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Sample records for american foreign policy

  1. American Students' Perceptions of American Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Robert N.

    The perception of typical U.S. college students toward the Reagan administration's foreign policy is that it is based on the principle that Communism must be stopped at any cost. Students' beliefs are defined according to their reactions to specific U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Three areas have aroused considerable campus reaction and…

  2. Alternative American foreign policy for Ukraine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    American policy makers have largely ignored Ukraine in their global policy planning. This lack of consideration shows a neglect of the potential for conflict in Eastern Europe. American foreign policy toward Ukraine, that is rooted in the START and NPT Treaties, is doomed to fail, and will actually sow the seeds of chaos, unless the United States: (1) comes to understand the motivations that drive Ukrainian foreign policy, and (2) facilitate significant positive alterations to the security and economic environment that has developed since the breakup of the Soviet Union. This thesis examines Western security goals and analyzes the current means available to achieve those goals. The contention of this thesis is that present Western policy pursuits will lead to a regenerated authoritarian Russian superpower that will be a threat to the security of Ukraine and Europe. The potentially dangerous consequences of an authoritarian Russia could be avoided by facilitating the development of a strong and stable Ukraine to act as a balance to Russian power in Eastern Europe. United States, Ukraine, Foreign policy, Nuclear arms negotiations, Economic aid, Russia.

  3. Health and foreign policy: an American view.

    PubMed

    Cahill, K M

    1997-10-01

    Health and humanitarian complications of conflicts and disasters are, increasingly, the bases for international intervention. Concerns about widespread starvation, the spread of epidemic diseases, and a whole range of human-rights violations are now central factors in foreign affairs. Emphasising health issues can offer an innovative approach to the resolution of apparently intractable problems. Identifying the common concerns, of even the most bitter enemies, can provide an initial basis for dialogue and lead to diplomatic initiatives. Further, the methodology of public health and the metaphors of medicine provide a needed structure for a new era in post-Cold-War international relations; this would include an emphasis on preventive diplomacy that, the author argues, is as essential for the United States as it is for the United Nations. PMID:9625928

  4. Foreign Policy Choices for Americans: A Nonpartisan Guide for Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.; And Others

    Eighteen foreign policy topics are presented in this book to provide voters, officeholders, candidates, students, and teachers with background information, facts, and U.S. foreign policies. A fact list, historical background information, current administration policy, and policy alternatives are described for most of these topics. Part 1 discusses…

  5. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  6. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  7. Lessons from History: Defining Moments in the American Presidency and Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2008-01-01

    For much of American history, political leaders have stood by a principle that "politics stops at the water's edge." While political disagreements about domestic policies are seen as inevitable and even healthy, there has been a tradition of trying to avoid partisan disagreements over foreign policy. As a result, intense disagreements over foreign…

  8. Guide to Manuscripts and Archives and the American Foreign Policy Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaddy, Robert Alan

    This guide describes the holdings in the manuscript collections, the university archives, and the American Foreign Policy Center, all of which are located in Louisiana Tech University's Prescott Memorial Library. The guide is divided into three sections. The first section, "Manuscript Collections," presents descriptions of 197 collections of…

  9. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  10. Oil and diplomacy: the evolution of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia, 1933-1945

    SciTech Connect

    Casillas, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the transformation of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia between the years 1933 and 1945. At the beginning of this period American-Saudi relations were negligible. However, by the end of World War II in 1945, American policy-makers had concluded that the Saudi Kingdom was a nation vital to America's long-term economic and strategic interests. This remarkable official about face was the result of several factors including the potential of Saudi Arabian oilfields, the shifting priorities of Washington policy-makers and the lobbying efforts of a Saudi-based American commercial concern, the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO). ARAMCO entered Saudi Arabia in 1933. As the only all-American oil concession in the Middle East they feared European, especially British, interference in their operations. To forestall this possibility, real or imagined, the oilmen turned to Washington for help. Although official assistance was not immediately forthcoming, ARAMCO did find support in the Near Eastern Affairs Division (NEA) of the Department of State.

  11. American Foreign Policy for the '80s: A Voter's Guide to the Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Wallace, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to provide voters, officeholders, and candidates with background information on major foreign policy issues so that they can follow the 1980 presidential debates and reach their own informed conclusions. Thirteen major foreign policy topics are covered. The material is written in telegraphic style to get the essential…

  12. Political conservatism, rigidity, and dogmatism in American foreign policy officials: the 1966 Mennis data.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles (A. Chirumbolo, 2002; J. T. Jost, J. Glaser, A. W. Kruglanski, & F. Sulloway, 2003a, 2003b; M. Kemmelmeier, 1997). In this article, the author examined whether this finding is true in the political elite, whether the relationship is linear or curvilinear, and whether interest in politics moderates the relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles. He used a 1966 sample of American foreign policy officials (N = 95) to examine the relationship between self-described conservatism and party identification and individual differences in rigidity and dogmatism. Rigidity was related to self-described conservatism, but this relationship was only significant among participants high in political interest, whereas dogmatism was unconditionally related to party identification. All relationships were linear and did not contain a curvilinear component. PMID:17312688

  13. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  14. Educational Policy in Foreign Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Barbara, Ed.

