider the influence of IPFS on individual and partnership HIV sexual risk behaviors. PMID:25248623

  7. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women With PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention to reduce health disparities for low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article presents our rationale for using MBSR as an intervention with this population, the details of its implementation, and a discussion of the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention based on participants’ feedback and our observations. We conclude that the use of MBSR programs for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of IPV is both feasible (of initial interest to and completed by most participants) and acceptable (congruent with and relevant to their needs). Replication with larger samples and examination of mechanisms is warranted by these findings. PMID:24043922

  8. SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF INTERCOURSE FREQUENCY AND NUMBER OF SEXUAL PARTNERS AMONG MALE AND FEMALE AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Traylor, Amy C.; Howell, Rebecca J.; Church, Wesley T.; Bolland, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined 14 waves of data derived from a large, community-based study of the sexual behavior of impoverished youth between 12 and 17 years of age residing in the Deep South. We used multilevel linear modeling to identify ecological predictors of intercourse frequency and number of sexual partners among gender-specific subsamples. Results indicated that predictors of adolescent sexual behavior differed by both type of sexual behavior and gender. For males, age, maternal warmth, parental knowledge, curfew, self-worth, and sense of community predicted intercourse frequency, while age, parental knowledge, curfew, self-worth, friend support, and sense of community were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners. Among females, age, curfew, and self-worth exerted significant effects on intercourse frequency, while age, parental knowledge, curfew, and self-worth exerted significant effects on having multiple sexual partners. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26401060

  9. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly. PMID:24098037

  10. The Underlying Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in the Association between Intimate Partner Violence and Deliberate Self-harm among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Duke, Aaron A.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2015-01-01

    African American women are at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and its negative consequences, including health-compromising behaviors. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is one clinically-relevant behavior that has been understudied among African American women generally and those with exposure to IPV in particular. To date, no studies have examined factors that may account for the relationship between IPV and DSH. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations among IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual), PTSD, and DSH history and versatility, and the potentially mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the IPV-DSH relation. Participants were 197 African American community women currently experiencing IPV. Sixty participants (31%) reported a history of DSH. Among participants who reported DSH, there was an average endorsement of 2.3 unique forms of deliberate self-harm (i.e., DSH versatility). Significant positive associations were detected among physical IPV severity, psychological IPV severity, PTSD symptom severity, and DSH history and versatility. PTSD symptom severity mediated the relationships between physical and psychological IPV severity and DSH history and versatility. Results highlight the relevance of PTSD symptoms to DSH and suggest that treatments targeting PTSD symptoms may be useful in reducing DSH among IPV-exposed African American women. PMID:25752736

  11. Why do Americans have shorter life expectancy and worse health than people in other high-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. We review the evidence and explanations for these variations in longevity and health. Our overview suggests that the US health disadvantage applies to multiple mortality and morbidity outcomes. The American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. Proposed explanations include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and built environment. While these factors may contribute to poorer health in America, a focus on proximal causes fails to adequately account for the ubiquity of the US health disadvantage across the life-course. We discuss the role of specific public policies and conclude that while multiple causes are implicated, crucial differences in social policy might underlie an important part of the US health disadvantage. PMID:24422560

  12. Sourcebook on Central American Refugee Policy: A Bibliography with Subject and Country Index. Special Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Margo, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography on Central American refugee policy is the outgrowth of a year-long research seminar on the topic at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas at Austin during 1983-1984. That seminar was concerned with several aspects of Central American refugee policy, including policies of the various Central…

  13. Partnering in Research: A National Research Trial Exemplifying Effective Collaboration With American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q.; Copeland, Kenneth C.; Daniel, Mary R.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A.; Felton, Beverly A.; Khan, Sohail I.; Saunkeah, Bobby R.; Wharton, David F.; Payan, Marisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. PMID:25389367

  14. Partnering in research: a national research trial exemplifying effective collaboration with American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q; Copeland, Kenneth C; Daniel, Mary R; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A; Felton, Beverly A; Khan, Sohail I; Saunkeah, Bobby R; Wharton, David F; Payan, Marisa L

    2014-12-15

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. PMID:25389367

  15. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  16. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in six Latin American countries (SWOG Trial S0701)

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse; Sexton, Rachael; Ferreccio, Catterina; Jimenez, Silvia; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Cook, Paz; Anderson, Garnet; Morgan, Douglas R.; Baker, Laurence H.; Greenberg, E. Robert; Herrero, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection between adults 21–65 years old. Methods Data are from the initial screening visit of a randomized clinical trial of three antibiotic regimens to eradicate H. pylori, conducted in seven sites (Santiago–Chile, Túquerres–Colombia, Guanacaste–Costa Rica, Copán–Honduras, Obregón and Tapachula–México, León–Nicaragua). Thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine adults from the general population were screened for H. pylori infection using an urea breath test (UBT) and were interviewed to assess socioeconomic-, demographic-, and symptom-related characteristics. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between these characteristics and H. pylori positivity at enrollment. Results Among the 1,852 eligible participants for whom a conclusive UBT result was obtained, H. pylori prevalence was 79.4 %, ranging from 70.1 to 84.7 % among the seven centers. Prevalence did not differ by sex (female: 78.4, male: 80.9; p = 0.20) or age (p = 0.08). H. pylori positivity increased with increasing number of siblings (p trend <0.0001). Participants with education beyond 12 years were less likely to be UBT-positive (OR 0.4: 0.3–0.6, compared to participants with 0–6 years of schooling) as were those employed outside the home (OR 0.7: 0.6–1.0). Odds of H. pylori infection increased with the presence of certain living conditions during childhood including having lived in a household with an earth floor (OR 1.8: 1.4–2.4), lack of indoor plumbing (OR 1.3: 1.0–1.8) and crowding (OR 1.4: 1.0–1.8, for having more than two persons per bedroom). Regarding current household conditions, living with more than 3 children in the household (OR 1.7: 1.2–2.5) and crowding (OR 1.8: 1.3–2.3) were associated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions The prevalence of H. pylori in adults was high and differed significantly among the six Latin American countries studied (p < 0.001). Our

  17. Effect of face-to-face interview versus computer-assisted self-interview on disclosure of intimate partner violence among African American women in WIC clinics.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-03-01

    African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. PMID:24923890

  18. iStart smart: a primary-care based and community partnered childhood obesity management program for Chinese-American children: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kwan, Monica; Mac, Allison; Chin, Nai-Ching; Liu, Katrina

    2013-12-01

    Children who are ethnic minorities, low income and live in urban neighborhoods are at higher risk for obesity. This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of a primary care-based and community partnered obesity intervention in Chinese American children. An experimental design with a historical comparison group was used to explore the feasibility of an obesity intervention for overweight Chinese American children, ages 7-12. Data were collected on weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference, physical activity, food intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy about diet and physical activity at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months post-baseline. Significant improvements in BMI, blood pressure, and nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy were found in the intervention group. Intervention group reduced their BMI compared to the comparison group (F = 8.65, p = .004). An obesity intervention in primary care setting is feasible and demonstrates a short-term effect on weight loss in Chinese American children. PMID:23595264

  19. The Effects of Alcohol, Relationship Power, and Partner Type on Perceived Difficulty Implementing Condom Use among African American Adults: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    African American adults are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, underscoring the need for additional research on barriers to condom use. Guided by the theory of gender and power, this experimental study used a series of vignettes to test causal hypotheses regarding the influence of event-level alcohol use (present and absent), partner type (serious and casual), and relationship power (low and equal) on perceived difficulty implementing condom use. A total of 299 (151 women and 148 men) heterosexual African American adults indicated how “difficult” it would be to use a condom after reading 8 hypothetical sexual encounters, presented in a random order. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with one between subjects factor (gender) and one covariate (condom use self-efficacy) was used to estimate the effects of these variables on an index of perceived difficultly. The women in the study reported significantly higher ratings of difficulty implementing condom use in vignettes characterized by low relationship power (p < .001) and presence of alcohol use (p < .001); the manipulated independent variables did not produce any main effects for men. Both men and women’s ratings of perceived difficulty decreased as condom use self-efficacy increased (p < .001). This is the first study to use an experimental methodology to test hypotheses about barriers to condom use among a community-based sample of African American adults. These data can be used to enhance existing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25277692

  20. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  1. Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to explore women’s perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. Methods The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Results Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. Conclusions IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative. PMID:25104971

  2. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Campbell, Doris W.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality from violence was fully mediated by depression. IPV should be considered in research and treatment of DE and both IPV and DE assessed when the other or depression is detected. PMID:22849778

  3. Resistive Efficacy and Multiple Sexual Partners among American Indian Young Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Kaufman, Carol E.; Beals, Janette

    2005-01-01

    Contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is one of the most serious public health issues for adolescents and young adults; rates of STDs among American Indian youth are among the highest of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although it is one of the key risk factors for spreading STDs, little is known about individual…

  4. From Apprentice to Journeyman to Partner: Benjamin Franklin's Workers and the Growth of the Early-American Printing Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasca, Ralph

    In studying the history of the American press, little attention has been given to printing networks and the apprenticeship system, factors which permitted the press not only to survive but to grow. Essential to press growth was the apprenticeship system, vocational education which replenished and augmented the craft's practitioners. Apprentices…

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-55 - Fresh pitaya from certain Central American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... country's NPPO must certify that each place of production has effective fruit fly trapping programs, and.... (iii) The NPPO must maintain records of fruit fly detections for each trap, update the records each... (either from the exporting country's NPPO or at the U.S. port of entry) find a single fruit fly larva in...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-55 - Fresh pitaya from certain Central American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... country's NPPO must certify that each place of production has effective fruit fly trapping programs, and.... (iii) The NPPO must maintain records of fruit fly detections for each trap, update the records each... (either from the exporting country's NPPO or at the U.S. port of entry) find a single fruit fly larva in...

  7. Stages of Consistent Condom Use, Partner Intimacy, Condom Use Attitude, and Self-Efficacy in African-American Crack Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Pallonen, Unto E.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how condom use attitude, self-efficacy, and partner intimacy related to five stages of consistent condom use. Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366). Dependent measures assessed both the participants’ own responses and their perceptions about their last sex partner’s own personal condom use attitude and participants’ condom use self-efficacy expectations. Partner intimacy was assessed both as a continuous attitudinal and as a discrete relationship measure. Less than 10% were classified as consistent condom users. Two thirds of inconsistent users were in the Precontemplation (PC) stage. The contemplation (C) and preparation (P) stages were equal among the remainder of the inconsistent condom users. Higher partner intimacy reduced modestly readiness for consistent condom use. The stage but not the intimacy group was related to the condom use attitudes and self-efficacy measures. Last partners’ perceived own negative attitudes were significantly related to the stages of consistent condom use and was especially low in the action (A) and maintenance (M) stages. Participants’ own negative attitudes were unrelated to the stages. Of the self-efficacy measures, both participants’ performance and situational condom use self-efficacies increased significantly after the PC stage and were highest in the P, A, and M stages. However, situational self-efficacy accounted for most of performance self-efficacy variance. In sum, consistent condom use was rare. A partner’s attitudes and the participants’ own situational self-efficacy expectations, rather than intimacy, determined the readiness to adopt consistent condom use. PMID:18574684

  8. Learning Achievement Packages in Social Studies - History: America a Unique Country; The Constitution; Westward Expansion of the United States; The American Indian. Calexico Intercultural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigliano, Ed; And Others

    In this publication are 4 social studies curriculum units aimed towards meeting the learning problems of students with special language handicaps in grades 7 through 11. Topics are: (1) America--A Unique Country; (2) The Constitution; (3) Westward Expansion of the United States; and (4) The American Indian. The Constitution and American Indian…

  9. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: the influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lucea, Marguerite B; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Campbell, Doris W

    2012-08-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N = 790) in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, from 2009-2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality from violence was fully mediated by depression. IPV should be considered in research and treatment of DE and both IPV and DE should be assessed when the other or depression is detected. PMID:22849778

  10. Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Two Samples of Deaf Adults via a Computerized American Sign Language Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed. PMID:24142445

  11. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  12. School Leadership in Two Countries: Shared Leadership in American and Chinese High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Wenlen

    2010-01-01

    Cross-culture educational leadership researchers have shown in their research that national boundaries make a difference. What works in one nation may not work in another one because of different cultures in schools and across nations. This study aims to better understand the similarities and differences between American and Chinese high school…

  13. The Development of Education with Productive Work in Some Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan V., Oscar

    1985-01-01

    Reviews concepts related to education and production and the practice of combining education and productive work in schools from a Latin American point of view. After clarifying the range of programs that might be classified under the heading of education and productive work as well as education with production, experiments on which reports are…

  14. Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Francisco; Medrano, Francisco J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Wissmann, Gustavo; Calderón, Enrique J; Matos, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 24-26 October 2013. A total of 20 speakers from Latin America, Africa and Europe participated in the meeting. The epidemiological studies presented in this meeting begin to change the misconception that since the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) has become an infrequent disease, showing that today PcP remains a major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in both developed and developing countries and an emerging problem in immunocompromised patients without HIV infection worldwide. PcP management remains a challenge. Right now, the combination of caspofungin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a promising therapeutic approach that needs to be assessed in controlled clinical trials. PMID:24617414

  15. Is the Hegemonic Position of American Culture Able to Subjugate Local Cultures of Importing Countries? A Constructive Analysis on the Phenomenon of Cultural Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that globalization assists the USA to gain a hegemonic position, allowing it to export its culture. Because this exportation leads to the domination by American culture of the local cultures of importing countries, which are the key element in sustaining their citizens' national identity, citizens of these countries are…

