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Sample records for american football injuries

  1. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes. PMID:26359844

  2. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  3. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. PMID:26316542

  4. The first concussion crisis: head injury and evidence in early American football.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Emily A

    2014-05-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present. PMID:24625171

  5. Biomarkers of brain injury following an American football game: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogatzki, Matthew J; Soja, Scott E; McCabe, Colleen A; Breckenridge, Ryanne E; White, Jeffrey L; Baker, Julien S

    2016-09-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if the biomarkers of head injury, NSE and S100B, increased in serum following an American football game. Serum creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol levels were also measured to determine muscle damage and stress caused by the football game. NSE, S100B, CK, and cortisol were measured in the serum of 17 football players before and after a collegiate junior varsity football game. No head injuries were reported by the players, athletic training staff, or coaches yet both NSE (Pre-game: 7.0 μg•L-1 ± 2.2 versus Post-game: 13.1 μg•L-1 ± 7.0, P <0.001) and S100B (Pre-game: 0.013 μg•L-1 ± 0.012 versus Post-game: 0.069 μg•L-1 ± 0.036, P <0.001) increased significantly. Neither CK (Pre-game: 90.5 U•L-1 ± 41.9 versus Post-game: 120.2 U•L-1 ± 62.7, P = 0.116) nor cortisol (Pre-game: 369.2 nmoles•L-1 ± 159.8 versus Post-game: 353.0 nmoles•L-1 ± 170.5, P = 0.349) increased significantly following the football game. There was little correlation found between S100B and body mass (R2 = 0.029) or CK (R2 = 0.352) levels. Although serum NSE and S100B increase as a result of playing in an American football game, the values are similar to or lower than levels found following competition in other contact and non-contact sports. Furthermore, the lack of correlation between S100B and body mass or CK indicates that S100B increases independent of body mass or muscle injury. PMID:27387898

  6. Rotational stiffness of American football shoes affects ankle biomechanics and injury severity.

    PubMed

    Button, Keith D; Braman, Jerrod E; Davison, Mark A; Wei, Feng; Schaeffer, Maureen C; Haut, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    While previous studies have investigated the effect of shoe-surface interaction on injury risk, few studies have examined the effect of rotational stiffness of the shoe. The hypothesis of the current study was that ankles externally rotated to failure in shoes with low rotational stiffness would allow more talus eversion than those in shoes with a higher rotational stiffness, resulting in less severe injury. Twelve (six pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated to gross failure while positioned in 20 deg of pre-eversion and 20 deg of predorsiflexion by fixing the distal end of the foot, axially loading the proximal tibia, and internally rotating the tibia. One ankle in each pair was constrained by an American football shoe with a stiff upper, while the other was constrained by an American football shoe with a flexible upper. Experimental bone motions were input into specimen-specific computational models to examine levels of ligament elongation to help understand mechanisms of ankle joint failure. Ankles in flexible shoes allowed 6.7±2.4 deg of talus eversion during rotation, significantly greater than the 1.7±1.0 deg for ankles in stiff shoes (p = 0.01). The significantly greater eversion in flexible shoes was potentially due to a more natural response of the ankle during rotation, possibly affecting the injuries that were produced. All ankles failed by either medial ankle injury or syndesmotic injury, or a combination of both. Complex (more than one ligament or bone) injuries were noted in 4 of 6 ankles in stiff shoes and 1 of 6 ankles in flexible shoes. Ligament elongations from the computational model validated the experimental injury data. The current study suggested flexibility (or rotational stiffness) of the shoe may play an important role in both the severity of ankle injuries for athletes. PMID:25751589

  7. Incidence and Severity of Foot and Ankle Injuries in Men’s Collegiate American Football

    PubMed Central

    Lievers, W. Brent; Adamic, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: American football is an extremely physical game with a much higher risk of injury than other sports. While many studies have reported the rate of injury for particular body regions or for individual injuries, very little information exists that compares the incidence or severity of particular injuries within a body region. Such information is critical for prioritizing preventative interventions. Purpose: To retrospectively analyze epidemiological data to identify the most common and most severe foot and ankle injuries in collegiate men’s football. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were obtained from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for all foot and ankle injuries during the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 seasons. Injuries were analyzed in terms of incidence and using multiple measures of severity (time loss, surgeries, medical disqualifications). This frequency and severity information is summarized in tabular form as well as in a 4 × 4 quantitative injury risk assessment matrix (QIRAM). Results: The rate of foot and ankle injuries was 15 per 10,000 athletic exposures (AEs). Five injuries were found to be responsible for more than 80% of all foot and ankle injuries: lateral ankle ligament sprains, syndesmotic (high ankle) sprains, medial ankle ligament sprains, midfoot injuries, and first metatarsophalangeal joint injuries. Ankle dislocations were found to be the most severe in terms of median time loss (100 days), percentage of surgeries (83%), and percentage of medical disqualifications (94%), followed by metatarsal fractures (38 days, 36%, and 49%, respectively) and malleolus fractures (33 days, 41%, and 59%, respectively). Statistical analysis suggests that the 3 measures of severity are highly correlated (r > 0.94), thereby justifying the use of time loss as a suitable proxy for injury severity in the construction of the QIRAM. Conclusion: Based on the QIRAM analysis

  8. The First Concussion Crisis: Head Injury and Evidence in Early American Football

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled “The Concussion Crisis.” Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game’s first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided—allowing the problem to proliferate—because work was done by football’s supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present. PMID:24625171

  9. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

  10. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  11. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  12. Injury Rates in Age-Only Versus Age-and-Weight Playing Standard Conditions in American Youth Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Simon, Janet E.; Hayden, Ross; Snook, Erin M.; Dodge, Thomas; Gallo, Joseph A.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Murphy, Joseph M.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Ragan, Brian; Yeargin, Susan W.; Parsons, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: American youth football leagues are typically structured using either age-only (AO) or age-and-weight (AW) playing standard conditions. These playing standard conditions group players by age in the former condition and by a combination of age and weight in the latter condition. However, no study has systematically compared injury risk between these 2 playing standards. Purpose: To compare injury rates between youth tackle football players in the AO and AW playing standard conditions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers evaluated and recorded injuries at each practice and game during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Players (age, 5-14 years) were drawn from 13 recreational leagues across 6 states. The sample included 4092 athlete-seasons (AW, 2065; AO, 2027) from 210 teams (AW, 106; O, 104). Injury rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare the playing standard conditions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs adjusted for residual effects of age and clustering by team and league. There were 4 endpoints of interest: (1) any injury, (2) non–time loss (NTL) injuries only, (3) time loss (TL) injuries only, and (4) concussions only. Results: Over 2 seasons, the cohort accumulated 1475 injuries and 142,536 athlete-exposures (AEs). The most common injuries were contusions (34.4%), ligament sprains (16.3%), concussions (9.6%), and muscle strains (7.8%). The overall injury rate for both playing standard conditions combined was 10.3 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 9.8-10.9). The TL injury, NTL injury, and concussion rates in both playing standard conditions combined were 3.1, 7.2, and 1.0 per 1000 AEs, respectively. In multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, team, and league, no differences were found between playing standard conditions in the overall injury rate (RRoverall, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6). Rates for the other 3 endpoints were also similar (RRNTL, 1.1 [95% CI, 0

  13. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  14. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of

  15. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  16. Comprehensive Coach Education and Practice Contact Restriction Guidelines Result in Lower Injury Rates in Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Mensch, James; Dodge, Thomas; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research evaluating the effect of comprehensive coach education and practice contact restriction in youth football injury rates is sparse. In 2012, USA Football released their Heads Up Football coaching education program (HUF), and Pop Warner Football (PW) instituted guidelines to restrict contact during practice. Purpose: To compare injury rates among youth football players aged 5 to 15 years by whether their leagues implemented HUF and/or were PW-affiliated. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2014 youth football season. Players were drawn from 10 leagues across 4 states. The non–Heads Up Football (NHUF) group consisted of 704 players (none of whom were PW-affiliated) from 29 teams within 4 leagues. The HUF+PW group consisted of 741 players from 27 teams within 2 leagues. The HUF-only group consisted of 663 players from 44 teams within 4 leagues. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% CIs. Results: A total of 370 injuries were reported during 71,262 athlete-exposures (AEs) (rate, 5.19/1000 AEs). Compared with the NHUF group (7.32/1000 AEs), the practice injury rates were lower for the HUF+PW group (0.97/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.21) and the HUF-only group (2.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.26-0.53). Compared with the NHUF group (13.42/1000 AEs), the game injury rate was lower for the HUF+PW group (3.42/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44) but not for the HUF-only group (13.76/1000 AEs; IRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.73-1.43). Also, the HUF+PW game injury rate was lower than that of HUF-only (IRR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.12-0.36). Higher injury rates were typically found in those aged 11 to 15 years compared with those aged 5 to 10 years. However, stronger effects related to HUF implementation and PW affiliation were seen among 11- to 15-year-olds. When restricted to concussions only, the sole difference was found

  17. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  18. Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158070.html Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds NFL concussions and ankle injuries ... most common injuries that occurred during two National Football League seasons between 2012 and 2014. Players had ...

  19. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, J P

    1985-01-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries. Images p71-a PMID:4027497

  20. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  1. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  2. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  3. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. PMID:24225523

  4. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  5. The drag force on an American football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Robert G.; Moore, Gary

    2003-08-01

    We have measured the drag coefficient on an American football oriented so that its major axis is pointed directly into the wind. The football was suspended from the top of a wind tunnel by bicycle spokes attached to small bearings. The results are similar to the drag coefficients reported by Rouse (1946) for the case of an ellipsoid with major diameter/minor diameter similar to the length/diameter for the football. The drag coefficient for a spinning football is slightly lower than that for a nonspinning football. Both are in the range of 0.05-0.06, about half the value assumed by Brancazio (1985), about one-third that reported by Rae and Streit (2002) and far smaller than that reported by Cunningham and Dowell (1976).

  6. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  7. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  8. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  9. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  10. Is there a relationship between ground and climatic conditions and injuries in football?

    PubMed

    Orchard, John

    2002-01-01

    Most soccer, rugby union, rugby league, American football, Australian football and Gaelic football competitions over the world are played on natural grass over seasons that commence in the early autumn (fall) and extend through winter. Injury surveillance in these competitions has usually reported high rates of injury to the lower limb and an increased incidence of injuries early in the season. This 'early-season' bias has not usually been reported in summer football competitions, or in sports played indoors, such as basketball. Although easily compared rates have not often been published there has also been a reported trend towards a greater injury incidence in football played in warmer and/or drier conditions. Injury incidence in American football played on artificial turf has often been reported to be higher than in games played on natural grass. This review concludes that the most plausible explanation for all of these reported findings involves variations in playing surface characteristics. Shoe-surface traction for the average player is the specific relevant variable that is most likely to correlate with injury incidence in a given game of football. Shoe-surface traction will usually have a positive correlation with ground hardness, dryness, grass cover and root density, length of cleats on player boots and relative speed of the game. It is possible that measures to reduce shoe-surface traction, such as, ground watering and softening, play during the winter months, use of natural grasses such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and player use of boots with shorter cleats, would all reduce the risk of football injuries. The most pronounced protective effect is likely to be on injuries to the lower limb of a noncontact nature, including anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Intervention studies should be performed, both using randomised and historical controls. PMID:12015804

  11. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  12. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  13. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  14. Hamstring Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038

  15. Expertise and decision-making in American football

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Adam J.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F(2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  16. Outcomes of Lisfranc Injuries in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Kevin Jude; Rozell, Joshua; Milby, Andrew; Carey, James L.; Sennett, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries commonly occur in American professional football competition; however, the career impact of these injuries is unknown. This study aims to define the time to return to competition for professional football players who sustained Lisfranc injuries and to quantify their effect on athletic performance. Methods: Data on National Football League (NFL) players who sustained a Lisfranc injury during a ten-year time period (2000-2010) were collected for analysis. Recorded demographic variables included age, experience, position, and operative vs. non-operative management. Outcomes data collected for offensive players (running backs, wide receivers, tight ends) included time to return to competition and yearly total yards and touchdowns. Outcomes data collected for defensive players (defensive linemen, linebackers, defensive backs) included time to return to competition and yearly total tackles, sacks, and interceptions. Offensive power ratings (OPR=total yards/10 + total touchdowns x6) and defensive power ratings (DPR=total tackles + total sacks x2 + total interceptions x2) were calculated for the injury season and for 3 seasons before and after the injury season. Offensive and defensive control groups consisted of all players of similar positions without an identified Lisfranc injury that competed in the 2005 season. Results: Lisfranc injuries were identified in 28 NFL athletes in the study period, including 11 offensive players and 17 defensive players. While 2 of 28 (7.1%) players never returned to the NFL, the remaining 26 (92.9%) athletes returned to competition at a median 11.1 (interquartile range: 10.3-12.5) months from time of injury and missed a median 8.5 (6.3-13.0) NFL regular season games. Players treated non-operatively were noted to have an earlier return to play with a median absence from play of 6.2 (1.9-10.7) months and 7.0 (4.5-8.0) games compared to those treated operatively who returned after a median

  17. Monitoring of Lower Limb Comfort and Injury in Elite Football

    PubMed Central

    Kinchington, Michael; Ball, Kevin; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI) to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day). A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union). The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77) and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18). The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury. Key points Comfort as a method to determine the well-being of athletes has a role in injury management. A lower limb comfort index is a mechanism by which lower limb comfort can be evaluated. Poor lower limb comfort is associated with injury in professional football. The use of a comfort as a marker of athlete health has practical and clinical relevance to sports medicine professionals managing musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24149793

  18. Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games were reported by the team physicians on a standardised injury report form after each match. The average response rate was 92%. Results A total of 3944 injuries were reported from 1546 matches, equivalent to 2.6 injuries per match. The majority of injuries (80%) was caused by contact with another player, compared with 47% of contact injuries by foul play. The most frequently injured body parts were the ankle (19%), lower leg (16%) and head/neck (15%). Contusions (55%) were the most common type of injury, followed by sprains (17%) and strains (10%). On average, 1.1 injuries per match were expected to result in absence from a match or training. The incidence of time-loss injuries was highest in the FIFA World Cups and lowest in the FIFA U17 Women's World Cups. The injury rates in the various types of FIFA World Cups had different trends over the past 14 years. Conclusions Changes in the incidence of injuries in top-level tournaments might be influenced by the playing style, refereeing, extent and intensity of match play. Strict application of the Laws of the Games is an important means of injury prevention. PMID:23632746

  19. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and

  20. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  1. Football injuries of the ankle: A review of injury mechanisms, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature. PMID:26807351

  2. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-01

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League. PMID:3600465

  3. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. PMID:26498638

  4. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    American football has unequivocally been linked to elevations in blood pressure and hypertension, especially in linemen. However, the mechanisms of this increase cannot be attributed solely to increased body weight and associated cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g.,dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia). Therefore, understanding the etiology of football-associated hypertension is essential for improving the quality of life in this mostly young population, as well as for lowering the potential for chronic disease in the future. We propose that inflammatogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released into the circulation from football-induced musculoskeletal trauma activate pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system-specifically, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA which activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and -9, respectively. Previously, we observed that circulating levels of these 2 DAMPs are increased in hypertension, and activation of TLR4 and -9 causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, our novel hypothesis is that musculoskeletal injury from repeated hits in football players, particularly in linemen, leads to elevated circulating HMGB1 and mtDNA to activate TLRs on endothelial cells leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased vascular tone, and hypertension. PMID:26316270

  5. Influence of Extrinsic Risk Factors on National Football League Injury Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of injury associated with American football is significant, with recent reports indicating that football has one of the highest rates of all-cause injury, including concussion, of all major sports. There are limited studies examining risk factors for injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Purpose: To identify risk factors for NFL concussions and musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Injury report data were collected prospectively for each week over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons for all 32 teams. Poisson regression models were used to identify the relationship between predetermined variables and the risk of the 5 most frequent injuries (knee, ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and concussion). Results: A total of 480 games or 960 team games (TGs) from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons were included in this study. A trend to an increasing risk of concussion and TG ankle injury with decreasing mean game-day temperature was observed. The risk of TG concussion (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.16; 95% CI, 1.35-3.45; P = .001) and TG ankle injury (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98; P = .01) was significantly greater for TGs played at a mean game-day temperature of ≤9.7°C (≤49.5°F) compared with a mean game-day temperature of ≥21.0°C (≥69.8°F). The risk of TG shoulder injury was significantly increased for TGs played on grass surfaces (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81; P = .038) compared with synthetic surfaces. The risk of TG injury was not associated with time in season, altitude, time zone change prior to game, or distance traveled to a game. Conclusion: This study evaluated extrinsic risk factors for injury in the NFL. A hazardous association was identified for risk of concussion and ankle injury with colder game-day temperature. Further research should be conducted to substantiate this relationship and its potential implication for injury prevention initiatives. PMID

  6. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  7. A Case of Posterior Sternoclavicular Dislocation in a Professional American Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin S.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; Scott, Reggie; Matava, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Sternoclavicular (SC) dislocation is a rare injury of the upper extremity. Treatment of posterior SC dislocation ranges from conservative (closed reduction) to operative (open reduction with or without surgical reconstruction of the SC joint). To date, we are unaware of any literature that exists pertaining to this injury or its treatment in elite athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe a posterior SC joint dislocation in a professional American football player and to illustrate the issues associated with its diagnosis and treatment and the athlete’s return to sports. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported in a professional athlete. He was treated successfully with closed reduction and returned to play within 5 weeks of injury. PMID:26137177

  8. Recovery–stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  9. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) were chosen as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P < 0.001]. Risk of time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players with low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) in Activities of Daily Living (RR: 5.0), Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, self-reported previous knee injury and low scores in three KOOS subscales significantly increase the risk of future time-loss knee injury in adolescent female football. PMID:26179111

  10. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  11. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  12. Receivers in American football use a constant optical projection plane angle to pursue and catch thrown footballs.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Dennis M; Dolgov, Igor; Maynor, Andrew; Reed, Cody

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we test how well two interceptive strategies, which have been proposed for catching balls hit high in the air in baseball and cricket, account for receivers in American football catching footballs. This is an important test of the domain generality of these strategies as this is the first study examining a situation where the pursuer's locomotor axis is directed away from the origin of the ball, and because the flight characteristics of an American football are far different from targets studied in prior work. The first strategy is to elicit changes in the ball's lateral optical position that match changes in the vertical optical position so that the optical projection plane angle, psi, remains constant, thus resulting in a linear optical trajectory (LOT). The second is keeping vertical optical ball velocity decreasing while maintaining constant lateral optical velocity (generalized optical acceleration cancellation, or GOAC). We found that the optical projection plane angle was maintained as constant significantly more often than maintaining vertical and lateral optical velocities as GOAC predicted. The present experiment extends previous research by showing that the constancy of psi resulting in an LOT is used by humans pursuing American footballs and demonstrates the domain generality of the LOT heuristic. PMID:24303746

  13. Association between preseason functional tests and injuries in youth football: a prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Frisch, A; Urhausen, A; Seil, R; Croisier, J L; Windal, T; Theisen, D

    2011-12-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed at identifying player-related risk factors for injuries in youth football as determined by extensive preseasonal screening. All male U15-U19 players from a regional football school (season 2007-2008; n = 67) underwent preseason evaluations assessing physical fatigue, emotional stress and injury history (questionnaire), anthropometric variables, general joint laxity (Beighton score), lower limb coordination (functional hop tests), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles (isokinetic tests), static and dynamic balance (force plate tests), and explosive strength (jump tests on force plate). Football exposure and all football-related injuries (n = 163) were recorded during the entire subsequent season (44 weeks). Total injury incidence was 10.4 injuries/1000  h and was higher in competition than in training [relative risk = 3.3; CI(95%) (2.39; 4.54); P < 0.001]. Lower limb injuries were most frequent (87%). Acute contact injuries represented 37%, while intrinsic (noncontact and chronic) injuries amounted to 63%. Of all the variables tested, only physical fatigue was significantly associated with injury, as revealed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The same result was observed when considering only intrinsic injuries as outcome. A single preseason test session may be of limited interest in the framework of an injury prevention strategy. PMID:22017708

  14. Influence of players' physique on rugby football injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A J; Myers, J L; Garraway, W M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is an association between a player's physique and injuries incurred while playing rugby football. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out involving all senior rugby clubs in the Scottish Borders during the 1993-1994 rugby season. Somatotype estimates were determined for 1152 (95%) of the 1216 eligible players. Body mass index (BMI), chest to waist ratio, and the ponderal index (PI) were used to classify players' physique as endomorphic (obese), mesomorphic (muscular), and ectomorphic (linear). RESULTS: A strong association was found between physique and age (chi 2 test: chi 2 = 317.2, df = 10, P < 0.0001). More younger players were ectomorphs. Older players were more often endomorphic. The physiques of forwards and backs were significantly different (chi 2 test: chi 2 = 58.6, df = 2, P < 0.0001), with forwards being of a heavier build than three-quarters, even after adjustment for age. Endomorphic players were more likely than ectomorphs to be injured in a match after adjustment for age (age-adjusted mean BMI for players who were injured in a match was 25.4 compared with 24.6 for players who were not injured in a match, P < 0.0001; adjusted chest to waist ratio means were 1.136 and 1.125 respectively, P = 0.0307; adjusted PI means were 0.414 and 0.417 respectively, P = 0.0056). Increased risk of injury may occur when players play out of position, since one fifth of all injuries occurred in this circumstance. CONCLUSIONS: Further research needs to be conducted using a more objective method of measuring somatotype on a further cohort of players so that the risk of injury for different body types can be examined more closely and related to other potential confounding factors. The level of increased risk for individuals playing out of their usual playing position needs to be established with a greater degree of certainty. PMID:9192128

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321

  16. The University of the National Football League: How Technology, Injury Surveillance, and Health Care Have Improved the Safety of America's Game.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Görtz, Simon

    2016-07-01

    American football has become one of the most popular sports in the United States. Despite the millions of players at all levels of competition who gain the physical, social, and psychological rewards that football provides, many interested stakeholders continue to ask, "Is football safe?" Although there are only approximately 1,700 players on National Football League (NFL) rosters, the injuries they sustain have garnered the most attention-and criticism-from the national media. Increased public awareness of the injury potential football possesses has led to an open debate and a major shift in public sentiment over the past 5 years. Although no sport is perfectly safe, the question is whether it can be made relatively safe and if the long-term consequences are worth the risk. This article reviews the methods by which one sports league-the NFL-has used advances in medical technology and injury surveillance to improve the health and safety of its players. PMID:27258045

  17. The American Football Uniform: Uncompensable Heat Stress and Hyperthermic Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Yamamoto, Linda M.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Emmanuel, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: In hot environments, the American football uniform predisposes athletes to exertional heat exhaustion or exercise-induced hyperthermia at the threshold for heat stroke (rectal temperature [Tre] > 39°C). Objective: To evaluate the differential effects of 2 American football uniform configurations on exercise, thermal, cardiovascular, hematologic, and perceptual responses in a hot, humid environment. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men with more than 3 years of competitive experience as football linemen (age  =  23.8 ± 4.3 years, height  =  183.9 ± 6.3 cm, mass  =  117.41 ± 12.59 kg, body fat  =  30.1% ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 controlled exercise protocols consisting of repetitive box lifting (lifting, carrying, and depositing a 20.4-kg box at a rate of 10 lifts per minute for 10 minutes), seated recovery (10 minutes), and up to 60 minutes of treadmill walking. They wore one of the following: a partial uniform (PART) that included the National Football League (NFL) uniform without a helmet and shoulder pads; a full uniform (FULL) that included the full NFL uniform; or control clothing (CON) that included socks, sneakers, and shorts. Exercise, meals, and hydration status were controlled. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, blood pressure, treadmill exercise time, perceptual measurements, plasma volume, plasma lactate, plasma glucose, plasma osmolality, body mass, and fat mass. Results: During 19 of 30 experiments, participants halted exercise as a result of volitional exhaustion. Mean sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, and treadmill exercise time during the CON condition were different from those measures during the PART (P range, .04–.001; d range, 0.42–0.92) and FULL (P range, .04–.003; d range, 1.04–1.17) conditions; no differences were detected for perceptual measurements, plasma

  18. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  19. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Myklebust, Grethe; Steffen, Kathrin; Holme, Ingar; Silvers, Holly; Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of a comprehensive warm-up programme designed to reduce the risk of injuries in female youth football. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 125 football clubs from the south, east, and middle of Norway (65 clusters in the intervention group; 60 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months). Participants 1892 female players aged 13-17 (1055 players in the intervention group; 837 players in the control group). Intervention A comprehensive warm-up programme to improve strength, awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements. Main outcome measure Injuries to the lower extremity (foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh, groin, and hip). Results During one season, 264 players had relevant injuries: 121 players in the intervention group and 143 in the control group (rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.03). In the intervention group there was a significantly lower risk of injuries overall (0.68, 0.48 to 0.98), overuse injuries (0.47, 0.26 to 0.85), and severe injuries (0.55, 0.36 to 0.83). Conclusion Though the primary outcome of reduction in lower extremity injury did not reach significance, the risk of severe injuries, overuse injuries, and injuries overall was reduced. This indicates that a structured warm-up programme can prevent injuries in young female football players. Trial registration ISRCTN10306290. PMID:19066253

  20. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    PubMed Central

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  1. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  2. Conditioning Injuries Associated with Artificial Turf in Two Preseason Football Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gorse, Keith; Mickey, Cheryl A.; Bierhals, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To compare the occurrence of preseason football conditioning injuries in traditional and crossover conditioning programs over five preseasons. Design and Setting: The turf group performed all preseason conditioning by running or sprinting on artificial turf, and the turf and swim group alternated all preseason conditioning by running and sprinting on artificial turf or kickboard swimming. Subjects: Subjects were 519 NCAA Division III physically active football players. Measurements: Previous conditioning injuries, preseason conditioning injuries, missed practices, and missed conditioning sessions were recorded. Exact numbers and areas of injury for each year and each group were tabulated. A chi-square statistic compared the two groups and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of becoming injured and the types of conditioning injuries experienced in the two groups. Results: Prevalence of injury was significantly different in the two groups. In the turf group, 35% of subjects developed a conditioning injury; in the turf and swim group, 13% developed a conditioning injury (x 2= 33.16, p <.0001). No significant difference in missed practices or missed conditioning sessions was found. Conclusions: The turf and swim group experienced significantly fewer football preseason conditioning injuries than the turf group. The crossover effects of a running and swimming program may decrease the number of overuse injuries associated with repetitive running on artificial turf in traditional preseason conditioning programs. PMID:16558463

  3. Lumbar Spine Injury/Pathology as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Schroeder, Greg; Gibbs, Daniel; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh; Hsu, Wellington; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis such as spondylosis, a herniated lumbar disc, or spondylolysis affects a football player’s draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Methods: The written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 from one NFL franchise during the NFL combine (annual college football player evaluation prior to the NFL draft) were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis which were compiled from previous injury/medical records including radiographic imaging reports. Those players with a lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate radiograph, MRI and CT imaging were included in this study. These athletes were then matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis. Career statistics were compiled including length of play and number of games started. Additionally, a previously established “Performance Score” was calculated for all players excluding offensive linemen. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a two-sided (tailed) Student’s t-test for normally distributed data. A chi-squared analysis was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p < 0.05. Results: Out of a total of 2,965 athletes evaluated from the NFL combine, 414 players were identified with a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Athletes who attended the NFL combine without a lumbar spine diagnosis were significantly more likely to be drafted than those with one (74% vs. 61% respectively, p < 0.01). There was no difference between the investigational and control group with regard to round drafted, age, year drafted, or position. Overall, athletes with a lumbar spine injury compared to the control group had no difference in the number of years played (4.0 vs. 4.3 years, respectively

  4. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of acute hamstring injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    ZANON, GIACOMO; COMBI, FRANCO; COMBI, ALBERTO; PERTICARINI, LORIS; SAMMARCHI, LUIGI; BENAZZO, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose muscle injuries have a high incidence in professional football and are responsible for the largest number of days lost from competition. Several in vitro studies have confirmed the positive role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in accelerating recovery and in promoting muscle regeneration, and not fibrosis, in the healing process. This study examines the results of intralesional administration of PRP in the treatment of primary hamstring injuries sustained by players belonging to a major league football club. Methods twenty-five hamstring injuries (grade 2 according to MRI classification) sustained by professional football players during a 31-months observation period were treated with PRP and analyzed. Sport participation absence (SPA), in days, was considered to correspond to the healing time, and we also considered the re-injury rate, and tissue healing on MRI. The mean follow-up was 36.6 months (range 22–42). Results there were no adverse events. The mean SPA for the treated muscle injuries was 36.76±19.02 days. The re-injury rate was 12%. Tissue healing, evaluated on MRI, was characterized by the presence of excellent repair tissue and a small scar. Conclusions this study confirmed the safety of PRP in treating hamstring lesions in a large series of professional football players. PRP-treated lesions did not heal more quickly than untreated lesions described in the literature, but they showed a smaller scar and excellent repair tissue. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:27386443

  5. Concussion in professional football: summary of the research conducted by the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2006-01-01

    PIn 1994 the National Football League (NFL) initiated a comprehensive clinical and biomechanical research study of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), a study that is ongoing. Data on mild TBIs sustained between 1996 and 2001 were collected and submitted by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers, and these data were analyzed by the NFL's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. At the same time, analysis of game videos was performed for on-field mild TBIs to quantify the biomechanics involved and to develop means to improve the understanding of these injuries so that manufacturers could systematically improve and update their head protective equipment. The findings and analysis of the Committee have been presented in a series of articles in Neurosurgery. PMID:17112190

  6. A 6‐month prospective study of injury in Gaelic football

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, F; Caffrey, S; King, E; Casey, K; Gissane, C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the injury incidence in Gaelic football. Methods A total of 83 players from three counties were interviewed monthly about their injury experience, during the 6 months of the playing season. Results The injury rate was 13.5/1000 h exposure to Gaelic football (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.6). There were nearly twice as many injuries during matches (64.4%, 95% CI, 54.1 to 73.6) as in training (35.6%, 95% CI, 26.4 to 49.5). The ankle was found to be the most commonly injured site (13.3%, 95% CI, 7.8 to 21.9). The musculotendinous unit accounted for nearly 1/3 of all injuries (31.1%). The tackle accounted for 27.8% of the injuries sustained (tackler 10%, 95% CI, 5.4 to 17.9; player being tackled 17.9%, 95% CI, 11.2 to 26.9). Of total match injuries, 56.9% (95% CI, 46.1 to 67.1) were experienced in the second half as opposed to 39.7% (95% CI, 29.8 to 50.5) in the first half. Conclusions Gaelic footballers are under considerable risk of injury. Greater efforts must be made to reduce this risk so that players miss less time from sport due to injury. Risk factors for injury in Gaelic football must now be investigated so that specific interventions may be established to reduce them. PMID:17138631

  7. Head and neck injuries in college football: an eight-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Albright, J P; McAuley, E; Martin, R K; Crowley, E T; Foster, D T

    1985-01-01

    The present study documented head and neck injuries in a study group of 342 college football players at a single institution for a period of 8 years. All freshmen players were screened for evidence of: (1) past history of head and neck injuries, and (2) abnormalities of the cervical spine on physical examination and x-ray film. By recording all head injuries and those neck injuries with time loss, incidence rates and patterns of injury incurred in college competition were determined. A total of 175 head and neck injuries were sustained by 100 players over the 8 year period. Those players with abnormal findings on screening examination were twice as likely to have a head or neck injury at some point in their college careers as those players with a normal screening examination. The greater the degree of abnormality on freshman screening examination, the more severe the neck injury in college was likely to be. Twenty-nine percent of all players in the study group sustained a head or neck injury during their college careers. The probability of a subsequent head or neck injury escalated sharply following a single incident. The overall incidence of injury was found to have been dramatically reduced over the 8 years. Influential factors such as legislative rule changes, medical status of recruits, and general coaching philosophies are discussed with regard to injury reduction and prevention of head and neck injuries in college football. PMID:4014528

  8. Rehabilitation of Football Players with Lumbar Spine Injury. (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saal, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    The training phase of a rehabilitation program for football players who have sustained lower back injuries proceeds after the pain-control phase, and seeks to minimize risk of reinjury. This phase emphasizes movement training and exercise for strengthening abdominal muscles to stabilize the lumbar spine. A removable exercise guide is included.…

  9. An Epidemologic Study of High School Football Injuries in North Carolina--1968-1972. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Mueller, Frederick O.