    Five talks given at a seminar on educational policy in foreign countries are presented in this document. The first contends that while schools established for Americans abroad tend to be isolated from the local community for several reasons, opportunities for extended cultural interchange exist and should be used. The second examines the nature of…

  15. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  16. Hierarchy and Community at Home and Abroad: Evidence of a Common Structure of Domestic and Foreign Policy Beliefs in American Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence of a relationship between domestic and foreign policy attitudes among American elites, we have less of an idea about why these sets of attitudes cohere. The answer lies in a better understanding of what we mean when we talk about "left" and "right" or "liberal" and "conservative." Drawing on the literature on…

  17. U.S. Foreign Policy Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Claiborne

    1983-01-01

    The three highest priorities for American foreign policy are avoiding nuclear war by working with the Soviet leadership to alter our present collision course, demonstrating our commitment to human rights throughout the world, and ensuring American economic prosperity by strengthening exports and ensuring the stability of the international monetary…

  18. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  19. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  20. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  1. Black Consciousness and American Policy in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obatala, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    An account of increased pressure for a change in American foreign policy toward the white racist regimes in South Africa as a result of a rise in awareness and the level of participation by blacks in the political process. (EH)

  2. China's nuclear agenda and the implications for United States foreign policy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis covers the history of China's nuclear development and examines the changes in its nuclear policies over the past three decades. It examines the issues of China's nuclear and defense strategies, nuclear and defense policies, arms transfers policies, proliferation policies and its foreign policies. Implications for American foreign policy vis-a-vis China's evolving nuclear status are discussed.

  3. Human Rights and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Jeane J.

    1984-01-01

    United States foreign policy should serve moral goals. The U.S. identity is inextricably involved with the Constitution and with the ethos expressed by and through it. Moral purpose is, therefore, indissolubly involved with our conception of national identity. (RM)

  4. Foreign Students: Developing Institutional Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    The academic sector must demonstrate its awareness of the implications of international educational exchange on particular disciplines, the quality of U.S. academic institutions amd on their economic health, the economic and social conditions of surrounding communities, and U.S. foreign policies. (MLW)

  5. 77 FR 24452 - Foreign Ownership Policies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... related to national security, law enforcement, foreign policy and trade policy. Foreign Participation... U.S. trade policy, explain their positions in detail and provide support for their conclusions. In..., www.bcpiweb.com ; telephone: (800) 378-3160, fax: (202) 488-5563; (2) James Ball, Chief,...

  6. Sino-American Relations after Normalization: Toward the Second Decade. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 276.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven M.; Mathews, Jay

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater interest in and more effective understanding of world affairs among American citizens, this six-chapter booklet traces the development toward improved relations between China and the United States. The chapters include: "Toward a New Consensus: 1978-1986"; "Strategic Triangle: The…

  7. U. S. Foreign Policy and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierce, Milfred C.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that United States foreign policy toward South Africa has been "found wanting" since 1948. Focuses on the failure of President Reagan's policy of "constructive engagement," and details what must be done to bring about an end to apartheid. (JDH)

  8. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  9. Education for Foreigners -- and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, C. Peter

    Criticisms of foreign student and international programs at U.S. colleges and universities are reviewed, along with the efforts by higher education institutions to examine their foreign student programs. Bills before the U.S. Congress that would affect these programs are also briefly described. Some criticisms reflect the view that efforts to…

  10. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  11. Reagan's Foreign Policy: An Assessment (I) Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Whittle

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between former U.S. President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy and those of his predecessors. Focuses on the differences between Reagan's policies and those of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Analyzes Reagan's policies of containment, human rights, and arms control. Discusses criticisms launched against Reagan's…

  12. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM POLICY. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    IN THE HOPE THAT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS MIGHT DISCUSS THEM AT PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS, THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION HAS RELEASED THESE POLICY STATEMENTS FORMULATED TO GOVERN THE CONDUCT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS. FOLLOWING A REFERENCE TO THE VALUE OF ACQUIRING NOT ONLY THE LANGUAGE SKILLS BUT ALSO A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE AND…

  13. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following chapters: (1)…

  14. Improving Foreigners' Pronunciation of American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Bertha

    Existing literature on pronunciation instruction in English as a second language is reviewed, revealing that significant attention to the improvement of American English pronunciation among foreign students has been lacking. For the teacher's benefit, an analysis of basic phonetics is presented, laying a foundation for understanding pronunciation…

  15. The Public Looks at Foreign Policy: A Report from Five Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Holm, John D.

    The document examines the American public stand on foreign policy and explores the extent of citizen support for six basic foreign policy orientations--anti-Communism, internationalism, democracy, isolationism, interventionism, and self-interest. The extent of public support within these orientations among subgroups in the populace is also…

  16. The Criticism of Foreign Policy Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Robert P.

    This survey of the state-of-the-art of research in international relations suggests that principles of sound argumentation can apply to major decisions in foreign policy. An analysis and critique of policy arguments regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis, the China-Korea-Vietnam embroilment, and the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with…

  17. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  18. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  19. American families: policy issues.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O; Wadhwa, K T

    1993-01-01

    "Increases in the number of children living in single-parent (usually female-headed) households and in the proportion of mothers who work outside their homes have raised concern in the United States about the effects of these trends on the well-being of children and the possible need for policy intervention. This paper discusses the arguments for and against policies that affect families. We review a number of such policies and what research suggests about their likely effects. The policies discussed...include those concerning child support, welfare, income taxes, child and dependent care, family leave, family planning, programs to improve parenting skills and family function, and economic growth." PMID:12287264

  20. Foreign science and engineering doctoral attainment at American universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Robert V.