  16. Study Abroad in a Developing and a Developed Country: A Comparison of American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Ghana and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the differences among the experiences of 7 American undergraduate students; 4 who studied for a semester in Ghana, a developing country, and 3 who studied for a semester in England, a developed country. Using phenomenology as its guiding framework, transcribed interviews were analyzed and the focal phenomenon of the…

  17. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  18. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development. PMID:25526849

  19. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  20. Criminalization of HIV transmission or exposure in eight Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Tamil

    2010-10-01

    While the prosecution of HIV transmission or exposure has been widely documented in Western Europe and North America, Latin America has not figured in this trend. In this article, based on an oral abstract presentation at AIDS 2010, Tamil Kendall reviews HIV-specific legislation and instances of prosecution in eight countries in the region, and discusses how civil society might respond. PMID:21413623

  1. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization. PMID:23568391

  2. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  3. Personal and partner measures in stages of consistent condom use among African American heterosexual crack cocaine smokers

    PubMed Central

    PALLONEN, U. E.; WILLIAMS, M. L.; TIMPSON, S. C.; BOWEN, A.; ROSS, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Participants’ personal condom use measures and those of their last sex partner’s were examined in five stages of change for consistent condom use among 449 urban sexually active, heterosexual, African–American crack smokers. The measures included participants’ personal and their last sex partner’s perceived responsibility, personal and perceived negative attitudes, and participants’ self-efficacy to use condoms. The relationships between the measures and the stages were examined using analyses of variance and multivariate logistic regression. Over 90% of participants did not use condoms, consistently. Two-thirds of the inconsistent users were in the precontemplation stage. The rest were equally divided between the contemplation and preparation stages. Personal responsibility outperformed other measures in initial intention to become a regular condom user; partner’s perceived responsibility dominated continued intention and actual consistent condom use. Negative attitudes and self-efficacies had strong relationships to the stages of consistent condom use in univariate analyses but these relationships became substantially weaker when the responsibility, attitude, and self-efficacy concepts were entered simultaneously into multivariate analyses. PMID:18293131

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-08-01

    The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent. PMID:24851820

  5. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action. PMID:22673958

  6. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T

    1995-12-01

    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P < or = 0.10) with EBF. Women who delivered in the maternity wards that had more developed breast-feeding promotion programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  7. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey].

    PubMed

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E

    1999-01-01

    .9% of men (p < 0.05) indicate HIV screening test without any explanation to the patient because "he could transmit a fatal disease". In this same case, time from graduation was related to differences in option selection: 80.9% in the group > 20 years of professional exercise asked for patient consent and accepted his decision, versus 52.7 and 27.5% in 0-9 and 10-19 years group respectively (p < 0.05). Usual medical and social worries as communication (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethical dilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions. PMID:10491718

  8. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J.; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Methods Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. Results A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p < 0.001). The most common regimen was carbapenem + colistin or polymyxin B. The overall mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p < 0.001); however, we found that patients with CPE BSI who received combination therapy and those who received monotherapy had similar mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1–13.7; p < 0

  9. Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2014-04-28

    Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of

  10. Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: Current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy

  12. Natural hazards and decision-making in the most densely populated country in the American continent: a 20-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Martínez, Celina; Cepeda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    With a population density of ~300 per km2, El Salvador is the most densely populated country in the American continent and the capital, San Salvador, is probably the city in the Americas most frequently hit by natural hazards, earthquakes in particular. As a consequence of a magnitude 5.4 earthquake in 1986, 1500 people were killed, with as many as one-third of these casualties associated to the collapse of engineered structures, a high rate compared to contemporary figures worldwide. Four years earlier, during a long precipitation period in September 1982, a debris flow was triggered from the summit of the San Salvador volcano and travelled ~4 km for about one hour before it killed up to 500 people in an area to the North-West of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS). This same area had been previously hit by a similar event 50 years earlier, but with no consequences at that time since it was uninhabited. These are only some examples of the main facts that motivated the creation of the Office for Urban Planning of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (OPAMSS) in 1990. This institution is an autonomous municipal organisation whose functions and attributes comprise the planning and control of urban development. After 20 years of the foundation of OPAMSS, this paper presents its history and evolution, the main achievements and challenges, focusing on how the institution has been shaped by some key milestones, such as the earthquake-triggered landslide at Las Colinas neighbourhood in January 2001, which killed ~600 people in the Western AMSS, and the widespread flooding in October 2005 after the urban drainage network collapsed during Hurricane Stan. The development of OPAMSS as a key organisation in land use management and decision-making is an example that illustrates how the integration of technical and legal aspects can be oriented towards the improvement of governance at the scale of metropolitan areas.

  13. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high

  14. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  15. Exploring Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman-Mills, S.; Gonzalez, W. Y.; Melendez, M. O.; Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, J. D.; Juarez, C. G.; Martinez, E. A.; Penalba, S. J.; Pizzanelli, E. M.; Solorzano, L. I.; Wright, M. G. M.; Cumsille, F.; De La Haye, W.; Sapag, J. C.; Khenti, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; Erickson, P. G.; Brands, B.; Flam-Zalcman, R.; Simpson, S.; Wekerle, C.; Mann, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to…

  16. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  17. Solicitation and Selection of Partner Projects, Technical Team Leads, and Measurement and Validation Contractors for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funded Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.; Baechler, Michael C.; Iverson, Megan M.

    2010-09-30

    In March 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) joined two other labs receiving ARRA funding, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable National Laboratory (NREL), to began weekly conference calls with the goal of coordinating a joint lab solicitation to support the ARRA-funded CBP project. Two solicitations were identified for: 1) new CBP Partners; 2) technical contractors to provide technical assistance and measurement and verification (M&V) contractors. The M&V contractors support the work by providing model reviews and conducting monitoring studies to verify building performance. This report documents the process used by the labs for the solicitations, and describes the process and outcomes for PNNL, selection of candidate Partners, technical teams, and M&V contractors.

  18. Lessons learned for a more efficient knowledge and technology transfer to South American countries in the fields of solid waste and contaminated sites management.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Szarka, Nóra; Navia, Rodrigo; Konrad, Odorico; Lorber, Karl E

    2007-04-01

    The present paper describes the development, performance and conclusions derived from three know-how and technology transfer projects to South American countries. The first project comprised a collaborative study by European and South American universities to find sustainable solutions for Chilean and Ecuadorian leather tanneries which had underachieving process performances. The second project consisted of investigations carried out in a Brazilian municipality to enhance its municipal solid waste management system. The final collaborative programme dealt with the initial identification, evaluation and registration of suspected contaminated sites in an industrial region of Chile. The detailed objectives, methods and procedures applied as well as the results and conclusions obtained in each of the three mentioned projects are presented, giving special attention to the organizational aspects and to the practical approach of each programme, concluding with their main advantages and disadvantages for identifying a set of qualitative and quantitative suggestions, and to establish transferable methods for future applications. PMID:17439050

  19. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role. PMID:26664330

  20. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in 2012 from Latin American Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hoban, Daryl J; Reiszner, Edina; Lahiri, Sushmita D; Alm, Richard A; Sahm, Daniel F; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Ambler, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparators, using broth microdilution, were determined against 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients. Seventeen medical centers from Latin American countries contributed isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) percentages ranged from 46% (Brazil) to 62% (Argentina). All methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against MRSA varied with MIC90s of 0.5 (Venezuela) to 2 (Brazil, Chile, and Colombia) μg/ml, which was the highest MIC value. ST-5 was the most common sequence type. PMID:26416860

  1. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in 2012 from Latin American Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Hoban, Daryl J.; Reiszner, Edina; Lahiri, Sushmita D.; Alm, Richard A.; Bouchillon, Samuel K.; Ambler, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparators, using broth microdilution, were determined against 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients. Seventeen medical centers from Latin American countries contributed isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) percentages ranged from 46% (Brazil) to 62% (Argentina). All methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against MRSA varied with MIC90s of 0.5 (Venezuela) to 2 (Brazil, Chile, and Colombia) μg/ml, which was the highest MIC value. ST-5 was the most common sequence type. PMID:26416860

  2. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates...

  3. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates...

  4. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates...

  5. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates...

  6. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Import Certificate for firearms...) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.14 Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American... documentation for the export of firearms. This section describes the requirements for Import Certificates...

  7. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence. PMID:27214054

  8. Concomitant forms of abuse and help-seeking behavior among white, African American, and Latina women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Sharon M; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L

    2011-08-01

    This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n = 1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse are less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking are more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse is not associated with help seeking. Ethnic differences are found in help seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police, and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618

  9. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern-European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097

  10. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  11. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on coverage and timing of pentavalent vaccination - Experience from 2 Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, A; Pessler, F; Akmatov, M K

    2016-05-01

    We examined the coverage and timing of rotavirus vaccination and the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on coverage and timing of the pentavalent vaccine. We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Honduras (2011/2012) and Peru (2012). The samples were divided into 2 subcohorts: children born before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared coverage and timing of the pentavalent vaccine in the aforementioned subcohorts. Coverage with the first and second doses of rotavirus vaccination was 95% (95% confidence intervals: 93-97%) and 91% (89-95%) in Honduras and 79% (77-82%) and 72% (69-75%) in Peru, respectively. Coverage increased in both countries over the years. The proportion of children vaccinated according to age-appropriate vaccination schedules varied between 67% (second dose of rotavirus vaccinations in Peru) and 89% (first dose of rotavirus vaccination in Honduras). Coverage with the first and second doses of pentavalent vaccination remained constant over the years in Honduras, while in Peru there was a significant increase in coverage over the years (p for trend, <0.0001). In both countries, timing of pentavalent vaccination was better in post-rota-cohorts than in pre-rota-cohorts. Since its introduction, coverage of rotavirus vaccination has improved over time in both countries. An introduction of rotavirus vaccination in both countries appears to have improved the coverage and timing of other similarly scheduled vaccinations. PMID:26833132

  12. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  13. Patterns, trends and sex differences in HIV/AIDS reported mortality in Latin American countries: 1996-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International cohort studies have shown that antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved survival of HIV-infected individuals. National population based studies of HIV mortality exist in industrialized settings but few have been presented from developing countries. Our objective was to investigate on a population basis, the regional situation regarding HIV mortality and trends in Latin America (LA) in the context of adoption of public ART policies and gender differences. Methods Cause of death data from vital statistics registries from 1996 to 2007 with "good" or "average" quality of mortality data were examined. Standardized mortality rates and Poisson regression models by country were developed and differences among countries assessed to identify patterns of HIV mortality over time occurring in Latin America. Results Standardized HIV mortality following the adoption of public ART policies was highest in Panama and El Salvador and lowest in Chile. During the study period, three overall patterns were identified in HIV mortality trends- following the adoption of the free ART public policies; a remarkable decrement, a remarkable increment and a slight increment. HIV mortality was consistently higher in males compared to females. Mean age of death attributable to HIV increased in the majority of countries over the study period. Conclusions Vital statistics registries provide valuable information on HIV mortality in LA. While the introduction of national policies for free ART provision has coincided with declines in population-level HIV mortality and increasing age of death in some countries, in others HIV mortality has increased. Barriers to effective ART implementation and uptake in the context of free ART public provision policies should be further investigated. PMID:21801402

  14. Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised. PMID:22952888

  15. Partner Selection among Latino Immigrant Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Penha, Marcelo Montes; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  16. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  17. Folic acid flour fortification: impact on the frequencies of 52 congenital anomaly types in three South American countries.

    PubMed

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to search for a reduction in birth prevalence estimates of 52 selected types of congenital anomalies, associated with folic acid fortification programs in Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. The material included 3,347,559 total births in 77 hospitals of the three countries during the 1982-2007 period: 596,704 births (17 hospitals) in Chile, 1,643,341 (41 hospitals) in Argentina, and 1,107,514 (19 hospitals) in Brazil. We compared pre- and post-fortification rates within each hospital and the resulting Prevalence Rate Ratios (PRRs) were pooled by country. Statistically significant reductions in birth prevalence estimates after fortification were observed for neural tube defects (NTDs), septal heart defects, transverse limb deficiencies, and subluxation of the hip. However, only the reduction of NTDs appeared to be associated with folic acid fortification and not due to other factors, because of its consistency among the three countries, as well as with previously published reports, and its strong statistical significance. Among the NTDs, the maximum prevalence reduction was observed for isolated cephalic (cervical-thoracic) spina bifida, followed by caudal (lumbo-sacral) spina bifida, anencephaly, and cephalocele. This observation suggests etiologic and pathogenetic heterogeneity among different levels of spina bifida, as well as among different NTD subtypes. We concluded that food fortification with folic acid prevents NTDs but not other types of congenital anomalies. PMID:20814949

  18. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies. PMID:25504253

  19. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system. PMID:12413197

  20. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (≥30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  1. America's Country Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Andrew

    The book examines the one-room schoolhouse and the memories of this important part of the American past through sections on the country school legacy, country school architecture, and country school preservation. The architectural and historical significance of this distinctive building type is evocatively portrayed by more than 400 photographs.…

  2. Variability in the Mass and Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.

    2007-12-01

    As we focus more intently on the carbon cycle in North America, the spatial and temporal scales of our observations become more important. The carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel consumption can show large variability in both spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will focus on this variability. We have compiled a data set that contains the monthly emissions of carbon dioxide released from fossil-fuel consumption for the countries of the North American Carbon Program. These data are consistent with the annual emissions as reported by CDIAC. As an example of spatial variability, in August 2000, emissions from Idaho (356 Gg C) and Texas (19,051 Gg C) differed by a factor of 53. As an example of temporal variability, in 1999, emissions from Texas differed by 31% between the months of February (13,807 Gg C) and August (18,107 Gg C). When looking at the stable carbon isotopic composition (del 13 C), variability also exists at these spatial and temporal scales. As an example of spatial variability, in April 1984, emissions from Louisiana (-36.32 per mil) and North Dakota (-25.23 per mil) differed by 11.09 per mil. As an example of temporal variability, in 2002, emissions from Montana differed by 5.22 per mil between the months of July (-28.38 per mil) and December (- 33.60 per mil). Finally, this presentation will also include analysis of the uncertainty associated with these time series. Variations in data collection are such that the uncertainty varies among the three countries of North America and uncertainty increases as the spatial and temporal scales decrease.