    This report describes a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying epidemiologic methods in determining the extent of the problem of high school football injuries in North Carolina and to interrelate certain variables associated with the problem of risk in athletics. It provides a descriptive baseline of data on high school football…

  10. Prediction of In-Season Shoulder Injury From Preseason Testing in Division I Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Marisa; Spinelli, Bryan A.; Sennett, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Collegiate football is a high-demand sport in which shoulder injuries are common. Research has described the incidence of these injuries, with little focus on causative factors or injury prevention. Hypothesis: Football athletes who score lower on preseason strength and functional testing are more likely to sustain an in-season shoulder injury. Study Design: Prospective, cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: Twenty-six collegiate football players underwent preseason testing with a rotational profile for shoulder range of motion, isometric strength of the rotator cuff at 90° elevation and external rotation in the 90/90 position, fatigue testing (prone-Y, scaption, and standing cable press), and the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST). Data collected postseason included the type of shoulder injury and the side injured. Logistic regression was used to determine if the testing measures predicted injury, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to examine the relationship of CKCUEST to injury. Results: Six athletes sustained shoulder injuries during the season. Predictor variables could significantly predict whether that player would sustain an injury during the season for both the right and left shoulders (P < 0.05). The variables that were significantly correlated with injury of the right side were forward elevation strength, prone-Y to fatigue, and the CKCUEST (P < 0.05); on the left, only the CKCUEST was significant (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CKCUEST was 0.86 (ϵ = 0.87, P = 0.01). Using a score of 21 touches, the CKCUEST had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.79, and an odds ratio of 18.75 in determining whether a player sustained a shoulder injury. Conclusion: For this sample, the combination of preseason strength, fatigue, and functional testing was able to identify football players who would sustain a shoulder injury during the

  11. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  12. Risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass in young female football players

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Kathrin; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background Artificial turf is becoming increasingly popular, although the risk of injury on newer generations of turf is unknown. Aim To investigate the risk of injury on artificial turf compared with natural grass among young female football players. Study design Prospective cohort study. Methods 2020 players from 109 teams (mean (SD) 15.4 (0.8) years) participated in the study during the 2005 football season. Time‐loss injuries and exposure data on different types of turf were recorded over an eight‐month period. Results 421 (21%) players sustained 526 injuries, leading to an injury incidence of 3.7/1000 playing hours (95% CI 3.4 to 4.0). The incidence of acute injuries on artificial turf and grass did not differ significantly with respect to match injuries (rate ratio (RR) 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3; p = 0.72) or training injuries (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.5, p = 0.93). In matches, the incidence of serious injuries was significantly higher on artificial turf (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2; p = 0.03). Ankle sprain was the most common type of injury (34% of all acute injuries), and there was a trend towards more ankle sprains on artificial turf than on grass (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p = 0.06). Conclusion In the present study among young female football players, the overall risk of acute injuries was similar between artificial turf and natural grass. PMID:17550919

  13. The effect of emotional factors on football injury rates--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Coddington, R D; Troxell, J R

    1980-12-01

    The Life Event Scale for Adolescents (LES A) was used to gather data regarding the events that had occurred during the previous year from 114 high school football players. Injuries during the season were classified according to the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS). The findings indicated that players who experienced more family instability, particularly those who experienced parental illnesses, separations, divorces and deaths, were more likely to sustain a significant injury. It is postulated that a player's mental or emotional state may increase his risk of injury. PMID:7451953

  14. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    MASSIDDA, MYOSOTIS; CORRIAS, LAURA; BACHIS, VALERIA; CUGIA, PAOLO; PIRAS, FRANCESCO; SCORCU, MARCO; CALÒ, CARLA M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injury (MI) in elite football players. In total, 54 male professional football players were recruited from an official Italian professional championship team between 2009 and 2013. The cohort was genotyped for the ApaI, BsmI and FokI polymorphisms and MI data were collected over four football seasons. No significant differences were identified among the genotypes in the incidence rates or severity of MI (P=0.254). In addition, no significant associations were observed between VDR polymorphisms and MI phenotypes (P=0.460). However, the results of the casewise multiple regression analysis indicated that the ApaI genotypes accounted for 18% of injury severity (P=0.002). Therefore, while the BsmI and FokI polymorphisms did not appear to be associated with the severity or incidence of MI, the ApaI genotypes may have influenced the severity of muscle injury in top-level football players. PMID:26161149

  15. Injury prediction in veteran football players using the Functional Movement Screen™.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) is aimed at assessing fundamental movements and is often used to identify players' injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the FMS™ can be used to predict injuries in veteran footballers (aged > 32 years). Eighteen veteran football teams (n = 238) were recruited and prospectively followed for 9 months. The players (44 ± 7 years; 178 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 11 kg) performed the FMS™ at the start of the study period. Players' exposure hours and injuries were recorded. The difference of FMS™ overall score between injured and uninjured players was not significant (11.7 ± 2.9 vs 12.2 ± 2.8 points; Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.17). Players scoring <10 (score < 1 standard deviation [SD]) below the mean) had a significantly higher injury incidence (z-statistics P < 0.05) compared to an intermediate reference group (mean ± 1 SD; scores of 10-14). No lower injury incidence for players with scores of >14 (score > 1 SD above the mean) was found. Further analyses of potential risk factors suggest higher age, lower body mass and a longer football career to be risk factors for injuries. The findings of this study suggest that the suitability of the FMS™ for injury prediction in veteran footballers is limited. PMID:26939907

  16. Sports Biographies of African American Football Players: The Racism of Colorblindness in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…

  17. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, John W; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Orchard, Jessica J; Chivers, Ian; Seward, Hugh; Ekstrand, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) teams in northern (warmer) areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler) areas. Conversely, in soccer (football) in Europe, teams in northern (cooler) areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer) areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer) parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10) with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58), knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74), and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37) all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03). In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction) that are universal across different football codes. PMID:24379731

  18. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Woods, Daniel P.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. Purpose: This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A comprehensive online search identified any NFL player who had suffered an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013. Position, playing surface, activity, and date were recorded. Each player was researched for any history of previous ACL injury. The NFL games database from USA Today was used to determine the incidence of ACL injuries on artificial turf and grass fields. Databases from Pro Football Focus and Pro Football Reference were used to determine the injury rate for each position. Results: NFL players suffered 219 ACL injuries between 2010 and 2013. Forty players (18.3%) had a history of previous ACL injury, with 27 (12.3%) retears and 16 (7.3%) tears contralateral to a previous ACL injury. Five players (2.28%) suffered their third ACL tear. Receivers (wide receivers and tight ends) and backs (linebackers, fullbacks, and halfbacks) had significantly greater injury risk than the rest of the NFL players, while perimeter linemen (defensive ends and offensive tackles) had significantly lower injury risk than the rest of the players. Interior linemen (offensive guards, centers, and defensive tackles) had significantly greater injury risk compared with perimeter linemen. ACL injury rates per team games played were 0.050 for grass and 0.053 for turf fields (P > .05). Conclusion: In this retrospective epidemiological study of ACL tears in NFL players, retears and ACL tears contralateral to a previously torn ACL constituted a substantial portion (18.3%) of total ACL injuries. The significant majority of ACL injuries in

  20. Utilization of Practice Session Average Inertial Load to Quantify College Football Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Gupta, Ashish; Allen, Jeff R; Keith, Clay M; Colston, Marisa A

    2016-09-01

    Wilkerson, GB, Gupta, A, Allen, JR, Keith, CM, and Colston, MA. Utilization of practice session average inertial load to quantify college football injury risk. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2369-2374, 2016-Relatively few studies have investigated the potential injury prevention value of data derived from recently developed wearable technology for measurement of body mass accelerations during the performance of sport-related activities. The available evidence has been derived from studies focused on avoidance of overtraining syndrome, which is believed to induce a chronically fatigued state that can be identified through monitoring of inertial load accumulation. Reduced variability in movement patterns is also believed to be an important injury risk factor, but no evidence currently exists to guide interpretation of data derived from inertial measurement units (IMUs) in this regard. We retrospectively analyzed archived data for a cohort of 45 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1-football bowl subdivision football players who wore IMUs on the upper back during practice sessions to quantify any associations between average inertial load measured during practice sessions and occurrence of musculoskeletal sprains and strains. Both the coefficient of variation for average inertial load and frequent exposure to game conditions were found to be strongly associated with injury occurrence. Having either or both of the 2 risk factors provided strong discrimination between injured and noninjured players (χ = 9.048; p = 0.004; odds ratio = 8.04; 90% CI: 2.39, 27.03). Our findings may facilitate identification of individual football players who are likely to derive the greatest benefit from training activities designed to reduce injury risk through improved adaptability to rapidly changing environmental demands. PMID:26849792

  1. Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Results The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs. Conclusion The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future. PMID:23785569

  2. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the causes of injuries to players in English professional football during competition and training. METHOD: Lost time injuries to professional and youth players were prospectively recorded by physiotherapists at four English League clubs over the period 1994 to 1997. Data recorded included information related to the injury, date and place of occurrence, type of activity, and extrinsic Playing factors. RESULTS: In all, 67% of all injuries occurred during competition. The overall injury frequency rate (IFR) was 8.5 injuries/1000 hours, with the IFR during competitions (27.7) being significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that during training (3.5). The IFRs for youth players were found to increase over the second half of the season, whereas they decreased for professional players. There were no significant differences in IFRs for professional and youth players during training. There were significantly (p < 0.01) injuries in competition in the 15 minute periods at the end of each half. Strains (41%), sprains (20%), and contusions (20%) represented the major types of injury. The thigh (23%), the ankle (17%), knee (14%), and lower leg (13%) represented the major locations of injury, with significantly (p < 0.01) more injuries to the dominant body side. Reinjury counted for 22% of all injuries. Only 12% of all injuries were caused by a breach of the rules of football, although player to player contact was involved in 41% of all injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The overall level of injury to professional footballers has been showed to be around 1000 times higher times higher than for industrial occupations generally regarded as high risk. The high level of muscle strains, in particular, indicates possible weakness in fitness training programmes and use of warming up and cooling down procedures by clubs and the need for benchmarking players' levels of fitness and performance. Increasing levels of injury to youth players as a season progresses emphasizes the

  3. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hägglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. Design Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). Participants 4564 players aged 12-17 years (2479 in the intervention group, 2085 in the control group) completed the study. Intervention 15 minute neuromuscular warm-up programme (targeting core stability, balance, and proper knee alignment) to be carried out twice a week throughout the season. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury; secondary outcomes were rates of severe knee injury (>4 weeks’ absence) and any acute knee injury. Results Seven players (0.28%) in the intervention group, and 14 (0.67%) in the control group had an anterior cruciate ligament injury. By Cox regression analysis according to intention to treat, a 64% reduction in the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury was seen in the intervention group (rate ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.85). The absolute rate difference was −0.07 (95% confidence interval −0.13 to 0.001) per 1000 playing hours in favour of the intervention group. No significant rate reductions were seen for secondary outcomes. Conclusions A neuromuscular warm-up programme significantly reduced the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adolescent female football players. However, the absolute rate difference did not reach statistical significance, possibly owing to the small number of events. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00894595. PMID:22556050

  4. The Effect of Lace-up Ankle Braces on Injury Rates in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a nkle injuries occur frequently in high school football players no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. Purpose Determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly-assigned to braced or control group. Braced group subjects wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athletic exposures and injuries. Cox Proportional Hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1,000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared to 1.12 in the control group (Cox Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.39, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.24, 0.65, p<0.001). The severity (median days lost) of acute ankle injuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (p=0.985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared to 0.69 in the control group, (HR=0.92 [0.57, 1.47], p=0.721). There was no difference (p=0.242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls 11.5 days, braced =17 days. The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group, (HR=0.72 [0.48, 1.09], p=0.117) while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days versus 7 days, p=0.295). Conclusions Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee or other lower extremity injuries. PMID:21926383

  5. Injuries and illnesses of football players during the 2010 FIFA World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence and characteristics of football injuries during matches in top-level international tournaments are well documented, but training injuries and illnesses during this period have rarely been studied. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of injuries and illnesses incurred during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup. Methods The chief physicians of the 32 finalist teams reported daily all newly incurred injuries and illnesses of their players on a standardised medical report form. Results Out of 229 injuries reported, 82 match and 58 training injuries were expected to result in time loss, equivalent to an incidence of 40.1 match and 4.4 training injuries per 1000 h. Contact with another player was the most frequent cause of match (65%) and of training (40%) injuries. The most frequent diagnoses were thigh strain and ankle sprain. 99 illnesses of 89 (12%) players were reported. Illnesses were mainly infections of the respiratory or the digestive system. Most illnesses did not result in absence from training or match. The incidence of time-loss illnesses was 3.0 per 1000 player days. Conclusion The incidence of match injuries during the 2010 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than in the three proceeding World Cups. This might be a result of more regard to injury prevention, less foul play and stricter refereeing. Tackling skills and fair play need to be improved to prevent contact injuries in training and matches. Prevention of illness should focus on reducing the risk of infections by considering the common modes of transmission and environmental conditions. PMID:21257668

  6. Analysis of the Three Most Prevalent Injuries in Australian Football Demonstrates a Season to Season Association Between Groin/Hip/Osteitis Pubis Injuries With ACL Knee Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Verrall, Geoffrey M.; Esterman, Adrian; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injuries are common in contact sports like Australian football. The Australian Football League (AFL) has developed an extensive injury surveillance database that can be used for epidemiological studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify any association between the three most prevalent injuries in the AFL. Patients and Methods: From the AFL injury surveillance data 1997-2012 the injury incidence (new injuries per club per season) and the injury prevalence data (missed games per club per season) were analysed to detect the three most common injuries that would cause a player to miss a match in the AFL. The three most prevalent injuries in the AFL are hamstring strains, groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) knee injuries. Following this, further study was undertaken to detect the presence of any statistical relationship between injury incidences of the three most prevalent injuries over this sixteen year study period. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrates for any given year that there was an association between having a groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuriy and having a knee ACL injury (P < 0.05) over the entire sixteen years. In other words if the number of groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries in any given season were higher than average (alternatively lower) then the number of knee ACL injuries were also higher than average (alternatively lower) for that same season. Hamstring injuries had the highest variance of incidence of the three most prevalent injuries. Conclusions: Analysis of the AFL injury data demonstrates an association between incidence of groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries and incidence of knee ACL injuries for any given playing season. This finding is difficult to explain with further research being required. PMID:25520768

  7. Comparison between different off-season resistance training programs in Division III American college football players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Klatt, Marc; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Tranchina, Nicholas M; McCurley, Robert C; Kang, Jie; Kraemer, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of periodization and to compare different periodization models in resistance trained American football players. Fifty-one experienced resistance trained American football players of an NCAA Division III football team (after 10 weeks of active rest) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups that differed only in the manipulation of the intensity and volume of training during a 15-week offseason resistance training program. Group 1 participated in a nonperiodized (NP) training program, group 2 participated in a traditional periodized linear (PL) training program, and group 3 participated in a planned nonlinear periodized (PNL) training program. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE), after 7 weeks of training (MID), and at the end of the training program (POST). Significant increases in maximal (1-repetition maximum [1RM]) squat, 1RM bench press, and vertical jump were observed from PRE to MID for all groups; these increases were still significantly greater at POST; however, no MID to POST changes were seen. Significant PRE to POST improvements in the medicine ball throw (MBT) were seen for PL group only. The results do not provide a clear indication as to the most effective training program for strength and power enhancements in already trained football players. Interestingly, recovery of training-related performances was achieved after only 7 weeks of training, yet further gains were not observed. These data indicate that longer periods of training may be needed after a long-term active recovery period and that active recovery may need to be dramatically shortened to better optimize strength and power in previously trained football players. PMID:19130636

  8. Anthropometric and somatotype variables related to strength in American football players.

    PubMed

    Bale, P; Colley, E; Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in somatotype, % fat, and strength in relation to body mass of two groups of American football players. One hundred and forty-three football players (85 high school and 58 college) were classified into five weight groups (< 73 kg, 73-82 kg, 83-91 kg, 91-100 kg, > 100 kg). Body composition was estimated from skinfold, and somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Strength was measured from one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press and deadlift. Most of the somatotypes were dominant mesomorphs for the high school player and endomesomorphs for the college player. The weight groups in both the high school and college footballer showed significant differences in % fat, somatotype, and strength measures between the lower and higher weight categories. Weight was a greater factor dictating strength in either lift in the high school player than in the college player. A higher mesomorphic component was a more important factor determining strength in the college player while a lower ectomorphic component contributed more in the high school player. The proportion of the variance accounted for by regression equations for the bench press and deadlift was 17% to 41% in the high school player and 35% to 61% in the college player. Although football requires a large individual at certain positions, the question remains concerning overall size versus muscularity to achieve a superior performance level. PMID:7643584

  9. Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, J. S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

  10. An examination of the frequency and severity of injuries and incidents at three levels of professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of injury to professional footballers during European international and English Premier and First Division league matches. METHODS: Videotaped recordings of 29, 49, and 93 matches from the 1996 European Championship, 1996/1997 English Premier season and 1994 to 1997 English First Division seasons respectively were analysed. During each match, several relevant variables, including the number of fouls, injuries, time of incident, player identity, and injury mechanism, were recorded. RESULTS: Significantly more free kicks were awarded during international matches than during league matches; however, there were no significant differences between the numbers of free kicks awarded over the three First Division seasons assessed. Between 1.7 and 3.0% of fouls resulted in a player requiring treatment for injury, but only 15-28% of all injuries resulted from foul play. In all "non-foul" situations, in which injury resulted, at least 60% still involved player to player contact. No significant differences in injury frequency were observed between playing positions or match halves. CONCLUSIONS: The results equate to a total of 808 players per season from the estimated 2600 players in the four English professional football leagues sustaining a match injury that caused them to miss at least one game. The large number of underlying "non-injury" incidents is identified as the reason for this level of injury rather than a higher ratio of "injury" to "non-injury" incidents in professional football compared with other occupations. 


 PMID:9865406

  11. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football “Heads Up Football” Player Safety Coach

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective

  12. What is the Safest Sprint Starting Position for American Football Players?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnechere, Bruno; Beyer, Benoit; Rooze, Marcel; Sint, Jan Serge Van

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of three different sprint start patterns to determine the safest position in term of neck injury and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC). The second objective was to collect data on the learning process effect between football players and non-players. Three different sprint initial positions adopted by football players were studied (i.e., 4-, 3- and 2-point positions). Twenty five young healthy males, including 12 football players, participated to this study. A stereophotogrammetric system (i.e., Vicon) was used to record motion patterns and body segments positions. Various measurements related to head and trunk orientation, and player field-of-view were obtained (e.g., head height, trunk bending, time to reach upright position, head speed (vertical direction) and body speed (horizontal direction)). Learning process was found to have no influence on studied parameters. Head redress is also delayed when adopting a 4-point position leading to a reduce field-of-view during the start and increasing therefore the probability of collision. Concerning the three different positions, the 4-point position seems to be the more dangerous because leading to higher kinetic energy than the 2- and 3-point start positions. This study proposes a first biomechanical approach to understand risk/benefit balance for athletes for those three different start positions. Results suggested that the 4-point position is the most risky for football players. Key points Motion analysis and biomechanical analysis of the initial start position of the sprint could be used to increase the safety of the football players. Analysis of kinematic and trajectory of the head and the time to reach the upright position could be used to determine whether or not a player can return to play after concussion. A balance needs to be found between player’s safety (2-point start) and speed (4-point start). PMID:24790500

  13. Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  14. Is a Cognitive-Behavioural Biofeedback Intervention Useful to Reduce Injury Risk in Junior Football Players?

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  15. A retrospective analysis of American football hyperthermia deaths in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew J.; Ramseyer, Craig; Zhao, Fang; Pesses, Jordan L.; Akers, Pete; Qureshi, Aneela; Becker, Laura; Knox, John A.; Petro, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Over the period 1980-2009, there were 58 documented hyperthermia deaths of American-style football players in the United States. This study examines the geography, timing, and meteorological conditions present during the onset of hyperthermia, using the most complete dataset available. Deaths are concentrated in the eastern quadrant of the United States and are most common during August. Over half the deaths occurred during morning practices when high humidity levels were common. The athletes were typically large (79% with a body mass index >30) and mostly (86%) played linemen positions. Meteorological conditions were atypically hot and humid by local standards on most days with fatalities. Further, all deaths occurred under conditions defined as high or extreme by the American College of Sports Medicine using the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), but under lower threat levels using the heat index (HI). Football-specific thresholds based on clothing (full football uniform, practice uniform, or shorts) were also examined. The thresholds matched well with data from athletes wearing practice uniforms but poorly for those in shorts only. Too few cases of athletes in full pads were available to draw any broad conclusions. We recommend that coaches carefully monitor players, particularly large linemen, early in the pre-season on days with wet bulb globe temperatures that are categorized as high or extreme. Also, as most of the deaths were among young athletes, longer acclimatization periods may be needed.

  16. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  17. Severe and Catastrophic Neck Injuries Resulting from Tackle Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torg, Joseph S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Use of the spring-loaded blocking and tackling devices should be discontinued due to severe neck injuries resulting from their use; employment of the head and helmet as the primary assault weapon in blocking, tackling, and head butting should be condemned for the same reason. (MJB)

  18. A historical perspective of injuries in professional football. Twenty-six years of game-related events.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J A; Rosenthal, P P; Gleim, G W

    1988-08-19

    A professional football franchise was studied consecutively from 1960 through 1985 for injuries incurred during regular-season games. A "significant" injury was defined as one requiring the player to miss at least two consecutive games (N = 331) and a "major" injury as one that caused the player to miss at least eight games or the equivalent time (N = 130). Significant injuries averaged 0.89 per game and major injuries 0.35 per game for the entire 26 years. Following a high injury rate prior to 1965, significant injury rates were episodic. Major injuries declined (rs = -.68; P less than .01). Since the team's first games on synthetic surfaces in 1968, there was no difference in the rates of significant injuries per game (0.57 vs 0.67) or major injuries per game (0.22 vs 0.33) between games played on grass or artificial turf, respectively. Since 1969 there has been a decline in major knee injuries (rs = -.51; P less than .05) and a decline in major injuries incurred during special-teams play (rs = -.55; P less than .05). The data indicate that this team suffered fewer injuries with the passing of time, primarily in injuries that caused a player to miss at least eight consecutive games. Observations of short duration do not lend themselves to current media perception that injury rates are higher and more serious today in professional football. PMID:3294454

  19. Text messaging as a new method for injury registration in sports: a methodological study in elite female football.

    PubMed

    Nilstad, A; Bahr, R; Andersen, T E

    2014-02-01

    Methodological differences in epidemiologic studies have led to significant discrepancies in injury incidences reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate text messaging as a new method for injury registration in elite female football players and to compare this method with routine medical staff registration. Twelve teams comprising 228 players prospectively recorded injuries and exposure through one competitive football season. Players reported individually by answering three text messages once a week. A designated member of the medical staff conducted concurrent registrations of injuries and exposure. Injuries and exposure were compared between medical staff registrations from nine teams and their 159 affiliated players. During the football season, a total of 232 time-loss injuries were recorded. Of these, 62% were captured through individual registration only, 10% by the medical staff only, and 28% were reported through both methods. The incidence of training injuries was 3.7 per 1000 player hours when calculated from individual registration vs 2.2 from medical staff registration [rate ratio (RR): 1.7, 1.2-2.4]. For match injuries, the corresponding incidences were 18.6 vs 5.4 (RR: 3.4, 2.4-4.9), respectively. There was moderate agreement for severity classifications in injury cases reported by both methods (kappa correlation coefficient: 0.48, confidence interval: 0.30-0.66). PMID:22537065

  20. A Systematic Review of Prophylactic Braces in the Prevention of Knee Ligament Injuries in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; Grindstaff, Terry L; Linens, Shelley W; Uczekaj, Elizabeth; Hertel, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative risk reduction associated with prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players. Data Sources: An exhaustive search for original research was performed using the PubMed, SportDiscus, and CINAHL databases from 1970 through November 2006, with the search terms knee brace, knee braces, knee bracing and football, prophylactic brace, and prophylactic knee braces. Study Selection: Seven studies comparing knee injuries among braced and nonbraced collegiate football players were included. Study methods were assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. PEDro scores ranged from 2 to 5. Data Extraction: The number of participants and frequency of knee injuries were used to calculate the relative risk reduction or increase. Data Synthesis: We found a relative risk reduction for 3 studies with point estimates of 10% (36% to −26%), 58% (25% to 76%), and 56% (13% to 77%). Four studies demonstrated an increased risk of injury, with point estimates of 17% (19% to −71%), 49% (−31% to −69%), 114% (23% to −492%), and 42% (−18% to −70%). Conclusions: Data from existing research are inconsistent. Based on a Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy level of evidence of 2 with a grade B recommendation, we cannot conclusively advocate or discourage the use of prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players. PMID:18668174

  1. Increased plantar force and impulse in American football players with high arch compared to normal arch

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Daniel W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Heidt, Robert S.; Ford, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk of overuse injury among athletes is high due in part to repeated loading of the lower extremities. Compared to individuals with normal arch (NA) structure, those with high (HA) or low arch (LA) may be at increased risk of specific overuse injuries, including stress fractures. A high medial longitudinal arch may result in decreased shock absorbing properties due to increased rigidity in foot mechanics. While the effect of arch structure on dynamic function has been examined in straight line walking and running, the relationship between the two during multi-directional movements remains unstudied. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in plantar loading in football players occur during both walking and pivoting movements. Method Plantar loading was examined in 9 regions of the foot for 26 participants (16 NA, 10 HA). Results High arch athletes demonstrated increased maximum force in the lateral rear foot and medial forefoot, and force time integral in the medial forefoot while walking. HA athletes also demonstrated increased maximum force in the medial rear foot and medial and central forefoot during rapid pivoting. Conclusions The current findings demonstrate that loading patterns differ between football players with high and normal arch structure, which could possibly influence injury risk in this population. PMID:23141809

  2. Lack of blood pressure difference by race in professional American football players.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew M; Lincoln, Andrew E; Vogel, Robert A; Black, Henry R; Dunn, Reginald E; Wilson, Peter W F; Pellman, Elliot J

    2015-05-01

    Previous findings suggest that professional American football players have higher blood pressures (BP) and a higher prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension than the general population. We sought to determine whether race is associated with differences in BP and prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension among a large sample of professional football players. BP was measured at 2009 team mini-camps for 1484 black (n = 1007) and white (n = 477) players from 27 National Football League (NFL) teams. Players were categorized into three position groups based on body mass index (BMI). There was no racial difference in mean systolic or diastolic BP in any of the three position groups. There were no racial differences in prevalence of hypertension (99 [9.8%] black players vs. 39 [8.2%] white players; P = .353) or pre-hypertension (557 [55.3%] black players vs. 264 [55.3%] white players; P = 1.0). Contrary to findings in the general population, BP and prevalence of pre-hypertension/hypertension did not vary with race in a large population of active NFL players. PMID:25979411

  3. Evaluating a standardised tool to explore the nature and extent of foot and ankle injuries in amateur and semi-professional footballers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, S.; Walker-Bone, K.; Otter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Football is a popular sport amongst amateurs as well as professionals. To date, most studies of football injuries have included only professional players and data have been collected in a variety of different ways. There is currently no single validated, standardised tool for the assessment of injures. Therefore, we developed a standardised questionnaire based upon an instrument used in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers and used it in a group of semi-professional and amateur footballers. We quantified the prevalence of foot/ankle injuries and evaluated risk factors for these injuries. Method A trained recorder administered a 33-item questionnaire (recording quantitative and qualitative data) in three football teams, 1 amateur and 2 semi-professional. The questionnaire enquired about demography, football specific information such as footwear and orthoses, and nature & extent of injuries. Results 42/42 eligible footballers completed the questionnaire. 34/42 respondents (81%) reported that they had experienced a total of 273 football-related injuries, 114 of which occurred at the foot or ankle. 70 injuries occurred at the ankle and 44 at the foot and 44% of the footballers had suffered one or more foot/ankle injuries in the past 12 months. Statistically significant relationships were seen between occurrence of lower limb and foot/ankle injuries and age, (p=0.03) weight (p=0.01) height (p=0.01) and shorter duration of warm-up (p). Conclusion The standardised tool performed well with an excellent response rate. Foot and ankle injuries were common in semi-professional and amateur footballers. Amongst this relatively small sample, statistically significant risk factors were identified which may be potential targets for prevention strategies but larger studies will be required. PMID:25605413

  4. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme.