    This dissertation analyzes the nearly 100,000 foreign students who attained science and engineering (S&E) doctorates in the five fields of physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, and social and behavioral sciences at American universities from 1994 to 2005. Two models are presented. In the first model controlling for population, multivariate regression results testing for whether foreign students from higher or lower income nations (181 nations) tended to attain S&E doctorates showed that certain S&E fields tended to be represented by students from higher income nations early in the time period (e.g. 1994 to 1999) but the national income variable explaining foreign S&E doctoral attainment was not statistically significant in four of the fields after the year 2000. Four nations, China, India, South Korea and Taiwan stand out due to their large S&E doctoral student presence at American universities, but virtually all growth in foreign doctoral attainment in four of the S&E fields from 1994 to 2005 came from Chinese students, and this growth was most pronounced after the year 2001. In short, whereas the foreign student populations from South Korea and Taiwan were the outliers in 1994 and as such skewed testing results, they had largely been displaced in 2005 by the increased presence of Chinese students. From the US public policy perspective, to the extent that growth in foreign S&E doctoral attainment is an issue to include its related costs and benefits, the appropriate policy focus should shift more specifically towards the growth in Chinese S&E doctoral attainment. Further, with the exception of China and India, foreign doctoral students from the lowest income nations of the world in all five S&E fields were greatly under represented on American campuses from 1994 to 2005. Testing results from the second model complement the findings in the first model. Whereas the first model tested for the effects of national income on

  1. Traditional American Indian Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines aspects of American Indian world views and values relevant to economic development policy; specifically, sense of community, connectedness of everything, consideration of future generations, and humility toward nature. Discusses constraints on economic development arising from these values and the relevance of common property ownership…

  2. Social Policy and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Purcell, Patrick Frances

    The purpose of the monograph is to provide schools of social work and their teachers with a central core of information concerning the policy and provisions of law that affect American Indians. The core information is selective and is presented in seven chapters. The first chapter provides a brief historical overview of the unique relationship…

  3. African-American Students and Foreign Language Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James J.

    The performance and attitudes of African-American students of foreign languages are discussed in this digest. Three major areas are reported: (1) Black English and foreign language learning, including theories of language deficiency, sociolinguistic research, phonology and syntax; (2) research on the performance of African-American students of…

  4. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and the United…

  5. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  6. Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Comparative Public Diplomacy: Pseudo-Education, Fear-Mongering and Insecurities in Canadian-American Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined public diplomacy as a comparative education issue, particularly regarding social-psychological, economic and political fears or personal and national insecurities. This paper discusses American public diplomacy as a mostly Cold War strategy adapted to post-9/11 national security interests, fears and desires. It further…

  7. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  8. 78 FR 51266 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on September 9, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  9. Children's Sociolinguistic Evaluations of Nice Foreigners and Mean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 5- to 6-year-old monolingual English-speaking American children's sociolinguistic evaluations of others based on their accent (native, foreign) and social actions (nice, mean, neutral). In Experiment 1, children expressed social preferences for native-accented English speakers over foreign-accented speakers, and they…

  10. American Sign Language as a Foreign Language. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sherman; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This digest provides a brief overview of American Sign Language (ASL) and discusses its study as a foreign language in U.S. schools and institutions of higher education. The following questions are addressed: (1) Is ASL a language?; (2) If ASL is used in the United States, how can it be considered a "foreign" language; (3) Are ASL users in this…

  11. Foreign Language Requirement? Why Not American Sign Language? ERIC Digests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sherman

    A discussion focusing on whether American Sign Language (ASL) should be accepted in fulfillment of university foreign language requirements attempts to dispel misconceptions about the language; and to show that ASL can provide the same benefits as the study of more traditional foreign languages, including the opportunity to communicate in another…

  12. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    PubMed

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy. PMID:24072881

  13. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  14. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  15. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  16. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  17. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  18. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  19. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. PMID:25217356

  20. Identifying geoscience knowledge likely to affect foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelmelis, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The earth sciences play an important role in foreign policy and have done so throughout history. Whether it is access to resources, knowledge of weather or other earth system conditions, planning for or responding to disasters, protecting the environment, facilitating transportation and communication, or any of a number of other important topics, the geosciences continue to inform our decision making. The importance of science, technology, and health (STH) is being increasingly recognized in the foreign policy community. The National Research Council (NRC) recommended that the Department of State (State) expand its scientific base to address the importance of STH issues. In part, this consists of increasing the number of scientists within State. Another important aspect is not only identifying the STH issues that are of current concern, but also the issues that will be of importance in the future. A number of studies funded by the U.S. Government have identified some important STH areas of concern at a high level. These provide a basis for more in-depth investigations. However, there are additional phenomena, beyond those identified in the studies, which have foreign policy implications. The scientific findings may be well known to scientists but their foreign policy importance is not always obvious. The scientific and foreign policy communities could improve their dialog to better develop strategies for foreign policy and future scientific research. One way to help facilitate that is to ease identification of scientific issues with potential significance to foreign policy and to clarify uncertainties around those issues. A qualitative method relating the likelihood that the scientific finding has foreign policy importance to the potential level of foreign policy importance has been used to clarify the significance of a variety of scientific findings including Arctic warming, methane hydrates, atmospheric dust, disease, and natural hazards. From a foreign policy

  1. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71.9 Section 71.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR... Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. The chief of the mission concerned may exercise his discretion...

  2. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws,...

  3. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws,...

  4. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71.9 Section 71.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR... Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. The chief of the mission concerned may exercise his discretion...

  5. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71.9 Section 71.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR... Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. The chief of the mission concerned may exercise his discretion...

  6. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71.9 Section 71.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR... Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. The chief of the mission concerned may exercise his discretion...

  7. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws,...

  8. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws,...

  9. 22 CFR 71.3 - American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. 71.3 Section 71.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS....3 American claimants to foreign estates and inheritances. Where treaty provisions, local laws,...

  10. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  11. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  12. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in US foreign policy: the Middle East-Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this book is to understand Moscow's convictions regarding recent events in the Middle East-Persian Gulf region and the motivations underlying US policy there. It identifies and analyzes the Soviet view of how America's energy problem has influenced US-Soviet relations in that area. Some attention also goes to the implications for American policy in the region. Key topics include Soviet perceptions of American foreign policy aims, US goals in the Middle East, US-Iranian relations during the Shah's region and after his fall, and the negative aspects of the energy problems for Moscow. Some speculative remarks are made regarding likely future directions of Soviet policies and the implications of such policies for the US. 95 references.