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes and Intermediate Hyperglycemia Among Adults From the First Multinational Study of Noncommunicable Diseases in Six Central American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Alberto; Gregg, Edward W.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Wong, Roy; Perez Flores, Enrique; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Cafiero, Elizabeth; Altamirano, Lesbia; Ascencio Rivera, Melanie; de Cosio, Gerardo; de Maza, Martha Dinorah; del Aguila, Roberto; Emanuel, Englebert; Gil, Enrique; Gough, Ethan; Jenkins, Valerie; Orellana, Patrícia; Palma, Ruben; Palomo, Ruben; Pastora, Martha; Peña, Rodolfo; Pineda, Elia; Rodriguez, Bismark; Tacsan, Luis; Thompson, Loraine; Villagra, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The increasing burdens of obesity and diabetes are two of the most prominent threats to the health of populations of developed and developing countries alike. The Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) is the first study to examine the prevalence of diabetes in Central America. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The CAMDI survey was a cross-sectional survey based on a probabilistic sample of the noninstitutionalized population of five Central American populations conducted between 2003 and 2006. The total sample population was 10,822, of whom 7,234 (67%) underwent anthropometry measurement and a fasting blood glucose or 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS The total prevalence of diabetes was 8.5%, but was higher in Belize (12.9%) and lower in Honduras (5.4%). Of the screened population, 18.6% had impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS As this population ages, the prevalence of diabetes is likely to continue to rise in a dramatic and devastating manner. Preventive strategies must be quickly introduced. PMID:22323417

  4. Workshop on "Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe." Proceedings. (Turin, Italy, December 15-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    These proceedings contain reports of the plenary and working group sessions of a seminar to exchange information on such topics as the social dialogue on vocational education and training (VET) at the European level and involvement of social partners in development and implementation of European Community VET policy. Each report is introduced by a…

  5. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny; Barnason, Susan A; Byrne, Molly; Doherty, Sally; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Fridlund, Bengt; Kautz, Donald D; Mårtensson, Jan; Mosack, Victoria; Moser, Debra K

    2013-11-01

    After a cardiovascular event, patients and their families often cope with numerous changes in their lives, including dealing with consequences of the disease or its treatment on their daily lives and functioning. Coping poorly with both physical and psychological challenges may lead to impaired quality of life. Sexuality is one aspect of quality of life that is important for many patients and partners that may be adversely affected by a cardiac event. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as '… a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences ….'(1(p4)) The safety and timing of return to sexual activity after a cardiac event have been well addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement, and decreased sexual activity among cardiac patients is frequently reported.(2) Rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are twice as high as those in the general population, with similar rates of sexual dysfunction in females with CVD.(3) ED and vaginal dryness may also be presenting signs of heart disease and may appear 1-3 years before the onset of angina pectoris. Estimates reflect that only a small percentage of those with sexual dysfunction seek medical care;(4) therefore, routine assessment of sexual problems and sexual counselling may be of benefit as part of effective management by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. PMID:23900695

  6. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2005-01-01

    The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…

  8. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  9. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  10. 16 Extraordinary Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    The lives of many Hispanic Americans have made a difference in the story of America. Hispanic Americans are people whose families can be traced to the Spanish speaking countries. At the time of the 1990 census, there were 22,400,000 Hispanic Americans in the United States. They should be proud of their heritage, and should recognize the…

  11. Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc., National 4-H Club Center (41st, Washington, D.C., July 10-11, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The theme for this conference was "Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself." The following papers were presented at this conference: (1) "The Miracle of Production--Can We Keep It" (Aubrey D. Gates); (2) "Recent U.S. Population Trends and Their Causes" (Calvin L. Beale and Donald J. Bogue); (3) "Commercial Farming and Related Institutions"…

  12. Resources for Partners

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes the resources and opportunities available to partners how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

  13. Partnering for the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    With an ambitious new direction and a new way of doing business, NASA's Kennedy Space Center is embracing a new relationship with the commercial space industry and other partners to build a multi-u...

  14. Caribou: mon pays blanc. Serie: Villes Franco-Americaines de la Nouvelle - Angleterre (Caribou, My Snowy Country. Collection: French-American Cities of New England, Vol. 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipyn, Michel

    This text is the second in a series of materials dealing with cities in New England having a distinct Franco-American presence. The text and supporting audio-visual materials present an overview of the city of Caribou, Maine, as seen through the eyes of its people. Its primary objective is to provide up-to-date, culturally valid Franco-American…

  15. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    PubMed

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals. PMID:20100435

  16. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility. PMID:18388488

  17. Partnering with Homeschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Vicki

    1999-01-01

    Homeschooled students from families representing all ethnicities, socioeconomic backgrounds, and education levels are increasingly entering public schools part-time. This article explains how school administrators, teachers, parents, and homeschoolers can become partners. Tips are provided on classroom deportment, parental aspirations, and…

  18. Intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Pibernat, Artur Dalfó

    2016-05-01

    IT IS with great interest that I read the article 'Identifying signs of intimate partner violence' (Art & science) by Ali et al in February's issue of Emergency Nurse. The issue has been widely recognised as one which needs promoting among adolescents in schools and in nurse education. PMID:27165383

  19. Partners of the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  20. Collaboration with Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

    2006-01-01

    For eight years, relationships with community partners have been the mainstay of a science enrichment program for secondary students. Through the use of problem-based learning, science classes use, the techniques and tools of scientists to solve authentic problems directly related to students' interests and needs. In this article, the author…

  1. The Partners Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raughton, Jim L.

    In response to alarming drop-out rates among high school students and indications that the emerging workforce will be predominantly minority and disadvantaged, the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) developed the Partners program to encourage minority students from as early as seventh grade to remain and succeed…

  2. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  3. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  4. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement. PMID:25904678

  5. Latin American Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

  6. High Level of Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Ten American Countries as a Crucial Factor in the Spread of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever. IMPORTANCE Until recently, the Americas had never reported chikungunya (CHIK) autochthonous transmission despite its global expansion beginning in 2004. Large regions of the continent are highly infested with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and millions of dengue (DEN

  7. Age Got to Do With It? Partner Age Difference, Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Risk in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572

  8. Parents as Writing Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  9. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  10. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    PubMed Central

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259

  11. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  12. FEAR OF PAST ABUSIVE PARTNER(S) IMPACTS CURRENT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS AMONG WOMEN EXPERIENCING PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514

  13. Classifying partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed. PMID:18087033

  14. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  15. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  16. Partnering for success.

    PubMed

    Gookin, L B

    1996-01-01

    Almost every health care journal or newsletter I pick up has at least one article about the changes occurring in the health care delivery system. The changes for providers in all settings are enormous as we downsize, rightsize, merge, or simply change to meet the demands of managed care. The bottom line is that hospitals are shrinking and health care is moving into the outpatient and community environment. Those of us who are providers in any of these settings must respond rapidly to the changes, which are having a profound impact on the practice of nursing today that will continue into the future. Are nursing educators prepared to respond as quickly as providers to the environmental changes, and are they prepared to make the necessary curriculum changes to prepare students for their future profession? It seems more critical than ever for providers and educators to partner to successfully meet the current and future demands of the nursing profession. PMID:9157919

  17. Employees as Partners in Change. Workforce Brief #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Steve; Kaufman, Barbara

    According to the employees, employers, and service providers who participated in a series of 18 focus groups across the country, companies striving to reinvent themselves to compete successfully are beginning to recognize the benefits of making employees partners in the change process. Companies have only three levers for making changes in…

  18. WASPs (Wives As Senior Partners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline

    For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…

  19. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  1. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  2. Hiring your next partner: AOA critical issues.

    PubMed

    Blasier, R Dale; Gagnon, Michael R; Iannotti, Joseph P; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Hiring a new partner into an orthopaedic department or group can be a daunting task. A recent American Orthopedic Association symposium sought to address three major aspects of hiring that affect orthopaedic leaders: (1) when to hire-the chairperson's role; (2) generational issues that affect hiring; and (3) the development of an initial compensation package.How does the chairperson recruit new physicians? Hiring a new partner into the academic setting requires a good deal of foresight. There must be an established game plan. Advertising and interviews need to be orchestrated. Chairpersons can find information about candidates from many unique sources. Fit within the department and community is important and must be cultivated. Spouses and families need special attention. Research candidates have individual needs. Perhaps the most important aspect of recruitment is the development of a realistic business plan. This paper provides an overview of factors to consider in managing a new hire.Generational issues are intriguing. Should they affect our hiring practices? It seems clear to established physicians that the new generation of graduates is different from their predecessors. Is this really true? Most everyone is familiar with the terms "Silent Generation," "Baby Boomers," "Generation X," and "Generation Y." Is there anything to be gained by categorizing an applicant? Is it important to hire a replica of one's self? This paper provides a thoughtful overview of generational issues as they apply to hiring new partners.Most department chairpersons are not trained as negotiators. Some preparation and experience are helpful in guiding the process of making an initial offer to a candidate. It is not all about pay. The package includes the guarantee period, expectations for the new hire, mentorship, and resources. How much should new orthopaedic academic hires be paid? Recent benchmark data from the Academic Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean income of $282,667 for

  3. Placing Asterisks: An Approach to American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he co-teaches an interdisciplinary American Studies class that fosters inquiry and reflection on the complexity of an authentic telling of US history. With the help of his partner, a social studies teacher, the author designed an American Studies course that aims to reveal to students that America's…

  4. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  5. Phare Multi-Country Programme for Distance Education. Programme Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This publication provides information on the achievements of the Phare Multi-Country Program for Distance Education. Chapter 1 contains two introductory papers. Chapter 2 contains country profiles that describe establishment of distance education infrastructures in the 13 Phare partner countries: Albania; Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;…

  6. Educational Policy in Foreign Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Barbara, Ed.

    Five talks given at a seminar on educational policy in foreign countries are presented in this document. The first contends that while schools established for Americans abroad tend to be isolated from the local community for several reasons, opportunities for extended cultural interchange exist and should be used. The second examines the nature of…

  7. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  8. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  9. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  10. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  11. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  12. Intimate partner violence, partner notification, and expedited partner therapy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Elian A; Marx, John; Terry, Martha A; Stall, Ronald; Pallatino, Chelsea; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    SummaryOver one-third of women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. IPV increases the risk of infection and re-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The extent to which health care providers consider IPV when recommending partner notification and expedited partner therapy is unknown. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand health care providers' views on IPV and STIs when recommending partner treatment to patients with chlamydia. Using a purposive sampling strategy to include health care providers who treat young women at risk for chlamydia, 23 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. While some health care providers expressed concern for their patients' safety and believed assessing for IPV was needed before provision of expedited partner therapy, nearly a third had not considered the links between IPV and STIs. Strategies used by health care providers to assess for IPV did not include inquiry about specific behaviours related to IPV, STI risk, and sexual coercion. Many health care providers understand the risk for IPV in the setting of STI treatment, yet a significant portion of those interviewed failed to recognise the link between IPV and STIs. Provider education is necessary to increase knowledge and implement more effective inquiry and counselling about IPV to more safely recommend expedited partner therapy. PMID:26088259

  13. American Folk Art Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, April Hulse

    2007-01-01

    Anna Mary Robertson Moses, popularly known as Grandma Moses, may be the most famous American folk artist. A fortuitous combination of original vision, innate talent, spunky character, and long life, Moses is known for her landscapes that depict nostalgic views of country life. In this article, the author describes an art activity she introduced to…

  14. Asian Americans: Chinese-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Korean-Americans. Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter, Keiko; And Others

    This report presents information on the experiences of three different Asian-American groups (Chinese, Japanese and Koreans) in the United States. Historical and geographic overviews of each group's country and a brief chronological history of each group's immigration and subsequent role in and influence on U.S. history are provided. Product and…

  15. Childcare Practices in Three Asian Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Sham ah Md.

    2005-01-01

    Childcare practices such as feeding, toilet training, sleeping arrangement and discipline in three Asian countries (China, Japan, and India) are compared. These countries differ from each other in culture, religion, language and ethnic makeup from Euro-American culture. The differences in childcare practices are broadly related to the differences…

  16. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  17. ILAMO: Partner in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dablemont, Maria

    1984-01-01

    The history, organization, function, holdings, regulations, and services of the International Library, Museum and Archives of Optometry, a section of the American Optometric Association, are outlined. (MSE)

  18. A New Model for American Colleges Abroad: Quiet Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    For the past two years, a steady stream of visitors from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has made the roughly 7,000-mile trek from Cambridge to Abu Dhabi to help build what aspires to be the first graduate-level research university devoted entirely to fostering renewable, clean, and sustainable sources of energy. Set to open this…

  19. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  20. Accelerating an American Ride to Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Together, NASA and its Commercial Crew Program partners are accelerating the development of rockets and spacecraft, ensuring American astronauts can launch from U.S. soil to the International Space...