    PubMed

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  5. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  6. Effect of Physical and Academic Stress on Illness and Injury in Division 1 College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Bryant, Kirk R; Johnstone, Brick; Ivey, Patrick A; Sayers, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Stress-injury models of health suggest that athletes experience more physical injuries during times of high stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased physical and academic stress on injury restrictions for athletes (n = 101) on a division I college football team. Weeks of the season were categorized into 3 levels: high physical stress (HPS) (i.e., preseason), high academic stress (HAS) (i.e., weeks with regularly scheduled examinations such as midterms, finals, and week before Thanksgiving break), and low academic stress (LAS) (i.e., regular season without regularly scheduled academic examinations). During each week, we recorded whether a player had an injury restriction, thereby creating a longitudinal binary outcome. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression model to properly account for the dependency induced by the repeated observations over time within each subject. Significance for regression models was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. We found that the odds of an injury restriction during training camp (HPS) were the greatest compared with weeks of HAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, p = 0.0003) and LAS (OR = 3.65, p < 0.001). However, the odds of an injury restriction during weeks of HAS were nearly twice as high as during weeks of LAS (OR = 1.78, p = 0.0088). Moreover, the difference in injury rates reported in all athletes during weeks of HPS and weeks of HAS disappeared when considering only athletes that regularly played in games (OR = 1.13, p = 0.75) suggesting that HAS may affect athletes that play to an even greater extent than HPS. Coaches should be aware of both types of stressors and consider carefully the types of training methods imposed during times of HAS when injuries are most likely. PMID:26049791

  7. Anticipatory postural adjustments during cutting manoeuvres in football and their consequences for knee injury risk.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, Guillaume; Gehring, Dominic; Fürst, Patrick; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), i.e. preparatory positioning of the head, the trunk and the foot, are essential to initiate cutting manoeuvres during football games. The aim of the present study was to determine how APA strategies during cutting manoeuvres are influenced by a reduction of the time available to prepare the movement. Thirteen football players performed different cutting tasks, with directions of cutting either known prior to the task or indicated by a light signal occurring 850, 600 or 500 ms before ground contact. With less time available to prepare the cutting manoeuvre, the head was less orientated towards the cutting direction (P = 0.033) and the trunk was even more rotated in the opposite direction (P = 0.002), while the foot placement was not significantly influenced. Moreover, the induced higher lateral trunk flexion correlated with the increased knee abduction moment (r = 0.41; P = 0.009). Increasing lateral trunk flexion is the main strategy used to successfully perform a cutting manoeuvre when less time is available to prepare the movement. However, higher lateral trunk flexion was associated with an increased knee abduction moment and therefore an increased knee injury risk. Reducing lateral trunk flexion during cutting manoeuvres should be part of training programs seeking the optimisation of APAs. PMID:24742137

  8. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, <$500,000; group B, ≤$500,000 to $2,000,000; and group C, >$2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million

  9. The Effects of a Mentoring Program on African American Collegiate Football Students at a Predominately White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemond, LaNise D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretivist qualitative study is to discover and explore what factors influence African American collegiate football student athletes with regard to their experiences that participated in a mentoring program at a predominately white institution. The grounded theory methodology was used for this study. Ten African American…

  10. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  11. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide—a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  12. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide-a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  13. Nonfunctional overreaching during off-season training for skill position players in collegiate American football.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher A; Fry, Andrew C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance and hormonal responses to a 15-week off-season training program for American football. Nine skill position players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football team participated as subjects in this study. Following 4 weeks of weight training (phase I), subjects performed weight training concurrently with high-volume conditioning drills (phase II). Phase III consisted of 15 spring football practice sessions executed over a 30-day period. Performance and hormonal changes were assessed prior to phase I, and following phases I, II, and III. Maximal strength was significantly increased (p < 0.05) for all strength tests during phase I. Squat and power clean values decreased following phase II (p < 0.05), with all values returning to baseline upon completion of phase III. Sprinting speed significantly worsened during phase I (p < 0.05), but then returned to baseline during phase III. Vertical jump and agility improved during phase I (p < 0.05), with vertical jump remaining unchanged for the duration of the study and agility returning to baseline following phase II. Testosterone levels decreased during phase II (p < 0.05) prior to returning to baseline levels during phase III. Cortisol and the testosterone/cortisol ratio remained unchanged during the course of the investigation. Even though overtraining did not occur in the current investigation, a significant maladaptation in performance did occur subsequent to phase II. For this particular athletic population, a strength and conditioning program utilizing a reduced training volume-load may prove more effective for improving performance in the future. PMID:17685717

  14. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Bautista, Jorge Enrique Correa

    2014-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms "FIFA 11+", "football", "soccer", "injury prevention", and "The 11". The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. PMID:25415209

  15. Sweat rate and fluid turnover in American football players compared with runners in a hot and humid environment

    PubMed Central

    Godek, S; Bartolozzi, A; Godek, J; Roberts, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sweat rate (SwR) and fluid requirements for American footballers practicing in a hot, humid environment compared with cross country runners in the same conditions. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 10 footballers and five runners, participated. On the 4th and 8th day of preseason two a day practices, SwR during exercise was determined in both morning and afternoon practices/runs from the change in body mass adjusted for fluids consumed and urine produced. Unpaired t tests were used to determine differences between groups. Results: Overall SwR measured in litres/h was higher in the footballers than the cross country runners (2.14 (0.53) v 1.77 (0.4); p<0.01). Total sweat loss in both morning (4.83 (1.2) v 1.56 (0.39) litres) and afternoon (4.8 (1.2) v 1.97 (0.28) litres) practices/runs, and daily sweat losses (9.4 (2.2) v 3.53 (0.54) litres) were higher in the footballers (p<0.0001). The footballers consumed larger volumes of fluid during both morning and afternoon practices/runs (23.9 (8.9) v 5.5 (3.1) ml/min and 23.5 (7.3) v 13.6 (5.6) ml/min; p<0.01). For complete hydration, the necessary daily fluid consumption calculated as 130% of daily sweat loss in the footballers was 12.2 (2.9) litres compared with 4.6 (0.7) litres in the runners (p<0.0001). Calculated 24 hour fluid requirements in the footballers ranged from 8.8 to 19 litres. Conclusions: The American footballers had a high SwR with large total daily sweat losses. Consuming large volumes of hypotonic fluid may promote sodium dilution. Recommendations for fluid and electrolyte replacement must be carefully considered and monitored in footballers to promote safe hydration and avoid hyponatraemia. PMID:15793087

  16. The normalization of explosive functional movements in a diverse population of elite American football players.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the need to normalize, for body mass, explosive functional tasks in a population exhibiting diverse body masses. Measures investigated in elite college American football players attending the National Football League's annual combine (n = 1,136) were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, vertical and horizontal jumps, 18.3-m shuttle, and 3-cone drill. To determine the relationship between body mass and performance outcomes, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were generated using log-transformed data. Task-specific allometric exponents, accounting for body mass, were also determined. The strength of the correlations suggests that sprint and jump abilities are associated with body mass, whereas change-of-direction ability is not. The determined allometric exponents range between 0.296 and -0.463 for the sprint and jump tasks and are -0.022 and -0.006 for the 18.3-m shuttle and the 3-cone drill, respectively. In populations exhibiting relatively large variations in body mass, normalization of sprint and jump abilities is recommended, whereas normalization of change-of-direction ability is unwarranted. Novel suggestions derived from the present research are that sprint and jump abilities in diverse populations warrant normalization and that physical attributes associated with explosive functional movements deserve attribute-specific consideration when contemplating normalization. PMID:22388492

  17. FUNCTIONAL PROGRESSION AND RETURN TO SPORT CRITERIA FOR A HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING SURGERY FOR A LISFRANC INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Chad

    2013-01-01

    Lisfranc injuries are a challenging diagnosis for the sports physical therapist because of the lack of data on how to rehabilitate them properly. To date, the available rehabilitation literature has focused on the mechanism of injury and the conservative management of this injury. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus on the appropriate testing and return to play criteria for an athlete recovering from this perplexing injury. This case describes a high school athlete whose primary sport was football, but was injured during wrestling. He suffered a Lisfranc injury and subsequently underwent surgical fixation. The purpose of this case report is to focus on the exercise, functional progression, and return to sport criteria utilized after operative treatment of a Lisfranc ligament injury. Level of Evidence: V PMID:23593554

  18. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games. PMID:27089630

  19. Cold-Water Immersion for Hyperthermic Humans Wearing American Football Uniforms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Swartz, Erik E.; Long, Blaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Current treatment recommendations for American football players with exertional heatstroke are to remove clothing and equipment and immerse the body in cold water. It is unknown if wearing a full American football uniform during cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs rectal temperature (Trec) cooling or exacerbates hypothermic afterdrop. Objective To determine the time to cool Trec from 39.5°C to 38.0°C while participants wore a full American football uniform or control uniform during CWI and to determine the uniform's effect on Trec recovery postimmersion. Design Crossover study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 18 hydrated, physically active, unacclimated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 178.8 ± 6.8 cm, mass = 82.3 ± 12.6 kg, body fat = 13% ± 4%, body surface area = 2.0 ± 0.2 m2). Intervention(s) Participants wore the control uniform (undergarments, shorts, crew socks, tennis shoes) or full uniform (control plus T-shirt; tennis shoes; jersey; game pants; padding over knees, thighs, and tailbone; helmet; and shoulder pads). They exercised (temperature approximately 40°C, relative humidity approximately 35%) until Trec reached 39.5°C. They removed their T-shirts and shoes and were then immersed in water (approximately 10°C) while wearing each uniform configuration; time to cool Trec to 38.0°C (in minutes) was recorded. We measured Trec (°C) every 5 minutes for 30 minutes after immersion. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to cool from 39.5°C to 38.0°C and Trec. Results The Trec cooled to 38.0°C in 6.19 ± 2.02 minutes in full uniform and 8.49 ± 4.78 minutes in control uniform (t17 = −2.1, P = .03; effect size = 0.48) corresponding to cooling rates of 0.28°C·min−1 ± 0.12°C·min−1 in full uniform and 0.23°C·min−1 ± 0.11°C·min−1 in control uniform (t17 = 1.6, P = .07, effect size = 0.44). The Trec postimmersion recovery did not differ between conditions over time (F1,17 = 0.6, P = .59). Conclusions We

  20. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. Objective To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Methods Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Results Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). Conclusions These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. PMID:26399611

  1. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barengo, Noël C.; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Correa Bautista, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. PMID:25415209

  2. Changes in the athletic profile of elite college American football players.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W; Goodale, Tyler L; Kuzmits, Frank E; Adams, Arthur J

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare positional anthropometric and National Football League (NFL) Combine performance levels in elite college American football players over the 3-year period from 1999 to 2001 to the 3-year period from 2008 to 2010. The sample included 15 offensive and defensive positions, and only those players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,712) were included in the study. Data from 10 combine physical tests were examined, including weight; height; the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints; the vertical and horizontal jumps; the 18.3-m shuttle run; the 3-cone drill; and the 102.1-kg bench press for maximum repetitions. Independent samples t-tests detected differences for each of the 15 positions (p < 0.05). There were no discernible trends in height and weight over the period in question, whereas players in the more recent group significantly improved performance in straight sprinting, the 3-cone drill, and the horizontal jump. Findings suggest that these tests better reflect characteristics such as explosiveness and first-step quickness as compared with the 18.3-m shuttle and the vertical jump, and that such characteristics have become more highly sought after by NFL coaches and scouts. The results of the present research suggest that the position-specific profiles changed over a relatively short period of time. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to better prepare athletes for entry into the NFL. PMID:22692112

  3. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. PMID:23007493

  4. At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate isokinetic measurements in MRI-positive hamstring injuries. Methods Isokinetic measurements of professional football players were obtained after completing a standardised rehabilitation programme. An isokinetic strength deficit of more than 10% compared with the contralateral site was considered abnormal. Reinjuries within 2 months were recorded. Results 52 players had a complete set of isokinetic testing before clinical discharge. There were 27 (52%) grade 1 and 25 (48%) grade 2 injuries. 35 of 52 players (67%) had at least one of the three hamstring-related isokinetic parameters that display a deficit of more than 10%. The percentage of players with 10% deficit for hamstring concentric 60°/s, 300°/s and hamstring eccentric was respectively 39%, 29% and 28%. There was no significant difference of mean isokinetic peak torques and 10% isokinetic deficits in players without reinjury (N=46) compared with players with reinjury (N=6). Conclusions When compared with the uninjured leg, 67% of the clinically recovered hamstring injuries showed at least one hamstring isokinetic testing deficit of more than 10%. Normalisation of isokinetic strength seems not to be a necessary result of the successful completion of a football-specific rehabilitation programme. The possible association between isokinetic strength deficit and increased reinjury risk remains unknown. PMID:24493666

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  6. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging

  7. Perceptual Responses While Wearing an American Football Uniform in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Evan C.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Lee, Elaine C.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Casa, Douglas J.; Maresh, Carl M.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The protective equipment worn during American football has been shown to increase thermal strain; however, the perception of this increased heat has not been examined. Objective: To evaluate perceptual responses of American football players while wearing different uniforms during exercise in the heat and to evaluate how these responses may be used to monitor athlete safety. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men with more than 3 years of competitive experience as football linemen (age  =  23.8 ± 1.3 years, height  =  183.9 ± 1.8 cm, mass  =  117.4 ± 3.5 kg, body fat  =  30.1% ± 1.7%) participated. Intervention(s): On 3 occasions in hot, humid (33°C, 48%–49% relative humidity) environmental conditions, participants completed 10 minutes of strenuous repetitive box lifting (RBL), 10 minutes of seated rest, and up to 60 minutes of treadmill walking. At each trial, they wore a different uniform condition: control (CON) clothing comprising shorts, socks, and sneakers; partial (PART) National Football League (NFL) uniform comprising the uniform without helmet or shoulder pads; or full (FULL) NFL uniform. Exercise, meals, and hydration status were controlled. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal perception (THM), perception of thirst (TST), and perception of muscle pain (MPN) were obtained for time points matched across trials. Results: Nineteen of the 30 trials ended before 60 minutes of treadmill walking as a result of participant exhaustion. Mean treadmill time was longer for the CON condition (51.7 ± 13.4 minutes) than for the PART (43.1 ± 15.6 minutes; t9  =  3.092, P  =  .01) or the FULL (36.2 ± 13.2 minutes; t9  =  4.393, P  =  .002) conditions. Neck and forearm Tsk increased between the initial time point and the end of exercise in the

  8. The mechanical interactions between an American football cleat and playing surfaces in-situ at loads and rates generated by elite athletes: a comparison of playing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Crandall, Jeff; Lessley, David

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the mechanical interactions between an American football cleat and eight surfaces used by professional American football teams. Loading conditions were applied with a custom-built testing apparatus designed to represent play-relevant maneuvers of elite athletes. Two natural grass and six infill artificial surfaces were tested with the cleated portion of a shoe intended for use on either surface type. In translation tests with a 2. 8-kN vertical load, the grass surfaces limited the horizontal force on the cleats by tearing. This tearing was not observed with the artificial surfaces, which allowed less motion and generated greater horizontal force (3.2 kN vs. 4.5 kN, p < 0.05). Similarly, rotation tests generated less angular displacement and greater torque on the artificial surfaces (145 N m vs. 197 N m, p < 0.05). Translation/drop tests, in which the foot-form was launched into the surfaces with both horizontal and vertical velocity components generated less peak horizontal force on the natural surfaces than on the artificial surfaces (2.4 kN vs. 3.0 kN, p < 0.05). These results suggest a force-limiting mechanism inherent to natural grass surfaces. Future work should consider implications of these findings for performance and injury risk and should evaluate the findings' sensitivity to cleat pattern and playing conditions. PMID:25900121

  9. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries Across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Today's new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe:surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.0 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 43 high schools participating across four states over 3 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 847 high school games documented, 301 games (35.5%) were played on infill (A), 231 (27.3%) on infill (B), 189 (22.3%) on infill (C), and 126 (14.9%) on infill (D). A total of 1,979 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.8 (95% CI, 18.3-19.1) vs 23.3 (22.4-24.0) vs 31.6 (30.5-32.2) and 22.1 (20.8-22.9)], substantial IIRs [3.9 (95% CI, 3.4-4.5) vs 4.8 (4.1-5.4), 7.7 (7.1-8.3) and 6.1 (5.2-5.9)], trauma from player-to-player collisions [8.7 (95% CI, 8.2-9.0) vs 11.0 (10.5-11.5), 16.4 (15.5-17.1) and 9.8 (9.4-10.0)], playing surface impact trauma [2.6 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) vs 4.2 (3.6-4.8), 5.6 (4.8-6.2) and 4.4 (13.5-5.2)], and less muscle trauma [6.1 (95% CI, 5.5-6.6) vs 9.7 (9.4-9.9), 13.7 (12.8-24.4 and 8.7 (8

  10. Three distinct mechanisms predominate in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male professional football players: a systematic video analysis of 39 cases

    PubMed Central

    Waldén, Markus; Krosshaug, Tron; Bjørneboe, John; Andersen, Thor Einar; Faul, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background Current knowledge on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms in male football players is limited. Aim To describe ACL injury mechanisms in male professional football players using systematic video analysis. Methods We assessed videos from 39 complete ACL tears recorded via prospective professional football injury surveillance between 2001 and 2011. Five analysts independently reviewed all videos to estimate the time of initial foot contact with the ground and the time of ACL tear. We then analysed all videos according to a structured format describing the injury circumstances and lower limb joint biomechanics. Results Twenty-five injuries were non-contact, eight indirect contact and six direct contact injuries. We identified three main categories of non-contact and indirect contact injury situations: (1) pressing (n=11), (2) re-gaining balance after kicking (n=5) and (3) landing after heading (n=5). The fourth main injury situation was direct contact with the injured leg or knee (n=6). Knee valgus was frequently seen in the main categories of non-contact and indirect contact playing situations (n=11), but a dynamic valgus collapse was infrequent (n=3). This was in contrast to the tackling-induced direct contact situations where a knee valgus collapse occurred in all cases (n=3). Conclusions Eighty-five per cent of the ACL injuries in male professional football players resulted from non-contact or indirect contact mechanisms. The most common playing situation leading to injury was pressing followed by kicking and heading. Knee valgus was frequently seen regardless of the playing situation, but a dynamic valgus collapse was rare. PMID:25907183

  11. Unintended Consequences of Concussion Prevention in NCAA Football

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W.; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annunziato

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Both lower extremity and head injuries are common in American Football players. Concussions, or Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (MTBIs), have gained increased interest in the past decade. Recurrent MTBIs have been associated with late-life cognitive impairment and depression in American Football populations.2, 3 Beginning in 2008, the NCAA introduced rule changes with the intent to halt or reverse the increasing rates of MTBIs in its players. Lower-extremity injuries in American football populations have been associated with increased rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis1 and significantly contribute to disability in retirement. While lower extremity injury rates have been studied and associated with weather5 and playing surface4, no such study has sought an association between lower extremity injury with the timing/introduction of rule changes used to prevent head injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess if lower extremity injury rates are increasing after concussion rule changes. We hypothesize that there may be a compensatory increase in lower extremity injury rates as players act to avoid head-to-head contact and comply with instated rules. Methods: The NCAA Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) database was queried for in-game injuries suffered between 2009-2014. All injuries suffered by NCAA Football players that occurred in competition were identified. Injuries that did not result in lost participation time were excluded. Lower extremity injuries that resulted in lost time included injuries to the thigh/upper leg, knee, lower leg/Achilles, ankle and foot. All concussions resulting in lost time were also identified during the same time period for comparison. Data regarding athletic exposures was collected in order to calculate the incidence of injury. Results: Between 2009 and 2014, 48 NCAA Football programs provided data on123 team-seasons to the NCAA ISS for analysis. The incidence of lower extremity injuries increased from 9

  12. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads.

    PubMed

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced. PMID:23244512

  13. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    PubMed Central

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Aichele, Kristin R.; Oakman, Joyann E.; Neal, Michael P.; Cromwell, Christina M.; Lenzo, Jessica M.; Perez, Avery N.; Bye, Naomi L.; Santaniello, Erica L.; Hill, Jessica A.; Evans, Rachel C.; Thiele, Karla A.; Chavis, Lauren N.; Getty, Allyson K.; Wisdo, Tia R.; McClelland, JoAnna M.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Chlad, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3 ± 0.5 mm versus 3.7 ± 0.6 mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2 ± 6.4 mmHg versus 122.4 ± 6.8 mmHg), submaximal exercise (150.4 ± 18.8 mmHg versus 137.3 ± 9.5 mmHg), maximal exercise (211.3 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 191.4 ± 19.2 mmHg), and 24-hour BP (124.9 ± 6.3 mmHg versus 109.8 ± 3.7 mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6 ± 6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 5.8 mg/dL), lower HDL (36.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1 ± 14.8 mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (29.2 ± 7.9% versus 23.2 ± 7.0%). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26904291

  14. Echocardiographic and Blood Pressure Characteristics of First-Year Collegiate American-Style Football Players.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Stephen F; White, Stephanie; Erwin, John P; Meade, Thomas H; Martin, Steven E; Oliver, Jonathan M; Joubert, Dustin P; Lambert, Bradley S; Bramhall, Joe P; Gill, Kory; Weir, David

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiographic (echo) and blood pressure (BP) reference values may help identify athletes at cardiovascular risk, yet benchmarks are inadequate for collegiate American-style football (ASF) players. Our purpose was to describe echo characteristics and BP values in collegiate ASF athletes compared with normal. First-year players (n = 80, age = 18 ± 1 years, height = 186 ± 7 cm, weight = 100.1 ± 22.0 kg, body mass index = 28.7 ± 5.0), body surface area [BSA] = 2.24 ± 0.25; percentage fat = 16.5 ± 9.7%) were measured for systolic and diastolic BP, and underwent echo procedures by a certified sonographer. Data analyses included simple statistics, Pearson r, frequencies in normal ranges, and t test; α = 0.05. Selected echo measurements (and indexed by BSA) were: left ventricular (LV) internal diameter diastole = 5.3 ± 0.5 cm (2.4 ± 0.3); left atrial diameter = 3.9 ± 0.5 cm (1.8 ± 0.2): LV end-diastolic volume = 138 ± 30 ml (62 ± 11); septal wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.2 cm (0.5 ± 0.1); LV posterior wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 cm (0.5 ± 0.1), LV mass = 212 ± 46 g (95 ± 18); and relative wall thickness = 0.39 ± 0.07. Correlations between BSA and echo variables were significant (r = 0.26 to 0.50). Indexing by BSA reduced percentages above reference ranges from 36% to 7%. Septal wall thickness index was significantly greater in black (0.5 ± 0.1) than nonblack (0.4 ± 0.1) athletes. Fifty-nine athletes were hypertensive or prehypertensive, and diastolic BP was significantly greater in black (76 ± 10 mm Hg) compared with nonblack athletes (71 ± 8 mm Hg). ASF athletes demonstrated LV wall thicknesses and cavity sizes consistent with sport-training hypertrophy but which were unremarkable when indexed by BSA. Ethnicity generally did not influence echo variables. No ASF players were identified with cardiac dysfunction or disease. PMID:26554673

  15. Selling College: A Longitudinal Study of American College Football Bowl Game Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Using ideological analysis as a frame, researchers analyzed institutionally created commercials (PSAs) that appeared in 28 U.S. college football bowl games over a seven-year period (2003-2009) to better understand the universities' brands as represented in these advertisements. They found many common elements such as showing traditional…

  16. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus—teammates or competitors? New insights into hamstring injury mechanisms in male football players: a muscle functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background The hamstring injury mechanism was assessed by investigating the exercise-related metabolic activity characteristics of the hamstring muscles using a muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) protocol. Methods 27 healthy male football players and 27 football players with a history of hamstring injuries (recovered and playing fully) underwent standardised mfMR Imaging. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 increase or the signal intensity shift between both scans was used to detect differences in metabolic activation characteristics (1) between the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) between the injury group and the control group. Results A more symmetrical muscle recruitment pattern corresponding to a less economic hamstring muscle activation was demonstrated in the formerly injured group (p<0.05). The injured group also demonstrated a significantly lower strength endurance capacity during the eccentric hamstring exercise. Conclusions These findings suggest that the vulnerability of the hamstring muscles to football-related injury is related to the complexity and close coherence in the synergistic muscle recruitment of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus. Discrete differences in neuromuscular coordination and activity distribution, with the biceps femoris partly having to compensate for the lack of endurance capacity of the semitendinosus, probably increase the hamstring injury risk. PMID:25388959

  17. Head injuries in the female football player: incidence, mechanisms, risk factors and management

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Jiri; McCrory, Paul; Kirkendall, Donald T

    2007-01-01

    Although all injuries in sports are a concern for participants, head injuries are particularly troublesome because of the potential for long‐term cognitive deficits. To prevent any specific injury, it is important to understand the basic frequency and incidence of injury and then the mechanism of injury. Once these are established, prevention programmes can be tested to see if the rate of injury changes. A primary problem with head injuries is recognising that the injury has occurred. Many athletes are not aware of the seriousness of concussive injury, thus this type of injury is probably under‐reported. Once the diagnosis of a concussion is made, the next difficult decision is when to return a player to the game. These two management issues dominate the continuing development of understanding of concussive head injury. This paper explores the known gender differences between head injuries and highlights the areas that need to be considered in future research. PMID:17496069

  18. The mechanics of American football cleats on natural grass and infill-type artificial playing surfaces with loads relevant to elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Lessley, David; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the mechanical interactions of 19 American football cleats with a natural grass and an infill-type artificial surface under loading conditions designed to represent play-relevant manoeuvres of elite athletes. Variation in peak forces and torques was observed across cleats when tested on natural grass (2.8-4.2 kN in translation, 120-174 Nm in rotation). A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the peak force and torque on natural grass. Almost all of the cleats caused shear failure of the natural surface, which generated a divot following a test. This is a force-limiting cleat release mode. In contrast, all but one of the cleat types held fast in the artificial turf, resulting in force and torque limited by the prescribed input load from the test device (nom. 4.8 kN and 200 Nm). Only one cleat pattern, consisting of small deformable nubs, released on the artificial surface and generated force (3.9 kN) comparable to the range observed with natural grass. These findings (1) should inform the design of cleats intended for use on natural and artificial surfaces and (2) suggest a mechanical explanation for a higher lower-limb injury rate in elite athletes playing on artificial surfaces. PMID:26114885

  19. Hazard Analysis. Football: Activity and Related Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)

  20. The Prevalence of Depression and Concussions in a Sample of Active North American Semi-Professional and Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, James; Larson, Abigail; DeBeliso, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Concussive events frequently occur in high impact sports such as North American football. The long term effects of concussive events on physical and psychological wellbeing are the focus of ongoing research. The purpose of this study was to determine if concussive events increase the incidence of depression in active semi-professional and professional North American football players. Methods An anonymous online survey was sent to 200 players to collect the following self-reported data: position played, years played, number of concussions sustained and subsequent depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD-R) scale. An independent T-test was used to determine differences in the number of concussive events in those with CESD-R scores <16 vs. ≥16, where scores ≥16 are indicative of a depressed state. Likewise, an independent T-test was used to compare CESD-R scores between players with ≥3 concussions vs. ≤2. Results Individuals with a CESD-R score ≥16, sustained a significantly greater number of concussions (3.8 vs. 1.6) than those who scored <16 (p < 0.001). Further analysis also revealed significantly higher CESD-R scores in players who had sustained ≥3 concussions (24.0 vs. 15.6) than those with ≤2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion Within the parameters of this study, players that were classified as depressed had sustained significantly more concussions compared to those who were not classified as depressed. Further, multiple concussive events (≥3) appears to increase symptoms of depression. PMID:27358835

  1. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  2. Comprehensive Coach Education Reduces Head Impact Exposure in American Youth Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan W.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite little evidence that defines a threshold of head impact exposure or that participation in youth sports leads to long-term cognitive impairments, it is prudent to identify methods of reducing the frequency of head impacts. Purpose: To compare the mean number of head impacts between youth football players in practice and games between leagues that implemented the Heads Up Football (HUF) educational program and those that did not (NHUF). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: During the 2014 season, head impact exposure was measured using xPatch accelerometers from 70 youth football players aged 8 to 15 years from 5 leagues. Data were collected during both games and practices. The NHUF group comprised 32 players from 8 teams within 3 leagues. The HUF group comprised 38 players from 7 teams within 2 leagues. Independent-sample t tests evaluated differences in head impact exposure across groups (ie, HUF and NHUF). Results: Players (mean ± SD: age, 11.7 ± 1.4 years; height, 152.2 ± 10.5 cm; weight, 51.6 ± 9.6 kg) experienced a total of 7478 impacts over 10g, of which 4250 (56.8%) and 3228 (43.2%) occurred in practices and games, respectively. The majority of impacts occurred within the NHUF group (62.0%), followed by the HUF group (38.0%). With a 10g impact threshold, the mean number of impacts during practice per individual event was lower in the HUF group (mean ± SD, 5.6 ± 2.9) than in the NHUF group (mean ± SD, 8.9 ± 3.1; difference, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.9-3.9). This difference was attenuated when the threshold was changed to 20g but remained significant (difference, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). At both the 10g and 20g impact thresholds, no differences were found in games. Conclusion: Players who participated in HUF leagues accumulated fewer head impacts per practice at both the 10g and 20g thresholds. Youth football leagues should consider the HUF educational program, while exploring additional interventions, to help reduce the

  3. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  4. On Impact: Students with Head Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Angela I.; Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Students with head injuries may not be as "low incidence" as previously believed. Recent efforts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (2010), the National Football League, and other agencies are attempting to raise awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among students. Along with awareness, there has been an increased publicity effort via…

  5. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  6. Statistics of football dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  7. A new injury prevention programme for children's football--FIFA 11+ Kids--can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rössler, R; Donath, L; Bizzini, M; Faude, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a newly developed injury prevention programme for children's football ("FIFA 11+ Kids") on motor performance in 7-12-year-old children. We stratified 12 football teams (under-9/-11/-13 age categories) into intervention (INT, N = 56 players) and control groups (CON, N = 67). INT conducted the 15-min warm-up programme "FIFA 11+ Kids" twice a week for 10 weeks. CON followed a standard warm-up (sham treatment). Pre- and post-tests were conducted using: single leg stance; Y-balance test; drop and countermovement jump; standing long jump; 20-m sprint; agility run; slalom dribble; and wall volley test. We used magnitude-based inferences and linear mixed-effects models to analyse performance test results. We observed likely beneficial effects favouring INT in Y-balance (right leg; +3.2%; standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; P = 0.58) and agility run (+3.6%; SMD = 0.45; P = 0.008). Possibly beneficial effects were found in Y-balance, drop jump reactive strength index, drop jump height, countermovement jump, standing long jump, slalom dribble and wall volley test. At least possibly beneficial improvements in favour of "FIFA 11+ Kids" were observed in nearly all parameters. Most effects were small, but slight improvements in motor performance may potentially contribute to a reduction of injury risk. PMID:26508531

  8. Violence and its injury consequences in American movies

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, David L; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Webb, Theresa; Fisher, Kevin; Cook, Bernard; Browne, Nick; Kraus, Jess

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the seriousness and frequency of violence and the degree of associated injury depicted in the 100 top-grossing American films of 1994. Methods Each scene in each film was examined for the presentation of violent actions on persons and coded by a systematic context-sensitive analytic scheme. Specific degrees of violence and indices of injury severity were abstracted. Only actually depicted, not implied, actions were coded, although both explicit and implied consequences were examined. Results The median number of violent actions per film was 16 (range, 0-110). Intentional violence outnumbered unintentional violence by a factor of 10. Almost 90% of violent actions showed no consequences to the recipient's body, although more than 80% of the violent actions were executed with lethal or moderate force. Fewer than 1% of violent actions were accompanied by injuries that were then medically attended. Conclusions Violent force in American films of 1994 was overwhelmingly intentional and in 4 of 5 cases was executed at levels likely to cause significant bodily injury. Not only action films but movies of all genres contained scenes in which the intensity of the action was not matched by correspondingly severe injury consequences. Many American films, regardless of genre, tend to minimize the consequences of violence to human beings. PMID:10986175

  9. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  10. Injuries, Matches Missed and the Influence of Minimum Medical Standards in the A-League Professional Football: A 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hughes Schwab, Brendan A.; Vivian, Adam; M. M. J. Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological data on the occurrence of time-loss injuries over several A-League seasons remains lacking, while the effect of the mandatory implementation of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’ as a part of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) needs to be explored. Objectives: To explore the 5 year evolution of hamstring, groin, knee, ankle and total time-loss injuries among professional footballers in the A-League; to evaluate the consequences of these time-loss injuries in terms of total matches missed and costs incurred; and to explore whether the mandatory implementation of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’ in the A-League had led to a decrease in the occurrence of total time-loss injuries and total matches missed. Patients and Methods: An observational prospective study has been carried out since 2008. Data were collected weekly during the seasons 2008 - 2009 to 2012 - 2013 through official match previews/reviews, official media releases, official websites and/or self-reports by players. Total and specific (hamstring, groin, knee and ankle) numbers of time-loss injuries and matches missed were obtained for each season and the related financial costs calculated. Results: The total number of time-loss injuries and matches missed rose from 129 and 506 respectively in 2008 - 2009 to 202 and 1110 in 2010 - 2011. Following the introduction of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’, both categories decreased (significantly for matches missed). These time-loss injuries and matches missed led to high costs of up to AUD$ 37,317,029.29 (2012 - 2013 season). The same trend was found for knee injuries, while hamstring and ankle injuries remained almost the same. However, time-loss due to groin injuries increased despite the introduction of “Minimum Medical Standards”. Conclusions: The introduction of “Minimum Medical Standards” in the A-League had a favorable effect on the number of total, hamstring, knee and ankle injuries and on the number of matches missed

  11. Football Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    The probabilities of certain English football teams winning different playoffs are determined. In each case, a mathematical model is fitted to the observed data, assumptions are verified, and the calculations performed. (LS)

  12. External Foam Layers to Football Helmets Reduce Head Impact Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2014-01-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  13. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  14. Effects of Head Injury on the Educational and Vocational Potential of American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Kevin T.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies possible causes of head injury among reservation American Indians. Discusses the range of problems to look for following head trauma and offers some common sense safety precautions for head injury prevention. Describes a plan of action for teachers of American Indian children who have sustained head injuries. (JHZ)

  15. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    PubMed

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. PMID:26648587

  16. Rehabilitation Considerations of a Brachial Plexus Injury with Complete Avulsion of C5 and C6 Nerve Roots in a College Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Susan; Saliba, Ethan N.; Pugh, Kelli F.; Chhabra, Abhinav; Diduch, David

    2009-01-01

    Severe brachial plexus injuries are rare in sports, but they have catastrophic results with a significant loss of function in the involved upper extremity. Nerve root avulsions must be timely managed with prompt evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and surgical treatment to optimize the potential for a functional outcome. This case report describes the mechanism of injury, diagnostic evolution, surgical management, and rehabilitation of a college football player who sustained a traumatic complete nerve root avulsion of C5 and C6 (upper trunk of the brachial plexus). Diagnostics included clinical evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography myelogram, and electromyogram. Surgical planning included nerve grafting and neurotization (nerve transfer). Rehabilitation goals were to bring the hand to the face (active biceps function), to stabilize the shoulder for abduction and flexion, and to reduce neuropathic pain. Direct current stimulation, bracing, therapeutic exercise, and biofeedback were used to maximize the use of the athlete’s upper extremity. Although the athlete could not return to sport or normal function by most standards, his results were satisfactory in that he regained an ability to perform many activities of daily living. PMID:23015895

  17. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players.