  13. Foreign Science and Engineering Doctoral Attainment at American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the nearly 100,000 foreign students who attained science and engineering (S&E) doctorates in the five fields of physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, and social and behavioral sciences at American universities from 1994 to 2005. Two models are presented. In the first model…

  14. A Foreign Policy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presents 1988 Democratic presidential candidate, Albert Gore, Jr.'s views about the future direction of U.S. foreign policy. Discusses the U.S. role as leader of the Western world and Gore's policies for dealing with allies and the Soviet Union, while maintaining U.S. respect and power. (GEA)

  15. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  16. Centralization and Decentralization in American Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the trend toward centralization in American education policy over the last century through a variety of lenses. The overall picture that emerges is one of a continuous tug-of-war, with national and local policymakers stumbling together toward incrementally more standardized and centralized policies. There is a center of power…

  17. 22 CFR 71.9 - Presentation of Americans at foreign courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. 71... Presentation of Americans at foreign courts. The chief of the mission concerned may exercise his discretion in the matter of procuring the presentation of American citizens at the court of the country to which...

  18. Foreign Policy News in the 1980 Presidential Election Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, James Glen

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent and content of newspaper coverage of foreign policy issues in the 1980 United States presidential campaign. Fifty daily newspapers from every region of the country were selected randomly based on circulation. A list of 757 news events was divided into party and nonparty events, and the party events…

  19. Great Decisions 1990: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    The 1990 Great Decisions program, part of an annual series on foreign policy issues, is intended to create better better public understanding through information and analyses of important international issues. Current information is presented so that participants may be stimulated toward discussion, form opinions and contribute to the policy…

  20. Great Decisions 1989. Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    This briefing book provides the only material needed to participate in the 1989 Great Decisions national non-partisan program of volunteer run discussions on U.S. foreign policy issues for classrooms and community groups. Everyone who participates in the program is invited to fill out the opinion ballots provided in the back of the book; the…

  1. Personality Variables in Foreign Policy Decision Making Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Described and critiqued are studies that attempt to describe how personality factors affect foreign policy decision making. Political behavior cannot be explained in terms of personality alone. Such an attempt is a psychological reductionism that ignores the chains of causation that run from underlying personality construct to social and political…

  2. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  3. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals. PMID:25276514

  4. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the speech:…

  5. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    PubMed

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321137

  6. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  7. Children's sociolinguistic evaluations of nice foreigners and mean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-04-01

    Three experiments investigated 5- to 6-year-old monolingual English-speaking American children's sociolinguistic evaluations of others based on their accent (native, foreign) and social actions (nice, mean, neutral). In Experiment 1, children expressed social preferences for native-accented English speakers over foreign-accented speakers, and they judged the native-accented speakers to be "American." In Experiments 2 and 3, the accented speakers were depicted as being nicer than the relatively meaner native speakers. Children's social preferences and judgments of others' personalities varied as a function of behavior; in particular, children disliked individuals who committed negative social actions. In contrast, children's judgments of nationality hinged exclusively on accent; across all conditions, children evaluated native-accented English speakers to be "American," regardless of whether they were nice or mean. These findings contribute to an understanding of the nature of children's reasoning about language as a social category and have implications for future research investigating children's thinking about language as a marker of national group identity. PMID:22686180

  8. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  9. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  10. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  11. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  12. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  13. Aspects of American Higher Education, 1969-1975. A Report for the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin

    Trends in American higher education between 1969 and 1975 are reported based on surveys in those two years by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. In general, the late 1960's saw widespread turbulence and disruption directed both at educational forms on campus and changes in American foreign policy. This movement was marked by a political…

  14. Teaching Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graseck, Susan

    This ERIC Digest discusses issues relating to teaching about U.S. foreign policy in the changing international environment following the end of the Cold War era and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The document treats: (1) the need and rationale for teaching and learning about current foreign policy issues; (2) main themes in foreign policy…

  15. American health policy: cracks in the foundation.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A

    2007-10-01

    Much American health policy over the past thirty-five years has focused on reducing the additional health care that is consumed when a person becomes insured, that is, reducing moral hazard. According to conventional theory, all of moral hazard represents a welfare loss to society because its cost exceeds its value. Empirical support for this theory has been provided by the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, which found that moral hazard--even moral hazard in the form of effective and appropriate hospital procedures--could be reduced substantially using cost-sharing policies with little or no measurable effect on health. This article critically analyzes these two cornerstones of American health policy. It holds that a large portion of moral hazard actually represents health care that ill consumers would not otherwise have access to without the income that is transferred to them through insurance. This portion of moral hazard is efficient and generates a welfare gain. Further, it holds that the RAND experiment's finding (that health care could be reduced substantially with little or no effect on health) may actually be caused by the large number of participants who voluntarily dropped out of the cost-sharing arms of the experiment. Indeed, almost all of the reduction in hospital use in the cost-sharing plans could be attributed to this voluntary attrition. If so, the RAND finding that cost sharing could reduce health care utilization, especially utilization in the form of effective and appropriate hospital procedures, with no appreciable effect on health is spurious. The article concludes by observing that the preoccupation with moral hazard is misplaced and has worked to obscure policies that would better reduce health care expenditures. It has also led us away from policies that would extend insurance coverage to the uninsured. PMID:17855716

  16. 76 FR 65472 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... protect important interests related to national security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade... Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998... security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade policy. The NPRM does not address Commission...