  1. Unreported Male Sex Partners Among Men with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection - North Carolina, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiu; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gay, Cynthia L; Zhang, Xinjian; Beagle, Steve; Hall, Laura; Jackson, Tonyka; Marmorino, Jenni; Do, Ann N; Peters, Philip J

    2015-09-25

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions, such as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are often targeted to men who have sex with men (MSM) who self-report high-risk behaviors. Data from a prospective study evaluating methods to detect acute HIV infection among a primarily young (aged <25 years) and black or African American (African American) population from North Carolina were analyzed. In the study, participants were asked about risk behaviors during pretest counseling (at the time of testing) and then during a partner services interview (at HIV diagnosis). Participants whose disclosure of sexual risk behaviors during pretest counseling was different from their disclosure of sexual risk behaviors during their partner services interview were identified, and factors associated with these discordant responses were examined. Among 113 HIV-infected men, 26 (23.0%) did not disclose male sex partners at pretest counseling, but subsequently did disclose this information during their partner services interview. When compared with men who disclosed having male partners at pretest counseling, these 26 MSM who did not disclose male partners during pretest counseling were found to have a similar number of male partners during contact tracing, but were more likely to have a female partner (30.8% versus 6.9%). In addition, the proportions of MSM found to have at least one HIV-infected partner were similar for both groups (MSM who disclosed having male partners during pretest counseling and those who did not). To better customize HIV prevention interventions for MSM, HIV prevention programs might consider using novel strategies to accurately assess risk in this population. PMID:26401589

  2. Facts and Myths of AIDS and Native American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses risk factors for AIDS among Native women: rates of infected male partners, biological factors affecting vulnerability, other sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, access to health services, relationships with partners, lack of trust in health care providers, and intravenous drug use. Describes the work of the Native American Women's…

  3. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Findings Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90–0.98). Conclusion Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women’s children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence. PMID:27147763

  4. American Women and American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  5. The Computer as Lab Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…

  6. OLC Partners with the People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways in which Oglala Lakota College (South Dakota) helps to strengthen the cultural fabric of the Lakota community and how it has partnered with other institutions of higher learning throughout the state. Reports that the college has a number of community-based initiatives that emphasize the relationship between academics and ancestral…

  7. The Symmetry of Partner Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Lemaignan, Séverin; Sangin, Mirweis; Nova, Nicolas; Molinari, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative learning has often been associated with the construction of a shared understanding of the situation at hand. The psycholinguistics mechanisms at work while establishing common grounds are the object of scientific controversy. We postulate that collaborative tasks require some level of mutual modelling, i.e. that each partner needs…

  8. Partnering for Student Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington's community and technical colleges, private non-profit baccalaureate, and public baccalaureate colleges and universities have a proud history of partnering to serve students. Nowhere is this cooperation more evident than in the smooth transfer process from community and technical colleges into four-year colleges and universities. This…

  9. Macomb Reading Partners Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoddy, James E.

    A study evaluated Macomb Reading Partners (MRP), the tutoring program of the Macomb Literacy Project. It researched the effectiveness of literacy training and its impact on the lives of a target group of 30 automotive workers. Data sources were a structured interview, the Word Opposites Test of the Botel Reading Inventory (1962), and participant…

  10. Partner Teaching: A Promising Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Carroll E.; Dentith, Audrey M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an ethnographic case study of a partner or co-teaching classroom in an urban preschool classroom. As part of a larger project that evaluated classroom size and team teaching structures in Kindergarten classrooms in several high poverty urban schools, one successful co-teaching classroom was studied further. Systematic…

  11. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research

    PubMed Central

    PELLOWSKI, JENNIFER; MATHEWS, CATHERINE; KALICHMAN, MOIRA O.; DEWING, SARAH; LURIE, MARK N.; KALICHMAN, SETH C.

    2016-01-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services. PMID:27144318

  12. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services. PMID:27144318

  13. [Screening for intimate partner violence against women. International discussion, considerations for Germany].

    PubMed

    Brzank, P; Blättner, B

    2010-02-01

    Domestic violence and partner violence against women is a serious problem in many countries, including Germany. This type of violence has far-reaching social, economic, and health consequences for victims. The health sector can play a decisive role within intervention and prevention, if healthcare providers discover at an early stage that violence is the cause for injuries and disorders. Screenings can identify victims of domestic and partner violence. In several other countries, recommendations or agreements about screening for domestic and partner violence in the health sector are already in place. In Germany, however, the discussion about this kind of screening is just beginning. This article introduces the debate by referring to a Health Technology Assessment from the UK and giving an overview. The present findings also justify screening for partner violence against women in Germany. However, further research on the screening instruments used with women as well as other victims, such as men or elderly, is recommended. PMID:20119664

  14. Malaria in selected non-Amazonian countries of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Guerra, Carlos; Céspedes, Nora; Giron, Sandra; Ahumada, Martha; Piñeros, Juan Gabriel; Padilla, Norma; Terrientes, Zilka; Rosas, Ángel; Padilla, Julio Cesar; Escalante, Ananias A.; Beier, John C.; Herrera, Socrates

    2011-01-01

    ) (sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and several other partners), have made great investments for malaria control in the region. We describe here the current status of malaria in a non-Amazonian region comprising several countries of South and Central America participating in the Centro Latino Americano de Investigación en Malaria (CLAIM), an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). PMID:21741349

  15. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  16. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, Stephanie; Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; LaConte, Keliann

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions.To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event.Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance.Additional information about LPI’s E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO’s partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  17. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions. To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center's Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event. Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance. Additional information about LPI's E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO's partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  18. 49 CFR 30.19 - Buy American Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act. 30.19 Section 30.19... AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.19 Buy American..., including the Buy American Act, 41 U.S.C. 10a-10d, and Buy American provisions in legislation governing...

  19. 49 CFR 30.19 - Buy American Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act. 30.19 Section 30.19... AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.19 Buy American..., including the Buy American Act, 41 U.S.C. 10a-10d, and Buy American provisions in legislation governing...

  20. 49 CFR 30.19 - Buy American Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act. 30.19 Section 30.19... AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.19 Buy American..., including the Buy American Act, 41 U.S.C. 10a-10d, and Buy American provisions in legislation governing...

  1. 49 CFR 30.19 - Buy American Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American Act. 30.19 Section 30.19... AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.19 Buy American..., including the Buy American Act, 41 U.S.C. 10a-10d, and Buy American provisions in legislation governing...

  2. 49 CFR 30.19 - Buy American Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act. 30.19 Section 30.19... AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.19 Buy American..., including the Buy American Act, 41 U.S.C. 10a-10d, and Buy American provisions in legislation governing...

  3. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the top of your (or your partner's) penis. This gets rid of trapped air, which can ... Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner should hold the ...

  4. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when ... out: Getting a partner trained to spot potential skin cancers can be a lifesaver for melanoma survivors, ...

  5. Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921

  6. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  7. Partnering: The foundation for performance

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, L.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past several decades, the US has experienced an unprecedented increase in the number of disputes in litigation. The environmental area, particularly contracts involving remediation projects, have not been immune from this situation. The adverse impact of this litigation mindset on the financial and personnel resources of the contracting parties has escalated and the detrimental effect on contractual relationships has become more apparent. Both owners and contractors are confronted with unrealized contract expectations, hostility on the jobsite and disappointment in the traditional dispute resolution processes. Relying exclusively on litigation when negotiations fail to settle contract disputes is time consuming, costly and frustrating. Now in the 1990s, the Corps along with the construction industry are moving to establish a new relationship beneficial to all contracting parties that focus on disputes avoidance. This new relationship is fostered by a process called Partnering. In undertaking environmental remediation work, Partnering can lay the foundation for a successful relationship among all involved parties.

  8. Light 't Hooft top partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Parolini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Vectorlike quarks, usually dubbed top partners, are a common presence in composite Higgs models. Being composite objects, their mass is expected to be of the order of their inverse size, that is the condensation scale of the new strong interactions. Light top partners, while not being a generic prediction, are, however, often considered in phenomenological models. We suggest that their lightness may be due to the matching of global 't Hooft anomalies of the underlying theory. We check this mechanism in explicit models, showing that, in one case, composite fermions with the quantum numbers of the top quark obtain a mass which is controlled by a soft breaking term and can be made parametrically small.

  9. Switzerland: country profile.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-07-01

    This discussion of Switzerland focuses on population growth; the country's regions and cities; age distribution; households, families, and housing; education; the labor force; and income and consumption. On January 1, 1983 the population of Switzerland totaled 6.4 million. This total included 5.5 million Swiss and 960,000 foreigners. No other major country relies on foreigners as heavily as Switzerland. In 1975, 20% of the Swiss labor force was composed of year round foreign workers. Although foreign residents are a large proportion of the Swiss population, immigration to the country is nearly offset by emigration from the country. With a birthrate of 11.6 and a death rate of 9.2 in 1982, the rate of natural increase was only 0.2% per year. Switzerland is composed of 23 cantons (or states) with a long history of independence. The canton with the largest population is Zurich, with 1.1 million people in 1983. Switzerland is about 60% urbanized. The largest city, Zurich, had 364,000 residents in 1983. 4 other cities had populations of 100,000 or more: Basel, Geneva, Berrn, and Lausanne. Switzerland's pluralism is reflected by its recognition of 3 official languages: German; French; and Italian. Aside from immigrant workers there are no distinct ethnic or minority groups in Switzerland due to its long history of varied cultural influences. Switzerland is so thoroughly multicultural that it is common for husbands and wives to have different mother tongues and different religious beliefs. Switzerland's population is relatively old. Only 18% of all Swiss are under age 15 versus 23% of all Americans. 14% of all Swiss are aged 65 and over compared with 11% of Americans. There were 2.5 million Swiss households in 1981, with an average size of 2.5 persons per household. Larget households have declined over the past decade. Most houses in Switzerland have 3 or 4 rooms. The Swiss schools system requires 9 years of compulsory education from age 6 or 7 to age 15 or 16. In the

  10. Haitian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  11. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  12. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  13. Educating Pre-Service School Librarians for the Instructional Partner Role: An Exploration into University Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi; Kimmel, Sue; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs" (2009), the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) identified the instructional partner role of school librarians as the most critical role for the future of the profession. To determine the extent to which school librarian preparation programs prepare pre-service…

  14. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  15. Concurrent and Long-Term Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Employment Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) may negatively affect employment outcomes. This study explores the relationship between IPV and employment stability both concurrently and longitudinally among a sample of 512 predominantly Asian American and Pacific Islander young women living in Hawaii. Women in this…

  16. The Cross-Cultural Association Between Marital Status and Physical Aggression Between Intimate Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bernards, Sharon; Graham, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Some research suggests that the risk of physical aggression by an intimate partner is related to marital status, but this relationship may vary across cultures and by gender. In the present study, we systematically examine the relationship between marital status and physical partner aggression by gender across 19 countries. Logistic and multilevel regression confirmed previous findings of lower rates of physical aggression for legally married versus cohabiting and separated/divorced women and men across most, but notably, not all countries. Single status was associated with higher risk in some countries and lower in others reflecting possible cultural differences in risk for different marital statuses. For example, single women had significantly lower rates of victimization than did married women in India where violence against wives is often accepted. The variation in the cross-cultural findings highlights the importance of examining both men and women and considering the cultural context when interpreting the relationship between partner aggression and marital status. PMID:24039342

  17. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  18. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-03-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

  19. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

  20. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way. PMID:27058634

  1. I say a little prayer for you: praying for partner increases commitment in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-10-01

    Partner-focused petitionary prayer (PFPP) has received little attention in the prayer literature. In two studies, we examine PFPP to see whether it is uniquely important in conveying relationship benefits, whether its benefits are transmitted through an effect on relationship satisfaction, and whether one's own or the partner's PFPP is central to beneficial effects. In Study 1, we examined PFPP in a sample of 316 undergraduate students who were in an "exclusive" romantic relationship, finding that PFPP was related to later level of commitment and that this relationship was partially mediated through enhanced relationship satisfaction. Study 2 examined PFPP in a sample of 205, married African American couples, finding that both partners' PFPP was consequential for commitment, with actor effects partially mediated through relationship quality, and partner effects fully mediated. Together the studies suggest the value of continued investigation of PFPP as a potentially important vehicle for enhancing relationship outcomes. PMID:24364362

  2. Partner violence, depression, and practice implications with families of Chinese descent.

    PubMed

    Yick, Alice G; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Agbayani-Siewert, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because the Chinese tend to display psychological problems such as depression in somatic This article examines cultural aspects, experiences, and the mental health consequences of partner violence among families of Chinese descent. A total of 262 Chinese men and women participated in a telephone survey about partner violence and psychological well-being. Symptoms, two indicators of mental health were employed in the research study. Findings indicated a high level of verbal aggression both perpetrated and sustained by participants. Rates of physical abuse were lower; however, these figures dispel the model minority myth associated with Asian Americans. In addition, findings showed a positive correlation between depression and partner violence. Those who experienced verbal and physical aggression by a spouse/intimate partner in the last 12 months were more likely to experience depression. Those who perpetrated physical aggression were more likely to experience somatic symptoms. Practice and research implications are highlighted. PMID:14692179

  3. Driving American Economic Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Muriel A.

    2009-01-01

    Surmounting a national--indeed global--recession in the wake of war is not new to America or its leaders. Born out of one of the nation's darkest moments of the 20th century were bold initiatives to empower those who served their country as well as all who sought to enter the American middle class. The GI Bill of Rights was one such measure, as…