    PubMed

    Gwacham, Nnamdi; Wagner, Dale R

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of energy drinks is common among athletes; however, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of these beverages for short-duration, intense exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Twenty football players (age 19.7 ± 1.8 yr, height 184.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 100.3 ± 21.7 kg) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which they received the energy drink or an isoenergetic, isovolumetric, non-caffeinated placebo in 2 trials separated by 7 days. The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test, consisting of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of rest between sprints, was used to assess anaerobic power. Sprint times were recorded with an automatic electronic timer. The beverage treatment did not significantly affect power (F = 3.84, p = .066) or sprint time (F = 3.06, p = .097). However, there was a significant interaction effect between caffeine use and the beverage for sprint times (F = 4.62, p = .045), as well as for anaerobic power (F = 5.40, p = .032), indicating a confounding effect. In conclusion, a caffeine-taurine energy drink did not improve the sprint performance or anaerobic power of college football players, but the level of caffeine use by the athletes likely influenced the effect of the drink. PMID:22349209

  18. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim LA; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players’ end-of-season views about the programme variants. Methods This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players’ views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Results Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Conclusions Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future. PMID:24047571

  19. A Statewide Study Designed to Determine Methods of Reducing Injury in Interscholastic Football Competition by Equipment Modification. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, William T.; And Others

    Through an examination of data on injuries to the lower extremities of varsity high school players, this study sought to ascertain 1) whether modified cleats brought about a reduction in the number and/or severity of such injuries; and 2) whether there existed an optimum combination of equipment for reduction in the number and/or severity of such…

  20. An Epidemiological Examination of the Association of Selected Products with Related Injuries in Football 1975-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kenneth S.; And Others

    The National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) was established to serve as a system for continuous collection and interpretation of information on injuries and illnesses incurred by participants in sports. A description is given in this report of the genesis of NAIRS, its significance for athletic directors in conducting safe sports…

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics: Risk of injury from baseball and softball in children.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    This statement updates the 1994 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on baseball and softball injuries in children. Current studies on acute, overuse, and catastrophic injuries are reviewed with emphasis on the causes and mechanisms of injury. This information serves as a basis for recommending safe training practices and the appropriate use of protective equipment. PMID:11335760

  2. Analysis of Prior Health System Contacts as a Harbinger of Subsequent Fatal Injury in American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanddal, Teri L.; Upchurch, James; Sanddal, Nels D.; Esposito, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Many American Indian nations, tribes, and bands are at an elevated risk for premature death from unintentional injury. Previous research has documented a relationship between alcohol-related injury and subsequent injury death among predominately urban samples. The presence or nature of such a relationship has not been documented among American…

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... get ACL injuries usually play contact sports (like football) or sports that feature swift, abrupt movements such ... the things you love — like running or playing football, field hockey, or softball — can be frustrating. Recovering ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Return to Play Following Syndesmosis (High) Ankle Sprains in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel R.; Rubin, David A.; Hillen, Travis J.; Nissman, Daniel B.; Lomax, James; Williams, Tyler; Scott, Reggie; Cunningham, Byron; Matava, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Syndesmosis ankle sprains cause greater disability and longer duration of recovery than lateral ankle sprains. Objective: To describe the severity of syndesmosis sprains using several accepted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria and to assess the interrater reliability of diagnosing syndesmosis injury using these same criteria in professional American football players. Hypothesis: There is a high degree of interrater reliability of MRI findings in American football players with syndesmosis ankle sprains. These radiographic findings will correlate with time lost to injury, indicating severity of the sprain. Study Design: Uncontrolled retrospective review. Methods: Player demographics and time lost to play were recorded among professional football players who had sustained a syndesmosis ankle sprain and underwent standardized ankle MRI. Each image was independently read by 3 blinded musculoskeletal radiologists. Results: Seventeen players met study criteria. There was almost perfect agreement among the radiologists for diagnosing injury to the syndesmotic membrane; substantial agreement for diagnosing injury to the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL) and in determining the proximal extent of syndesmotic edema/injury; but only fair agreement for diagnosing injury to the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament and in determining the width of syndesmotic separation. There was a significant correlation between the width of syndesmotic separation and time lost, but no significant correlation between individual syndesmotic ligament injury or proximal extent of syndesmotic edema/injury and time lost. Conclusion: While ankle MRI can identify syndesmotic disruption with a high degree of interobserver agreement, no association was demonstrated between the extent of injury on MRI and the time to return to play following a high ankle sprain. Clinical Relevance: In athletes with suspected high ankle sprains, MRI may help confirm diagnosis or suggest

  5. Annotated Football Bibliography. An Applied Project in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemence, William J., Jr.; Pitts, James Walter

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to assist physical education majors, especially those having a major interest in football and football coaching. The bibliography is limited to the areas of coaching techniques and philosophy, fundamentals, offense, defense, injuries, and conditioning at the high school and college level. These broader…

  6. The polygenic profile of Russian football players.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Emiliya S; Borisova, Alyona V; Mustafina, Leysan J; Arkhipova, Alina A; Gabbasov, Rashid T; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Astratenkova, Irina V; Ahmetov, Ildus I

    2014-01-01

    Research concerned with predictors of talent in football has highlighted a number of potentially important and partially inherited measures such as body size, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, agility, psychological profile, game intelligence and susceptibility to injuries. Genotyping for performance-associated DNA polymorphisms at an early age could be useful in predicting later success in football. The aim of the study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with football player's status. A total of 246 Russian football players and 872 controls were genotyped for 8 gene polymorphisms, which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status. Four alleles (ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, PPARA rs4253778 C and UCP2 55Val) were first identified, showing discrete associations with football player's status. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the 4 polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score) in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in football players (52.0 (17.6) vs. 41.3 (15.5); P < 0.0001) than in controls. These data suggest that the likelihood of becoming a football player depends on the carriage of a high number of "favourable" gene variants. PMID:24784145

  7. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated a trend

  8. The "Iron Cage" of Division I Athletics and Football as Status Imperatives: Constraint and Change among American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenex, Bart Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the history of American higher education sports have been closely identified with universities and campus life. Intercollegiate athletics occupies a peculiar space in the university; it is an institution within the universe of higher education. While extremely popular among many, there are charges that emphasis on college sports'…

  9. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  10. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  11. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  12. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player. PMID:24923402

  13. Evaluation of the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks using a case series of injuries

    PubMed Central

    Marlenga, B; Brison, R; Berg, R; Zentner, J; Linneman, J; Pickett, W

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential for the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) to prevent the occurrence of pediatric farm injuries. This evaluation focuses upon farm injuries experienced when children were engaged in farm work. Design: Novel outcome evaluation involving primary review of three retrospective case series. Setting: Fatal, hospitalized, and restricted activity injuries from the United States and Canada. Subjects: Nine hundred and thirty four pediatric farm injury cases. Methods: The applicability of NAGCAT to each case was rated. For injuries where NAGCAT were applicable, recurrent injury patterns were described and the potential for NAGCAT to prevent their occurrence was assessed. Results: A total of 283 (30.3%) cases involved children engaged in farm work. There was an applicable NAGCAT guideline in 64.9% of the work related cases. Leading individual guidelines applicable to the injury events were: (1) working with large animals; (2) driving a farm tractor; and (3) farm work with an all-terrain vehicle. In the judgment of the research team, 59.6% of these injuries were totally preventable if the principles espoused by NAGCAT had been applied. Conclusions: NAGCAT are a set of consensus guidelines aimed at the prevention of pediatric farm injuries. The findings suggest that NAGCAT, if applied, would be efficacious in preventing many of the most serious injuries experienced by children engaged in farm work. However, work related injuries represent only a modest portion of pediatric farm injuries. This new information assists in the refinement of NAGCAT as an injury control resource and puts its potential efficacy into context. PMID:15583256

  14. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  15. Biomechanical Risk Estimates for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Funk, J. R.; Duma, S. M.; Manoogian, S. J.; Rowson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in living humans based on a large set of head impact data taken from American football players at the collegiate level. Real-time head accelerations were recorded from helmet-mounted accelerometers designed to stay in contact with the player’s head. Over 27,000 head impacts were recorded, including four impacts resulting in MTBI. Parametric risk curves were developed by normalizing MTBI incidence data by head impact exposure data. An important finding of this research is that living humans, at least in the setting of collegiate football, sustain much more significant head impacts without apparent injury than previously thought. The following preliminary nominal injury assessment reference values associated with a 10% risk of MTBI are proposed: a peak linear head acceleration of 165 g, a HIC of 400, and a peak angular head acceleration of 9000 rad/s2. PMID:18184501

  16. Working Effectively with Employees Who Have Sustained a Brain Injury. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.

    This brief paper summarizes requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 related to employment of people who have a brain injury. The following topics are addressed: what is meant by a brain injury; implications of the ADA for individuals who have sustained a brain injury (such as the importance of identifying essential job…

  17. Injury Outcomes in African American and African Caribbean Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096

  18. Violence and its injury consequences in American movies: a public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, D.; Peek-Asa, C.; Webb, T.; Fisher, K.; Cook, B.; Browne, N.; Kraus, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seriousness and frequency of violence and the degree of associated injury depicted in the 100 top grossing American films of 1994. Methods—Each scene in each film was examined for the presentation of violent actions upon persons and coded by means of a systematic context sensitive analytic scheme. Specific degrees of violence and indices of injury severity were abstracted. Only actually depicted, not implied, actions were coded, although both explicit and implied consequences were examined. Results—The median number of violent actions per film was 16, with a range from 1 to 110. Intentional violence outnumbered unintentional violence by a factor of 10. Almost 90% of violent actions showed no consequences to the recipient's body, although more than 80% of the violent actions were executed with lethal or moderate force. Fewer than 1% of violent actions were accompanied by injuries that were then medically attended. Conclusions—Violent force in American films of 1994 was overwhelmingly intentional and in four of five cases was executed at levels likely to cause significant bodily injury. Not only action films but movies of all genres contained scenes in which the intensity of the action was not matched by correspondingly severe injury consequences. Many American films, regardless of genre, tend to minimize the consequences of violence to human beings. PMID:10875668

  19. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  20. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  1. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Field Hockey Football Injuries Golf Injuries Lacrosse Rugby Running Soccer Softball Tennis Volleyball Find an ACFAS Physician ... Foot and Ankle Although golf does not involve running or jumping, injuries can occur to the foot ...

  2. Firearm-related injuries affecting the pediatric population. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. American Academy of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    This statement reaffirms the 1992 position of the American Academy of Pediatrics that the absence of guns from children's homes and communities is the most reliable and effective measure to prevent firearm-related injuries in children and adolescents. A number of specific measures are supported to reduce the destructive effects of guns in the lives of children and adolescents, including the regulation of the manufacture, sale, purchase, ownership, and use of firearms; a ban on handguns and semiautomatic assault weapons; and expanded regulations of handguns for civilian use. In addition, this statement reviews recent data, trends, prevention, and intervention strategies of the past 5 years. PMID:10742344

  3. Blunt cerebrovascular injury in rugby and other contact sports: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Trajan A; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Moore, Frederick A

    2014-01-01

    Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12(th) century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI. PMID:24872841

  4. Blunt cerebrovascular injury in rugby and other contact sports: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12th century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI. PMID:24872841

  5. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: prevention of cold injuries during exercise.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J; Ducharme, Michel B; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Glickman, Ellen; Sallis, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that exercise can be performed safely in most cold-weather environments without incurring cold-weather injuries. The key to prevention is use of a comprehensive risk management strategy that: a) identifies/assesses the cold hazard; b) identifies/assesses contributing factors for cold-weather injuries; c) develops controls to mitigate cold stress/strain; d) implements controls into formal plans; and e) utilizes administrative oversight to ensure controls are enforced or modified. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that: 1) coaches/athletes/medical personnel know the signs/symptoms and risk factors for hypothermia, frostbite, and non-freezing cold injuries, identify individuals susceptible to cold injuries, and have the latest up-to-date information about current and future weather conditions before conducting training sessions or competitions; 2) cold-weather clothing be chosen based on each individual's requirements and that standardized clothing ensembles not be mandated for entire groups; 3) the wind-chill temperature index be used to estimate the relative risk of frostbite and that heightened surveillance of exercisers be used at wind-chill temperatures below -27 degrees C (-18 degrees F); and 4) individuals with asthma and cardiovascular disease can exercise in cold environments, but should be monitored closely. PMID:17095937

  6. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given. Images p67-a PMID:4027496

  7. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  8. Insomnia, Comorbidity, and Risk of Injury Among Insured Americans: Results from the America Insomnia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Hajak, Goeran; Roth, Thomas; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C.; Stephenson, Judith J.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    (OR 0.9 and 1.0, respectively) among workers having 2 or more comorbid conditions. Conclusions: The associations of insomnia with injuries vary with comorbid conditions in ways that could have important implications for targeting workplace interventions. Citation: Kessler RC; Berglund PA; Coulouvrat C; Fitzgerald T; Hajak G; Roth T; Shahly V; Shillington AC; Stephenson JJ; Walsh JK. Insomnia, comorbidity, and risk of injury among insured Americans: results from the America Insomnia Survey. SLEEP 2012;35(6):825-834. PMID:22654202

  9. Incidence of Dog Bite Injuries in American Samoa and Their Impact on Society

    PubMed Central

    DePasquale, John M; Vargo, Agnes M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In American Samoa, a US Territory in the South Pacific, over half of reported injuries are attributed to dog bites. Despite years of public outcry, little has been done to adequately address these preventable injuries that affect all age groups of both sexes. Objective To describe a serious public health hazard in American Samoa that may plague other jurisdictions that tolerate a significant free-roaming dog population. Methods A limited data set of outpatient records from 2004 through 2010 from the Territory's only emergency department listing an ICD-9-CM E-code of E906.0 (“dog bite”) in the primary E-code field provided a record of dog bite injuries. A survey of 437 adolescents documented their experiences regarding unprovoked dog attacks during the 2010/2011 school year. Results The sex/age group with the highest incidence for dog bite treatment was males 55 to 59 years of age (73.1 per 10,000 population per year) followed closely by males 10 to 14 years of age (71.8 per 10,000 population per year). Males aged 5 to 14 years accounted for 23% of all emergency department visits for dog bites. About one-third of adolescents reported having been bitten by a dog between September 2010 and May 2011. About 10% of males and 16% of females attributed the fear of being bitten as a factor preventing them from getting more physical activity. Conclusions Children, adolescents, and the elderly are the most vulnerable to dog bite injuries. Emergency room records may reflect only about a quarter of all such injuries. Implications Unprovoked attacks by aggressive, free-roaming dogs degrade quality of life by placing an untenable burden on the health care system and imposing physical and psychological barriers toward a more healthful lifestyle that includes walking, jogging, and bicycling. PMID:22413098

  10. Effects of Two Football Stud Types on Knee and Ankle Kinetics of Single-Leg Land-Cut and 180° Cut Movements on Infilled Synthetic Turf.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter J; Brock, Elizabeth; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C; Zhang, Songning

    2015-10-01

    Higher ACL injury rates have been recorded in cleats with higher torsional resistance in American football, which warrants better understanding of shoe/stud-dependent joint kinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in knee and ankle kinetics during single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts on synthetic infilled turf while wearing 3 types of shoes. Fourteen recreational football players performed single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts in nonstudded running shoes (RS) and in football shoes with natural (NTS) and synthetic turf studs (STS). Knee and ankle kinetic variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated-measures ANOVA (P < .05). A significant shoe-by-movement interaction was found in loading response peak knee adduction moments, with NTS producing smaller moments compared with both STS and RS only in 180° cuts. Reduced peak negative plantar flexor powers were also found in NTS compared with STS. The single-leg land cut produced greater loading response and push-off peak knee extensor moments, as well as peak negative and positive extensor and plantar flexor powers, but smaller loading peak knee adduction moments and push-off peak ankle eversion moments than 180° cuts. Overall, the STS and 180° cuts resulted in greater frontal plane knee loading and should be monitored for possible increased ACL injury risks. PMID:25950515

  11. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530

  12. FMRI of visual working memory in high school football players.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Trey E; Robinson, Meghan E; Svaldi, Diana O; Abbas, Kausar; Breedlove, Katherine M; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Visual working memory deficits have been observed in at-risk athletes. This study uses a visual N-back working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging task to longitudinally assess asymptomatic football athletes for abnormal activity. Athletes were increasingly "flagged" as the season progressed. Flagging may provide early detection of injury. PMID:25961587

  13. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  14. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768

  15. Position-Specific Hip and Knee Kinematics in NCAA Football Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Deneweth, Jessica M.; Pomeroy, Shannon M.; Russell, Jason R.; McLean, Scott G.; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Bedi, Asheesh; Goulet, Grant C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement is a debilitating hip condition commonly affecting athletes playing American football. The condition is associated with reduced hip range of motion; however, little is known about the range-of-motion demands of football athletes. This knowledge is critical to effective management of this condition. Purpose: To (1) develop a normative database of game-like hip and knee kinematics used by football athletes and (2) analyze kinematic data by playing position. The hypothesis was that kinematics would be similar between running backs and defensive backs and between wide receivers and quarterbacks, and that linemen would perform the activities with the most erect lower limb posture. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Forty National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football athletes, representing 5 playing positions (quarterback, defensive back, running back, wide receiver, offensive lineman), executed game-like maneuvers while lower body kinematics were recorded via optical motion capture. Passive hip range of motion at 90° of hip flexion was assessed using a goniometer. Passive range of motion, athlete physical dimensions, hip function, and hip and knee rotations were submitted to 1-way analysis of variance to test for differences between playing positions. Correlations between maximal hip and knee kinematics and maximal hip kinematics and passive range of motion were also computed. Results: Hip and knee kinematics were similar across positions. Significant differences arose with linemen, who used lower maximal knee flexion (mean ± SD, 45.04° ± 7.27°) compared with running backs (61.20° ± 6.07°; P < .001) and wide receivers (54.67° ± 6.97°; P = .048) during the cut. No significant differences were found among positions for hip passive range of motion (overall means: 102° ± 15° [flexion]; 25° ± 9° [internal rotation]; 25° ± 8° [external rotation]). Several maximal hip measures were found

  16. [Sports injuries of the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Lang, C; Stefan, H

    1999-08-01

    Almost 1% of all Germans suffer sports injuries each year, almost 5% of all peripheral nerve lesions are due to sports. A review is given on various activities detailing the specific risks for traumata of the central and peripheral nervous system. Specifically these are volleyball, handball, basketball, American football, soccer, bowling, hockey, baseball, tennis, golf, javelin, fencing, wrestling, judo, boxing, running, jumping, dancing, mountain climbing, weight lifting, gymnastics, horse-back riding, swimming, rowing, skiing, skating, shooting, (motor) biking, car racing, flying, and sports for the disabled. The knowledge of typical traumata should enable the neurologist to rapidly and reliably recognize related lesions and to contribute to their prevention or improvement. PMID:10478302

  17. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: How to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes’ health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim ‘to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour’. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes ‘The 11’ and ‘FIFA 11+’ have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football. PMID:23813485

  18. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: how to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes' health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim 'to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour'. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes 'The 11' and 'FIFA 11+' have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football. PMID:23813485

  19. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. PMID:15876321

  20. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the incidence of catastrophic head injuries within high school and college sports. Data from a national surveillance system indicated that a football-related fatality occurred every year except one from 1945-99, mainly related to head injuries. From 1984-99, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Deaths and…

  1. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  2. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  3. The role of the African-American physician in reducing traffic-related injury and death among African Americans: consensus report of the National Medical Association.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Fernando; Moore, Wayne; Conti, Christopher; Norville Perez, Lucille C.; Gaines, Beverly M.; Hood, Rodney G.; Swain, Ian J. J.; Williams, Rudolph; Burgess, Chaka T.

    2002-01-01

    ISSUE: Traffic-related injuries and fatalities disproportionately affect the African American community. These high rates of traffic-related death and injury among African Americans manifest in multiple areas of traffic safety, including: Failure to use seat belts and child restraints. High incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Failure to follow child passenger and seat belt safety laws and recommendations. High rates of pedestrian accidents, ofen brought on by impairments of drivers and/or pedestrians. Research indicates that national public information campaigns, with general messages only slightly modified for African American audiences, have not been culturally appropriate or effective in changing traffic safety behavior. In addition, traditional distribution mechanisms for these messages have not effectively reached the target population. Evidence suggests that in the African American community, there is a pervasive lack of knowledge of the devastating impact of traffic-related accidents on the overall health status of the community. This lack of information has resulted in a tragic cycle, in which parents fail to model safe operation of motor vehicles, and generation after generation copy this behavior, increasing the community's vulnerability to serious injuries and untimely deaths. This trend toward improper traffic safety habits among African Americans persists despite federal, state and local laws to enforce and promote sound traffic safety practices. OBJECTIVE: To study the existence of disparities in traffic-related injury and death among African Americans and to determine what kinds of traffic safety messages and campaigns will be effective in encouraging African Americans to respond to safety laws in sufficient numbers to reduce the disproportionately high rate of injury and death. Traffic safety issues were examined to effectively recommend policy, address barriers, best practices, and intervention strategies for the National Medical Association

  4. Consequences of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Puvenna, Vikram; Janigro, Mattia; Ghosh, Chaitali; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhu, Tong; Blackman, Eric; Stewart, Desiree; Ellis, Jasmina; Butler, Robert; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes. PMID:23483891

  5. Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nicola; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Puvenna, Vikram; Janigro, Mattia; Ghosh, Chaitali; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhu, Tong; Blackman, Eric; Stewart, Desiree; Ellis, Jasmina; Butler, Robert; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes. PMID:23483891

  6. Physical and fitness characteristics of successful Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A W

    1995-01-01

    Anthropometric and fitness observations were made on 32 members of a top level Gaelic football squad that reached the All Ireland final in the year in which these measurements were taken. The subjects were found to be large and well muscled with a mean somatotype of 2.6:5.6:3.1 (endomorphy:mesomorphy:ectomorphy). Body fat content of the whole squad averaged 15.0% but the most successful group of players averaged 12.4%. The body mass index (BMI) of the group was high and averaged 24.7 km.m-2. This group of Gaelic footballers was found to be taller and heavier than top level soccer players but smaller than Australian rules and American footballers. At 58.6 ml.min-1.kg-1 maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was higher than that reported for rugby players and American footballers and is probably similar to that of professional soccer players. Scores on three lung function tests: (1) forced vital capacity (FVC), (2) forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV1), and (3) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were between 112% and 115% of the values predicted from height and age. There were wide variations in flexibility among the members of the group, the best individuals being as flexible as elite track and field athletes while the worst were less flexible than untrained subjects. Vertical jump scores were high and averaged 503 mm. The fitness observations made on this group of elite Gaelic footballers showed that they were not only fitter but more homogeneously fit than rugby players and American footballers and their fitness was generally similar to that reported for professional soccer players. PMID:8808534

  7. Cervical Spine Injuries in the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical spine injuries are extremely common and range from relatively minor injuries, such as cervical muscle strains, to severe, life-threatening cervical fractures with spinal cord injuries. Although cervical spine injuries are most common in athletes who participate in contact and collision sports, such as American football and rugby, they also have been reported in athletes who participate in noncontact sports, such as baseball, gymnastics, and diving. Cervical spine injuries in athletes are not necessarily the result of substantial spine trauma; some athletes have chronic conditions, such as congenital stenosis, that increase their risk for a serious cervical spine injury after even minor trauma. Therefore, physicians who cover athletic events must have a thorough knowledge of cervical spine injures and the most appropriate ways in which they should be managed. Although cervical spine injuries can be career-ending injuries, athletes often are able to return to play after appropriate treatment if the potential for substantial re-injury is minimized. PMID:27479833

  8. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area. PMID:19084771

  9. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area. PMID:18295092

  10. Emerging data on the incidence of concussion in football practice at all levels of amateur play.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    There has been increasing concern, particularly in the US, about potential long-term neurological deterioration syndromes seen in the US football players. Recurrent concussions are a potential area of concern. The authors of this paper have used data bases from three levels of amateur US football to identify the rate and risk of concussion injury in both football games and practice at the youth, high school, and college levels. This information is very important initial data around concussion rates at these levels. PMID:26295588

  11. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... often occur among active teens, especially athletes. A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) — a ligament that helps ... the more serious injuries. Teens who have a torn MCL tend to play contact sports, like football ...

  12. Effects of two football stud configurations on biomechanical characteristics of single-leg landing and cutting movements on infilled synthetic turf.

    PubMed

    Brock, Elizabeth; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare; Liu, Xuan; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C

    2014-11-01

    Multiple playing surfaces and footwear used in American football warrant a better understanding of relationship between different combinations of turf and footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of shoe and stud types on ground reaction force (GRF) and ankle and knee kinematics of a 180° cut and a single-leg 90° land-cut on synthetic turf. Fourteen recreational football players performed five trials of the 180° cut and 90° land-cut in three shoe conditions: non-studded running shoe, and football shoe with natural and synthetic turf studs. Variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Peak vertical GRF (p < 0.001) and loading rate (p < 0.001) were greater during 90° land-cut than 180° cut. For 180° cut, natural turf studs produced smaller peak medial GRFs compared to synthetic turf studs and non-studded shoe (p = 0.012). For land-cut, peak eversion velocity was reduced in running shoes compared to natural (p = 0.016) and synthetic (p = 0.002) turf studs. The 90° land-cut movement resulted in greater peak vertical GRF and loading rate compared to the 180° cut. Overall, increased GRFs in the 90° land-cut movement may increase the chance of injury. PMID:25301011

  13. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  14. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  15. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  16. Traumatic Carpal Axial Instability in a Professional Football Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rettig, Lance; Rettig, Arthur; Cleland, Kirk

    2016-05-01

    This is a case of traumatic carpal axial instability in a professional football player. Traumatic carpal axial instability characteristically involves longitudinal separation of the ulnar or radial distal carpal row along with intermetacarpal injury. Rarely, pancarpal ligament disruption occurs, as in this case. Early diagnosis and treatment of unstable wrist injuries is important in achieving a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26502186

  17. Trends in North American newspaper reporting of brain injury in ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Sharma, Bhanu; Lawrence, David W; Ilie, Gabriela; Silverberg, Sarah; Jones, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    The frequency and potential long-term effects of sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI) make it a major public health concern. The culture within contact sports, such as ice hockey, encourages aggression that puts youth at risk of TBI such as concussion. Newspaper reports play an important role in conveying and shaping the culture around health-related behaviors. We qualitatively studied reports about sport-related TBI in four major North American newspapers over the last quarter-century. We used the grounded-theory approach to identify major themes and then did a content analysis to compare the frequency of key themes between 1998-2000 and 2009-2011. The major themes were: perceptions of brain injury, aggression, equipment, rules and regulations, and youth hockey. Across the full study period, newspaper articles from Canada and America portrayed violence and aggression that leads to TBI both as integral to hockey and as an unavoidable risk associated with playing the game. They also condemned violence in ice hockey, criticized the administrative response to TBI, and recognized the significance of TBI. In Canada, aggression was reported more often recently and there was a distinctive shift in portraying protective equipment as a solution to TBI in earlier years to a potential contributing factor to TBI later in the study period. American newspapers gave a greater attention to 'perception of risks' and the role of protective equipment, and discussed TBI in a broader context in the recent time period. Newspapers from both countries showed similar recent trends in regards to a need for rule changes to curb youth sport-related TBI. This study provides a rich description of the reporting around TBI in contact sport. Understanding this reporting is important for evaluating whether the dangers of sport-related TBI are being appropriately communicated by the media. PMID:23613957

  18. Trends in North American Newspaper Reporting of Brain Injury in Ice Hockey

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Sharma, Bhanu; Lawrence, David W.; Ilie, Gabriela; Silverberg, Sarah; Jones, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    The frequency and potential long-term effects of sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI) make it a major public health concern. The culture within contact sports, such as ice hockey, encourages aggression that puts youth at risk of TBI such as concussion. Newspaper reports play an important role in conveying and shaping the culture around health-related behaviors. We qualitatively studied reports about sport-related TBI in four major North American newspapers over the last quarter-century. We used the grounded-theory approach to identify major themes and then did a content analysis to compare the frequency of key themes between 1998–2000 and 2009–2011. The major themes were: perceptions of brain injury, aggression, equipment, rules and regulations, and youth hockey. Across the full study period, newspaper articles from Canada and America portrayed violence and aggression that leads to TBI both as integral to hockey and as an unavoidable risk associated with playing the game. They also condemned violence in ice hockey, criticized the administrative response to TBI, and recognized the significance of TBI. In Canada, aggression was reported more often recently and there was a distinctive shift in portraying protective equipment as a solution to TBI in earlier years to a potential contributing factor to TBI later in the study period. American newspapers gave a greater attention to ‘perception of risks’ and the role of protective equipment, and discussed TBI in a broader context in the recent time period. Newspapers from both countries showed similar recent trends in regards to a need for rule changes to curb youth sport-related TBI. This study provides a rich description of the reporting around TBI in contact sport. Understanding this reporting is important for evaluating whether the dangers of sport-related TBI are being appropriately communicated by the media. PMID:23613957

  19. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  20. Characterizing retinal structure injury in African-Americans with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Seraji-Bozorgzad, Navid; Reed, Sheridan; Bao, Fen; Santiago, Carla; Tselis, Alexandros; Bernitsas, Evanthia; Caon, Christina; Frohman, Elliot; Bhatti, M Tariq; Cree, Bruce A C; Khan, Omar

    2016-05-01

    To examine retinal structure injury in African-Americans (AA) with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) compared to Caucasians (CA) with MS, we used spectral domain optical-coherence tomography (OCT) in this cross sectional study. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macular volume of 234 MS patients (149 CA; 85 AA) and 74 healthy controls (60 CA; 17 AA) were measured. Intra-retinal segmentation was performed to obtain retinal nerve fiber (RNFL), ganglion cell (GCL), inner plexiform (IPL), inner nuclear (INL), outer plexiform (OPL), outer nuclear (ONL), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and photoreceptor (PR) layer volumes. Study was approved by IRB, and informed consent obtained from all participants. We found that pRNFL was thicker in AA v. CA healthy controls (100.9 vs 97.00μm, p=0.004). Compared to HC, MS patients demonstrated thinner pRNFL (p<0.0001), and lower TMV (p<0.001), macular RNFL (p<0.0001), GCL (p<0.0001), and IPL (p<0.0001). AAMS patients had thinner pRNFL (87.2 vs 90.0μm, and lower TMV (8.2 vs 8.4mm(3), p=0.0001), RNFL (0.73 vs 0.79mm(3), p=0.0001), and GCL (0.94 vs 0.98mm(3), p=0.007) than CAMS patients. Sub-analysis of patients without history of AON showed thinner pRNFL (88.9 vs 93.1µm) and TMV (8.2 vs. 8.5mm(3), p<0.0001) in AAMS compared to CAMS patients. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study provides evidence supporting greater retinal structure injury in AAMS compared to CAMS patients, irrespective of history of AON. Our findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating a more severe CNS tissue injury in AAMS patients. PMID:27237751

  1. American Indians/Native Alaskans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Examining the Impairments of Traumatic Brain Injury, Disparities in Service Provision, and Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Harold Wayne; Lloyd, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    The researchers analyzed data from fiscal year 2006 and found that American Indians/Native Alaskans (AI/NA) with traumatic brain injury experienced similar functional limitations at application as did non-AI/NA. Fewer funds were expended on purchased services for AI/NA than for non-AI/NA. The wages of AI/NA were equitable to those of non-AI/NA at…

  2. Potential Long-Term Consequences of Concussive and Subconcussive Injury.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bertrand R; Alosco, Michael L; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C

    2016-05-01

    Repeated concussive and subconcussive trauma is associated with the later development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease associated with clinical symptoms in multiple domains and a unique pattern of pathologic changes. CTE has been linked to boxing and American football; CTE has also been identified in soccer, ice hockey, baseball, rugby, and military service. To date, most large studies of CTE have come from enriched cohorts associated with brain bank donations for traumatic brain injury, although several recent studies re-examining neurodegenerative disease brain banks suggest that CTE is more common than is currently appreciated. PMID:27154859

  3. Brain injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. METHODS The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. RESULTS Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. CONCLUSIONS The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and

  4. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions. PMID:26284680

  5. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Akinbo, Sunday R A; Tella, Bosede A; Olawale, Olajide A

    2014-05-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years) in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT) or a control (CON) group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25%) of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 - 0.86; p = 0.006)] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.82; p = 0.004)]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players. Key pointsThe FIFA 11+ has only been tested in randomised controlled trials conducted on female youth football players; this study

  6. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  7. Back injuries in college athletes.