  17. [On the formulation of TCM foreign exchange policy after the reform and opening-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfang; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine are conducted under the guidance of the policy of the CPC and Chinese government. After the carrying out of the reform and opening-up policy, foreign exchange policy of TCM has experienced the process of growing up from nothing, from less to more, and from coarse to fine, which is closely related to our country's foreign policy, the cause of Chinese medicine development, and urgent need of international communication. In the three decades after the reform and opening-up policy, the formulation of foreign exchange policy of TCM can be divided into three stages: viz., inclusion in the framework of national foreign policy (1978-1985), embodiment in the policy of developing TCM cause (1986-1996), and appearance in the special policy of foreign exchange of Chinese medicine (since 1997). From the development process of these policies, the development of each policy gradually complies with the process of the development of the times, with its contents basically in line with the requirements of the times. The implementation of some policies promotes the foreign exchanges and cooperation of Chinese medicine. PMID:26420412

  18. The sources of foreign policy: The Carter administration and NATO nuclear forces, 1977-80

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Carter administration entered office committed to the goal of reducing the United States; dependence on nuclear weaponry. This was especially clear in the administration's initial policy towards NATO and the defense of Western Europe. In retrospect, however, what is striking is the degree to which nuclear forces and strategy dominated the Carter administration's policymaking efforts regarding NATO. Decisions about enhanced radiation warheads (or neutron bombs) and long-range theater nuclear forces (ground-launched cruise missiles and Pershing 2 ballistic missiles) created divisions within the alliance and complicated the administration's attempts to control domestic debate over its foreign and defense policies. How did this reversal of emphasis occur Most examinations of this policy change have focused on the existence of a new Soviet threat to Europe or the alliance politics of NATO to explain the dramatic turnabout in American policy. This thesis argues that a close examination of US domestic political factors significantly enhances our understanding of why the Carter administration arrived at the policy decisions it made concerning US theater nuclear forces in Europe.

  19. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy. Ethnicity and Public Policy Series, Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E., Ed.; Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed.

    This book discusses legal and social aspects of public policy in American society and their relationship to fulfilling the promise of social justice for American Indians. U.S. public policy is viewed as reflecting the collective sentiments of the electorate. If the American people have the will to bring about change in the socioeconomic conditions…

  20. Health imperatives in foreign policy: the case of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon; Phua, Kai-Lit

    2007-03-01

    Malaysia's global, regional and bilateral international health relations are surveyed against the historical backdrop of the country's foreign policy. Malaysia has always participated in multilateral agencies, most notably the World Health Organization, as such agencies are part of the longstanding fabric of "good international citizenship". The threats of infectious diseases to human health and economic activity have caused an intensification and an organizational formalization of Malaysian health diplomacy, both regionally and bilaterally. Such diplomacy has also established a basis for developing a wider set of cooperative relationships that go beyond responding to the threat of pandemics. As Malaysia approaches "developed" status, its health sector is becoming increasingly integrated into the global economy through joint research and development ventures and transnational investment. At the same time, it will have the technological, financial and human resources to play an expanded altruistic role in global and regional health. PMID:17486215

  1. U.S. Foreign Policy: Illusions of Powerlessness and Realities of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    The foreign policy of the United States has not taken into consideration the dynamics of world politics and the kinds of power required to participate in it. Foreign policy makers need a post-Kissinger, post-Brzezinski doctrine that corrects the distorted focus on U.S.-Soviet relations as on our central problem, accepts the inherent linkage…

  2. Television and U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of the Iran Hostage Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews three major roles identified for the press in the foreign policy process: observer, participant, and catalyst. Claims that these roles circumscribe the structural relationship of media to foreign policy and provide a framework for some general propositions against which the particulars of the Iran case may be interpreted. (JD)

  3. 77 FR 38126 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App Sec. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take...

  4. 26 CFR 46.4371-4 - Records required with respect to foreign insurance policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records required with respect to foreign... with respect to foreign insurance policies. (a) Each person required under the provisions of § 46.4374... the tax with respect to such policy was paid....

  5. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy. 5.62 Section 5.62 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... defense and foreign policy. We are not required to release records that, as provided by FOIA, are...

  6. The Roles, Employment Status and Time Allocation of Foreign-Born Faculty in American Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    As the demographics of faculty in American higher are fast changing and more foreign-born faculty entering the system, more information about this new group of entrants needs to be scrutinized. This research is aiming to answer some issues related the foreign-born professors overlooked by the mainstream studies about faculty in American…

  7. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  8. Foreign Media Exposure and Perceptions of Americans in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willnat, Lars; He, Zhou; Xiaoming, Hao

    1997-01-01

    Finds that foreign TV consumption is related to negative stereotypical perceptions of and feelings toward Americans among undergraduate students attending universities in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore; but that different types of foreign media, such as newspaper, radio, video, and movies, exhibit distinct and different relationships with…

  9. Borderless STEM Education: A Study of Both American Students and Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komura, Kiriko

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global…

  10. "Are We 'Real' Americans?": Cultural Production of "Forever Foreigners" at a Diversity Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gilbert C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the history of Asian immigrants dates back to the 17th century, their status as authentic Americans is still questioned today. With this in mind, this article looks at how a diversity event at a racially diverse inner-city high school produces the image of Asian Americans as "forever foreigners." Using qualitative tools like observation…

  11. American Managers' Use of Their Foreign Employer's Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzel, Roger

    The use of a foreign language as part of the managerial context rather than as a technical tool was examined. Eighteen people in nine companies, primarily from the manufacturing sector, were interviewed to raise a set of issues pertaining to the use of a foreign employer's language (FEL). All of the companies in the sample were within a day's…

  12. Where are you from? A validation of the Foreigner Objectification Scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Pituc, Stephanie T; Jung, Kyoung-Rae; Park, Irene J K; Soto, José A; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. PMID:23647327

  13. Policy Statements of the American Association of Dental Schools[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' policy statements on education (preprofessional, predoctoral, advanced, continuing, and auxiliary), government relations regarding education, research, delivery of care, and public health concerns as amended in March 1986 are presented. (MSE)

  14. 78 FR 41314 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... trade policy. DATES: Effective August 9, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan O'Connell or James... station licensee. In the First Report and Order in this docket (77 FR 50628, August 22, 2012) the... consistent with national security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade policy concerns. Under the...