  4. Alcohol May Not Cause Partner Violence but It Seems to Make It Worse: A Cross National Comparison of the Relationship between Alcohol and Severity of Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses whether severity of physical partner aggression is associated with alcohol consumption at the time of the incident, and whether the relationship between drinking and aggression severity is the same for men and women and across different countries. National or large regional general population surveys were conducted in 13…

  5. Quality and Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training in the Mediterranean Countries: Lessons from the European Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond; Baati, Mounir; Seyfried, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the development of the European approach towards quality and quality assurance in vocational education and training (VET) and its relevance for VET reforms in the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries. The analysis is based on an ETF project conducted in 2007-2008 in the Mediterranean partner countries to…

  6. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence Examined Through the Multiple Disadvantage Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2016-07-01

    This research adopted the perspective of the multiple disadvantage model to explore racial disparities in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and IPV's links to social structural factors, social relationships, substance use, and health/mental health and access to related services. The study used data from 6,588 women who completed the National Violence Against Women Survey; linear regression was conducted separately for four ethnic groups. Results consistently showed physical assaults to increase with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For African Americans, increases in assaults were linked to injury, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as medical professionals, Medicaid use, and drug use; decreases, in turn, were linked to past assault by ex-partners. For Latinas, increases in assaults were associated with eight factors: being married, number of ex-partners, depression, disclosing IPV to friends/family and disclosing to mental-health professionals, drug use, alcohol abstinence, and partner's frequent alcohol use. For European Americans, increases in assaults were linked to number of ex-partners, injury, low income, Medicaid use, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as mental-health professionals, and alcohol abstinence; decreases were associated with age and with other health insurance coverages. For women of other ethnicity, increases were linked to number of ex-partners, disclosing IPV to mental-health professionals, Medicaid use, drug use, and woman's own as well as partner's alcohol abstinence; decreases in this ethnicity category were linked to past assault by ex-partners. Intervention and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25716196

  7. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  8. Administrative costs in selected industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Poullier, J P

    1992-01-01

    The costs of health administration are compared across several countries, accompanied by discussion of some of the variations in the definition of health administration. The influence of American health accounting on other countries is examined, and findings are presented regarding the relative costs of insurance-based and direct-delivery systems. Data are presented on health administrative spending providing gross as well as per capita measures. PMID:10122004

  9. 3 CFR 8628 - Proclamation 8628 of February 28, 2011. American Red Cross Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... American Red Cross to provide resources and medical care to troops, allies, and peoples around the world... international partners have served during crises across the United States and around the world. During American... American Red Cross effort, from traveling to disaster zones around the world to donating blood at...

  10. Consequences of joint action: Entanglement with your partner.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Tamer M; Ferguson, Ryan; Dexheimer, M Scott; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2015-08-01

    Primates are expert tool users because they can adapt their body schemas to form a hand-tool joint representation that affords effective wielding. Here we extend the scope of this mechanism by proposing that humans are experts in social tasks because they can adjust their body schemas to incorporate the kinematics of partners, thus forming an interpersonal joint body schema. Participants engaged with a confederate in a 2-handed sawing task requiring each to use 1 hand. After active movement coordination, an interpersonal body schema was demonstrated in 2 ways. First, there was interference between visual stimulation near 1 person's body and vibrotactile localization on the other person's body. Second, after active movement coordination, the motor output of 1 partner (attempting to draw straight lines) was affected by the viewed actions of the other partner (drawing ovals). This adaptation of the body schema may underlie the formation of cultural groups. In fact, participants with interdependent self-construals (typical of Asian cultures) form a stronger interpersonal joint body schema than do participants with independent self-construals (typical of North American and Western European cultures). PMID:26214167

  11. Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2002-07-01

    The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  13. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Justin W.; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person’s intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a “trembling hand” economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator’s intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner’s intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  14. U.S. Government and Partners: Working Together on a Comprehensive, Coordinated and Effective Response to Highly Vulnerable Children. Third Annual Report to Congress on Public Law 109-95, the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Public Law 109-95, the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005 (hereinafter, referred to as PL 109-95), was signed into law four years ago to respond to the global orphans and vulnerable children crisis. It calls for the U.S. Government (USG) response to the crisis to be comprehensive, coordinated…

  15. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries. PMID:16796091

  16. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  17. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    PubMed

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  18. American ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... listed as an ingredient in some soft drinks. Oils and extracts made from American ginseng are used in soaps and cosmetics. Don’t confuse American ginseng with Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) or Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng). They have different medicinal effects.

  19. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  20. ECHO Status for International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)

  1. Health Problems of Partner Violence Victims

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Background National population-based studies show that 40%–50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand men’s mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 2012–2013, two samples of men—611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample – completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232

  2. Industry and Schools as Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Grammy in the Schools project that is a joint effort by the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (NARAS) Foundation, Discover Card, and 15 major universities across the country. Expounds that music students are able to learn about a variety of career opportunities available in the music industry. (CMK)

  3. Asian and American Schools Again. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1996-01-01

    Jinfa Cai's study comparing Chinese and American sixth-grade students' mathematics performance found that American students did better on simple and complex problems than on computation. One reason might be Asian countries' stress on rote learning. Paul George's 1995 monograph "Japanese Schools: A Closer Look" found instruction uninspiring and…

  4. Gender Ratio Imbalance Effects on HIV Risk Behaviors in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2015-01-01

    Although literature suggests that African American women are no more likely to engage in risky sex than their White counterparts, they are more likely to have sex partners with higher HIV risk. Thus, it is not solely an individual’s behavior that determines their risk, but also the behavior of their partner and their position within a sexual network. For this reason, it is important to consider the dynamics of heterosexual relationships in the African American community. An important area of concern regarding African American heterosexual relationships is that of partner availability. A shortage of available African American men for potential partnerships exists and is reportedly due to poorer health and higher mortality rates. Some have argued that gender-ratio imbalance may be responsible for increased HIV vulnerability for African American women. This article reviews the literature on gender ratio imbalance and HIV risk in the African American community, and presents implications and suggestions for future research and intervention. PMID:23041754

  5. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II. country assesments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This volume presents a country-by-country energy assessment of six Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. For each country it includes an assessment of geographic, social, and economic aspects of energy development, an assessment of energy resources, current and projected energy use, potential strategies for energy development, and finally recommendations to USAID for the orientation of its energy development programs. Each country assessment is supplemented with a summary of energy R and D activities and a description of each country's energy-related institutions.

  6. Threats and Acts of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Users at Norwegian Women's Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg

    2011-01-01

    Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…

  7. New Private Universities in Kuwait Pin Their Hopes on U.S. Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When Kuwait lifted a ban on private higher education less than a decade ago, it decided that the best way to ensure the development of academically sound universities was to require all new institutions to have foreign partners. That policy has helped the country rapidly build a credible private higher-education system where none existed before.…

  8. Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

  9. Designing Political Institutions for Multi-Ethnic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Kurt

    Although the American political system is characterized by commitment to democracy and self-determination, the American government has traditionally taken an interest in the political development of other countries. The recent intervention of the U.S. in the political development of Southwest Africa/Namibia is an example. In the body of this paper…

  10. Communication Partners' Journey through Their Partner's Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.; Stephens, Dafydd; Lunner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further develop the Ida Institute model on communication partners' (CPs) journey through experiences of person with hearing impairment (PHI), based on the perspectives of CPs. Nine CPs of hearing aid users participated in this study, recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, the data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and presented with the use of process mapping approach. Seven main phases were identified in the CP journey which includes: (1) contemplation, (2) awareness, (3) persuasion, (4) validation, (5) rehabilitation, (6) adaptation, and (7) resolution. The Ida Institute model (based on professionals' perspective) was compared with the new template developed (based on CPs' perspectives). The results suggest some commonalities and differences between the views of professionals and CPs. A new phase, adaptation, was identified from CPs reported experiences, which was not identified by professionals in the Ida Institute model. The CP's journey model could be a useful tool during audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions to promote discussion between the PHI and the CP. In addition, it can be used in the training of hearing healthcare professionals. PMID:23533422

  11. Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session on Addressing the Needs in Indian Country Pertaining to Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony to showcase Native American program initiatives at the college and university level. Program representatives presented information on the characteristics and accomplishments of their programs. The Institute of Tribal Government at Portland State University (Oregon) provides intensive 3-day training…

  12. Space missions in the Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.

  13. Blacks, Science, and American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Willie, Jr., Ed.; Bechtel, H. Kenneth, Ed.

    Blacks are severely underrepresented in the American scientific community; fewer than two percent of all scientists with doctorates in this country are black. Despite civil rights legislation and integration of schools, school systems still fail to encourage black students to consider and prepare for careers in the sciences. In this book, eight…

  14. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  15. American Folk Legend: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Wayland D., Ed.

    The proceedings of the UCLA Conference on American folk legend are the subject of these 14 papers. Areas of discussion include matters of definition, classification, structure and style, historical perspective, socio-psychological values, certain aspects of saints' legends in the Pennsylvania-German country, comparison of legendary and balladic…

  16. Experiences and Acceptance of Intimate Partner Violence: Associations with STI Symptoms and Ability to Negotiate Sexual Safety among Young Liberian Women

    PubMed Central

    Callands, Tamora A.; Sipsma, Heather L.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence may be at elevated risk for poor sexual health outcomes including sexual transmitted infections (STIs). This association however, has not been consistently demonstrated in low-income or post-conflict countries; furthermore, the role that attitudes towards intimate partner violence play in sexual health outcomes and behaviour has rarely been examined. We examined associations between intimate partner violence experiences, accepting attitudes towards physical intimate partner violence, and sexual health and behavioural outcomes among 592 young women in post-conflict Liberia. Participants’ experiences with either moderate or severe physical violence or sexual violence were common. Additionally, accepting attitudes towards physical intimate partner violence were positively associated with reporting STI symptoms, intimate partner violence experiences and the ability to negotiate safe sex. Findings suggest that for sexual health promotion and risk reduction intervention efforts to achieve full impact, interventions must address the contextual influence of violence, including individual attitudes toward intimate partner violence. PMID:23586393

  17. Involving Support Partners in Obesity Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Amy; Phelan, Suzanne; Tate, Deborah; Sherwood, Nancy; Jeffery, Robert; Wing, Rena

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…

  18. Partners in Science. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Partners in Science students, aided by community professionals, learn science by designing and conducting their own research. Partners in Science brings the community and schools closer together through a mentorship program. Scientists, in fields ranging from wildlife biology to space physics, are in frequent contact with classes and home-schooled…

  19. 77 FR 76380 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue... attributes of its partners in order to determine whether a partnership's allocations are substantial. However..., provided the partnership's assumptions are reasonable, allocations that would be substantial on the...

  20. Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

  1. The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    "The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…

  2. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  3. X (5568 ) and its partner states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Rui; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Stimulated by the recent observation of the X (5568 ), we study the X (5568 ) and its partners under the tetraquark scenario. In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we estimate the masses of the partner states of the X (5568 ) and discuss their decay pattern, which provides valuable information on the future experimental search of these states.

  4. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners. PMID:26933760

  5. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  6. American Indian Students Speak out: What's Good Citizenship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Leisa A.; Chiodo, John J.

    2008-01-01

    For much of our country's history, citizenship has eluded American Indian people. With this in mind, the authors conducted a study to determine the perceptions of eighth and eleventh grade American Indian students regarding citizenship. We wanted to find out what American Indian students believe are the attributes of a good citizen; what…

  7. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence and Partner STI Notification Among Adolescent and Young Adult Family Planning Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673

  9. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity. PMID:23335697

  10. Genetic Moderation of the Impact of Parenting on Hostility toward Romantic Partners.

    PubMed

    Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    Although GxE studies are typically based on the assumption that some individuals possess genetic variants that enhance their vulnerability to environmental adversity, the differential susceptibility model posits that these individuals are simply more sensitive to social context, whether that context be adverse or supportive. Thus those persons most vulnerable to adversity are the same ones who reap the most benefit from support. This idea was tested using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African Americans. Findings indicated that relatively common variants of the GABRA2 gene interact with parenting to predict hostility toward romantic partners in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Individuals with these genetic variants displayed more aggression toward their partner than those with other genotypes when they had been subjected to harsh parenting, but exhibited less aggression toward their partner than other genotypes if their parents avoided harsh parenting practices. PMID:24379481

  11. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. PMID:27353270

  13. 19 CFR 4.17 - Vessels from discriminating countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vessels from discriminating countries. 4.17...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.17 Vessels..., certain vessels from countries which discriminate against American vessels provided for in subsections...

  14. 19 CFR 4.17 - Vessels from discriminating countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vessels from discriminating countries. 4.17...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.17 Vessels..., certain vessels from countries which discriminate against American vessels provided for in subsections...

  15. 19 CFR 4.17 - Vessels from discriminating countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vessels from discriminating countries. 4.17...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.17 Vessels..., certain vessels from countries which discriminate against American vessels provided for in subsections...