    PubMed

    Keene, J S; Albert, M J; Springer, S L; Drummond, D S; Clancy, W G

    1989-09-01

    Frequency and types of back injuries sustained by intercollegiate athletes were determined by examining medical records of 4,790 athletes that competed in 17 varsity sports over a 10-year period. These athletes sustained 333 back injuries, an injury rate of 7 per 100 participants. Injury rates were significantly higher in football and gymnastics, and 80% of the injuries occurred in practice, 6% in competition, and 14% during preseason conditioning. Muscle strains occurred with much greater frequency than other types of injuries, and acute back injuries were much more prevalent (59%) than overuse injuries (12%) or injuries associated with pre-existing conditions (29%). PMID:2520075

  8. Impact loading of the lumbar spine during football blocking.

    PubMed

    Gatt, C J; Hosea, T M; Palumbo, R C; Zawadsky, J P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the impact force to the lumbar spine when football players hit a blocking sled. We quantified the loads at the L4-5 motion segment throughout the blocking sequence. Five Division I-A college football linemen were subjects for our study. Kinematic data were obtained while the subjects hit a blocking sled instrumented with a force plate. Three plane forces were then calculated from these data. The average impact force measured at the blocking sled was 3013 +/- 598 N. The average peak compression force at the L4-5 motion segment was 8679 +/- 1965 N. The average peak anteroposterior shear force was 3304 +/- 1116 N, and the average peak lateral shear force was 1709 +/- 411 N. The magnitude of the loads on the L4-5 motion segment during football blocking exceed those determined during fatigue studies to cause pathologic changes in both the lumbar disk and the pars interarticularis. These data suggest that the mechanics of repetitive blocking may be responsible for the increased incidence of lumbar spine injury incurred by football linemen. PMID:9167810

  9. The Moderation of Blood Alcohol Levels on Higher Odds of Survival among American Indians with Violent, Blunt-Force Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kristen F; Kim, Bum Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the moderation of blood alcohol level (BAL) and American Indian race on survival of patients with violent traumatic brain injury (TBI). An initial logistic regression model indicated that those who were American Indian and insured had higher odds of survival and those with higher injury severity scores and low-medium BAL were less likely to survive. A second logistic regression model including a relationship between American Indians and BAL found that American Indians had a higher odds of survival which tripled when they have no BAL. Low-medium and high BAL were associated with less likelihood of survival among White patients. PMID:26963822

  10. Multilevel lumbar transverse process fractures in a professional association football player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew; Catterson, Paul

    2015-05-01

    We present a case of multilevel lumbar transverse process fracture in a professional association football player, incurred after a fall from height during competitive play. Traditionally associated with high impact trauma in the general population, this injury is relatively rare in the context of professional football where it is more likely to be associated with lower impact trauma. We outline our experience of mechanism of injury, treatment options and recovery time serving as a guide for fellow clinicians when treating this condition in practice. In this particular case, the return to play time was 68 days. PMID:26019886

  11. 'Thoroughly Good Football': Teachers and the Origins of Elementary School Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrigan, Colm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of elementary school soccer (football), addressing topics such as: the role of public schools in organized soccer, soccer in elementary schools, the first schoolboy soccer association, South London Schools' Football Association, the London Schools' Football Association, and the English Schools' Football Association. (CMK)

  12. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  13. The major traumas in youth football.

    PubMed

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies. PMID:14618321

  14. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  15. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey. PMID:14583164

  16. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  17. Osteochondral and Meniscal Allograft Transplantation in the Football (Soccer) Player

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Riley J.; Gersoff, Wayne K.; Bugbee, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Knee injuries are common in football, frequently involving damage to the meniscus and articular cartilage. These injuries can cause significant disability, result in loss of playing time, and predispose players to osteoarthritis. Osteochondral allografting is an increasingly popular treatment option for osteoarticular lesions in athletes. Osteochondral allografts provide mature, orthotopic hyaline cartilage on an osseous scaffold that serves as an attachment vehicle, which is rapidly replaced via creeping substitution, leading to reliable graft integration that allows for simplified rehabilitation and accelerated return to sport. The indications for meniscal replacement in football players are currently still evolving. Meniscus allografts offer potential functional, analgesic, and chondroprotective benefits in the meniscectomized knee. In the player at the end of his or her professional/competitive career, meniscal allografts can play a role in averting progression of chondropenia and facilitating knee function and an active lifestyle. This article is intended to present a concise overview of the limited published results for osteochondral and meniscal allografting in the athletic population and to provide a practical treatment algorithm that is of relevance to the clinician as well as the patient/football player, based on current consensus of opinion. PMID:26069605

  18. Complete rupture of the pancreas after a kick into the abdomen during a football match

    PubMed Central

    Papalampros, Alexandros; Fard-Aghaie, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Tina; Oldhafer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic injury is uncommon, accounting for less than 7% of penetrating and 5% of blunt abdominal trauma. Blunt isolated pancreatic trauma in football has been rarely described in the literature and its diagnosis, detection and treatment still remains a challenge. We report a case of a young adult with an isolated complete rupture of the pancreatic body due to a blunt abdominal trauma during a football game. In order to preserve the pancreas and therefore retain function, we performed a terminolateral pancreaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. The diagnosis of isolated injuries of the pancreas in blunt abdominal trauma can be difficult and challenging and due to the nature of the game physicians should be highly alerted when dealing with football players sustaining abdominal trauma. PMID:24891482

  19. Complete rupture of the pancreas after a kick into the abdomen during a football match.

    PubMed

    Papalampros, Alexandros; Fard-Aghaie, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Tina; Oldhafer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic injury is uncommon, accounting for less than 7% of penetrating and 5% of blunt abdominal trauma. Blunt isolated pancreatic trauma in football has been rarely described in the literature and its diagnosis, detection and treatment still remains a challenge. We report a case of a young adult with an isolated complete rupture of the pancreatic body due to a blunt abdominal trauma during a football game. In order to preserve the pancreas and therefore retain function, we performed a terminolateral pancreaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. The diagnosis of isolated injuries of the pancreas in blunt abdominal trauma can be difficult and challenging and due to the nature of the game physicians should be highly alerted when dealing with football players sustaining abdominal trauma. PMID:24891482

  20. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  1. Time to Return to Play After High Ankle Sprains in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Downie, Brian K.; Johnson, Philip D.; Schmidt, Paul W.; Nordwall, Stephen J.; Kijek, Theresa G.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Carpenter, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Determining the severity of high ankle sprains in athletes and predicting the time that an athlete can return to unrestricted sport activities following this injury remain significant challenges. Purpose: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if objective measurements of injury severity after high ankle sprains could predict the time to return to play in Division I football players and (2) to determine whether physical examination or diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound was more predictive of return to play. The hypothesis was that objective measures of injury severity of a high ankle sprain can be predictive of time to return to athletic participation in collegiate football players. Study Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Twenty consecutive Division I collegiate football players with a diagnosis of a grade I high ankle sprain (syndesmosis sprain without diastasis) were studied. Two clinical measurements of injury severity were determined: the height of the zone of injury on physical examination and the height of the zone of injury as defined by diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound examination. All athletes followed a standardized treatment program and return-to-play criteria. A regression model and Cox proportional hazards model were developed to determine time to return to unrestricted play as a function of injury severity and player position. Results: Physical examination but not ultrasound was significantly correlated with time to return to play. Regression and Cox analyses revealed that injury severity on physical examination and player position were significant predictors of time to return to unrestricted play following high ankle sprain. Conclusions: Injury severity on physical examination and player position are associated with the time to return to unrestricted athletic activity after injury. A model based on the data can be applied to help predict the time to return to unrestricted play in Division I collegiate football

  2. Midfoot sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Drakos, Mark C; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2014-12-01

    Midfoot sprains in the National Football League (NFL) are uncommon. There are few studies on midfoot sprains in professional athletes, as most studies focus on severe traumatic injuries resulting in Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. We conducted a study to evaluate midfoot sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. All midfoot sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from participation. Fifteen NFL players sustained midfoot sprains. Most injuries occurred during games as opposed to practice, and the injury typically resulted from direct impact rather than torsion. Twelve players had nonoperative treatment, and 3 had operative treatment. Nonoperative management resulted in a mean of 11.7 days of time lost from participation. However, there was a significant (P=.047) difference in mean (SD) time lost between the grade 1 sprain group, 3.1 (1.9) days, and the grade 2 sprain group, 36 (26.1) days. Of the 3 operative grade 3 patients, 1 returned in 73 days, and 2 were injured late in the season and returned the next season. Eleven (92%) of the 12 players who had nonoperative treatment had a successful return to play, and 10 (83%) of the 12 played more games and seasons after their midfoot injury. Depending on the diastasis category, NFL team physicians vary treatment: no diastasis (84% cam walker), latent diastasis (47% surgery, 34% cam walker), and frank diastasis (94% surgery). In the NFL, midfoot sprains can be a source of significant disability. Successful return to play can be achieved with nonoperative management for grade 1 injuries within 1 week and grade 2 injuries within 5 weeks. However, severe injuries with frank diastasis that require operative management will

  3. Longitudinal Body Composition Changes in NCAA Division I College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Eric T.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Mann, J. Bryan; Ivey, Pat A.; Hirsch, Katie R.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Many athletes seek to optimize body composition to fit the physical demands of their sport. American football requires a unique combination of size, speed, and power. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in body composition in Division I collegiate football players. For 57 players (Mean ± SD; Age=19.5 ± 0.9 yrs; Height=186.9 ± 5.7 cm; Weight=107.7 ± 19.1 kg), body composition was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the off-season (March-Pre), end of off-season (May), mid-July (Pre-Season), and the following March (March-Post). Outcome variables included weight, body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), android (AND) and gynoid (GYN) fat, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone density (BMD). For a subset of athletes (n=13 out of 57), changes over a 4-year playing career were evaluated with measurements taken every March. Throughout a single year, favorable changes were observed for BF% (Δ=−1.3 ± 2.5%), LM (Δ=2.8 ± 2.8 kg), GYN (Δ=−1.5 ± 3.0%), BMC (Δ=0.06 ± 0.14 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.015 ± 0.027g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Across four years, weight increased significantly (Δ=6.6 ± 4.1kg), and favorable changes were observed for LM (Δ=4.3 ± 3.0 kg), BMC (Δ=0.18 ± 0.17 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.033 ± 0.039 g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Similar patterns in body composition changes were observed for linemen and non-linemen. Results indicate that well-trained collegiate football players at high levels of competition can achieve favorable changes in body composition, even late in the career, which may confer benefits for performance and injury prevention. PMID:11834106

  4. Syndesmotic Ankle Sprains in Football: A Survey of National Football League Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Doughtie, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information regarding syndesmotic ankle sprains and to identify a specific treatment modality that reduces the recovery time for syndesmotic ankle sprains. Design and Setting: A mailed survey conducted from the Sports Medicine Department of Tufts University. Subjects: I sent a survey to the head athletic trainers of all 30 National Football League teams. Of the surveys mailed, 23 (77%) were returned. Measurements: The survey consisted of 8 questions pertaining to syndesmotic ankle sprains with respect to mechanism of injury, playing surface, diagnostic tests, immediate and follow-up treatment modalities, best treatment, recovery time, and taping procedure. Results: A variety of causes were noted as being responsible for syndesmotic ankle sprains; the most frequently described mechanism of injury involved a rotational component. Playing surface was not thought to be a factor in the incidence of syndesmotic ankle sprains. Most athletic trainers (96%) indicated that plain radiographs were part of the diagnostic process, while 52% noted that magnetic resonance imaging was also ordered for suspected syndesmotic ankle sprains. The most frequently used modalities during the acute stage were ice, electrical muscle stimulation, casting or bracing (or both), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Proprioception training, ultrasound, and taping were the most commonly used modalities during follow-up treatment. Immobilization, cortico-steroid injection, and ice and exercise were reported to be the best treatments for reducing recovery time of syndesmotic ankle sprains. Conclusions: To date, no treatment plan or modality for syndesmotic ankle sprains has been shown to effectively provide an early and safe return to football. Therefore, the need is clear for prospective studies comparing treatment protocols and severity of injury. PMID:16558541

  5. A network-based ranking system for US college football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Newman, M. E. J.

    2005-10-01

    American college football faces a conflict created by the desire to stage national championship games between the best teams of a season when there is no conventional play-off system for deciding which those teams are. Instead, ranking of teams is based on their records of wins and losses during the season, but each team plays only a small fraction of eligible opponents, making the system underdetermined or contradictory or both. It is an interesting challenge to create a ranking system that at once is mathematically well founded, gives results in general accord with received wisdom concerning the relative strengths of the teams, and is based upon intuitive principles, allowing it to be accepted readily by fans and experts alike. Here we introduce a one-parameter ranking method that satisfies all of these requirements and is based on a network representation of college football schedules.

  6. Robert Jemison ``Tee'' Van de Graaff: From Football Fields to Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. Talmage; Young, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Van de Graaff's three older brothers made the family name famous in football, and it seemed that Robert was also headed toward being a sports star. Unfortunately, his football career was cut short by an injury. However, it is interesting to note that principles involved in his most memorable invention have some remarkable analogs in that sport. Few details of Robert's early life have heretofore been published. The purpose of this paper, during the 75th anniversary year of the invention of the Van de Graaff generator, is to provide some of this interesting historical background.

  7. Preseason and midseason balance ability of professional Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2008-01-01

    Balance ability has been shown to be important for sports performance and injury prevention. It is unclear whether balance ability changes due to sports participation and regular training without specific balance training. It has not been shown whether certain sports such as the various football codes that often involve single limb stance and balance as part of kicking, running, rapid changes of direction, jumping, and landing actually influence balance ability. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in balance ability measured at preseason and during the competitive season for elite footballer. Twenty-eight professional Australian footballers who did not undertake any specific balance training took part in this study. Postural sway from single limb balance on a force platform was measured for both limbs 1 week before the start and midway through a 22-week competitive season. The subjects were required to step onto a balance mat on top of the force platform and maintain balance for 20 seconds. The maximum sway of the center of pressure in the mediolateral direction was used as the balance score. It was found that there was not a significant difference in the balance ability measurement at the start and during the competitive season. Sports participation and regular training did not influence balance ability in this cohort of athletes. PMID:18296977

  8. Use of the air-inflated jacket in football.

    PubMed

    Cain, T E; Donzis, B; Meins, J

    1981-01-01

    Injuries to the rib cage are common in football, but little has been done to protect this area. This paper discusses the effectiveness and usefulness of a protective jacket in football. The jacket is highly durable, constructed of urethane-coated nylon, and heat-sealed to take on the shape of several cylinders interconnected by fabric valves which constrict in response to a sudden blow. Its exterior is covered by a 1/8-inch thick Lexan (General Electric, Toledo, OH) shield. The jacket weighs 6.5 oz. It showed impressive results when tested. Testing was done by forcefully swinging a baseball bat against the rib cage protected by the jacket. By digitization of high speed movie filming at 500 frames/second, we were able to determine the speed, velocity, and area of contact. The amount of force deflection was calculated to be 587.6 psi. To inflict this force, a player would have to be traveling 60 miles/hour and strike his opponent with the heel. This lightweight, air-inflated, padded jacket has protected and prevented rib cage injuries in professional athletes. It is accepted well by players. This suggests that similar protective equipment for other areas would be useful and represents an advancement in preventing injury. PMID:7258463

  9. The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications.

    PubMed

    Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective. PMID:24051597

  10. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  11. The functions of gender role traditionality, ambivalent sexism, injury, and frequency of assault on domestic violence perception: a study between Japanese and American college students.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Niwako; Ostenson, Joseph; Brown, C Ryan

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the mediating influence of gender-role traditionality (GRT), ambivalent sexism, and victim injury and frequency of assault on domestic violence (DV) perception differences between Japanese and American college students. As predicted, Japanese tended to minimize, blame, and excuse DV more than did Americans, and these national differences were mediated by GRT. Participants viewed the DV incident more seriously when the victim presented injury or when the incident had occurred frequently. Those high in benevolent and hostile sexism were more likely to minimize DV, whereas those high only in benevolent sexism were more likely to blame the victim. PMID:19675366

  12. The Incidence of Injury Among Male and Female Intercollegiate Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Karen Y.; Johnston, Dana A.; Owens, Brett D.; Cameron, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The National Collegiate Athletic Association classifies women’s rugby as an emerging sport. Few studies have examined the injury rates in women’s collegiate rugby or compared injury rates between sexes. Hypothesis: Injury rates will differ between female and male intercollegiate club rugby players. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Five years of injury data were collected from the men’s and women’s rugby teams at a US service academy using the institution’s injury surveillance system. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence rate of injury during the study period per 10,000 athlete exposures. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated using a Poisson distribution to compare the rates by sex. Results: During the study period, the overall incidence rate for injury was 30% higher (IRR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.54) among men when compared with women; however, the distribution of injuries varied by sex. The incidence rate for ACL injury among women was 5.3 times (IRR = 5.32, 95% CI: 1.33, 30.53) higher compared with that among men. Men were 2.5 times (IRR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.52) more likely to sustain a fracture. The rate of acromioclavicular joint injury was 2.2 times (IRR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.19) higher among men when compared with women. Men were 6.6 times (IRR = 6.55, 95% CI: 2.65, 20.91) more likely to have an open wound than women. Conclusion: There are differences in injury rates and patterns between female and male American rugby players. Clinical Relevance: The differences in injury patterns may reflect distinct playing styles, which could be the result of the American football background common among many of the male players. PMID:24459548

  13. Soccer-Specific Warm-Up and Lower Extremity Injury Rates in Collegiate Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Dustin R.; Palmer, Thomas; Onate, James A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Grindstaff, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Context: A number of comprehensive injury-prevention programs have demonstrated injury risk-reduction effects but have had limited adoption across athletic settings. This may be due to program noncompliance, minimal exercise supervision, lack of exercise progression, and sport specificity. A soccer-specific program described as the F-MARC 11+ was developed by an expert group in association with the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) to require minimal equipment and implementation as part of regular soccer training. The F-MARC 11+ has been shown to reduce injury risk in youth female soccer players but has not been evaluated in an American male collegiate population. Objective: To investigate the effects of a soccer-specific warm-up program (F-MARC 11+) on lower extremity injury incidence in male collegiate soccer players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: One American collegiate soccer team followed for 2 seasons. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-one male collegiate athletes aged 18–25 years. Intervention(s): The F-MARC 11+ program is a comprehensive warm-up program targeting muscular strength, body kinesthetic awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements. Training sessions and program progression were monitored by a certified athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Lower extremity injury risk and time lost to lower extremity injury. Results: The injury rate in the referent season was 8.1 injuries per 1000 exposures with 291 days lost and 2.2 injuries per 1000 exposures and 52 days lost in the intervention season. The intervention season had reductions in the relative risk (RR) of lower extremity injury of 72% (RR = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.09, 0.85) and time lost to lower extremity injury (P < .01). Conclusions: This F-MARC 11+ program reduced overall risk and severity of lower extremity injury compared with controls in collegiate-aged male soccer

  14. Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of firearm deaths and injuries is one of the most complex and controversial issues facing the public health profession in recent years. Laws have been enacted to control or discourage private gun ownership, and especially to eliminate guns from the hands of criminals, but the laws' effects in reducing crime and firearm-related injuries and deaths have been disappointing. Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides are committed with guns. There are virtually no reliable data on the number of nonfatal firearm injuries. One of the most troubling aspects of handgun violence is that children often are the victims. Educational efforts have been attempted to promote the safer use of firearms, but they have not led to a significant reduction in the number of fatalities, since most firearm incidents are intended to do harm. PMID:2495544

  15. Pre-Existing Rotator Cuff Tears as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Gomberawalla, M. Mustafa; Schroeder, Greg; LaBelle, Mark; Hollett, Brian P.; Saltzman, Matthew; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Fifty percent of all athletes at the National Football League (NFL) Combine report having had a shoulder injury at some point during their playing career. Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in young athletes, but an increasing incidence has been noted amongst competitive football players. It is unknown how pre-existing rotator cuff tears affect career longevity and performance of NFL athletes. In Combine athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears, knowledge of outcomes may help athletes and physicians manage expectations of draft potential, career length and performance. Methods: The written medical evaluations of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 during the NFL Combine were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for the diagnosis of a pre-existing rotator cuff tear and stratified based on whether or not they underwent surgical intervention. Athletes with rotator cuff tears, who were selected in the NFL draft, were matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without significant documented shoulder pathology. Career statistics, including a previously established “Performance Score,” were compiled. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a Student's t-test. A Chi Squared test was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p-value < 0.05. Results: Between the years of 2003 and 2011, 2,965 consecutive athletes were evaluated. Forty-nine athletes were identified with a pre-existing rotator cuff tear; twenty-two of these athletes underwent surgical intervention for their tear and 27 were treated non-operatively. Those who attended the NFL Combine with a history of a rotator cuff tear were significantly less likely to be drafted than those without a previous injury (55.1% vs. 77.5% respectively, p = 0.002) (Table 1A). The 27 drafted athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears played significantly fewer years (4.3 vs

  16. Measuring tactical behaviour in football.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V

    2012-05-01

    The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. PMID:22377947

  17. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Drakos, Mark C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2013-11-01

    Syndesmosis sprains in the National Football League (NFL) can be a persistent source of disability, especially compared with lateral ankle injuries. This study evaluated syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from sports participation. Thirty-six syndesmosis and 53 lateral ankle sprains occurred in the cohort of NFL players. The injury mechanism typically resulted from direct impact in the syndesmosis and torsion in the lateral ankle sprain group (P=.034). All players were managed nonoperatively. The mean time lost from participation was 15.4 days in the syndesmosis and 6.5 days in the lateral ankle sprain groups (P⩽.001). National Football League team physicians varied treatment for syndesmosis sprains depending on the category of diastasis but recommended nonoperative management for lateral ankle sprains. Syndesmosis sprains in the NFL can be a source of significant disability compared with lateral ankle sprains. Successful return to play with nonoperative management is frequently achieved for syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains depending on injury severity. With modern treatment algorithms for syndesmosis sprains, more aggressive nonoperative treatment is advocated. Although the current study shows that syndesmosis injuries require longer rehabilitation periods when compared with lateral ankle sprains, the time lost from participation may not be as prolonged as previously reported. PMID:24200441

  18. Child Development and Pediatric Sport and Recreational Injuries by Age

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. Objective: To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001–2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Patients or Other Participants: Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Results: Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Conclusions: Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in

  19. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  20. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  1. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969

  2. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  3. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  4. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  5. Epidemiology of soccer players traumatic injuries during the 2015 America Cup

    PubMed Central

    Pangrazio, Osvaldo; Forriol, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim to provide an overview of the traumatic injuries sustained by players in the 2015 America Cup. Material and methods we collected the medical reports on all the matches held during the 2015 America Cup, in Chile, in 2015. Twelve American teams took part in the championship, consisted of 26 matches with a total of 276 players. The physician for each team sent a request form of the traumatic injuries sustained, including the time at which the injury was produced, the location and diagnosis, its severity and the circumstances (contact injury, sanction, treatment required). Results the mean number of minutes played was 233 (SD: 147) (5–570) minutes. An injury occurred every 58 minutes, which means that there were 17.25 injuries per 1,000 minutes of match time. We found 44 injuries in 30 players. There were 14 non-contact injuries, and 30 contact injuries, of which 13 were declared fouls and resulted in cards being given. Five teams had one injured player, two had 2, two had 4, and one had 25 injuries. The most frequent injuries were those to the lower limbs. The muscles strains happened in the second part of the second half of the match, the ACL rupture at the end of the first half, and the other sprains and strains in the second half. The contusions occurred at all times throughout the match, although they seemed to be concentrated towards the end of the first half, while the cases of tendinitis were caused in the first part of the second half. Conclusion football injuries are very common, and even though serious injuries are rare, it is increasingly necessary to set protocols for action which ensure good medical attention at all levels to address the problems that arise, both during training and in competitions, and to be prepared to treat serious injuries if these occur. PMID:27331040

  6. Risk management: FIFA's approach for protecting the health of football players

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Colin W; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Background Sport and exercise have long-term health benefits, but there is also a risk that participants will sustain injuries and/or ill health from these activities. For this reason, international sports governing bodies have a responsibility to identify the risks that exist within their sport and to provide guidance to participants and other stakeholders on how these risks can be controlled within acceptable levels. Purpose To demonstrate how Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), as football's governing body, uses a risk management framework to identify, quantify, mitigate and communicate the risks of injury and ill health in football for men, women and children in all environments. Method All the research papers published by FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) during the period 1994 to 2011 were reviewed and categorised according to an established sport-related risk management framework. Conclusions F-MARC investigated and mitigated 17 areas of risk to footballers' health in a coherent and consistent approach through the process of risk management. PMID:22143999

  7. Six Degree of Freedom Measurements of Human Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Fidel; Wu, Lyndia C.; Yip, Michael C.; Laksari, Kaveh; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Lopez, Jaime; Grant, Gerald; Kleiven, Svein; Camarillo, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated whether direct measurement of head rotation improves prediction of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Although many studies have implicated rotation as a primary cause of mTBI, regulatory safety standards use 3 degree of freedom (3DOF) translation-only kinematic criteria to predict injury. Direct 6DOF measurements of human head rotation (3DOF) and translation (3DOF) have not been previously available to examine whether additional DOFs improve injury prediction. We measured head impacts in American football, boxing, and mixed martial arts using 6DOF instrumented mouthguards, and predicted clinician-diagnosed injury using 12 existing kinematic criteria and 6 existing brain finite element (FE) criteria. Among 513 measured impacts were the first two 6DOF measurements of clinically-diagnosed mTBI. For this dataset, 6DOF criteria were most predictive of injury, more than 3DOF translation-only and 3DOF rotation-only criteria. Peak principal strain in the corpus callosum, a 6DOF FE criteria, was the strongest predictor, followed by two criteria that included rotation measurements, peak rotational acceleration magnitude and Head Impact Power (HIP). These results suggest head rotation measurements may improve injury prediction. However, more 6DOF data is needed to confirm this evaluation of existing injury criteria, and to develop new criteria that considers directional sensitivity to injury. PMID:25533767

  8. Six Degree-of-Freedom Measurements of Human Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Fidel; Wu, Lyndia C; Yip, Michael C; Laksari, Kaveh; Hoffman, Andrew R; Lopez, Jaime R; Grant, Gerald A; Kleiven, Svein; Camarillo, David B

    2015-08-01

    This preliminary study investigated whether direct measurement of head rotation improves prediction of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Although many studies have implicated rotation as a primary cause of mTBI, regulatory safety standards use 3 degree-of-freedom (3DOF) translation-only kinematic criteria to predict injury. Direct 6DOF measurements of human head rotation (3DOF) and translation (3DOF) have not been previously available to examine whether additional DOFs improve injury prediction. We measured head impacts in American football, boxing, and mixed martial arts using 6DOF instrumented mouthguards, and predicted clinician-diagnosed injury using 12 existing kinematic criteria and 6 existing brain finite element (FE) criteria. Among 513 measured impacts were the first two 6DOF measurements of clinically diagnosed mTBI. For this dataset, 6DOF criteria were the most predictive of injury, more than 3DOF translation-only and 3DOF rotation-only criteria. Peak principal strain in the corpus callosum, a 6DOF FE criteria, was the strongest predictor, followed by two criteria that included rotation measurements, peak rotational acceleration magnitude and Head Impact Power (HIP). These results suggest head rotation measurements may improve injury prediction. However, more 6DOF data is needed to confirm this evaluation of existing injury criteria, and to develop new criteria that considers directional sensitivity to injury. PMID:25533767

  9. From childhood to senior professional football: elite youth players' engagement in non-football activities.

    PubMed

    Haugaasen, Mathias; Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Despite the large amount of research available on how engagement in football practice relates to future performance level among football players, similar information about the contribution of non-football activities is scarce. Based on data from 745 elite youth players this study aimed to identify the characteristics and contribution of diverse participation towards elite youth and senior professional status. The data were collected using a retrospective questionnaire where the players reported the amount of time spent in other sports than football, in addition to their perceived contribution of different non-football activities for developing football skills. The accumulated hours of time spent in other sports of players who had obtained a senior professional contract were compared to non-professional players, using multilevel modelling (n = 558), while a t-test compared the activity ratings to each other. No significant differences were identified between professional and non-professional players' engagement history, but overall, the players rated sports similar to football to be significantly more relevant for developing football skills than other sports. The results suggests that spending time in non-football activities did not contribute to present differences in performance attainment in football, but also that potential advantages of such activities may be related to their characteristics. PMID:25357261

  10. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2010-12-01

    Groin injuries cause major problems in sports and particularly in football. Exercise is effective in treating adductor-related groin pain, but no trials have been published regarding the specific prevention of groin pain or prevention specifically targeting overuse injuries in sport using exercise programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including strengthening (concentric and eccentric), coordination, and core stability exercises for the muscles related to the pelvis. Physiotherapists assigned to each club registered all groin injuries. Twenty-two clubs in each group completed the study, represented by 977 players. There was no significant effect of the intervention (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.40-1.19). The risk of a groin injury was reduced by 31%, but this reduction was not significant. A univariate analysis showed that having had a previous groin injury almost doubles the risk of developing a new groin injury and playing at a higher level almost triples the risk of developing a groin injury. PMID:19883386

  11. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p < 0.01). Contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between our groups (p > 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes. PMID:26061068