  15. African-American Attitudes towards United States Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Explores attitudes of African Americans about U.S. immigration policy, from slavery to the present. Fourteen contemporary polls reveal a long-standing preference among blacks in the United States for restricting immigration rather than maintaining or increasing it, in spite of beliefs that make it difficult for African Americans to see the…

  16. BRACEROS, MEXICO, AND FOREIGN TRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICY RESTRICTING USE OF FOREIGN CONTRACT WORKERS ON AMERICAN FARMS IN 1965 EXPRESSES THREE POSSIBILITIES -- (1) A SEVERE DISRUPTION OF DOMESTIC FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION, (2) AN INCREASE OF AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN, PARTICULARLY MEXICAN, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AND (3) A LOSS OF UNITED STATES EXPORT MARKET…

  17. Unlearning American Patriotism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  18. The American Civic Culture and an Inclusivist Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lawrence H.

    The evolution of an inclusivist immigration and naturalization policy in the United States is described. The policy, implicit in the founding myth of the United States as a haven for all, has been challenged repeatedly by ideas of national membership, and is only possible because of the American principles of universal rights. The founding ideals…

  19. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  20. The Conduct of United States Foreign Policy in the Nation's Third Century. Headline Series. No. 231.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Bayless

    This Headline Series, focusing on U.S. foreign policy, is adapted from a series of four lectures by the author delivered at the Claremont University Center in April 1975. Part one discusses the 1973 Mideast oil embargo and the impact of the crisis on future U.S. foreign relations. Especially affected are questions of interdependence, raw…

  1. Globalisation and the Political Economy of Singapore's Policy on Foreign Talent and High Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Faced with an aging population, economic restructuring, and cyclical economic change, Singapore's government adopted flow-through policy of bringing in foreign capital, technology, and workers. The challenges of balancing the delicate sociopolitical compact between foreign talent and local skills are increasingly complex. (Contains 32 references.)…

  2. Foreign Policy Communication Dramas: How Mediated Rhetoric Played in Peoria in Campaign '76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    A message-centered dramatistic theory of communication was used in conjunction with Q-sort technique and factor analysis to build and test a message-centered foreign-policy inventory that contained three dramatic interpretations of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs: cold war, power politics, and neo-isolationism. Analysis of results from two…

  3. 77 FR 13383 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on March 19, 2012, at the Department of State, Washington, DC....

  4. 78 FR 44028 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... 10, 2013 (78 FR 41314). The document issued final rules that apply to foreign ownership of common... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-15314 appearing on page 41314 in the Federal Register of Wednesday... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical...

  5. Foreign Reactions to American Concerns about the English Only Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, David F.

    The insights of 12 foreign scholars and language scientists into the battle over making English the "de jure" official language of the United States are presented. The opinions come from England, Canada, the Philippines, the People's Republic of China, Australia, Belgium, India, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The consensus of these…

  6. To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Roer-strier, D; Olshtain-mann, O

    1999-01-01

    "This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations." (EXCERPT) PMID:12290422

  7. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  8. Borderless STEM education: A study of both American students and foreign students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Kiriko

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global competencies. The purpose was to understand how international experiences can be enhanced in order to increase American STEM students' interest in study abroad programs and in earning advanced STEM degrees and to understand how to attract more foreign STEM students to study in the United States. Issues of particular focus were: the impacts of gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality on STEM students' motivation to participate in, and responses to study abroad programs, and the value of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in borderless STEM education. Several different forms of multivariate analyses were performed on data from surveys at seven public and private colleges and universities in the Southern California area. The results indicated that among American students, greater value was placed on social and cultural experiences gained through studying abroad. In contrast, among foreign students greater value was placed on enhancement of their academic and professional development opportunities. American students whose study abroad included research experiences had a greater interest in international research and teaching in the future. Foreign graduate students majoring in computer science, engineering and biology are the most likely to seek opportunities to study and work in the US. Finally, ICTs were valued by American students as platforms for social interactions and by foreign students for facilitating professional networks. The analyses lead to several recommendations, including: STEM faculty should be made aware of the critical importance of their advising and mentoring in motivating students to choose to

  9. Phonological and Visual Processes in Word Recognition by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaldieh, Salim A.

    A study investigated the roles of phonological encoding and visual processes in word recognition in American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. Subjects were 36 individuals with proficiency ranging from beginning to native. Two experiments in word recognition were conducted, one at word and one at sentence level. At each level, the word…

  10. Piquing the Interest of African American Students in Foreign Languages: The Case of Spelman College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Anthony G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses growing enrollments in foreign languages at Spelman College, a small language arts college for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia. Attributes the growing enrollments to the willingness of faculty to attend to student needs, interests, and specific black heritage. Suggests strategies for attracting students of color to languages…

  11. An Investigation of Reading Strategies Applied by American Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Thompson, Li-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Minimal research has been conducted in reading Chinese as a second/ foreign language (CSI/CFL). In an effort to further the understanding of the reading process, this study, utilizing think aloud and retelling procedures, focuses on the identification of strategies that American university students applied to read Chinese texts (narrative and…

  12. Familiar Foreign: Hmong American Students Engaging and Resisting America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePouw, Christin

    Focus groups with Hmong American undergraduates examined their educational experiences in La Crosse, Wisconsin. Over 25 years after the first Hmong refugees arrived, cultural difference is still used to explain the status of Hmong communities. Hmong children are said to be excelling in school, though reports do not consider the high numbers of…

  13. Predictors of African American and European American adolescents' endorsement of race-conscious social policies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2011-03-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b) knowledge about historical racism, and (c) perceptions of and attributions for racial disparities. The following day, adolescents learned about either a proposed affirmative action policy (n = 101) or a school desegregation policy (n = 109) and completed measures of their attitudes toward the policy. Results indicated racial differences in policy support and in the factors predicting policy support. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21142372