  16. Sleep loss and partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T K

    2011-07-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male intimate partner were interviewed about their health, mental health, substance use, and partner violence victimization. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from February 2001 to November 2003 for data collection in three rural and one urban county representing different jurisdictional settings. Because the current analyses focused on understanding intimate partner victimization in the past year and associations with sleep disturbance, 147 participants were excluded for reporting a relationship with the DVO partner for less than 6 months in the past year. The final sample for this article was 609. The women reported an average of a little above 5.5 hours of sleep per night. For women in the current study, significant predictors of sleep disturbance included race, number of children, number of other symptoms of depression in the past 2 weeks excluding sleep criteria, number of other symptoms of PTSD in the past 2 weeks excluding sleep criteria, number of chronic physical health problems, and severity of physical violence by the DVO partner in the past year. Addressing short sleep duration among partner victims in health care settings might enhance safety planning and prevent the development of health/mental health problems that can arise from victimization. PMID:20587469

  17. Lesbian mothering in the context of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Khaw, Lyndal; Fonseca, Carol; Chung, Grace H

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four lesbian mothers (12 African American, 9 White, and 3 Latina) who had experienced physical abuse by a same-sex partner were interviewed. Three types of IPV were found: intimate terrorism, situational violence, and mutual violent control. Further, relationships between mothers/abusers, mothers/children, and abusers/children were examined. Regarding relationships with abusers, 71% of mothers reported lengthy sagas, 17% had worked it out, and 13% made a clean break from the abuser. Regarding relationships with their children, 48% of mothers hid the violence, 26% minimized it, and 26% openly communicated about the situation. Relationships between abusers and the mothers' children were found to be either co-parental (29%), playmate (21%), abusive (21%), or non-parental (21%). Correlations among relational and demographic variables were also examined. PMID:19042732

  18. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  19. Intimate partner violence in rural environments.

    PubMed

    Annan, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments. PMID:18709747

  20. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O’Connor, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV. PMID:24920977

  1. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  2. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  3. Motivations for Sexual Risk Behavior across Commercial and Casual Partners among Male Urban Drug Users: Contextual Features and Clinical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a measure for assessing the various motivations for sexual risk behavior (SRB) across commercial (involving the exchange of sex for money or drugs) and casual (nonregular) partners in a sample of inner-city, primarily African American drug users, and to examine the relationship of these motivations with a history…

  4. Unintended Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence before and during Pregnancy among Latina Women in Los Angeles, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Garcia, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy among Latinas. A cross-sectional interview measuring pregnancy intent, IPV, and acculturation, using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II), was conducted among Latina women…

  5. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  6. A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061).

    PubMed

    Hall, Grace; Li, Keala; Wilton, Leo; Wheeler, Darrell; Fogel, Jessica; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-12-01

    The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study's findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching African American MSM who may not be accessed by traditional recruitment methods or who are well-integrated in health care systems. PMID:25874753

  7. Latina breast cancer survivors informational needs: information partners.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Lena; Gavier, Maria; Hellesø, Ragnhild

    2009-01-01

    The ability to access and understand health information is becoming more critical to managing one's own health and illness. Informatics tools are increasingly the central resources for responding to these needs. But just as information is culturally bound, so are the tools used to access it; both are bounded by the contexts in which they are situated. Latinas face more barriers in accessing needed information due to cultural, linguistic and health access inequities in the US. Although breast cancer rates for Latinas are lower than for non-Latina white women, they are more likely to have a more advanced stage at diagnosis and poorer quality of survivorship. Few studies have explored Latina breast cancer survivors' information needs & strategies. This community-based study focused on Mexican American women with breast cancer and explored their health information experiences, needs, and strategies; it examined their perceptions of how their relationships with providers influenced how information was accessed and utilized. Managing information was not an individual responsibility for any of these women. All of these women had access and used the Internet either directly or through their support networks. All emphasized the importance of having a select support network of people (information partners) for receiving, searching, and interpreting all health information about their illness. If information partners are strategies preferred by Latinas, then we must refocus our assessment of e-health literacy competencies on networks rather than individuals. PMID:19592948

  8. Partnering with Families through Institutional Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Dion

    2001-01-01

    Because of limited resources and rising populations, more intentional relationships among university departments are needed to achieve common goals, especially in parent programming. Article focuses on novel partnering opportunities for student affairs and institutional advancement departments. (GCP)

  9. A framework for treating partner aggressive women.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Lynn; Leisring, Penny A

    2008-01-01

    Women are increasingly referred to intervention programs to address their use of physical violence against intimate partners. This article reviews the scant treatment outcome and attrition literature for partner aggressive women and describes important characteristics of partner aggressive women that must be taken into consideration in designing treatment. Recommended treatment modules are described in detail and include skill-building to enhance safety planning, conflict management, emotional regulation, communication and negotiation, and stress management. Additional modules should be included for some women based on individualized needs. These may include parenting skills and education and referral for treatment of conditions that undermine emotional stability, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms, substance abuse, and mood disorders. Treatment structure is outlined and pragmatic issues regarding the implementation of treatment are discussed. Interventions for partner aggressive woman must be designed to address women's victimization experiences as well as their perpetration. PMID:18624093

  10. Cheating Partners, Conditional Probability and Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.

  11. Developing Community Partner Training: Regulations and Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Stephanie; Piechowski, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    While funders increasingly support research that partners with communities, community partners still must submit to a regulatory oversight structure that does not reflect their unique research ethics challenges and needs. In recognition of the importance of collaborative research endeavors, the authors engaged in a process of reconnaissance and negotiations with local community partners and research ethics boards (REBs) at the University of Michigan to begin to address the mismatch between regulatory demands and community-based research realities. This preliminary process yielded both changes in the REB oversight structure and training required of community partnered research. While the ultimate impact of these changes remains to be seen, the process itself yielded insights and materials of use to both our local REBs, and hopefully those at other institutions as well. This article will present those insights and provide links to those materials. PMID:21680974

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  13. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when they and a loved ... the researchers explained. During two years of follow-up, 66 of the patients did go on to ...

  14. 76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...)(iii)(e) The de minimis partner rule in Sec. 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(e) (TD 9398, 73 FR 28699-01) was... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue... through Friday between the hours of 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG- 109564-10), Courier's...

  15. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads’ performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens’ preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice. PMID:27286247

  16. Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic partners, and former partners.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. PMID:21995611

  17. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  18. Partner Caregiving in Older Cohabiting Couples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being. PMID:21482588

  19. Partner choice creates fairness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  20. The Influence of Individual, Partner, and Relationship Factors on HIV Testing in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Ellen J.; Coupey, Susan M.; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Early identification of HIV by increasing testing is a national priority; however, little is known about HIV testing behaviors in high school age adolescents. We examined the association of individual, partner, and relationship factors with HIV testing using a computer-assisted survey administered from 2003 to 2006 in a community sample of 980 sexually active 14- to 17-year-olds (56% female, 55% Latino, 25% African American) living in a jurisdiction with a high AIDS burden. Twenty percent reported their first sexual encounter as having occurred when they were <13 years of age, 33% had had four or more lifetime sexual partners, 21% reported high partner HIV-risk behavior, and 428 (44%) had been tested for HIV. In our final regression model, independent associations with HIV testing included being female (OR=1.68 [1.23–2.30]), older (OR=1.41 [1.21–1.65]), and having had four or more lifetime sexual partners (OR=2.24 [1.64–3.05]). The strongest independent predictor of HIV testing was having high HIV-related partner communication (OR=3.70 [2.77–4.94]). Being in a serious committed relationship (OR=1.39 [1.02–1.87]) was also independently associated with HIV testing, whereas reporting high worry about HIV/AIDS (OR=0.53 [0.40–0.71]) was independently negatively associated with HIV testing. High HIV/AIDS knowledge, high partner HIV risk behavior, and young age at first sexual encounter were not associated with testing. These findings suggest that, for high school aged adolescents, optimal strategies to promote HIV testing should look beyond increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge and identifying individual risk behaviors to also considering the role of partners and relationships and their influence on testing behavior. PMID:24134644

  1. Effect of Screening for Partner Violence on Women's Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Kee, Romina; Trick, William; Garcia, Diana; Angulo, Francisco R.; Jones, Robin; Sadowski, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Although partner violence screening has been endorsed by many health organizations, there is insufficient evidence that it has beneficial health outcomes. Objective To determine the effect of computerized screening for partner violence plus provision of a partner violence resource list vs provision of a partner violence list only on women's health in primary care settings, compared with a control group. Design, Setting, and Participants A 3-group blinded randomized controlled trial at 10 primary health care centers in Cook County, Illinois. Participants were enrolled from May 2009–April 2010 and reinterviewed 1 year (range, 48–56 weeks) later. Participants were English- or Spanish-speaking women meeting specific inclusion criteria and seeking clinical services at study sites. Of 3537 women approached, 2727 were eligible, 2708 were randomized (99%), and 2364 (87%) were recontacted 1 year later. Mean age of participants was 39 years. Participants were predominantly non-Latina African American (55%) or Latina (37%), had a high school education or less (57%), and were uninsured (57%). Intervention Randomization into 3 intervention groups: (1) partner violence screen (using the Partner Violence Screen instrument) plus a list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) no-screen, no-partner violence list control group (n=898). Main Outcome Measures Quality of life (QOL, physical and mental health components) was the primary outcome, measured on the 12-item Short Form (scale range 0–100, mean of 50 for US population). Results At 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the QOL physical health component between the screen plus partner violence resource list group (n=801; mean score, 46.8; 95% CI, 46.1–47.4), the partner violence resource list only group (n=772; mean score, 46.4; 95% CI, 45.8–47.1), and the control group (n=791; mean score

  2. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  3. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of Literature" (an interview…

  4. American ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... children aged 3-17 years. Breast cancer. Some studies conducted in China suggest that breast cancer patients treated with any form of ginseng (American or Panax) do better and feel better. However, ... because the patients in the study were also more likely to be treated with ...

  5. Chagas disease in Andean countries.

    PubMed

    Guhl, Felipe

    2007-10-30

    The Andean Countries' Initiative (ACI) for controlling Chagas disease was officially created in 1997 within the framework of the Hipolito Unanue Agreement (UNANUE) between the Ministries of Health of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its objective was to interrupt transmission via vector and transfusion in the region, taking into account that there are 12.5 million people at risk in the four Andean countries forming the initiative in the area and around 3 million people are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The progress of control activities for the vector species present in the Andean sub-region, for different reasons, has been slow and control interventions have still not been installed in all geographical areas occupied by the target species. This has been partly due to lack of knowledge about these vector populations' biological characteristics, and consequent uncertainty about which are the appropriate control measures and strategies to be implemented in the region. The main vector species present important similarities in Venezuela and Colombia and in Ecuador and Northern Peru and they can be approached in a similar way throughout the whole regions, basing approaches on and adapting them to the current strategies being developed in Venezuela during the 1960s which have been progressively adopted in the Southern Cone and Central-American region. Additional measures are needed for keeping endemic areas free from Rhodnius prolixus silvatic populations, widely spread in the Orinoco region in Colombia and Venezuela. Regarding aetiological treatment, it is worth mentioning that (with the exception of Colombia) none of the other countries forming the ACI have registered medicaments available for treating infected young people. There are no suitable follow-up programmes in the sub-region or for treating cases of congenital Chagas disease. An integral and integrated programme encompassing all the aspects including transmission by transfusion which seems to have

  6. Ethnoracial Variation in Women's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Clark, Hannah M; Galano, Maria M; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2016-02-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) has been acknowledged as a national public health concern, little research exists that directly assesses differential exposure to IPV for distinct ethnoracial groups. The current study compared the rate, severity, and type of IPV exposure across samples of White, African American, and Latina women (N = 180). Participants reported rates of exposure to violence on measures of physical assault, psychological aggression, injury, and sexual coercion; each subscale contained items denoting both mild and severe levels of violence. Multiple regression analyses indicated that women's frequency of exposure to sexual coercion, and severe and injurious violence significantly differed based on participants' ethnoracial identification, such that Latina women experienced disproportionate levels of violence relative to White and African American peers. Mothers' monthly income, level of education, general health, and relationship status also emerged as significant predictors of violence exposure. Results support the development of culturally sensitive adaptations of IPV interventions, targeting not only Latina populations but also women who are single, low-income, and educationally underserved. PMID:25392382

  7. International Demand for American Higher Education: An Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.; Wan, Weidong

    1990-01-01

    A study of the relationship of population and income in Asian countries and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members to their demand for American higher education found that both population and income significantly affect demand, but not proportionally. Findings suggest countries meet most change in citizens' demand with…

  8. CONFRONTING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, A GLOBAL HEALTH CARE PRIOTITY

    PubMed Central

    Chibber, Karuna S.; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence—physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women perpetrated by intimate partners—is one of the most common forms of violence against women, and is associated with adverse women’s reproductive and maternal health outcomes. We review the opportunities for addressing intimate partner violence by the health system, examine promising approaches, and outline future challenges for developing effective health systems responses to violence. Evidence shows that women seldom approach support services in response to violence, but do seek health care at some point in their lives. In fact, women’s utilization of reproductive health services in particular has been increasing globally. These services have a broad reach and represent an important opportunity to engage in violence prevention. Although health systems-based responses to intimate partner violence have emerged, rigorous evaluations to guide program planning and policy efforts to reduce violence are limited. US programs have expanded from improving individual provider prevention practices to instituting system-wide changes to ensure sustainability of these practices. Developing country program responses, though limited, have been system-wide and multi-sectoral right from the start. Our review highlights three challenges for developing and expanding health systems responses to violence. First, interventions should focus on creating a supportive environment within the health system and strengthening linkages across health care and allied sectors. Second, rigorous evaluations of health-sector based interventions are needed for a sound evidence-base to guide programmatic and policy decisions. Finally, research is needed to identify the entry points for engaging men on violence prevention, and to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:21598270

  9. My Impressions of My American Colleagues. Reflections on My Ukranian Colleagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarasova, Olena; Megyeri, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Presents a Ukrainian teacher's impressions of American English teaching, and an American high school English teacher's reflections about teaching English in the Ukraine. Notes the differences and similarities of teaching English in both countries. (SR)