  12. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football. PMID:21509153

  13. Risk assessment in professional football: an examination of accidents and incidents in the 1994 World Cup finals.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R D; Fuller, C W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risks to footballers' health and safety during competitive international matches, with identification of the most common causes of injury. METHODS: Videos of 44 of the 52 matches played during the 1994 World Cup finals staged in the USA were analysed. During each match, several relevant variables were recorded, including the number of fouls, injuries, treatments, times of incidents, identity of players treated or injured, and the injury mechanism. Additional information on players' injuries was obtained from the extensive media coverage of the event. RESULTS: Only 29% of injuries resulted from foul play, whereas 71% of injuries to players occurred where no foul play was adjudged by the referee to have taken place (P < 0.01). Defenders were found to be proportionately subjected to a greater risk of injury than other players (P < 0.05). Fifteen per cent of all injuries were judged to be at least moderate, resulting in the player missing at least one match. Frequency of moderate injury was 1026 injuries per 100,000 hours played. CONCLUSIONS: The major causes of injuries during international football matches were not found to be associated with foul play, as judged by the referees. However, in those cases where injuries occurred without a foul being committed, almost 50% involved player to player contact. This gives some cause for concern and is worth further investigation. Images Figure 2 PMID:8799605

  14. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved. PMID:24214593

  15. Singular case of shooting a football fan with a signal rocket.

    PubMed

    Kobek, M; Rygol, K; Chowaniec, C; Nowak, A

    2005-01-17

    The authors present a very rare case of fatal injuries resulting from shooting a parachute signal rocket with a hand operated launcher of signal pistol kind by pseudo-football fans. A 16-year-old football fan sustained extensive thermal burn of his lower extremities and abdomen, lacerated wound of his left thigh with a deep signal rocket-shot canal which caused injuries in subcutaneous tissue, fascia and both medial and posterior muscles of the thigh as well as injured both femoral vein and artery with subsequent hemorrhagic, burn and traumatic shocks. In spite of specialistic surgical treatment, the victim was not rescued. Analysis of medical documentation and our autopsy results were supplemented with an expert's opinion on physicochemical examinations supported by photographic documentation. PMID:15694727

  16. Brachial Plexopathy/Nerve Root Avulsion in a Football Player: The Role of Electrodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Radecki, Jeffrey; Wolfe, Scott W.; Strauss, Helene L.; Mintz, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) studies are a useful tool in anatomical localization of peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries. They are especially helpful in distinguishing between brachial plexopathy and nerve root injuries where surgical intervention may be indicated. EMG can also assist in providing prognostic information after nerve injury as well as after nerve repair. In this case report, a football player presented with weakness in his right upper limb after a traction/traumatic injury to the right brachial plexus. EMG studies revealed evidence of both pre- and postganglionic injury to multiple cervical roots. The injury was substantial enough to cause nerve root avulsions involving the C6 and C7 levels. Surgical referral led to nerve grafts targeted at regaining function in shoulder abduction and elbow flexion. After surgery, the patient’s progress was monitored utilizing EMG to assist in identifying true axonal regeneration. PMID:18751870

  17. Sideline concussion testing in high school football on Guam

    PubMed Central

    Duenas, Matthew; Whyte, Greg; Jandial, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risks of repeat concussions and returning to play (RTP) prior to the resolution of concussive symptoms are medically established. However, RTP guidelines for high school sports are varied and often notably absent. The island of Guam, a US territory, has a robust athletics program but lacks structure to reduce concussions or establish RTP protocols. Consequently, there is an opportunity to limit the incidence of “second-hit syndrome” and other harmful effects through education and testing. Methods: We evaluated the feasibility of Sideline Concussion Testing SCT) as a novel feature of Guam high school athletics. Thirteen high school football players were observed over three consecutive football games. They were first given a questionnaire about concussion history, symptoms, medical evaluation, and RTP. Researchers used the King–Devick Test, a SCT tool, and baseline scores were recorded. If players were then observed to have significant head trauma or to show concussive symptoms, they were sidelined and tested. Results: Five of 13 students had a previous concussion and limited awareness of RTP guidelines. Of those five, four received no medical consultation or stand down period before RTP. There was also a lack of understanding of what constitutes a concussion; five out of eight individuals who denied previous concussion confirmed having bell ringers, seeing stars, and other classic concussive symptoms. Over the course of the study the SCT identified three concussions, with significant deviations from baseline time on a test that measured visual and speech disturbances. Conclusions: The feasibility of SCT use in Guam high school football was established and our pilot study identified areas for improvement. Established definitions of concussion and RTP guidelines were lacking. Therefore, an opportunity exists through public health efforts that involve the entire community to increase concussion awareness and reduce injuries in high school sports

  18. Children in pickup trucks. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States. A recent study found that in crashes involving fatalities, cargo area passengers were 3 times more likely to die than were occupants in the cab. Compared with restrained cab occupants, the risk of death for those in the cargo area was 8 times higher. Furthermore, the increased use of extended-cab pickup trucks and air bag-equipped front passenger compartments creates concerns about the safe transport of children. The most effective preventive strategies are the legislative prohibition of travel in the cargo area and requirements for age-appropriate restraint use and seat selection in the cab. Parents should select vehicles that are appropriate for the safe transportation needs of the family. Physicians have an important role in counseling families and advocating public policy measures to reduce the number of deaths and injuries to occupants of pickup trucks. PMID:11015537

  19. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  20. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  1. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  2. Some Tentative Plans for Football on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Tentative football televising agreements between the National Collegiate Athletics Association and four television broadcasting companies, unconfirmed by contract pending a Supreme Court antitrust ruling concerning network and cable television companies, are outlined. (MSE)

  3. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  4. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804–12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious—reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  5. Functionally-Detected Cognitive Impairment in High School Football Players without Clinically-Diagnosed Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Nauman, Eric A.; Breedlove, Evan L.; Yoruk, Umit; Dye, Anne E.; Morigaki, Katherine E.; Feuer, Henry; Leverenz, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Head trauma and concussion in football players have recently received considerable media attention. Postmortem evidence suggests that accrual of damage to the brain may occur with repeated blows to the head, even when the individual blows fail to produce clinical symptoms. There is an urgent need for improved detection and characterization of head trauma to reduce future injury risk and promote development of new therapies. In this study we examined neurological performance and health in the presence of head collision events in high school football players, using longitudinal measures of collision events (the HIT™ System), neurocognitive testing (ImPACT™), and functional magnetic resonance imaging MRI (fMRI). Longitudinal assessment (including baseline) was conducted in 11 young men (ages 15–19 years) participating on the varsity and junior varsity football teams at a single high school. We expected and observed subjects in two previously described categories: (1) no clinically-diagnosed concussion and no changes in neurological behavior, and (2) clinically-diagnosed concussion with changes in neurological behavior. Additionally, we observed players in a previously undiscovered third category, who exhibited no clinically-observed symptoms associated with concussion, but who demonstrated measurable neurocognitive (primarily visual working memory) and neurophysiological (altered activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) impairments. This new category was associated with significantly higher numbers of head collision events to the top-front of the head, directly above the DLPFC. The discovery of this new category suggests that more players are suffering neurological injury than are currently being detected using traditional concussion-assessment tools. These individuals are unlikely to undergo clinical evaluation, and thus may continue to participate in football-related activities, even when changes in brain physiology (and potential

  6. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE

  7. The effect of football shoulder pads on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Baronas, Jessica L; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K Sean

    2005-12-01

    Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured "game-tight" (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key PointsThe shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function.The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar

  8. High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158603.html High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion: Study Meanwhile, ... MONDAY, May 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High school football players are more likely to suffer more symptoms ...

  9. Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157538.html Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection: Report Lab ... and laboratory ratings don't indicate whether a football helmet is better at protecting high school players ...

  10. Smaller Dentate Gyrus and CA2 and CA3 Volumes Are Associated with Kynurenine Metabolites in Collegiate Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Savitz, Jonathan; Singh, Rashmi; Teague, T Kent; Bellgowan, Patrick S F

    2016-07-15

    An imbalance in kynurenine pathway metabolism is hypothesized to be associated with dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission, which has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the hippocampal volume loss observed in a variety of neurological disorders. Pre-clinical models suggest that the CA2-3 and dentate gyrus hippocampal subfields are particularly susceptible to excitotoxicity after experimental traumatic brain injury. We tested the hypothesis that smaller hippocampal volumes in collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a concussion history would be most evident in the dentate gyrus and CA2-3 subfields relative to nonfootball healthy controls (n = 27). Further, we investigated whether the concentration of peripheral levels of kynurenine metabolites are altered in football athletes. Football athletes with and without a self-reported concussion history had smaller dentate gyrus (p < 0.05, p < 0.10) and CA2-3 volumes (p's < 0.05) relative to healthy controls. Football athletes with and without a concussion history had a trend toward lower (p < 0.10) and significantly lower (p < 0.05) kynurenine levels compared with healthy controls, while athletes with a concussion history had greater levels of quinolinic acid compared with athletes without a concussion history (p < 0.05). Finally, plasma levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine inversely correlated with bilateral hippocampal volumes in football athletes with a concussion history (p < 0.01), and left hippocampal volume was correlated with the ratio of kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid in football athletes without a concussion history (p < 0.05). Our results raise the possibility that abnormalities of the kynurenine metabolic pathway constitute a mechanism for hippocampal volume differences in the context of sports-related brain injury. PMID:26493952

  11. Current Topics in Sports-related Head Injuries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    NAGAHIRO, Shinji; MIZOBUCHI, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries. PMID:25367588

  12. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  13. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  14. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  15. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  16. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  17. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  18. Disaster-Related Injuries and Illnesses Treated by American Red Cross Disaster Health Services During Hurricanes Gustav and Ike

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Rebecca S.; Schnall, Amy H.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Podgornik, Michelle N.; Wood, April D.; Spears, Jeanne; Stanley, Sharon A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the injuries and illnesses treated by the American Red Cross (Red Cross) during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike disaster relief operations reported on a new Aggregate Morbidity Report Form. Methods From August 28 to October 18, 2008, 119 Red Cross field service locations in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas addressed the healthcare needs of people affected by the hurricanes. From these locations, individual client visit data were retrospectively collated per site onto new 24-hour Aggregate Morbidity Report Forms. Results A total of 3863 clients were treated. Of the clients, 48% were girls and women and 44% were boys and men; 61% were 19 to 64 years old. Ninety-eight percent of the visits occurred in shelters. The reasons for half of the visits were acute illness and symptoms (eg, pain) and 16% were for routine follow-up care. The majority (65%) of the 2516 visits required treatment at a field location, although 34%, or 1296 visits, required a referral, including 543 healthcare facility transfers. Conclusions During the hurricanes, a substantial number of displaced evacuees sought care for acute and routine healthcare needs. The capacity of the Red Cross to address the immediate and ongoing health needs of sheltered clients for an extended period of time is a critical resource for local public health agencies, which are often overwhelmed during a disaster. This article highlights the important role that this humanitarian organization fills, to decrease surge to local healthcare systems and to monitor health effects following a disaster. The Aggregate Morbidity Report Form has the potential to assist greatly in this role, and thus its utility for real-time reporting should be evaluated further. PMID:23263323

  19. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  20. Epidemiology of Operative Procedures in an NCAA Division I Football Team Over 10 Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Mehran, Nima; Photopoulos, Christos D.; Narvy, Steven J.; Romano, Russ; Gamradt, Seth C.; Tibone, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Injury rates are high for collegiate football players. Few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of surgical procedures in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate football players. Purpose: To determine the most common surgical procedures performed in collegiate football players over a 10-year period. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: From the 2004-2005 season through the 2013-2014 season, all surgical procedures performed on athletes from a single NCAA Division I college football team during athletic participation were reviewed. Surgeries were categorized by anatomic location, and operative reports were used to obtain further surgical details. Data collected over this 10-season span included type of injury, primary procedures, reoperations, and cause of reoperation, all categorized by specific anatomic locations and position played. Results: From the 2004-2005 through the 2013-2014 seasons, 254 operations were performed on 207 players, averaging 25.4 surgical procedures per year. The majority of surgeries performed were orthopaedic procedures (92.1%, n = 234). However, there were multiple nonorthopaedic procedures (7.9%, n = 20). The most common procedure performed was arthroscopic shoulder labral repair (12.2%, n = 31). Partial meniscectomy (11.8%, n = 30), arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (9.4% n = 24), and arthroscopic hip labral repair (5.9% n = 15) were the other commonly performed procedures. There were a total of 29 reoperations performed; thus, 12.9% of primary procedures had a reoperation. The most common revision procedure was a revision open reduction internal fixation of stress fractures in the foot as a result of a symptomatic nonunion (33.33%, n = 4) and revision ACL reconstruction (12.5%, n = 3). By position, relative to the number of athletes at each position, linebackers (30.5%) and defensive linemen (29.1%) were the most likely to undergo surgery while

  1. Acute subdural hematoma in a high school football player.

    PubMed

    Litt, D W

    1995-03-01

    A 16-year-old football player developed a headache following a collision during a game. When his headache persisted for 1 week, he underwent a computerized tomographic (CT) scan to determine the cause. Findings were normal and a concussion was diagnosed. Seventeen days after the injury, the athlete reported disappearance of his symptoms. Provocative testing failed to recreate symptoms. The athlete continued to deny any symptoms and was cleared for unlimited participation 30 days after the initial injury. In the next game, the athlete collided with an opposing player, ran to the sidelines, and deteriorated on the sidelines after complaining of dizziness. Local Emergency Medical Squad personnel intubated him and transported him to a local hospital emergency room. Attending neurosurgeons diagnosed a right subdural hematoma by CT scan. A burr hole craniotomy evacuated the lesion. The operative report noted a second area of chronic membrane formation consistent with past head trauma. This lesion had escaped detection on two CT scans. In an interview 4 months postoperatively, the athlete admitted having experienced constant symptoms between the first and second injuries. PMID:16558315

  2. Recurrent Metatarsal Stress Fractures in a College Football Lineman

    PubMed Central

    Moul, Jamie L.; Massey, Andrew N.

    1995-01-01

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries of bone attributed to repetitive trauma, training errors, and/or structural abnormalities. A 21-year-old, 252-lb football lineman participating in spring conditioning drills complained of right foot pain following a plantar flexion, inversion injury that occurred while cutting. Pain was concentrated over the dorsum of the foot in both weight bearing and at rest. X-ray evaluation indicated an acute stress fracture of the fourth metatarsal and two nonunions of the second and third metatarsals. Additionally, x-rays revealed metatarsus adductus, a congenital anatomic deformity. The athlete demonstrated compensatory hyperpronation in the right hind foot during a follow-up biomechanical evaluation. He was removed from weightbearing activities, treated symptomatically for pain and swelling, and placed in a rigid orthotic. He has returned to full activity without further incident. This case report emphasizes the important role that biomechanical factors may have in osseous stress injuries. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5. PMID:16558316

  3. Talking with parents of high school football players about chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a concise summary.

    PubMed

    Love, Shawn; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, athletic-related chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has garnered a great deal of attention in the popular press and, more recently, in the scientific press. With increasing frequency, sports medicine practitioners and providers are faced with questions from the parents of high school football players about CTE and the risk posed to children who participate in this or other contact or collision sports. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research on CTE in an attempt to provide some evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinics from parents. Addressed are (1) the definitions of CTE and its symptoms, (2) the evidence for CTE in football, (3) abnormal tau protein, (4) the use of neuroimaging in CTE diagnosis, (5) risk for CTE, (6) CTE diagnosis in youth, (7) CTE and its relationship to suicide, and (8) contact and collision sports as a risk factor for permanent brain injury or death. PMID:24907288

  4. Firearm-related injury and death in the United States: a call to action from 8 health professional organizations and the American Bar Association.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Steven E; Hoyt, David B; Lawrence, Hal C; Levin, Saul; Henley, Douglas E; Alden, Errol R; Wilkerson, Dean; Benjamin, Georges C; Hubbard, William C

    2015-04-01

    Deaths and injuries related to firearms constitute a major public health problem in the United States. In response to firearm violence and other firearm-related injuries and deaths, an interdisciplinary, interprofessional group of leaders of 8 national health professional organizations and the American Bar Association, representing the official policy positions of their organizations, advocate a series of measures aimed at reducing the health and public health consequences of firearms. The specific recommendations include universal background checks of gun purchasers, elimination of physician "gag laws," restricting the manufacture and sale of military-style assault weapons and large-capacity magazines for civilian use, and research to support strategies for reducing firearm-related injuries and deaths. The health professional organizations also advocate for improved access to mental health services and avoidance of stigmatization of persons with mental and substance use disorders through blanket reporting laws. The American Bar Association, acting through its Standing Committee on Gun Violence, confirms that none of these recommendations conflict with the Second Amendment or previous rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court. PMID:25706470

  5. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Head-Down Contact and Spearing in Tackle Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Clarke, Kenneth S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Torg, Joseph S.; Weis, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations that decrease the risk of cervical spine fractures and dislocations in football players. Background: Axial loading of the cervical spine resulting from head-down contact is the primary cause of spinal cord injuries. Keeping the head up and initiating contact with the shoulder or chest decreases the risk of these injuries. The 1976 rule changes resulted in a dramatic decrease in catastrophic cervical spine injuries. However, the helmet-contact rules are rarely enforced and head-down contact still occurs frequently. Our recommendations are directed toward decreasing the incidence of head-down contact. Recommendations: Educate players, coaches, and officials that unintentional and intentional head-down contact can result in catastrophic injuries. Increase the time tacklers, ball carriers, and blockers spend practicing correct contact techniques. Improve the enforcement and understanding of the existing helmet-contact penalties. PMID:15085218

  6. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  7. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  8. A REVIEW OF EMERGENCY ROOM STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND INJURIES CONDUCTED IN LATIN AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION

    PubMed Central

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Carvalho, Heraclito B.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Issues Alcohol-attributable burden of injury is one of the most serious public health problems in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). Although knowledge on alcohol’s involvement in injuries has progressed along with the implementation of evidenced-based alcohol policies in developed countries, this was not true for the most part of LAC countries for which reducing alcohol-related injuries is an urgent necessity. Approach A systematic review was performed in order to identify the most up-to-date information on alcohol and injuries derived from emergency room (ER) studies conducted in LAC. Key Findings Findings corroborate that alcohol has a high prevalence among injured patients in the ER setting in LAC, with violence-related injuries showing an increased association with alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. However, a large number of studies did not include all types of injury and the measurement of injury risk associated with alcohol consumption. The amount of alcohol consumed in the event and hazardous drinking patterns seem to be strongly associated with injury occurrence, as well as drinking in public spaces, but a paucity of data relating to social-contextual factors limits the interpretation of the heterogeneity in the magnitude of the association of alcohol and injuries found across studies. Conclusions There is a lack of ER studies able to support strategies to reduce alcohol-related injuries in a region where effective alcohol policies are scant. Future research should focus on understanding how drinking influenced by local contexts and drinking behaviors may affect the risk of injury within each LAC country. PMID:22340601

  9. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p < .05), and believed an athlete could suffer a higher number of concussions before becoming excessive (t = 2.06, p < .05). Findings suggest most individuals are comfortable with their children playing football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion. PMID:25671347

  10. Using protection motivation theory and formative research to guide an injury prevention intervention: increasing adherence to the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Heaney, Catherine A; Kmet, Jennifer M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-05-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce childhood agricultural injuries by assisting adults in assigning appropriate chores and providing needed supervision and training. To develop an effective intervention to increase adherence to NAGCAT among farm parents, formative research (focus groups and pilot-testing) was conducted. Protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to guide this research and inform intervention development. Focus group results suggested how PMT constructs might be addressed to increase adherence. A home visit intervention, using a standardized presentation in POWERPoint™, was developed to (a) introduce NAGCAT, (b) increase motivation to use NAGCAT and enhance safe work behaviors, and (c) ultimately reduce agricultural work-related injuries among youth. Process evaluation data suggests that the intervention was well received by farm parents. Conducting theory-guided formative research identified motivational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers that might not have been otherwise apparent. PMID:21518923

  11. A Review of Sport-Related Head Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nagahiro, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns. PMID:27182494

  12. A Review of Sport-Related Head Injuries.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns. PMID:27182494

  13. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  14. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  15. There's a Football Revival Goin' On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how within the last 2 years, several historically Black colleges (Benedict College, Allen University, Edward Waters College, Paul Quinn College, Lincoln University, Stillman College) have dusted the cobwebs off their football programs, most of which had been dormant for decades. The result has been increasing enrollment, income, and…

  16. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  17. Modern Apprenticeships in English Professional Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…

  18. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  19. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  20. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  1. Head impact exposure in youth football: high school ages 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of

  2. The Biomechanical Properties of Concussions in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P.; Schnebel, Brock; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Shin, Sunghoon; Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Zimmerman, Jerrad

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sport concussion represents the majority of brain injuries occurring in the United States with 1.6 to 3.8 million cases annually. Understanding the biomechanical properties of this injury will support the development of better diagnostics and preventative techniques. METHODS We monitored all football related head impacts in 78 high school athletes (mean age 16.7 years) from 2005 through 2008 in order to better understand the biomechanical characteristics of concussive impacts. RESULTS Using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS), a total of 54,247 impacts were recorded and 13 concussive episodes captured for analysis. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis of impacts indicated that rotational acceleration (>5582.3 rad/s2), linear acceleration (>96.1 g), and impact location (front, top, back) yielded the highest predictive value of concussion. CONCLUSIONS These threshold values are nearly identical to those reported at the collegiate and professional level. If the HITS were implemented for medical use, sideline personnel can expect to diagnose one of every five athletes with a concussion when the impact exceeds these tolerance levels. Why all athletes did not sustain a concussion when the impacts generated variables in excess of our threshold criteria is not entirely clear, although individual differences between participants may play a role. A similar threshold to concussion in adolescent athletes compared to their collegiate and professional counterparts suggests an equal concussion risk at all levels of play. PMID:20351593

  3. Mismanaging Concussions in Intercollegiate Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Austin; Miller, John J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Adrian Arrington filed a class action lawsuit against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) on behalf of himself and other athletes who had sustained concussions that resulted in long-term injuries. In the lawsuit, Arrington alleged that the NCAA employed a negligent approach to concussed student-athletes.

  4. Controlled Laboratory Comparison Study of Motion With Football Equipment in a Destabilized Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; DiPaola, Matthew J.; DiPaola, Christian P.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Conrad, Bryan P.; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that there are better alternatives to log rolling patients with unstable spinal injuries, although this method is still commonly used for placing patients onto a spine board. No previous studies have examined transfer maneuvers involving an injured football player with equipment in place onto a spine board. Purpose To test 3 different transfer maneuvers of an injured football player onto a spine board to determine which method most effectively minimizes spinal motion in an injured cervical spine model. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Five whole, lightly embalmed cadavers were fitted with shoulder pads and helmets and tested both before and after global instability was surgically created at C5-C6. An electromagnetic motion analysis device was used to assess the amount of angular and linear motion with sensors placed above and below the injured segment during transfer. Spine-boarding techniques evaluated were the log roll, the lift and slide, and the 8-person lift. Results The 8-person lift technique resulted in the least amount of angular and linear motion for all planes tested as compared with the lift-and-slide and log-roll techniques. This reached statistical significance for lateral bending (P = .031) and medial-lateral translation (P = .030) when compared with the log-roll maneuver. The lift-and-slide technique was significantly more effective at reducing motion than the log roll for axial rotation (P = .029) and lateral bending (P = .006). Conclusion The log roll resulted in the most motion at an unstable cervical injury as compared with the other 2 spine-boarding techniques examined. The 8-person lift and lift-and-slide techniques may both be more effective than the log roll at reducing unwanted cervical spine motion when spine boarding an injured football player. Reduction of such motion is critical in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. PMID:26535397

  5. Reproducibility of computer based neuropsychological testing among Norwegian elite football players

    PubMed Central

    Straume-Naesheim, T; Andersen, T; Bahr, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Head injuries account for 4–22% of all football injuries. The rate of brain injuries is difficult to assess, due to the problem of defining and grading concussion. Thus computerised testing programs for cognitive function have been developed. Objective: To assess the reliability of a computerised neuropsychological test battery (CogSport) among Norwegian professional football players. Methods: Norwegian professional football league players (90.3% participation) performed two consecutive baseline Cogsport tests before the 2004 season. CogSport consists of seven different subtasks: simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (ChRT), congruent reaction time (CgRT), monitoring (MON), one-back (OBK), matching (Match) and learning (Learn). Results: There was a small but significant improvement from repeated testing for the reaction time measurements of all seven subtasks (SRT: 0.7%, ChRT: 0.4%, CgRT: 1.2%, MON: 1.3%, OBK: 2.7%, Match: 2.0%, Learn: 1.1%). The coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 1.0% to 2.7%; corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.45 (0.34 to 0.55) to 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84). The standard deviation data showed higher CVs, ranging from 3.7% (Learn) to 14.2% (SRT). Thus, the variance decreased with increasing complexity of the task. The accuracy data displayed uniformly high CV (10.4–12.2) and corresponding low intraclass correlation coefficient (0.14 (0.01 to 0.26) to 0.31 (0.19 to 0.42)). Conclusion: The reproducibility for the mean reaction time measures was excellent, but less good for measures of accuracy and consistency. Consecutive testing revealed a slight learning effect from test 1 to test 2, and double baseline testing is recommended to minimise this effect. PMID:16046358

  6. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  7. Common injuries in athletes' knee: experience of a specialized center

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Alexandre Pedro; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Sayum, Jorge; Cohen, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present cross-sectional study aims to identify the most common knee injuries in athletes cared at a Specialized Outpatient Clinics. METHOD: Analysis of patients cared at the Knee Outpatient Clinics of a Sports Trauma Center, divided by gender, age and diagnosed injury. RESULTS: Initially 440 patients were divided into 33 types of sports; after excluding the less statistically significant practices, nine sports remained. The most frequently performed sports were football with almost 50% of total patients presenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and road runs with great frequency of meniscal injury. There was no correlation of the disorder with the type of sports performed but a correlation was found with patient's age/gender. CONCLUSION: The complete ACL rupture was the most common injury found in football, basketball and volleyball players, followed by meniscal injury in street runners. Level of Evidence IV, Study Transversal. PMID:25061417

  8. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    PubMed

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p < 0.001), PM (83.5 ± 10.2% vs. 86.7 ± 10.7%; p = 0.001), and COMP (75.4 ± 8.5% vs. 78.0 ± 7.4%; p = 0.001) scores. Anterior scores did not differ between high school (69.9 ± 7.9%) and collegiate (70.3 ± 7.1%) athletes (p = 0.545). Age, mass, and height were not meaningful contributors to ANT (R = 0.089; p < 0.001), PL (R = 0.032; p < 0.001), PM (R = 0.030; p = 0.002), and COMP (R = 0.048; p < 0.001) variances. Disparity between high school and collegiate athletes should be considered when using the SEBT to identify risk of or deficits related to lower extremity injury in football players. PMID:25785704

  9. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F.

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  10. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report.

    PubMed

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  11. Travelling Fellowship Program for Football Medicine; Report on an Experience

    PubMed Central

    Seifbarghi, Tohid; Hashemi, Akram; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Football medicine has developed in the world in recent years. AFC Medical Committee, established the idea of football medicine travelling fellowship two years ago and provided high-level healthcare services to football players in Asian countries. This is a report on my one month experience in a travelling fellowship program for football medicine which is attempting to tell the reader about the interesting event that I experienced. This course has been held between Jan 15 to Feb 10, 2012 in 3 Asian countries: Qatar, Thailand and Malysia. The experience provided me with the valuable suggestions for future travelling fellowship periods. PMID:23012644

  12. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity. PMID:11038132

  13. Football acne--an acneiform eruption.

    PubMed

    Farber, G A; Burks, J W; Hegre, A M; Brown, G R

    1977-09-01

    Football acne is a peculiar form of localized acneiform eruption of the chin that occurs in acne-prone individuals, as a result of the use of a protective chin strap under conditions of physical and emotional stress. Perhaps it is a locus minoris resistentiae phenomenon. The condition responds favorably to the removal of the chin strap and to the usual topical and systemic acne therapies. PMID:142615

  14. Differential Pathways to Violence and Self-Injurious Behavior: African American and White Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsinger, Kristi; Holsinger, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, research, largely from a feminist perspective, has been devoted to identifying the "gender-specific needs" of delinquent girls. This article explores racial differences between girls and how these differences may affect the commission of violent behavior and self-injurious behavior. Self-report data were collected from 163…

  15. A Refined Prediction Model for Core and Lower Extremity Sprains and Strains Among Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Researchers have identified high exposure to game conditions, low back dysfunction, and poor endurance of the core musculature as strong predictors for the occurrence of sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective To refine a previously developed injury-prediction model through analysis of 3 consecutive seasons of data. Design Cohort study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. Patients or Other Participants For 3 consecutive years, all 152 team members (age = 19.7 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.84 ± 0.08 m, mass = 101.08 ± 19.28 kg) presented for a mandatory physical examination on the day before initiation of preseason practice sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s) Associations between preseason measurements and the subsequent occurrence of a core or lower extremity sprain or strain were established for 256 player-seasons of data. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify optimal cut points for dichotomous categorizations of cases as high risk or low risk. Both logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to identify a multivariable injury-prediction model with optimal discriminatory power. Results Exceptionally good discrimination between injured and uninjured cases was found for a 3-factor prediction model that included equal to or greater than 1 game as a starter, Oswestry Disability Index score equal to or greater than 4, and poor wall-sit–hold performance. The existence of at least 2 of the 3 risk factors demonstrated 56% sensitivity, 80% specificity, an odds ratio of 5.28 (90% confidence interval = 3.31, 8.44), and a hazard ratio of 2.97 (90% confidence interval = 2.14, 4.12). Conclusions High exposure to game conditions was the dominant injury risk factor for collegiate football players, but a surprisingly mild degree of low back dysfunction and poor core-muscle endurance appeared to be important modifiable risk factors that

  16. The Football Injuries Most Likely to End an NFL Career

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the department of orthopedic surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He cautioned that the results aren't definitive. Other factors can affect the prognosis for injured NFL players, ...

  17. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to the publicly available data on the safety of automobiles, consumers have no analytical mechanism to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. The objective of this article is to fill this void by introducing a new equation that can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels. Using 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and associated exposure data to assess risk of concussion for each impact. Finally, the data from all 24 drop tests is combined into one number using the STAR formula that incorporates the predicted exposure and injury risk for one player for one full season of practices and games. The new STAR evaluation equation will provide consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of football helmets. PMID:21553135

  18. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players' Perceptions of Women in the Athletic Training Room Using a Role Congruity Framework

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M.; Henderson, Angela C.; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. Objective: To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non–sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Design: Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Setting: Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Patients or Other Participants: Male football players within the 2 university programs. Data Collection and Analysis: We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Results: Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean  =  3.61 ± 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean  =  2.82 ± 1.27; P < .001). No significant results were found for comfort with overall psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean  =  3.71 ± 1.07 versus mean  =  3.39 ± 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Conclusions: Both quantitative and qualitative

  19. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  20. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  1. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  2. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  3. A Personality Profile of Southeastern Conference Football Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Eller, Ben F.