  14. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    PubMed

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  15. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy. PMID:26126405

  16. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  17. Creating American Jobs Through Foreign Capital Investment Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2011-09-20

    09/23/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3245, which became Public Law 112-176 on 9/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy. PMID:25005028

  19. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  20. Dilemmas of American Policy; Crucial Issues in Contemporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Samuel DuBois; And Others

    This volume contains four papers dealing with key social issues confronting American society; racial conflict; education (especially concerning national policies and goals); rationale for limited war for a nonmilitaristic nation; and the generation gap. Dr. Cook discusses black identity and white response and the problem of inculcating hope where…

  1. For God and Country: Conservatism and American School Policy. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    The election of Ronald Reagan to President in 1980 marked the political zenith of modern American conservative ideology in the 20th century. This book presents a historical analysis of conservative ideology and its influence on federal school policies during Reagan's first administration, 1981-1984. It examines various conservative social agendas…

  2. Federal Language Policy and American Indian Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, T. L.

    In the past 25 years, American Indian education has undergone tremendous changes in both content (curriculum and pedagogy) and context (institutional framework). Centered on the issue of control, changes at both levels have resulted from a dynamic interplay between federal language policy and local initiatives. The federal Bilingual Education Act…

  3. Federal Legislative Policy of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Legislation Committee.

    The American Library Association's policy on federal legislation is based on its objectives of promoting and improving library service and librarianship. Representing those who use libraries as well as those who operate them, the Association is a source of information on libraries and information services for those concerned with formulating and…

  4. Policies and Procedures for Foreign Exchange Agencies. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Donald D.

    The guide details the policy of the Jefferson County (Alabama) Board of Education policy concerning international exchange of students (travel both to and from United States) in elementary and secondary grades. The first section specifies the standards by which the county will evaluate all international exchange agencies concerning structure,…

  5. Cosmopolitanism and foreign policy for health: ethics for and beyond the state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Foreign policy holds great potential to improve the health of a global citizenship. Our contemporary political order is, in part, characterized by sovereign states acting either in opposition or cooperation with other sovereign states. This order is also characterized by transnational efforts to address transnational issues such as those featured so prominently in the area of global health, such as the spread of infectious disease, health worker migration and the movement of health-harming products. These two features of the current order understandably create tension for truly global initiatives. Discussion National security has become the dominant ethical frame underlying the health-based foreign policy of many states, despite the transnational nature of many contemporary health challenges. This ethical approach engages global health as a means to achieving national security objectives. Implicit in this ethical frame is the version of humanity that dichotomizes between “us” and “them”. What has been left out of this discourse, for the most part, is the role that foreign policy can play in extending the responsibility of states to protect and promote health of the other, for the sake of the other. Summary The principal purpose of this paper is to review arguments for a cosmopolitan ethics of health-based foreign policy. I will argue that health-based foreign policy that is motivated by security interests is lacking both morally and practically to further global health goals. In other words, a cosmopolitan ethic is not only intrinsically superior as a moral ideal, but also has potential to contribute to utilitarian ends. This paper draws on the cosmopolitanism literature to build robust support for foreign policies that contribute to sustainable systems of global health governance. PMID:23829176

  6. The Two Koreas. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this seven-chapter report examines the political, economic, and anomalous positions of North and South Korea in the international system. "Traditional Legacies" traces the historical development of the two Koreas.…

  7. Overview of International Science and Technology Policy: the federal organization. Joint hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 20, 1986, No. 110

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of the State Department, Office of Science and Technology at the White House, National Science Foundation, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Allied-Signal, Inc. testified on how international science and technology activities affect US foreign policy issues. At issue at the hearing was the development of a planning and coordination mechanism involving relevant agencies and an examination of policies using bilateral and multilateral science and technology activities to further foreign policy goals, particularly those of national security and trade. Five appendices with additional letters and responses submitted for the record follow the testimony of the five witnesses.

  8. Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #2: Asian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Asian American students, who comprise almost 5% of public school students in the U.S., are a very diverse group. In the aggregate, Asian Americans often have the highest achievement on state tests among major racial/ethnic subgroups. But this overall high performance can sometimes lead educators and policymakers to overlook the needs of…

  9. Residence Hall Proximity to Foreign Students as an Influence on Selected Attitudes and Behaviors of American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Paul B., Jr.; Stafford, Thomas H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    These studies conducted before and after implementation of an international residence program indicate the proximity of American students to foreign students in conventional residence halls. International halls encourage cross-cultural interaction and interest in international activities. (NRB)

  10. National Opinion Ballot Report, October 1993. Results of National Opinion Survey on U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norpoth, Helmut

    This publication reports on the results of 35,793 high school participants in the Foreign Policy Association's 1993 study and discussion program focusing on opinions about U.S. foreign policy. The topics highlighted in the research include: (1) the U.S. in a New World; (2) the United Nations; (3) Germany's role; (4) China; (5) Trade; (6) Russian…

  11. A Policy of Inclusion: Alternative Foreign Language Curriculum for High-Risk and Learning-Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritikin, Lorin

    As an alternative to waiving foreign language requirements for students with learning disabilities or learning problems, a policy of inclusion in foreign language programs is proposed, based on research suggesting that alternative language teaching methods can be effective with these populations. The rationale for such a policy and the theoretical…

  12. Policies and Practices in Foreign Language Writing at the College Level: Survey Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains results from an online survey that asked 66 college-level language program directors of French, German, and Spanish in (he United States about policies and procedures governing foreign language writing at their respective institutions. Survey categories included (1) general Information, (2) Information regarding practices and…

  13. Simulating the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loggins, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of the foreign policy decision-making process, as described in this article, can assist an instructor in linking students' abstract understanding of complex political events, circumstances, and decision making to the real-world interplay of the multiple factors involved in decision making. It is this type of active learning that helps…

  14. "New York Times" Editorial Position and the U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malek, Abbas

    A study examined the similarity or dissimilarity between the "New York Times'" editorial position on Iran and Iranian affairs and the official United States foreign policy towards Iran as reflected in the "Department of State Bulletin" for the period of 1968-1981. Each piece was categorized by major category and sub-category by three coders who…

  15. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy. 5.62 Section 5.62 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.62 Exemption one:...