  10. The Contribution of Male and Female Partners’ Substance Use to Sexual Risks and STDs Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that drug and alcohol use are fueling the heterosexual transmission of HIV among African Americans. This study aims to examine the relative contribution of drug and alcohol use of male and female partners to risks of heterosexual transmission of HIV among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples (N = 1,070 participants) who participated in an HIV prevention trial. Associations found between use of drugs and alcohol by one or both partners and sexual risk indicators varied by type of substance and whether male or female partner or both partners reported use. The findings suggest multiple ways in which substance use of male and female partners may be contributing to the heterosexual transmission of HIV and other STDs among African Americans and underscore the need for HIV prevention strategies to address dyadic patterns of substance use that lead to sexual risks. PMID:20499153

  11. Science for All Americans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, F. James; Ahlgren, Andrew

    1991-02-01

    In order to compete in the modern world, any society today must rank education in science, mathematics, and technology as one of its highest priorities. It's a sad but true fact, however, that most Americans are not scientifically literate. International studies of educational performance reveal that U.S. students consistently rank near the bottom in science and mathematics. The latest study of the National Assessment of Educational Progress has found that despite some small gains recently, the average performance of seventeen-year-olds in 1986 remained substantially lower than it had been in 1969. As the world approaches the twenty-first century, American schools--when it comes to the advancement of scientific knowledge--seem to be stuck in the Victorian age. In Science for All Americans , F. James Rutherford and Andrew Ahlgren brilliantly tackle this devastating problem. Based on Project 2061, a scientific literacy initiative sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, this wide-ranging, important volume explores what constitutes scientific literacy in a modern society; the knowledge, skills, and attitudes all students should acquire from their total school experience from kindergarten through high school; and what steps this country must take to begin reforming its system of education in science, mathematics, and technology. Science for All Americans describes the scientifically literate person as one who knows that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent enterprises with strengths and limitations; who understands key concepts and principles of science; who recognizes both the diversity and unity of the natural world; and who uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for personal and social purposes. Its recommendations for educational reform downplay traditional subject categories and instead highlight the connections between them. It also emphasizes ideas and thinking skills over the memorization of

  12. Latin American Studies: Annual Report to the Dean 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Thomas M., Jr.

    San Diego State University's Center for Latin American Studies operates as a national resource center for Latin America. Center activities focus on enhancing undergraduate and graduate programs, community outreach, and the cooperative relationship with a consortium partner, the Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies at the University of…

  13. Evaluating from the Outside: Conducting Cross-Cultural Evaluation Research on an American Indian Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letiecq, Bethany L.; Bailey, Sandra J.

    2004-01-01

    There is limited guidance for conducting competent and responsive cross-cultural evaluation research with American Indian communities. The authors draw on Fisher and Ball's Tribal Participatory Research Model to highlight ways in which this project is attempting to be culturally appropriate and sensitive as they partner with an American Indian…

  14. A Culturally Responsive, Transnational Middle Grades Teacher Education Program in American Samoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuercher, Deborah K.; Yoshioka, Jon; Deering, Paul D.; Martin, Katie; Curry, Kezia; O'Neill, Tara; Apisa, Sheila W.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1979, the American Samoa Department of Education and the University of Hawai'i have partnered to provide education and training for American Samoan teachers. Beginning in 2009, these efforts have focused on teachers in the middle grades. This article describes the context, program structure, and implementation of a graduate degree program in…

  15. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  16. 3 CFR 8990 - Proclamation 8990 of May 31, 2013. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Caribbean have grown alongside each other as partners in progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013 8990 Proclamation 8990 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8990 of May 31, 2013 Proc. 8990 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013By the...

  17. Partner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Beth A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Many mechanisms for how IPV may impact birth outcomes have been proposed and include direct health, mental health, and behavioral effects, which all may interact. Screening for IPV during pregnancy is essential, yet due to time constraints and few clear recommendations for assessment, many prenatal providers do not routinely inquire about IPV, or even believe they should. More training is needed to assist health care providers in identifying and managing pregnancy IPV, with additional research needed to inform effective interventions to reduce the rates of pregnancy IPV and resultant outcomes. PMID:21072311

  18. A Community-Academic Partnered Grant Writing Series to Build Infrastructure for Partnered Research.

    PubMed

    King, Keyonna M; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D'Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At 1-year follow-up, participants in Phase 2 had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding. PMID:26365589

  19. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice...

  4. Examining intimate partner aggression assessment among returning veterans and their partners.

    PubMed

    LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Scott, Jillian Panuzio; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2014-03-01

    There is a growing research base focusing on intimate partner aggression (IPA) in combat veterans, although little work has focused on IPA assessment. In the current study, the authors investigated IPA assessment among 65 male Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) combat veterans and their female partners. Specifically, we compared overall levels of veteran- and partner-perpetrated IPA, conducted concordance analyses to examine the degree of interpartner agreement on IPA occurrence and frequency, and investigated both veterans' and partners' relationship satisfaction and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as correlates of concordance. Results indicated that female partners perpetrated higher levels of physical IPA than did the male veterans, according to both veteran and combined reports. Concordance analyses revealed low to moderate levels of agreement between veterans and their partners on the perpetration of physical and psychological IPA, with particularly low agreement on the veterans' physical IPA. Female partners' relationship satisfaction was associated with reporting less of the veterans' and their own IPA relative to the veterans' reports, and their PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting more of the veterans' and their own IPA. In contrast, the veterans' PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting less of their own IPA relative to their partners' reports. The findings emphasize the need for those researching and treating IPA among military couples to assess IPA perpetrated by both members of the relationship and to consider possible factors that might impact the accuracy of IPA reporting. PMID:24079959

  5. Standing up for yourself, good communication will help you get your partner to use a condom.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    African-American females are ten times more likely to be infected with HIV than white females. Half of the HIV-positive African-American women became infected through drugs; more than one-third had sexual relations with someone who was infected. Women are urged to insist on the use of a condom each time they engage in sexual intercourse. Developing good communication skills and being assertive will help African-American women successfully negotiate safe sex. Six safer sex tips identified by researchers at the University of Alabama are understanding the difference between aggressive and assertive behavior, refraining from apologizing about being assertive, making eye contact with one's partner, and practicing skills through role play. Women can protect themselves from HIV by using a female condom, diaphragm, and/or spermicidal cream. However, the best strategy is the consistent use of a latex condom. PMID:11362938

  6. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks

  7. American Colleges' Missteps Raise Questions about Overseas Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Several stumbles by American colleges in setting up programs with foreign partners have called attention to problems inherent in making such arrangements. State University of New York Empire State College has allowed a university in Albania to deliver diplomas in its name. In North Dakota, state auditors issued a scathing review of dual-degree…

  8. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Caribbean have grown alongside each other as partners in progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13544 Filed 6-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8990 of May 31, 2013 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013 By...

  9. Effectiveness of interventions promoting HIV serostatus disclosure to sexual partners: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    Disclosure of HIV serostatus to sexual partners is mandated within certain states in the United States and other countries. Despite these laws implemented and public health efforts to increase disclosure, rates of disclosure to sexual partners among people living with HIV (PLWH) remain low, suggesting the need for interventions to assist PLWH with the disclosure process. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether HIV serostatus disclosure interventions increase disclosure to sexual partners. We searched six electronic databases and screened 484 records. Five studies published between 2005 and 2012 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results showed that three of the HIV serostatus disclosure-related intervention studies were efficacious in promoting disclosure to sexual partners. Although all three studies were conducted in the United States the intervention content and measurements of disclosure across the studies varied, so broad conclusions are not possible. The findings suggest that more rigorous HIV serostatus disclosure-related intervention trials targeting different populations in the United States and abroad are needed to facilitate disclosure to sexual partners. PMID:25645328

  10. Intimate partner violence, consenting to HIV testing and HIV status among Zambian women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W

    2016-09-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population. PMID:26185042

  11. AIDS, partner notification and gender issues.

    PubMed

    Hildesheimer, Galya M

    2002-01-01

    The interplay between public health, human rights, legal obligations and physicians' ethical concerns was revealed dramatically in Israel in recent cases involving reporting of the HIV positive status of patients. This paper reviews and critically analyses the decision-making process of Israeli Ethics Committees regarding HIV partner notification. One aim of this analysis is to suggest principles that may guide the decision in such cases. It is argued that the resolution concerning disclosure to partners be based on the Principle of Proportionality, taking into account the type of relationship between partner and patient, their cultural background and gender issues. The paper demonstrates the advantages of addressing such issues by professional multidisciplinary Ethics Committees, whose decisions can bring to bear the scope of relevant considerations. PMID:12017441

  12. Parkinson patients as partners in care.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Mark A; Sanjak, Mohammed; Englert, Danielle; Iyer, Sanjay; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity, as part of an active lifestyle, is an important health goal for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise can positively impact health related quality of life. Given this, how can we promote physically active lifestyles among PD patients (most of whom are sedentary)? Here we suggest that health care professionals could significantly expand their impact by collaborating with PD patients and their spouses (or caregivers) as partners-in-care. We outline reasons why partners-in-care approaches are important in PD, including the need to increase social capital, which deals with issues of trust and the value of social networks in linking members of a community. We then present results of a qualitative study involving partners-in-care exercise beliefs among 19 PD patients and spouses, and conclude with our perspective on future benefits of this approach. PMID:24262175

  13. Witness of Intimate Partner Violence in Childhood and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors. PMID:20811285

  14. Sexuality and the Commission of Physical Violence to Partners and Non-Partners by Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Rosemary; Fennell, Tiffanie

    2007-01-01

    In 2 studies of physical violence and sexuality among college students, more than 75% of men and more than 60% of women reported committing physical violence in the past year, including more women to partners and more men to non-partners. More than 90% of men who committed violence to partners were also violent to non-partners. In Study 1, among…

  15. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3) compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The higher the education level of

  16. When a partner dies: lesbian widows.

    PubMed

    Bent, Katherine N; Magilvy, J Kathy

    2006-06-01

    Death of a life partner and the subsequent bereavement are profound experiences for an individual. By far, the majority of bereavement research reported is focused on heterosexual couples, primarily married and often in the later years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the bereavement experiences of lesbians whose life partners have died. The study used a descriptive, qualitative design informed by feminist scholarship and phenomenology to access the depth of personal experiences, as well as internally interpreted meanings of those experiences, among lesbian widows. PMID:16613798

  17. Partners in policymaking: the first five years.

    PubMed

    Zirpoli, T J; Wieck, C; Hancox, D; Skarnulis, E R

    1994-12-01

    Many individuals with disabilities and their families are becoming empowered by learning effective self-advocacy strategies. In this article one enpowerment and self-advocacy training program, Partners in Policymaking, for parents of young children and adults with disabilities was described. Initially developed in Minnesota, the Partners program has completed its fifth year, has 163 graduates, and is being replicated in several other states. Follow-up data, qualitative and quantitative, were collected from program graduates. Results indicated both satisfaction with the program and the presence of many active citizen-advocates in the community. PMID:7854135

  18. A Case-Control Study on Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight, Southeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Violence against women has serious consequences for their reproductive and sexual health including birth outcomes. In Ethiopia, though the average parity of pregnant women is much higher than in other African countries, the link between intimate partner violence with low birth weight is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intimate partner violence and low birth weight among pregnant women. Method. Hospital based case-control study was conducted among 387 mothers (129 cases and 258 controls). Anthropometric measurements were taken both from mothers and their live births. The association between intimate partner violence and birth weight was computed through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses and statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result. Out of 387 interviewed mothers, 100 (25.8%) had experienced intimate partner violence during their index pregnancy period. Relatively more mothers of low birth weight infants were abused (48%) compared with controls (16.4%). Those mothers who suffered acts of any type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy were three times more likely to have a newborn with low birth weight (95% CI; (1.57 to 7.18)). The association between overall intimate partner violence and LBW was adjusted for potential confounder variables. Conclusion. This research result gives insight for health professional about the importance of screening for intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health care providers should consider violence in their practice and try to identify women at risk. PMID:26798345

  19. Does Type of Child Risk Affect Whether Mothers Seek Assistance for Intimate Partner Violence From Civil or Criminal Court?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented. PMID:26438617

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Maternal Cigarette Smoking Before and During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. METHODS Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004–2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2–9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80–2.12). CONCLUSION Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial. PMID:25568990

  1. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  2. Country Profiles, Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Daniel; Thapa, Rita

    A profile of Nepal is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age/sex structure, geographical distribution, topographical obstacles, ethnic and religious…

  3. Country Update: Israel 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Country Updates is a new section of "Intercultural Education." Starting in "Intercultural Education," Volume 16 No. 5, this column will focus on recent developments during the last two to three years in the field of intercultural education in one particular country. These updates can include recent policy decisions, the main results of important…

  4. Canada: Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Canada emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and graphs. Aspects of the country depicted include: geography, population, resources, international trade, government, and energy. Short texts on multiculturalism, the Canadian economy, the country's history, and U.S.-Canada relations also are included.…

  5. Country Profiles, Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Alfredo; And Others

    A profile of Chile is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  6. Country Profiles, The Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concepcion, Mercedes B.