    Despite the importance of officiating, there is little information available on how major college football officials view their sport, themselves, and their role as officials. Southeastern Conference (SEC) football officials (N=39) responded to a survey packet consisting of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and a four-page profile of…

  4. Workers' Compensation and College Athletics: Should Universities Be Responsible for Athletes Who Incur Serious Injuries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Mark Alan

    1984-01-01

    The legal aspects of athletic injuries could become major issue. A recent Indiana case, in which a college football player suffered an injury which rendered him a quadriplegic, is discussed. Relevant case law and the policy implications of applying worker's compensation law to scholarship athletes is discussed. (Author/MLW)

  5. Injuries in male versus female soccer players: epidemiology of a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Mufty, S; Bollars, P; Vanlommel, L; Van Crombrugge, K; Corten, K; Bellemans, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse soccer injuries on a national scale over one decade and to compare injury rates by gender. Detailed injury data obtained from the Royal Belgian Football Association from seasons 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 were recorded and gender differences in incidences of injuries, type of injury, affected body part and timing of injury were compared. A significant decrease in injuries from 7.56 to 5.96 injuries per 100 players was seen (p<0.0001). Overall male players sustained more cont usions, fractures, joint dislocations and musculotendinous injuries than female players. Proportionally, females sustained more severe injuries than men (p<0.0001). Significantly more injuries where sustained during competition in both males and females. The number of injuries in male and female soccer players has decreased over the past decade. A higher injury rate was seen in men but proportionally, females sustained more severe injuries. PMID:26280969

  6. Management of Jaw Injuries in the American Civil War: The Diuturnity of Bean in the South, Gunning in the North

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    James Baxter Bean published a series of articles in the Southern Dental Examiner in 1862 describing his work with “plaster and its manipulations.” This early experience included a new way of managing jaw fractures, with customized splints uniquely based on pretraumatic occlusion. Bean's oral splints and their method of construction, using an articulator, became the standard of care in the Atlanta region during the American Civil War and, by 1864, throughout The Confederacy. In short course, Bean's approach also swept The Union, following in large part the efforts of a colleague in the North, T.B. Gunning. Thus, what began in the early 1860s in a dental laboratory in the southeast swept the continental United States and revolutionized management of jaw-fractures during, and immediately after, the American Civil War. PMID:22655119

  7. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  8. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  9. Squash ball to eye ball: the likelihood of squash players incurring an eye injury.

    PubMed

    Barrell, G V; Cooper, P J; Elkington, A R; Macfadyen, J M; Powell, R G; Tormey, P

    1981-10-01

    The records of the 118 patients treated as Southampton Eye Hospital during 1978-9 for injuries incurred while playing squash, badminton, tennis, table tennis, cricket, and football show that for squash the main cause of eye injury was the player being hit by the ball. Severe eye injuries--those requiring treatment as an inpatient--were rare but much more frequent than such injuries in other sports. Less serious injuries--those requiring treatment as an outpatient--were also rare, with a frequency comparable with that of similar injuries in football and badminton. Squash players are most unlikely to incur an eye injury, but should this occur it has far-reaching consequences both in the short and the long term. Each individual player must weigh these chances and consequences against the possible inconvenience of using some form of eye protection. PMID:6793167

  10. Implementing Athletic Trainers for the Management of Cheerleading Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Mikiko; Valdez, Josepha M.

    2013-01-01

    Cheerleading used to be about standing on the sidelines waving pom-poms. Now, cheerleaders are thrown 10 feet in the air and perform high-level gymnastics skills. For this reason, cheerleading has become the leading cause of catastrophic sport injuries in the United States. Football, which is one of the most dangerous sports, has abundant access…

  11. Return to Play after Shoulder Instability Surgery in NCAA Division I Intercollegiate Football Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Richard J.; Daruwalla, Jimmy Hoshang; Xerogeanes, John W.; Greis, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate return to play (RTP) rates and variables influencing RTP in division I intercollegiate football athletes following shoulder instability surgery. Methods: Requests for participation in the study were sent to select sports medicine programs caring for athletes participating in football from the PAC-12, SEC, and ACC athletic conferences. After gaining IRB approval, 7 programs were able to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were restricted to athletes active during the 2004-2013 seasons that required surgical treatment for shoulder instability. Direction of instability, type of surgery, time to resume participation, quality and level of play data both before and after surgery was collected for each athlete. Data was analyzed to determine overall RTP and the influence that scholarship and depth chart position prior to surgery had on RTP. To determine the effect that surgery had on players’ ability to RTP, the percent of games played before and after surgery was determined. Results: 177 shoulder injuries in 153 athletes were identified and met inclusion criteria. Overall, 85.4% of players who underwent arthroscopic surgery without concomitant procedures returned to play. 82.4% of players who underwent anterior labral repair, 88.7% of those that underwent posterior labral repair, and 84.8% who underwent combined anterior-posterior repair returned to sport. Categorized by depth chart position, 93.3% of starters, 95.4% of utilized players, and 75.7% of rarely used players returned to play. The percentage of games played in by athletes prior to injury was 49.9%, and rose to 71.5% following surgery. Athletes who played in a higher percentage of games prior to injury (49.4 +/- 43.4%) were more likely to return to play than athletes who played in a fewer percentage of games (19.6 +/- 39.4%). Of the 42 athletes identified as starters prior to injury that returned to play, 98% continued as starters; 2% became

  12. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  13. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted. PMID:24901412

  14. Incidence and severity of reported acute sports injuries in 35 sports using insurance registry data.

    PubMed

    Åman, M; Forssblad, M; Henriksson-Larsén, K

    2016-04-01

    Acute injuries in sport are still a problem where limited knowledge of incidence and severity in different sports at national level exists. In Sweden, 80% of the sports federations have their mandatory injury insurance for all athletes in the same insurance company and injury data are systematically kept in a national database. The aim of the study was to identify high-risk sports with respect to incidence of acute and severe injuries in 35 sports reported to the database. The number and incidences of injuries as well as injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI) were calculated during 2008-2011. Each year approximately 12,000 injuries and 1,162,660 licensed athletes were eligible for analysis. Eighty-five percent of the injuries were reported in football, ice hockey, floorball, and handball. The highest injury incidence as well as PMI was in motorcycle, handball, skating, and ice hockey. Females had higher risk of a PMI compared with males in automobile sport, handball, floorball, and football. High-risk sports with numerous injuries and high incidence of PMI injuries were motorcycle, handball, ice hockey, football, floorball, and automobile sports. Thus, these sports ought to be the target of preventive actions at national level. PMID:25850826

  15. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  16. The Effect of Dietary Supplements on the Quality of Life of Retired Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Robert A.; Maddela, Rolando L.; Bae, Sejong; Best, Talitha

    2013-01-01

    Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6 (p<0.0001). Mental health days improved at 6 months (p<0.05). WHOQOL-BREF showed increased health satisfaction at all measurement points (p<0.05) and the Physical and Psychological Domain Scores at 6 months (p<0.05). MFQ General Rating of Memory improved at 3 and 6 months (p<0.05). Vigor scale in POMS was significant at 3 months (p<0.05). Decreased pain was noted only for the elbow at month 1 and the knee at month 3 (p<0.05). No adverse events were reported. Results of this study offer preliminary insight into using dietary supplements to support and optimize quality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort. PMID:23445692

  17. Effects of a Custom Bite-Aligning Mouthguard on Performance in College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Drum, Scott N; Swisher, Anna M; Buchanan, Christina A; Donath, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Besides injury prevention, mouthguards can also be employed to improve physical performance. The effects of personalization of mouthguards have rarely been investigated. This 3-armed, randomized, controlled crossover trial investigated the difference of wearing (a) personalized or custom-made (CM, e.g., bite-aligned), (b) standard (BB, boil and bite), and (c) no (CON) mouthguards on general fitness parameters in experienced collegiate football players. A group of 10 upperclassmen (age, 19-22 years; mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 0.8 years; body mass = 83 ± 7.4 kg; height = 179.1 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index = 25.9 ± 2.2 kg·cm), National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football players with at least 2 years of playing experience, were randomly assigned to the 3 mouthguard conditions: a randomized, within-subjects repeated-measures design was applied. All participants were randomly tested on strength and endurance performance V[Combining Dot Above]O2max testing, with Bruce treadmill protocol including (a) time to fatigue, (b) blood lactate concentration in millimoles per liter at stage 2 and (c) at peak fatigue, (d) flexibility, (e) reaction time, (f) squat vertical jump, (g) countermovement vertical jump, and (h) 1 repetition maximum bench press. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the 3 conditions for each outcome variable (0.23 < p < 0.94; 0.007 < (Equation is included in full-text article.)< 0.15). These data indicate that CM mouthguards did not superiorly affect general fitness parameters compared with BB and CON. In turn, protective BB or CM mouthpieces did not appear to impair general fitness performance vs. CON. The recommendation of a custom bite-aligning mouthguards for performance enhancement in young Division II football players is questioned. Further studies with larger sample sizes, gender comparison, and (sport) discipline-specific performance testing are needed. PMID:26466128

  18. The effect of dietary supplements on the quality of life of retired professional football players.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Robert; Maddela, Rolando Lorenzo; Bae, Sejong; Best, Talitha

    2013-03-01

    Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6 (p<0.0001). Mental health days improved at 6 months (p<0.05). WHOQOL-BREF showed increased health satisfaction at all measurement points (p<0.05) and the Physical and Psychological Domain Scores at 6 months (p<0.05). MFQ General Rating of Memory improved at 3 and 6 months (p<0.05). Vigor scale in POMS was significant at 3 months (p<0.05). Decreased pain was noted only for the elbow at month 1 and the knee at month 3 (p<0.05). No adverse events were reported. Results of this study offer preliminary insight into using dietary supplements to support and optimize quality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort. PMID:23445692

  19. Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data

    PubMed Central

    Casson, Ira R.; Viano, David C.; Powell, John W.; Pellman, Elliot J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Concussion in the National Football League (NFL) remains an important issue. An initial description of the injury epidemiology involved 6 years from 1996 to 2001. Hypothesis: The increased attention to concussions may have resulted in team physicians being more conservative in treating players in recent years. Study Design: Two consecutive 6-year periods (1996-2001 and 2002-2007) were compared to determine changes in the circumstances associated with the injury, the patterns of signs and symptoms, and the players’ time loss from participation in the NFL. Methods: During 2002-2007, concussions were recorded by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers using the same standardized reporting form used from 1996 to 2001. Player position, type of play, concussion signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness, and medical action taken were recorded. Results: There were 0.38 documented concussions per NFL game in 2002-2007—7.6% lower than the 0.42 in the earlier period (1996-2001). The injury rate was lower in quarterbacks and wide receivers but significantly higher in tight ends during the second 6 years. The most frequent symptoms were headaches and dizziness; the most common signs were problems with information processing and immediate recall. During 2002-2007, a significantly lower fraction of concussed players returned to the same game, and more were removed from play. Most concussed players (83.5%) returned to play in < 7 days; the percentage decreased to 57.4% with loss of consciousness. The number of players returning in < 7 days was 8% lower during 2002-2007 and 25% lower for those with loss of consciousness. Conclusion: The most recent 6 years of NFL concussion data show a remarkable similarity to the earlier period. However, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of players returning to the same game, and players were held out of play longer. Clinical Relevance: There was a more conservative management of concussion in NFL players from

  20. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-01-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union. PMID:17452684

  1. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Noninfectious Lung Injury after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Griese, Matthias; Madtes, David K.; Belperio, John A.; Haddad, Imad Y.; Folz, Rodney J.; Cooke, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung dysfunction of noninfectious etiology, known as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), is a severe complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several mouse models have been recently developed to determine the underlying causes of IPS. A cohesive interpretation of experimental data and their relationship to the findings of clinical research studies in humans is needed to better understand the basis for current and future clinical trials for the prevention/treatment of IPS. Objectives: Our goal was to perform a comprehensive review of the preclinical (i.e., murine models) and clinical research on IPS. Methods: An ATS committee performed PubMed and OVID searches for published, peer-reviewed articles using the keywords “idiopathic pneumonia syndrome” or “lung injury” or “pulmonary complications” AND “bone marrow transplant” or “hematopoietic stem cell transplant.” No specific inclusion or exclusion criteria were determined a priori for this review. Measurements and Main Results: Experimental models that reproduce the various patterns of lung injury observed after HSCT have identified that both soluble and cellular inflammatory mediators contribute to the inflammation engendered during the development of IPS. To date, 10 preclinical murine models of the IPS spectrum have been established using various donor and host strain combinations used to study graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This, as well as the demonstrated T cell dependency of IPS development in these models, supports the concept that the lung is a target of immune-mediated attack after HSCT. The most developed therapeutic strategy for IPS involves blocking TNF signaling with etanercept, which is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Conclusions: IPS remains a frequently fatal complication that limits the broader use of allogeneic HSCT as a successful treatment modality. Faced with the clinical syndrome of IPS, one can categorize the

  2. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on two hundred and twenty boys of the age range 14-16 years living within 3km radius of the two monitoring stations. Sample consisted of 60 footballers (30 from Rabindrabharati and 30 from Victoria Memorial) and 160 sedentary boys (80 from Rabindrabharati and 80 from Victoria Memorial). They were investigated for their spirometric lung functions by the method and technique recommended by American Thoracic Society. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and independent samples T test was conducted to compare between two groups. Results Results revealed that particulate matter (PM10), oxides of sulfur (SO2) concentrations were significantly higher in Rabindrabharati zone, whereas no significant differences were noted in oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations though values were higher at Rabindrabharati than Victoria Memorial. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly lower both in footballers (P<0.05) and sedentary boys (P<0.01) of Rabindrabharati zone. Conclusion Exposure to high air pollutant concentration might be associated with reduced pulmonary function in both sedentary and trained boys in spite of the fact that regular participation in training program may improve pulmonary function. PMID:24868430

  3. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive non-concussive impacts To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  5. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  6. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive ... Repeated blows to the head can cause near vision to blur slightly, even if the individual impacts ...

  7. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  8. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  9. Retrospective study of concussive convulsions in elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers: phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P. R.; Bladin, P. F.; Berkovic, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics on performance in matches to determine presence of structural or functional brain injury. Clinical follow up and electroencephalography for evidence of epilepsy. RESULTS: Twenty two cases of concussive convulsions were identified with four events documented on television videotape. Convulsions began within 2 seconds of impact and comprised an initial period of tonic stiffening followed by myoclonic jerks of all limbs lasting up to 150 seconds. Some asymmetry in the convulsive manifestations was common, and recovery of consciousness was rapid. No structural or permanent brain injury was present on clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, or neuroimaging studies. All players returned to elite competition within two weeks of the incident. Epilepsy did not develop in any player over a mean (range) follow up of 3.5 (1-13) years. CONCLUSIONS: These concussive or impact convulsions are probably a non-epileptic phenomenon, somewhat akin to convulsive syncope. The mechanism may be a transient traumatic functional decerebration. In concussive convulsions the outcome is universally good, antiepileptic treatment is not indicated, and prolonged absence from sport is unwarranted. PMID:9022428

  10. The physiological demands of Gaelic football.

    PubMed Central

    Florida-James, G; Reilly, T

    1995-01-01

    Match-lay demands of Gaelic football and fitness profiles were assessed at club competitive level. English Gaelic football club championship players (n = 11) were assessed for anthropometry, leg strength and time to exhaustion on a treadmill run. A similar test battery was administered to a reference group of University competitive soccer players (n = 12). Heart rate was recorded during match-play using radio telemetry and blood lactate concentrations were determined at half-time and after full-time. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the Gaelic and soccer players in: body mass (70.7 +/- 10.3 vs 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg); height (176 +/- 5.9 vs 177.7 +/- 6.4 cm); leg to trunk ratio (0.53 +/- 0.01 vs 0.54 +/- 0.03); adiposity (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs 13.5 +/- 3.2% body fat); mean somatotype (2.8 - 4.3-2.0 vs 2.4-4.2-2.4); leg strength measures; and performance on the treadmill. The percentage muscle mass values were lower for the Gaelic players compared to the soccer players (41.9 +/- 5.4 vs 47.3 +/- 5.2%; p > 0.005). For the Gaelic and soccer players, respectively, mean heart rate recorded during each half of match-play were (157 +/- 10 and 158 +/- 12 beats/min) and (164 +/- 10 and 157 +/- 11 beats/min), whilst blood lactates measured at the end of each half, were (4.3 +/- 1 and 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/l) and (4.4 +/- 1.2 and 4.5 +/- 2.1 mmol/l). Gaelic footballers at English club championship level seem to exhibit similar fitness profiles, and are subject to broadly similar physiological demands as University-level competitive soccer players. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5&6 PMID:7788217

  11. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  12. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  13. "Used Goods": Former African American College Student-Athletes' Perception of Exploitation by Division I Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamon, Krystal K.

    2008-01-01

    Collegiate sports have opened many doors for African American males. However, serious involvement in athletics has hampered the development of the group in several areas such as academic and occupational achievement. It has been alleged that universities exploit athletes, especially African American male athletes in football and basketball. This…

  14. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    2002-12-01

    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  15. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  16. Constructing Academic Inadequacy: African American Athletes' Stories of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Kirsten F.

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study interviewed eight academically "at risk" African American athletes at a southeastern university with a major revenue-producing football program. Analysis suggested that the athletes' marginal academic performance was constructed in a system of interrelated practices engaged in by all the significant members of the academic…

  17. Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

  18. Thermoregulatory Responses and Hydration Practices in Heat-Acclimatized Adolescents During Preseason High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Yeargin, Susan Walker; Casa, Douglas J.; Judelson, Daniel A.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Lee, Elaine C.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Anderson, Jeffrey M.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Kraemer, William J.; Maresh, Carl M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Previous researchers have not investigated the thermoregulatory responses to multiple consecutive days of American football in adolescents. Objective: To examine the thermoregulatory and hydration responses of high school players during formal preseason football practices. Design: Observational study. Setting: Players practiced outdoors in late August once per day on days 1 through 5, twice per day on days 6 and 7, and once per day on days 8 through 10. Maximum wet bulb globe temperature averaged 23 ± 4°C. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five heat-acclimatized adolescent boys (age  =  15 ± 1 years, height  =  180 ± 8 cm, mass  =  81.4 ± 15.8 kg, body fat  =  12 ± 5%, Tanner stage  =  4 ± 1). Main Outcome Measure(s): We observed participants within and across preseason practices of football. Measures included gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), urine osmolality, sweat rate, forearm sweat composition, fluid consumption, testosterone to cortisol ratio, perceptual measures of thirst, perceptual measures of thermal sensation, a modified Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire, and knowledge questionnaires assessing the participants' understanding of heat illnesses and hydration. Results were analyzed for differences across time and were compared between younger (14–15 years, n  =  13) and older (16–17 years, n  =  12) participants. Results: Maximum daily TGI values remained less than 40°C and were correlated with maximum wet bulb globe temperature (r  =  0.59, P  =  .009). Average urine osmolality indicated that participants generally experienced minimal to moderate hypohydration before (881 ± 285 mOsmol/kg) and after (856 ± 259 mOsmol/kg) each practice as a result of replacing approximately two-thirds of their sweat losses during exercise but inadequately rehydrating between practices. Age did not affect most variables; however, sweat rate was lower in younger participants (0.6 ± 0.2

  19. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  20. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  1. The G. I. Bill and College Football: The Birth of a Spectator Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Donald S.

    1984-01-01

    College football became a popular spectator sport after World War II with the return of veterans to college. Financial help was provided by the G. I. Bill, which led to older, more experienced students playing football. This article explores how the G. I. Bill helped make college football the popular sport it is today. (DF)

  2. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  3. Training Load and Player Monitoring in High-Level Football: Current Practice and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, Richard; Nassis, George P

    2016-07-01

    Training load (TL) is monitored with the aim of making evidence-based decisions on appropriate loading schemes to reduce injuries and enhance team performance. However, little is known in detail about the variables of load and methods of analysis used in high-level football. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the practices and practitioners' perceptions of monitoring in professional clubs. Eighty-two high-level football clubs from Europe, the United States, and Australia were invited to answer questions relating to how TL is quantified, how players' responses are monitored, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of monitoring. Forty-one responses were received. All teams used GPS and heart-rate monitors during all training sessions, and 28 used rating of perceived exertion. The top-5-ranking TL variables were acceleration (various thresholds), total distance, distance covered above 5.5 m/s, estimated metabolic power, and heart-rate exertion. Players' responses to training are monitored using questionnaires (68% of clubs) and submaximal exercise protocols (41%). Differences in expected vs actual effectiveness of monitoring were 23% and 20% for injury prevention and performance enhancement, respectively (P < .001 d = 1.0-1.4). Of the perceived barriers to effectiveness, limited human resources scored highest, followed by coach buy-in. The discrepancy between expected and actual effectiveness appears to be due to suboptimal integration with coaches, insufficient human resources, and concerns over the reliability of assessment tools. Future approaches should critically evaluate the usefulness of current monitoring tools and explore methods of reducing the identified barriers to effectiveness. PMID:26456711

  4. The biomechanics of concussion in unhelmeted football players in Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A; Fréchède, Bertrand; Pierré, Paul-André; Ferry, Edouard; Barthels, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concussion is a prevalent brain injury in sport and the wider community. Despite this, little research has been conducted investigating the dynamics of impacts to the unprotected human head and injury causation in vivo, in particular the roles of linear and angular head acceleration. Setting Professional contact football in Australia. Participants Adult male professional Australian rules football players participating in 30 games randomly selected from 103 games. Cases selected based on an observable head impact, no observable symptoms (eg, loss-of-consciousness and convulsions), no on-field medical management and no injury recorded at the time. Primary and secondary outcome measures A data set for no-injury head impact cases comprising head impact locations and head impact dynamic parameters estimated through rigid body simulations using the MAthematical DYnamic MOdels (MADYMO) human facet model. This data set was compared to previously reported concussion case data. Results Qualitative analysis showed that the head was more vulnerable to lateral impacts. Logistic regression analyses of head acceleration and velocity components revealed that angular acceleration of the head in the coronal plane had the strongest association with concussion; tentative tolerance levels of 1747 rad/s2 and 2296 rad/s2 were reported for a 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion, respectively. The mean maximum resultant angular accelerations for the concussion and no-injury cases were 7951 rad/s2 (SD 3562 rad/s2) and 4300 rad/s2 (SD 3657 rad/s2), respectively. Linear acceleration is currently used in the assessment of helmets and padded headgear. The 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion values for resultant linear head acceleration in this study were 65.1 and 88.5 g, respectively. Conclusions As hypothesised by Holbourn over 70 years ago, angular acceleration plays an important role in the pathomechanics of concussion, which has major ramifications in terms of

  5. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  6. Injury surveillance in a rugby tournament.

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, M; Asembo, J M; Njororai, W W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate injuries in international rugby football. METHODS--All injuries that led to temporary stoppage of the game or to the substitution of a player during the Rugby World Cup prequalifying tournament were recorded. Six matches were played, involving the Arabian Gulf, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. RESULTS--47 injuries were recorded, giving an injury rate of eight per match. The number of injuries decreased from 38.3% in the first matches to 23.4% in the final ones. The most serious injury was a concussion and the majority of the injuries affected soft tissues. Anatomically, the lower limbs suffered most injuries (46.8%), followed by the head (21.3%), trunk (17.0%), and upper limbs (12.8%). Slightly more injuries occurred in the defensive half of the field of play (53.2%) than in the offensive half (46.8%). More injuries occurred in the second half (61.7%) than in the first half (38.3%). CONCLUSIONS--Protective equipment should be introduced to minimise the number and seriousness of injuries in rugby. PMID:8665122

  7. Optimization of the decision-making process for the selection of therapeutics to undergo clinical testing for spinal cord injury in the North American Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Guest, James; Harrop, James S; Aarabi, Bizhan; Grossman, Robert G; Fawcett, James W; Fehlings, Michael G; Tator, Charles H

    2012-09-01

    The North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) includes 9 clinical centers funded by the US Department of Defense and the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation. Its purpose is to accelerate clinical testing of promising therapeutics in spinal cord injury (SCI) through the development of a robust interactive infrastructure. This structure includes key committees that serve to provide longitudinal guidance to the Network. These committees include the Executive, Data Management, and Neurological Outcome Assessments Committees, and the Therapeutic Selection Committee (TSC), which is the subject of this manuscript. The NACTN brings unique elements to the SCI field. The Network's stability is not restricted to a single clinical trial. Network members have diverse expertise and include experts in clinical care, clinical trial design and methodology, pharmacology, preclinical and clinical research, and advanced rehabilitation techniques. Frequent systematic communication is assigned a high value, as is democratic process, fairness and efficiency of decision making, and resource allocation. This article focuses on how decision making occurs within the TSC to rank alternative therapeutics according to 2 main variables: quality of the preclinical data set, and fit with the Network's aims and capabilities. This selection process is important because if the Network's resources are committed to a therapeutic, alternatives cannot be pursued. A proposed methodology includes a multicriteria decision analysis that uses a Multi-Attribute Global Inference of Quality matrix to quantify the process. To rank therapeutics, the TSC uses a series of consensus steps designed to reduce individual and group bias and limit subjectivity. Given the difficulties encountered by industry in completing clinical trials in SCI, stable collaborative not-for-profit consortia, such as the NACTN, may be essential to clinical progress in SCI. The evolution of the NACTN also offers substantial

  8. Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Taylor, Derek; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Brain injuries are common in professional American football players. Finding effective rehabilitation strategies can have widespread implications not only for retired players but also for patients with traumatic brain injury and substance abuse problems. An open label pragmatic clinical intervention was conducted in an outpatient neuropsychiatric clinic with 30 retired NFL players who demonstrated brain damage and cognitive impairment. The study included weight loss (if appropriate); fish oil (5.6 grams a day); a high-potency multiple vitamin; and a formulated brain enhancement supplement that included nutrients to enhance blood flow (ginkgo and vinpocetine), acetylcholine (acetyl-l-carnitine and huperzine A), and antioxidant activity (alpha-lipoic acid and n-acetyl-cysteine). The trial average was six months. Outcome measures were Microcog Assessment of Cognitive Functioning and brain SPECT imaging. In the retest situation, corrected for practice effect, there were statistically significant increases in scores of attention, memory, reasoning, information processing speed and accuracy on the Microcog. The brain SPECT scans, as a group, showed increased brain perfusion, especially in the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, occipital lobes, anterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellum. This study demonstrates that cognitive and cerebral blood flow improvements are possible in this group with multiple interventions. PMID:21615001

  9. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P< 0.01) in ET than UT, respectively. Cardiac dimensions and function were greater in ET than UT, with left ventricular diastolic diameter, right ventricular diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (P< 0.001 to< 0.05). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234 ± 66 m, P< 0.001), fat mass was 51% lower (P< 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were 20% higher (P< 0.01). Sixteen weeks of football elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status. PMID:23829646

  10. Homophobic and sexist yet uncontested: examining football fan postings on Internet message boards.

    PubMed

    Kian, Edward M; Clavio, Galen; Vincent, John; Shaw, Stephanie D

    2011-01-01

    Although a homophobic and sexist archetype of heterosexual masculinity has been thought to permeate competitive teamsport, matters have been rapidly changing. This is evident in research on openly gay athletes, attitudes among heterosexual athletes, and recent studies on decreasing homophobia among sport media content. In this research, however, we examine how some men still adhere to a homophobic and sexist masculine deposition when discussing sport on the Internet. A textual analysis was used to analyze hegemonic masculinity from a popular American football message board. Although posts related to hegemonic masculinity did not permeate the data, we found that this traditional form of masculinity was upheld through misogyny, homophobia, and the objectification of women. Thus, whereas mainstream sport media is increasingly policed for homophobia and sexism, this research shows that the anonymity of the Internet permits hegemonic masculinity to flourish in specific locations, without contestation. PMID:21534077

  11. U.S. National Football League Athletes Seeking Unproven Stem Cell Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kirstin R.W.; Cuchiara, Maude L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965

  12. U.S. National Football League athletes seeking unproven stem cell treatments.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-12-01

    From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965

  13. Epidemiology and outcomes of Achilles tendon ruptures in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Selene G; Wray, Walter H; Brimmo, Olubusola; Sennett, Brian J; Wapner, Keith L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the epidemiology of Achilles tendon ruptures in the National Football League (NFL) and to quantify the impact of these injuries on player performance. A retrospective review of several online NFL player registries identified 31 Achilles tendon ruptures in NFL players between 1997 and 2002. Nineteen percent of injuries occurred during preseason play, while another 18% occurred during the first month of the official season. There was a postinjury reduction of 88%, 83%, and 78% in power ratings for wide receivers, running backs, and tight ends, respectively, over a 3-year period. There was a 95%, 87%, and 64% postinjury reduction in power ratings for linebackers, cornerbacks, and defensive tackles over a 3-year period. On average, players experienced a greater than 50% reduction in their power ratings following such an injury. Thirty-two percent (n = 10) of NFL players who sustained an Achilles tendon rupture did not return to play in the NFL. PMID:20400426

  14. Management of Syndesmotic Ankle Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shore, Benjamin J; Kramer, Dennis E

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric ankle injuries are common, especially in athletes; however, the incidence of syndesmosis injuries in children has been scarcely reported. Injuries to the ankle syndesmosis, termed "high ankle sprains," can affect high-level and recreational athletes and have been related to delayed return to play, persistent pain, and adult injuries have been associated with long-term disability. Syndesmotic injuries do occur in children, especially those who participate in sports that involve cutting and pivoting (football, soccer) or sports with rigid immobilization of the ankle (skiing, hockey). Unstable pediatric syndesmosis injuries requiring surgical fixation are often associated with concomitant fibular fracture in skeletally mature children. Physician vigilance and careful clinical examination coupled with appropriate radiographs can determine the extent of the injury in the majority of circumstances. PMID:27100034

  15. Urethral Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Ureteral Injuries Urethral Injuries Injuries to the Penis and Scrotum Most urethral injuries occur in men. ... leakage of urine into the tissues of the penis, scrotum, abdominal wall, or perineum (the area between ...

  16. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  17. A Review of Traumatic Brain Injury Trauma Center Visits Meeting Physiologic Criteria from the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Field Triage Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, William S.; Ovalle, Fernando; Faul, Mark; Sasser, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a serious subset of injuries among persons in the United States, and prehospital care of these injuries can mitigate both the morbidity and the mortality in patients who suffer from these injuries. Guidelines for triage of injured patients have been set forth by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These guidelines include physiologic criteria, such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate, which should be used in determining triage of an injured patient. Objectives This study examined the numbers of visits at level I and II trauma centers by patients with a diagnosed TBI to determine the prevalence of those meeting physiologic criteria from the ACS-COT/CDC guidelines and to determine the extent of mortality among this patient population. Methods The data for this study were taken from the 2007 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) National Sample Program (NSP). This data set is a nationally representative sample of visits to level I and II trauma centers across the United States and is funded by the American College of Surgeons. Estimates of demographic characteristics, physiologic measures, and death were made for this study population using both chi-square analyses and adjusted logistic regression modeling. Results The analyses demonstrated that although many people who sustain a TBI and were taken to a level I or II trauma center did not meet the physiologic criteria, those who did meet the physiologic criteria had significantly higher odds of death than those who did not meet the criteria. After controlling for age, gender, race, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and length of stay in the hospital, persons who had a GCS score ≤13 were 17 times more likely to die than TBI patients who had a higher GCS score (odds ratio [OR] 17.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7–28.3). Other

  18. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. Results: NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Conclusion: Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This

  19. If Football Referees Made Accreditation Calls: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleson, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Barely a week passes without the "Chronicle of Higher Education" or another periodical decrying the perverse influence of college football on academic quality. Faculty keep saying (justifiably) that sports advocates care more about athletic prowess than about student learning, that even assistant coaches make more money than tenured faculty, and…

  20. An evolutionary approach to simulated football free kick optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Martin; Coupland, Simon

    We present a genetic algorithm-based evolutionary computing approach to the optimisation of simulated football free kick situations. A detailed physics model is implemented in order to apply evolutionary computing techniques to the creation of strategic offensive shots and defensive player locations.

  1. In a Tough Economy, Charlotte Makes a Play for Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Despite tough economic times, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte hopes to win trustees' approval to raise funds to field a Division I-AA football team. Athletics officials and supporters at Charlotte are hopeful that they will raise the more than $45-million in capital expenses necessary to get the program up and running. However, the…

  2. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  3. Huddle: At DeMatha High, Football Is Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayesh, Gelareh

    1993-01-01

    The football program at DeMatha High School in Hyattsville (Maryland), illustrates ways in which a sports program can build unity and racial tolerance among students. The shared team effort carries over into schoolwork and life outside of school. (SLD)

  4. Soccer-Speedball-Flag Football Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, produced by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), is a collection of essays by various authors on soccer, speedball, and flag football. There is a separate section for each sport. In the section, the following topics are covered: goalkeeping, the use of tires as a teaching aid, skill testing, problem-solving…

  5. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  6. Behavioral Interventions to Improve Performance in Collegiate Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon L.; Ward, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Using a multitreatment withdrawal design, this study evaluated the differential effects of publicly posted plus verbal feedback, goal setting plus verbal feedback, and publicly posted feedback, verbal feedback, and goal setting together on the performance of 3 collegiate football players in practice scrimmages. Also assessed was whether the…

  7. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  8. Football Games: Victory, Defeat, and Spectators' Power Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Burt S.; Alker, Henry A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed a conceptual distinction between two types of experienced power and examined its relevance to participation in power-relaxed activities. After two college football games, spectators chose an image-of-power position after a hometeam defeat, and an actual-power position after a hometeam victory. Experiences of vicarious success or failure…

  9. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  10. Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishe, Patrick James

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1995-96 academic year for schools that compete at the Division I level of college athletics to determine the influence of the presence and profitability of football on female athletes in terms of funding and opportunity. Reveals that presence and profitability, as well as regional and ethnic considerations, influence…

  11. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  12. Preparticipation Screening of Athletic Officials: SEC Football Referees at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John L., Jr.; Walters, Rod; Leski, Mark J.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Wooldridge, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed prevalence data on health parameters for football officials, noting outcomes when screening criteria were applied in preseason exams. Referees had a lower risk than the national 10-year coronary heart disease risk but a higher risk compared with that of the low-risk population. Results suggested that more graded exercise testing was…

  13. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index,…

  14. What Coaching Football Taught Me aAbout Teaching Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Relates how coaching football is like teaching writing to students. Both groups of students benefit from demonstrations by the teacher or coach and require practice and routine drills. Describes the KISS theory of "Keep it simple, stupid" and how teachers can utilize it as part of their teaching strategy. (VWC)

  15. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  16. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  17. How the Football Coach Can Help Principals and Teachers Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers could learn a lesson from football coaches. Evidence suggests they know more about how their coaching affects their athletes' performance than classroom teachers do regarding student achievement. It is equally possible that the athletes are learning more quickly and in a deeper way than students in the classroom. Why? One reason…

  18. Penile injuries: A 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

  19. The relationship between leg preference and knee mechanics during sidestepping in collegiate female footballers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Wang, Henry; Dickin, D Clark; Weiss, Kaitlyn J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between leg preference and knee mechanics in females during sidestepping. Three-dimensional data were recorded on 16 female collegiate footballers during a planned 45° sidestep manoeuvre with their preferred and non-preferred kicking leg. Knee kinematics and kinetics during initial contact, weight acceptance, peak push-off, and final push-off phases of sidestepping were analysed in both legs. The preferred leg showed trivial to small increases (ES = 0.19-0.36) in knee flexion angle at initial contact, weight acceptance, and peak push-off, and small increases (ES = 0.21-0.34) in peak power production and peak knee extension velocity. The non-preferred leg showed a trivial increase (ES = 0.10) in knee abduction angle during weight acceptance; small to moderate increases (ES = 0.22-0.64) in knee internal rotation angle at weight acceptance, peak push-off, and final push-off; a small increase (ES = 0.22) in knee abductor moment; and trivial increases (ES = 0.09-0.14) in peak power absorption and peak knee flexion velocity. The results of this study show that differences do exist between the preferred and non-preferred leg in females. The findings of this study will increase the knowledge base of anterior cruciate ligament injury in females and can aid in the design of more appropriate neuromuscular, plyometric, and strength training protocols for injury prevention. PMID:25204331

  20. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  1. Talocrural Dislocation With Associated Weber Type C Fibular Fracture in a Collegiate Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, R Daniel; Cerullo, James; Blanc, Robert O; McMahon, Patrick J; Buoncritiani, Anthony M; Stone, David A; Fu, Freddie H

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a talocrural dislocation with a Weber type C fibular fracture in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football athlete. Background: The athlete, while attempting to make a tackle during a game, collided with an opponent, who in turn stepped on the lateral aspect of the athlete's ankle, resulting in forced ankle eversion and external rotation. On-field evaluation showed a laterally displaced talocrural dislocation. Immediate reduction was performed in the athletic training room to maintain skin integrity. Post-reduction radiographs revealed a Weber type C fibular fracture and increased medial joint clear space. A below-knee, fiberglass splint was applied to stabilize the ankle joint complex. Differential Diagnosis: Subtalar dislocation, Maisonneuve fracture, malleolar fracture, deltoid ligament rupture, syndesmosis disruption. Treatment: The sports medicine staff immediately splinted and transported the athlete to the athletic training room to reduce the dislocation. The athlete then underwent an open reduction and internal fixation procedure to stabilize the injury: 2 syndesmosis screws and a fibular plate were placed to keep the ankle joint in an anatomically reduced position. With the guidance of the athletic training staff, the athlete underwent an accelerated physical rehabilitation protocol in an effort to return to sport as quickly and safely as possible. Uniqueness: Most talocrural dislocations and associated Weber type C fibular fractures are due to motor vehicle accidents or falls. We are the first to describe this injury in a Division I football player and to present a general rehabilitation protocol for a high-level athlete. Conclusions: Sports medicine practitioners must recognize that this injury can occur in the athletic environment. Prompt reduction, early surgical intervention, sufficient resources, and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol all contributed to a successful outcome in the patient

  2. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068

  3. Creating a Supportive Environment among Youth Football Players: A Qualitative Study of French and Norwegian Youth Grassroots Football Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Torill; Van Hoye, Aurelie; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Samdal, Oddrun; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The health promoting benefits of sport participation are under-utilized and should be further developed, particularly at the grassroots level. The purpose of this paper is to examine how grassroots coaches in youth football perceive their coaching practices after participating in a community-based coach education program aimed at…

  4. A Study about Problem Solving Skill Variable in Terms of Some Variables of Footballers Who Play Football Professionally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the problem solving skill levels of sportsmen who play football professionally, and to determine whether problem solving skill levels differ according to sportsmen's, sports club, age, marital status, parents' educational status, father's occupation, occupation in the game, year of playing football…

  5. Executive summary: Football for health - prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases across the lifespan through football.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    This supplement contains 16 original articles describing how football conducted as small sided games affects fitness and health of untrained individuals across the lifespan. The intermittent nature of football and high exercise intensity result in a broad range of effects. The heart changes its structure and improves its function. Blood pressure is markedly reduced with the mean arterial blood pressure being lowered by ~10 mmHg for hypertensive men and women training 2-3 times/week for 12-26 weeks. Triglycerides and cholesterol are lowered and body fat declines, especially in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, muscle mass and bone mineral density increases in a number of participant groups, including 65-75-year-old men. The functional capacity is elevated with increases in VO₂ max of 10-15%, and 50-100% improvements in the capacity to perform intermittent work within 16 weeks. These effects apply irrespective of whether the participants are young, overweight, elderly or suffering from a disease. The studies clearly show that the participants enjoy playing football and form special relationships with their team mates. Thus, football is a healthy activity, providing a unique opportunity to increase recruitment and adherence to physical activity in a hitherto underserved population, and to treat and rehabilitate patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and prostate cancer. PMID:24944139

  6. Epidemiology of Overuse and Acute Injuries Among Competitive Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingzhen; Tibbetts, Abigail S.; Covassin, Tracey; Cheng, Gang; Nayar, Saloni; Heiden, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although overuse injuries are gaining attention, epidemiologic studies on overuse injuries in male and female collegiate athletes are lacking. (70.7%) acute injuries were reported. The overall injury rate was Objective: To report the epidemiology of overuse injuries sustained by collegiate athletes and to compare the rates of overuse and acute injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: A National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1317 reported injuries sustained by 573 male and female athletes in 16 collegiate sports teams during the 2005–2008 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): The injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were obtained from the Sports Injury Monitoring System. An injury was coded as either overuse or acute based on the nature of injury. Injury rate was calculated as the total number of overuse (or acute) injuries during the study period divided by the total number of AEs during the same period. Results: A total of 386 (29.3%) overuse injuries and 931 63.1 per 10000 AEs. The rate ratio (RR) of acute versus overuse injuries was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05, 2.67). Football had the highest RR (RR = 8.35, 95% CI = 5.38, 12.97), and women's rowing had the lowest (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.10). Men had a higher acute injury rate than women (49.8 versus 38.6 per 10000 AEs). Female athletes had a higher rate of overuse injury than male athletes (24.6 versus 13.2 per 10000 AEs). More than half of the overuse injuries (50.8%) resulted in no time loss from sport. Conclusions: Additional studies are needed to examine why female athletes are at greater risk for overuse injuries and identify the best practices for prevention and rehabilitation of overuse injuries. PMID:22488286

  7. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  8. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  9. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  10. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who live ... to watch for? When can I start playing sports again after a head injury? How can brain damage from a head injury ...

  11. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P < .001). Muscle activation of the rectus abdominis and external oblique in prone plank position exceeded the maximal voluntary isometric contraction activation, with a significantly higher activation in females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation. PMID:26671894

  12. Prevalence of Pituitary Hormone Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome, and Impaired Quality of Life in Retired Professional Football Players: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J.; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C.J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30–65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and

  13. Prevalence of pituitary hormone dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and impaired quality of life in retired professional football players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel F; Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C J; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30-65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and 50% had Met

  14. Study on the effect of etofenamate 10% cream in comparison with an oral NSAID in strains and sprains due to sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, G; Schuermans, P

    1990-01-01

    In this 60 patient study of sports traumatology due to football injuries, etofenamate gel proved equally effective as oral naproxen on the overall pain scores (65% none to mild pain for etofenamate versus 86% for naproxen; p greater than 0.05). The global clinical impression results have been rated as good or excellent in 44% in the naproxen group versus 50% in the etofenamate group. The incidence of side effects in the etofenamate group (3%) was lower than in the naproxen group (20%). This study demonstrates that etofenamate gel has equal efficacy as oral NSAIDS but a better side effect profile in sport injuries in football players. PMID:2094113

  15. Institutional Branding: A Content Analysis of Public Service Announcements from American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael J.; Cavanagh, Kevin V.; Hettche, Matt

    2012-01-01

    American universities receive millions of dollars worth of media exposure every year via Public Service Announcements (PSAs) broadcast during their respective school's athletic competitions. This research explores the message strategies and executional devices used by NCAA FBS (National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision)…

  16. Assessment of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…

  17. Catching a Galactic Football: Chandra Examines Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have found a giant football-shaped cavity within X-ray emitting hot gas surrounding the galaxy Cygnus A. The cavity in the hot gas has been created by two powerful jets emitted from the central black hole region in the nucleus of Cygnus A. Hot gas is steadily being piled up around the cavity as it continuously expands, creating a bright rim of X-ray emission. The jets themselves terminate in radio and X-ray emitting "hot spots" some 300,000 light years from the center of the galaxy. These results are being presented to the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Honolulu, HI, by Andrew S. Wilson, Andrew J. Young (University of Maryland) and Patrick L. Shopbell (California Institute of Technology). "This is a spectacular cavity, which is inflated by jets and completely surrounds the Cygnus A galaxy," said Dr. Wilson, who is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are witnessing a battle between the gravity of the Cygnus A galaxy, which is trying to pull the hot gas inwards, and the pressure of material created by the jets, which is trying to push the hot gas outwards." Cygnus A has long been famous as the brightest radio source in the sky. It is the nearest powerful radio galaxy. The Chandra X-ray image, which was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), shows the cavity surrounded by a vast sea of extremely hot gas. The elongated oval shape comes from the force of the outwardly moving jets as they push through the hot gas. Bright bands around the "equator of the football" are also visible, and this may be evidence of material swirling toward the central black hole. Cygnus A Illustration Illustration of Cygnus A Credit: CXC Without the jets, an X-ray image of Cygnus A, which is about 700 million light years from Earth, would appear as a more or less spherical region (about 2 million light years across) of hot gas slowly

  18. Temazepam and the perceptual-motor performance of professional footballers.

    PubMed Central

    Golby, J; Hutson, M A

    1985-01-01

    The use of benzodiazepines to overcome the possible debilitating effects of travel on football performance is a recent phenomenon and indicative of current usage of such drugs. Contemporary psychological theory is critical of many of the measures used to monitor such drugs. This study has created a battery of tests which include some measures which are deemed more ecologically valid and, for purposes of comparison, some traditional indices. On a sample of First Division professional Association footballers temazepam (40 mg) was compared with placebo on these measures and testing occurred on the afternoon following night time medication. The findings suggest that on such a protocol, perceptual-motor performance is not impaired. Images p115-a p115-b Fig. 1 PMID:2862946

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of your knee, such as during a football tackle Overextend your knee joint Quickly stop moving ... running, landing from a jump, or turning Basketball, football, soccer, and skiing are common sports linked to ...

  20. Movement Profiles, Match Events, and Performance in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff. PMID:26808858

  1. Cumulative Head Impact Burden in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec2 and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines. PMID:21787201

  2. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, E.; Nußbaumer, A.; Janke, W.; Weigel, M.

    2009-02-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenological distributions used before can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the “FIFA World Cup” series, and found the proposed models to be applicable rather universally. In particular, here we analyze the results of the German women’s premier football league and consider the two separate German men’s premier leagues in the East and West during the cold war times as well as the unified league after 1990 to see how scoring in football and the component of self-affirmation depend on cultural and political circumstances.

  3. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists. PMID:26140538

  4. Peripheral nerve injuries in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H; Nadler, S F; Krivickas, L S

    1997-12-01

    outcome. Proximal nerve injuries have a poorer prognosis for neurological recovery. The most common peripheral nerve injury in the athlete is the burner syndrome. Though primarily a football injury, burners have been reported in wrestling, hockey, basketball and weight-lifting as a result of acute head, neck and/or shoulder trauma. Most burners are self-limiting, but they occasionally produce permanent neurological deficits. The axillary nerve is commonly injured with shoulder dislocations but is also susceptible to injury by direct compression. The sciatic and common peroneal nerves can be injured by trauma. The suprascapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median and tibial nerves are susceptible to entrapment. The long thoracic and femoral nerves can be injured by severe traction. PMID:9421863

  5. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  6. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices. PMID:27155962

  7. Analysis of football player's motion in view of fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couceiro, Micael; Clemente, Filipe; Martins, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Accurately retrieving the position of football players over time may lay the foundations for a whole series of possible new performance metrics for coaches and assistants. Despite the recent developments of automatic tracking systems, the misclassification problem (i.e., misleading a given player by another) still exists and requires human operators as final evaluators. This paper proposes an adaptive fractional calculus (FC) approach to improve the accuracy of tracking methods by estimating the position of players based on their trajectory so far. One half-time of an official football match was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach under different sampling periods of 250, 500 and 1000 ms. Moreover, the performance of the FC approach was compared with position-based and velocity-based methods. The experimental evaluation shows that the FC method presents a high classification accuracy for small sampling periods. Such results suggest that fractional dynamics may fit the trajectory of football players, thus being useful to increase the autonomy of tracking systems.

  8. Analysis of football player's motion in view of fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Clemente, Filipe M.; Martins, Fernando M. L.

    2013-06-01

    Accurately retrieving the position of football players over time may lay the foundations for a whole series of possible new performance metrics for coaches and assistants. Despite the recent developments of automatic tracking systems, the misclassification problem ( i.e., misleading a given player by another) still exists and requires human operators as final evaluators. This paper proposes an adaptive fractional calculus (FC) approach to improve the accuracy of tracking methods by estimating the position of players based on their trajectory so far. One half-time of an official football match was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach under different sampling periods of 250, 500 and 1000 ms. Moreover, the performance of the FC approach was compared with position-based and velocity-based methods. The experimental evaluation shows that the FC method presents a high classification accuracy for small sampling periods. Such results suggest that fractional dynamics may fit the trajectory of football players, thus being useful to increase the autonomy of tracking systems.

  9. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and... Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks. This temporary safety..., Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks,...

  10. BCS or Just BS: How College Football Could Crown the Wrong National Champion? Just Do the Math--Correctly!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, C.E. Wynn; Hornyak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 college football season is here, but there has been a continuing controversy swirling over how the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) selects its national champion. College football uses a multi-criterion decision matrix (MCDM) evaluation technique to determine which two teams will play for the national championship. We analyzed the BCS…

  11. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05) in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m) and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s). Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units)), high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u.), and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2). Conclusions: Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  12. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in high-speed and sprint distance between the first and second half (p < 0.001). Reductions in running performance were position dependent with the middle 3 positions experiencing the highest decrement in performance. The current study is the first to communicate a detailed description of match running performance during competitive elite Gaelic football match play. PMID:26694505

  13. Effective learning among elite football players: the development of a football-specific self-regulated learning questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir; Ripegutu, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop a football-specific self-report instrument measuring self-regulated learning in the context of daily practice, which can be used to monitor the extent to which players take responsibility for their own learning. Development of the instrument involved six steps: 1. Literature review based on Zimmerman's (2006) theory of self-regulated learning, 2. Item generation, 3. Item validation, 4. Pilot studies, 5. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and 6. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The instrument was tested for reliability and validity among 204 elite youth football players aged 13-16 years (Mage = 14.6; s = 0.60; 123 boys, 81 girls). The EFA indicated that a five-factor model fitted the observed data best (reflection, evaluation, planning, speaking up, and coaching). However, the CFA showed that a three-factor structure including 22 items produced a satisfactory model fit (reflection, evaluation, and planning; non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.96, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.95, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.067). While the self-regulation processes of reflection, evaluation, and planning are strongly related and fit well into one model, other self-regulated learning processes seem to be more individually determined. In conclusion, the questionnaire developed in this study is considered a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-regulated learning among elite football players. PMID:23731271

  14. Football in inter-war Northern Ireland: Ballymena Football and Athletic Club Limited - religious and political exclusivity or civic inclusivity?

    PubMed

    Laverty, David; Garnham, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Historians have almost universally seen association football in the north of Ireland as a divisive influence. The impacts of sectarian and political tensions on the game have been stressed, alongside the extent to which this sport supposedly feeds into existing divisions. Much of the work carried out has concentrated on the last four decades, though even studies outside this period of widespread civil disorder have highlighted these problems. This paper uses the surviving records of the Ballymena Football and Athletic Club, the local press, census returns and other records to consider aspects of one particular Northern Irish club in the 1920s and 1930s. This short consideration of the players, supporters and shareholders suggests that at least in this case football was successful in bringing together and developing cooperation between men of widely differing political and religious views. While the club was a not a financial success, it was a social and sporting one. The evidence available suggests there was little exhibition of sectarian tension at any level. PMID:20845578

  15. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  16. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  17. Alumni Perceptions of a Move to NCAA Division IA Football Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Donald P.; Harmon, Susan K.; Graeff, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its prominent role, football has the potential to positively impact a university in several ways. Previous research on college athletics has focused on the financial impact of athletic success on institutions (e.g., donations). This research examines the marketing capabilities of college football by measuring alumni perceptions of a…

  18. The Use of Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient in the Classification of Football Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Virden; Johnson, DeWayne

    Using Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient, 154 high school football players from 21 different public high schools were classified as being successful or unsuccessful. Seventeen physical and motor ability variables relating to athletic ability were administered to the football players. The variables included: (1) standard height; (2) body…

  19. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  20. The Effects of Personality and Perceived Leader Behaviors on Performance in Collegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study utilized a multidimensional model of leadership (Chelladurai & Carron, 1978) to examine the influence of personality traits and perceived leader behaviors on performance in collegiate football. Collegiate football players (n=272) from three southeastern United States universities were administered Cattell's Sixteen Personality…

  1. Forty-Eighth Annual Survey of Football Fatalities 1931-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Schindler, Richard D.

    Statistics on football fatalities from 1931 to 1979 are presented. The report shows that the number of direct fatalities has progressively decreased. This decrease is attributed to changes in the rules of football, improvement of equipment, and more careful monitoring of the activity by coaches and others in positions of responsibility. A…

  2. The Heritage Fallacy: Race, Loyalty, and the First Grambling-Southern Football Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    On Armistice Day 1932, the Southern University Bushmen football team left Baton Rouge and traveled to Monroe, Louisiana to play the Tigers of Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute for the first time. Normal was far younger than Southern. It was a two-year junior college in the northeast cotton town of Grambling, and its football team was…

  3. Heat Balance Limits in Football Uniforms: How Different Uniform Ensembles Alter the Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulka, Hasha J.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2002-01-01

    Because football season becomes dangerous when warm weather collides with the need for protective gear, researchers investigated critical heat balance limits in non-heat- acclimatized men who wore various football uniform ensembles and exercised at 35 percent VO2 max in a programmable environmental chamber. The air temperature and humidity limits…

  4. "Why Can't Girls Play Football?" Gender Dynamics and the Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheryl; Paechter, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the involvement of boys and girls in playground football. It is based on research conducted with 10- to 11-year-old pupils at two state primary schools in London. Boys and girls were found to draw on gender constructs that impacted variously on their involvement in playground football. The performance of masculinity through…

  5. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  6. Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits Associated with Collegiate Football Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…

  7. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  8. "Score in French": Motivating Boys with Football in Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses "Score in French," an innovative football-related languages project designed by the University of Southampton to motivate boys in French at Key Stage 3 (ages 11-14). The article starts by explaining the rationale for the choice of football as the topic for a project aimed at motivating boys. It considers the main reasons why…

  9. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  10. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  11. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  12. Project NFFL: The Niagara Fantasy Football League and Sport Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dexter J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…

  13. Athletics, Applications, & Yields: The Relationship between Successful College Football and Institutional Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fielding a successful college football team on institutional popularity using a dependent variable (admissions yield) and an independent variable (bowl game television rating) which have been unexamined in previous research on this topic. The findings suggest that college football success is correlated with a…

  14. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  15. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  16. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated disks Fractured vertebrae These injuries can cause pain and limit your movement. Treatments vary but might ...

  17. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  18. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  19. Ocular Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occur from blunt trauma, such as a sports injury or a fall with injury to the nose ... of protective goggles at all times. Even in sports like baseball, eye injuries can be prevented by using batting helmets that ...

  20. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  1. A matter of life and death: population mortality and football results

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, W; Merrick, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether football results are associated with mortality from circulatory disease. Design: Retrospective study, comparing mortality on days of football matches between 18 August 1994 and 28 December 1999 with the results of the football matches. Setting: Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Subjects: All persons resident in Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Main outcome measures: Mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Results: On days when the local professional football team lost at home, mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke increased significantly in men (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.11 to 1.47). No increase was observed in women. Conclusions: Results achieved by the local professional football team are associated systematically with circulatory disease death rates over a five year period in men, but not women. PMID:12775788

  2. Laboratory Validation of Two Wearable Sensor Systems for Measuring Head Impact Severity in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Wearable sensors can measure head impact frequency and magnitude in football players. Our goal was to quantify the impact detection rate and validity of the direction and peak kinematics of two wearable sensors: a helmet system (HITS) and a mouthguard system (X2). Using a linear impactor, modified Hybrid-III headform and one helmet model, we conducted 16 impacts for each system at 12 helmet sites and 5 speeds (3.6-11.2 m/s) (N = 896 tests). Peak linear and angular accelerations (PLA, PAA), head injury criteria (HIC) and impact directions from each device were compared to reference sensors in the headform. Both sensors detected ~96% of impacts. Median angular errors for impact directions were 34° for HITS and 16° for X2. PLA, PAA and HIC were simultaneously valid at 2 sites for HITS (side, oblique) and one site for X2 (side). At least one kinematic parameter was valid at 2 and 7 other sites for HITS and X2 respectively. Median relative errors for PLA were 7% for HITS and -7% for X2. Although sensor validity may differ for other helmets and headforms, our analyses show that data generated by these two sensors need careful interpretation. PMID:26268586

  3. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates. PMID:24149760

  4. The effect of muscle fatigue on instep kicking kinetics and kinematics in association football.

    PubMed

    Apriantono, Tommy; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo; Sano, Shinya

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of leg muscle fatigue on the kinetics and kinematics of the instep football kick. Fatigue was induced by repeated, loaded knee extension (40% body weight) and flexion (50% body weight) motions on a weight-training machine until exhaustion. The kicking motions of seven male players were captured three-dimensionally at 500 Hz before and immediately after the fatigue protocol. The significantly slower ball velocity observed in the fatigue condition was due to both reduced lower leg swing speed and poorer ball contact. The reduced leg swing speed, represented by a slower toe linear velocity immediately before ball impact and slower peak lower leg angular velocity, was most likely due to a significantly reduced resultant joint moment and motion-dependent interactive moment during kicking. These results suggest that the specific muscle fatigue induced in the present study not only diminished the ability to generate force, but also disturbed the effective action of the interactive moment leading to poorer inter-segmental coordination during kicking. Moreover, fatigue obscured the eccentric action of the knee flexors immediately before ball impact. This might increase the susceptibility to injury. PMID:16882629

  5. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988-2008) Multisport Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-02-12

    Context : Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective : To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting : Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988-2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants : Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results : Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries ( 16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions : The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may

  6. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988–2008) Multisport Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Context: Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective: To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988–2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants: Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results: Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries (16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 3.8) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions: The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may be

  7. African-American Male Student-Athletes in Division I Collegiate Sports: Expectations and Aspirations for Undergraduate Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Seanan

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative case study explored undergraduate degree attainment by African American males in football and basketball at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Southwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants at the institution to uncover experiences that helped or…

  8. Wrist injuries: a comparison between high- and low-impact sports.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W

    2013-03-01

    Wrist injuries can be categorized as those caused by high- or low-impact sports. High-impact sports include auto racing, motorcross or bicycle racing, in-line skating, gymnastics, football, soccer, ice skating, snowboarding, and alpine skiing. Low-impact sports include tennis, track and field, and golf. High-impact injuries of the wrist range from displaced fractures and dislocations to ligamentous and acute tendinous tears. Low-impact sports typically result in nondisplaced or occult fractures, contusions, stress reaction, ligamentous sprain, tendinopathy, tenosynovitis, or tendon subluxation. Imaging modalities for detection of injuries include radiography, computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance CT arthrography, and skeletal scintigraphy. PMID:23472592

  9. Benchmarking cow comfort on North American freestall dairies: lameness, leg injuries, lying time, facility design, and management for high-producing Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Barrientos, A; Ito, K; Galo, E; Weary, D M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to corporate involvement in on-farm assessment, driven by the desire to provide a service for dairy producers and to create a vehicle for engagement on issues of dairy cow welfare. This program provides producers with feedback on animal-based (including gait score, leg injuries, and lying time) and facility-based (including freestall design, bedding practices, feed bunk design and management, and stocking density) measures that can be used to better address their management goals. The aim of this paper is to describe variation in the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries, lying behavior, facility design, and management practices for high-producing cows on freestall dairy farms in 3 regions of North America: British Columbia (BC; n=42); California (CA; n=39); and the northeastern United States (NE-US; n=40). Prevalence of clinical lameness averaged (mean ± SD) 27.9±14.1% in BC, 30.8±15.5% in CA, and 54.8±16.7% in NE-US; prevalence of severe lameness averaged 7.1±5.4% in BC, 3.6±4.2% in CA, and 8.2±5.6% in NE-US. Overall prevalence of hock injuries was 42.3±26.2% in BC, 56.2±21.6% in CA, and 81.2±22.5% in NE-US; prevalence of severe injuries was 3.7±5.2% in BC, 1.8±3.1% in CA, 5.4±5.9% in NE-US. Prevalence of swollen knees was minimal in CA (0.3±0.6%) but high (23.1±16.3%) in NE-US (not scored in BC). Lying times were similar across regions (11.0±0.7h/d in BC, 10.4±0.8h/d in CA, 10.6±0.9h/d in NE-US), but individual lying times among cows assessed varied (4.2 to 19.5h/d, 3.7 to 17.5h/d, and 2.8 to 20.5h/d in BC, CA, and NE-US, respectively). These results showed considerable variation in lameness and leg injury prevalence as well as facility design and management among freestall farms in North America. Each of the 3 regions had farms with a very low prevalence of lameness and injuries, suggesting great opportunities for improvement on other farms within the region. PMID:23063152

  10. Common and Unique Network Dynamics in Football Games

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The sport of football is played between two teams of eleven players each using a spherical ball. Each team strives to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal as the result of skillful interactions among players. Football can be regarded from the network perspective as a competitive relationship between two cooperative networks with a dynamic network topology and dynamic network node. Many complex large-scale networks have been shown to have topological properties in common, based on a small-world network and scale-free network models. However, the human dynamic movement pattern of this network has never been investigated in a real-world setting. Here, we show that the power law in degree distribution emerged in the passing behavior in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final and an international “A” match in Japan, by describing players as vertices connected by links representing passes. The exponent values are similar to the typical values that occur in many real-world networks, which are in the range of , and are larger than that of a gene transcription network, . Furthermore, we reveal the stochastically switched dynamics of the hub player throughout the game as a unique feature in football games. It suggests that this feature could result not only in securing vulnerability against intentional attack, but also in a power law for self-organization. Our results suggest common and unique network dynamics of two competitive networks, compared with the large-scale networks that have previously been investigated in numerous works. Our findings may lead to improved resilience and survivability not only in biological networks, but also in communication networks. PMID:22216336

  11. Inguinal mass in a college football player: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rich, B S; Hough, D O; Monroe, J S; Nogle, S

    1993-03-01

    A 22-yr-old male college football player presented with a 3-wk history of a mass in his right inguinal area. Originally thought by the athlete to be a groin strain, evaluation revealed a large indirect inguinal hernia. Surgical evaluation was obtained to confirm the diagnosis of a 4-cm opening at the external inguinal ring. The hernia completely and spontaneously reduced in the supine position. The athlete was successfully allowed to participate with the use of a truss and underwent an uneventful surgical repair at the end of the season. The diagnosis and treatment of inguinal hernias are reviewed. PMID:8455445

  12. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. PMID:25878076

  13. Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students. This…

  14. Practice and play in the development of German top-level professional football players.

    PubMed

    Hornig, Manuel; Aust, Friedhelm; Güllich, Arne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental sporting activities of 52 German football first Bundesliga professionals (including 18 senior national team members) and 50 fourth to sixth league amateur players. They reported their volumes of organised football practice/training, including its "microstructure" (proportions of physical conditioning, skill exercises and playing forms), non-organised leisure football play and engagement in other sports through their career, respectively. Analyses revealed that the Bundesliga professionals performed moderate amounts of organised football practice/training throughout their career. They accumulated 4264 (mean value) hours over ~16 years before debuting in 1st Bundesliga; senior National Team debut was preceded by 4532 hours (mean) over ~17 years. Within the "microstructure" of organised practice/training, the proportion of playing forms developed from ~52% (childhood) to ~45% (adolescence) and ~40% (adulthood) and physical conditioning from ~13% to ~14% and ~23%. Outside organised involvement, these players engaged in extensive non-organised leisure football play making ~68%, ~54% and ~9% of all football involvement. Subsuming organised and non-organised football, ~86% (childhood), ~73% (adolescence) and ~43% (adulthood) of all activity was game play (exclusive matchplay). National Team differed from amateurs in more non-organised leisure football in childhood, more engagement in other sports in adolescence, later specialisation, and in more organised football only at age 22+ years. Relative to numerous other studies, these players performed less organised practice, particularly less physical conditioning, but greater proportions of playing activities. The findings are discussed relative to the significance of playing forms and variable involvements and are reflected against the deliberate practice and Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP) frameworks. PMID:25440296

  15. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    PubMed

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society. PMID:22670651

  16. Lisfranc injuries.

    PubMed

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  17. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality. PMID:20016434

  18. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A.; Gailey, Robert S.; Kelley, William P.; Alemi, Timothy J.; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A.; West, Dustin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. Case Description A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. Outcomes The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m2 to 30.6 kg/m2. Discussion This case report illustrates the positive effects of a

  19. Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-08-01

    There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake. PMID:17646250

  20. Player acceleration and deceleration profiles in professional Australian football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match. PMID:26470636