    A profile of the Philippines is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  7. Country Profiles, Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaisie, S. K.; And Others

    A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  8. Country Profiles, Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Christos

    A profile of Mauritius is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  9. Country Profiles, Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M.; And Others

    A profile of Taiwan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  10. Country Profiles, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkin, Gordon W.; And Others

    A profile of Thailand is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  11. Country Profiles, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Indonesia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population - size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  12. Country Profiles, Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Hong Kong is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  14. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  15. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  16. Country Profiles, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svala, Gertrud

    A profile of Sweden is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  17. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  18. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  19. Cultural-grant aid in astronomy for developing countries from the Japanese Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Masatoshi

    In order to promote education and research in developing countries, the Japanese Government began in 1982 providing high-grade equipment within the scheme of its ODA (Official Development Assistance). Since then, for astronomical development, twelve planetaria have been donated to eleven countries and seven reflecting telescopes, with accessories, have been installed in Asian and Latin-American countries.

  20. Health Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study in Four Countries. Volume 1. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Daniel F.; And Others

    The health manpower planning experiences of four countries reported here were presented in a traveling seminar held for member countries of the Pan American Health Organization. Focus was on what should be carried out in any country to coordinate the training of health workers with the operation of health services. Following the introduction, the…

  1. Negative School Perceptions and Involvement in School Bullying: A Universal Relationship across 40 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Walsh, Sophie D.; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya; Amitai, Gabriel; Pickett, William; Molcho, Michal; Due, Pernille; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Cross-national analyses explore the consistency of the relationship between negative school experiences and involvement in bullying across 40 European and North American countries, using the 2006 (40 countries n = 197,502) and 2002 (12 countries, n = 57,007) WHO-HBSC surveys. Measures include two Cumulative Negative School Perception (CNSP)…

  2. Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

  3. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  4. Partners in the Parks: Field Guide to an Experiential Program in the National Parks. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digby, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of Partners in the Parks (PITP) from its inception has been to introduce, or reintroduce, collegiate honors students to this country: not the transformed environment that we have constructed on its surface but the bedrock world upon which it rests. Like de Toqueville, Jefferson, Thoreau, Emerson, and so many others, these authors…

  5. When Change Is Set in Stone: An Analysis of Seven Academic Libraries Designed by Perry Dean Rogers & Partners, Architects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Michael J.; Hickey, Damon D.

    This book presents and appraises seven college and university libraries designed by Perry Dean Rogers & Partners of Boston. The firm has been designing campus libraries for the past 30 years. These projects are the most recent in an oeuvre of some 29 libraries designed and constructed for some 27 colleges and universities around the country. The…

  6. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  7. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  8. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  9. Risk Recognition and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…

  10. Librarians as Community Partners: An Outreach Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other…

  11. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  12. Sound Partners. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Sound Partners" (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides supplemental reading instruction to elementary school students grades K-3 with below average reading skills. The program is designed specifically for use by tutors with minimal training and experience. Instruction emphasizes letter-sound correspondences,…

  13. Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Marc; Bress, Kent

    Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners When NASA was created in 1958, it was given a goal of "cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results." As science has become increasingly globalized during the past 50 years, NASA and its many partners in space and Earth science research have benefited enormously from pooling ideas, skills, and resources for joint undertakings. The discoveries made have powerfully advanced public awareness of science and its importance all over the world. Today, the U.S. Administra-tion is encouraging NASA to expand its cooperation with new and emerging partners. NASA space and Earth science cooperation is founded on scientist-to-scientist research collaboration. Space missions are very costly and technically challenging, but there are many other important areas for international cooperation. Areas ripe for expansion with new partners include space data sharing, scientist-to-scientist collaborative research, international research program plan-ning and coordination, Earth applications for societal benefit, ground-based measurements for Earth system science, and education and public outreach. This presentation lays out NASA's general principles for international science cooperation, briefly describes each of these opportu-nity areas, and suggests avenues for initiating new cooperative relationships.

  14. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  15. The Forgotten Partner: The Superintendent's Husband.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Judith; Neal, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Female superintendents prize spouses who are emotionally secure and supportive and assist with household chores. Partners should communicate priorities, vacation together periodically, keep healthy, stay flexible, avoid guilt, establish family rituals, stay in frequent contact, respect each others' roles, and not strive for perfect balance. (MLH)

  16. Sustained Engagement with a Single Community Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Darcy W.; Sanchez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    As scholarly work has recently turned its attention to the role of the community partner in Community Service-Learning (CSL) relationships, empirical frameworks for describing and executing community partnerships have emerged. This article applies those frameworks to one such partnership, which is presented from the perspective of both the…

  17. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  18. Women's Response to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castano, Juncal

    2006-01-01

    The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics,…

  19. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  20. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  1. Parents-as-Partners-as-Learners Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Marion

    This guide provides information on the Parents-as-Partners-as-Learners project that is designed to encourage a love of reading in children and to increase communication between the home and school. Section A is an overview of the four phases of the project that are initiated by an adult literacy animator (facilitator) in a primary school: Phase I,…

  2. Head Injury in Partner-Abusive Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-three partner-abusive men, 45 maritally satisfied, and 32 maritally discordant, nonviolent men were evaluated for past history of head injury. Logistic regressions confirmed head injury was significant predictor of being a batterer. Implications of findings for both marital aggression and posthead injury rehabilitation are discussed. (Author)

  3. Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…

  4. Be a Partner in Clinical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Be a Partner in Clinical Research Better Check Your Bowels Health Capsules Are You at Risk for Alcohol-Medication Interactions? Measles: Preventable with Vaccines Featured Website: National Center ...

  5. Programs of 1992 Winning Teams. Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Great Lakes Governors, Inc., Madison, WI.

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in kindergarten through grade 12 by accelerating the use of educational technology. The program spotlights 24 project teams from Great Lakes states that are already using technology in creative ways in the following states: (1) Illinois; (2) Indiana; (3) Michigan; (4)…

  6. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-01-01

    “Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes” is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community –academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  7. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-02-25

    "Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes" is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community -academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  8. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  9. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Bechelli, C.M. ); Brandt, R.D. )

    1991-10-21

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

  10. Individual differences in the propensity for partner sexual coercion.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Joseph A; Quinsey, Vernon L

    2009-03-01

    Lalumière, Harris, Quinsey, and Rice (2005) proposed a three-path model (psychopathy, young male syndrome, and competitive disadvantage) of the development of sexually coercive behavior, but none of these individual difference characteristics have been tested among partner rapists. Using a community sample in Study 1, the authors find that psychopathy is the only significant predictor of self-reported propensity for partner sexual coercion. This model is tested in Study 2 by comparing convicted partner rapists, nonsexual partner assaulters, and heterosexual child molesters. One third of partner rapists are psychopaths, and their psychopathy scores are no different from those found in correctional samples. Partner rapists have an average IQ, providing further evidence that competitive disadvantage is less characteristic of partner rapists. There is some indication that partner rapists desist with age. The authors discuss these findings in light of recent findings that implicate cuckoldry risk in partner sexual assault. PMID:19218481

  11. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    clusters, and the detection of organic and other molecules in space. The ALMA partners will construct the telescope at an altitude of 16,500 feet in the Atacama Desert in the Chilean Andes. This unique site is perhaps the best location on Earth to study millimeter and sub-millimeter light because these wavelengths are absorbed by moisture in the atmosphere. "Astronomers will have a pristine view of that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ALMA site," said Colwell. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The National Research Council of Canada will partner with the NSF in the North American endeavor. "The NRAO is very pleased to have the leading role in this project on behalf of the North American partners," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, director of the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. "ALMA will be one of astronomy's premier tools for studying the Universe," said Nobel Laureate Riccardo Giacconi, president of AUI. "The entire astronomical community is anxious to have the unprecedented power and resolution that ALMA will provide." The President of the ESO Council, Professor Piet van der Kruit, agrees: "ALMA heralds a breakthrough in sub-millimeter and millimeter astronomy, allowing some of the most penetrating studies of the Universe ever made. It is safe to predict that there will be exciting scientific surprises when ALMA enters into operation." By signing this agreement, ESO and the NSF give the green light for the joint construction of the ALMA telescope, which will cost approximately $552 million U.S. (in FY 2000 dollars). To oversee the construction and management of ALMA, a joint ALMA Board has been established by the partners. This board met for the first time on February 24

  12. Anglo Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians: Can They Communicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Clark S.

    A failure in communication between Anglo American, American Indian, and Mexican American communities exists because of the inadequate reporting of the events that occur within each of these groups. This speech outlines several basic ways in which communication can eventually be improved. First, it emphasizes that educators must recognize and…

  13. Gender, Psychopathy Factors and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252

  14. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of 1891 watercolor by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of 1891 watercolor by D.J. Kennedy, from collection of Historical Society of Pennsylvania. - Stephen Girard Country House, Shunk & Twenty-first Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Exploring the intersection of partner stalking and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study examined a range of sexually abusive acts women with protective orders against violent partners experienced using three groups: (a) women who never experience stalking or rape by the violent partner; (b) women who experienced stalking but who had never been raped by the violent partner; and (c) women who were stalked and raped by the violent partner. Findings suggest that women in violent relationships experienced a wide range of sexually abusive experiences and that there is a significant association of partner stalking and partner sexual abuse beyond rape. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21665857

  16. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146

  17. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  18. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence and in Seeking Help With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2015-11-01

    Applying Aday and Andersen's health services utilization model, this examination of racial disparities in women's experience of intimate partner violence also looked at racial disparities in mental disorders and in use of mental health professionals' help. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 6,589 women completing the National Violence Against Women Survey. Per our linear regression results, minority women, versus White, tended proportionally to seek less help from mental health professionals. Help seeking by African American women was less likely if they were using illegal drugs; among Hispanic women, additional threats from partner curtailed help seeking from mental health professionals. "Other ethnic minority" women's help seeking decreased with their use of stimulants. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:25349016

  19. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  20. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asian, Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders and females of two or more races. ... Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders, and two or more races. c Due ...

  1. Obesity in gulf countries.

    PubMed

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  2. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  3. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations. PMID:2231055

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. American Tragedy

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.

    1981-09-21

    Acid rain (more accurately, acid precipitation) is causing the death of many bodies of water and poisoning land in the US. Although it is not only this country's problem, acid precipitation, according to many scientists, is now the single most important environmental problem in North America. It is caused by the emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the combustion of fossil fuels. Natural sources, such as volcanoes and mud flats, can emit SO/sub 2/ into the air, but their contribution is small. It has been reported that about 90% of the S in the atmosphere of the northeastern US comes from man-made sources.

  6. Colonial American Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  7. American Media Domination and Audience Preference: A 60-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Ulf Jonas

    The debate over American dominance of mass media exports gained new momentum in the late 1980s, when the European Community moved toward restricting the number of television programs imported from non-European countries. Research suggests that Europeans enjoy American television programs such as "Dallas" because the series embody basic myths and…

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-2 - Buy American Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American Certificate....225-2 Buy American Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(a)(2), insert the following provision: Buy... entitled “Buy American—Supplies.” (b) Foreign End Products: Line Item No.: Country of Origin: (List...

  9. At American U. of Afghanistan, Turmoil at the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Billed as the country's first independent university, the American University of Afghanistan was established in 2004 with financial support from the highest levels of the American and Afghan governments. But its development has been rockier than anticipated, even taking into account Afghanistan's growing instability. A number of current and former…

  10. METABOLIC SYNDROME RISK ACROSS WEIGHT STATUS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mexican Americans experience some of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in this country. With the rising rates of obesity in Mexican American children, these children are also at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, especially when diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. There is not, however, standard ...

  11. 76 FR 68623 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8749 of November 1, 2011 National Native American Heritage Month, 2011 By the..., American Indians and Alaska Natives have contributed immensely to our country's heritage. During...

  12. 76 FR 50715 - Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Agency for International Development Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program... briefing. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a briefing on the Partner Vetting System (PVS) pilot...

  13. Sex Partner with No Zika Symptoms Transmits Virus: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Sex Partner With No Zika Symptoms Transmits Virus: CDC New report also highlights ties between Zika ... News) -- U.S. health officials report that the Zika virus can be spread sexually even when a partner ...

  14. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePlus

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...

  15. HEIGHT, PARTNERS AND OFFSPRING: EVIDENCE FROM TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Yin, Ching-Chen

    2016-09-01

    Using Taiwanese data, this study finds that tall males are more successful in mate selection and reproduction, but the results are weakly significant. Height is not helpful for females' reproductive success. Specifically, tall males are more likely to have a partner at present or in the past, have at least one child, have more children, have a shorter period of celibacy and have a longer time duration of living with a partner in their lifetime. Using mediation analysis, the study shows that tall males' reproductive success is not due to their achievements in the labour market (earnings), but is simply due to their height per se. Finally, a college student data set is used to explore the relation between height and dating hours. Tall male students have more dating hours, but no relation is found between females' height and dating hours. PMID:26449270

  16. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-07-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  17. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-05-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  18. Intimate partner violence and children's memory.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Coffman, Jennifer L; Harris, Latonya S; Langley, Hillary A; Ornstein, Peter A; Cox, Martha J

    2013-12-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children's short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children's sex and race, the families' income-to-needs ratio, the children's expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children's cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children's memory development. PMID:24188084

  19. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Birgil J.

    1977-01-01

    Describing American Indian contributions to medicine, this article lists specific contributions and concludes that although some 220 drugs of Native American use were listed in the National Formulary of 1888, recent recognition of American Indian pharmacological contributions is long overdue. (JC)

  20. The Dominican Americans. The New Americans Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tores-Saillant, Silvio; Hernandez, Ramona

    Books in the New Americans Series are designed for high school students and general readers who want to learn more about the immigrants who have become their new neighbors. This volume deals with the experience of Dominican Americans, a settled community in its North American abode. The book begins with a brief historical background that traces…