  16. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801.51 Section 801.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.51...

  17. The Impact of Foreign Policy on Educational Exchange: The Swedish State Scholarship Programme 1938-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Programmes of international educational exchange are not only carried out for educational purposes, but form an important part of modern-day public diplomacy. Through exchange programmes education and research are linked with foreign policy interests, which then in turn should affect the international contacts of universities and research…

  18. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  19. Mexican-American Disciplinary Practices and Attitudes toward Child Maltreatment: A Comparison of Foreign- and Native-Born Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buriel, Raymond; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines disciplinary practices and child-maltreatment attitudes in foreign- and native-born Mexican-American mothers. Subjects responded to accounts of child misconduct and mistreatment. Foreign-born mothers more likely than natives to use spanking and verbal reasoning. Spanking not preferred by either group. Child-mistreatment-response…

  20. Policy solutions to address the foreign-educated and foreign-born health care workforce in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Auerbach, David I; Muench, Ulrike; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-11-01

    Foreign-educated and foreign-born health workers constitute a sizable and important portion of the US health care workforce. We review the distribution of these workers and their countries of origin, and we summarize the literature concerning their contributions to US health care. We also report on these workers' experiences in the United States and the impact their migration has on their home countries. Finally, we present policy strategies to increase the benefits of health care worker migration to the United States while mitigating its negative effects on the workers' home countries. These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers. PMID:24191079

  1. [Management of foreign tourists' diseases at the American Hospital in Neuilly].

    PubMed

    Beth, B; Matsushita, F; Mounier, S; Shiggins, R; Papon, B; Kernbaum, S

    1998-01-01

    More and more foreign tourists are being treated at the American Hospital of Paris. The main reasons for this are the presence of a 24 hour medical and dental emergency service, in addition to the availability of MRI, CT scan and comprehensive laboratory facilities. The hospital is multidisciplinary, where short stay hospitalizations are the rule. English is the second most commonly used language. There is a permanent Japanese language service for Japanese patients. Qualitative data is presented concerning the management of patients according to specialty and nationality. American and Japanese patients admitted to the hospital in 1997 are surveyed according to their mean age, reasons for admission and appropriate specialty as well as mean length of stay noted. The greatest number of hospitalizations in decreasing order and according to nationality are as follows: American, Japanese, Moroccan Egyptian and Saudi Arabian. The consultations and hospitalizations of Japanese patients between 1990 and 1997 are compared. PMID:10078388

  2. Health care needs of foreign-born Asian Americans: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dhooper, Surjit Singh

    2003-02-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing groups in the United States. A majority of them are foreign born, which makes their health-related situation very complex. Many still have the diseases they brought with them from their native lands. In addition, they acquire new diseases attributed to the changes in their living conditions and lifestyle. They are vulnerable to the physical effects of acculturation-related stress as well. The health care needs of these new Americans are not being adequately met. This article describes the barriers to their ability to use health care services and analyzes the reasons for the health care system's inability to respond to their needs. Finally, it urges social work to contribute to the system's responsiveness and suggests approaches to social work intervention with and on behalf of Asian Americans. PMID:12621934

  3. 17 CFR 240.12g3-2 - Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain foreign securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain foreign securities. 240.12g3-2 Section 240.12g3-2 Commodity and Securities... Exemptions; Definitions § 240.12g3-2 Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain...

  4. 17 CFR 240.12g3-2 - Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain foreign securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain foreign securities. 240.12g3-2 Section 240.12g3-2 Commodity and Securities... Exemptions; Definitions § 240.12g3-2 Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain...

  5. 17 CFR 240.12g3-2 - Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain foreign securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain foreign securities. 240.12g3-2 Section 240.12g3-2 Commodity and Securities... Exemptions; Definitions § 240.12g3-2 Exemptions for American depositary receipts and certain...

  6. The Realization of the Speech Act of Refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morkus, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  7. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  8. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  9. Great Decisions '82: Impartial Background and Analysis of Eight of the Most Important Foreign Policy Issues Facing the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L.; And Others

    This study and discussion guide covers eight major U.S. foreign policy issues. It is designed to help high school and college level students and adults understand the complexities of foreign policy issues and to articulate their own informed opinions. Sponsored nationally by the nonpartisan Foreign Policy Association and now in its 28th year, the…

  10. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  11. 77 FR 39464 - American Indian and Alaska Native Consultation and Coordination Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... American Indian and Alaska Native Consultation and Coordination Policy AGENCY: Department of Commerce... messenger service: Submit comments to Dee Alexander, Senior Advisor on Native American Affairs Office of..., ``American Indian and Alaska Native Policy of the Department of Commerce,'' promulgated on March 30,...

  12. Sourcebook on Central American Refugee Policy: A Bibliography with Subject and Country Index. Special Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Margo, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography on Central American refugee policy is the outgrowth of a year-long research seminar on the topic at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas at Austin during 1983-1984. That seminar was concerned with several aspects of Central American refugee policy, including policies of the various Central…

  13. A spacefaring nation - Perspectives on American space history and policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Martin J. (Editor); Fries, Sylvia D. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on perspectives on American space history and policy discusses decision-making, space science and scientific communities, postwar aeronautical research in the federal laboratory, and civilian and military remote sensing and reconnaissance. Attention is given to the interpenetration of science, technology, and politics; space 'sociology'; and space technology and planetary science from 1950 to 1985. Other topics addressed include the aeronautics infrastructure as it applies to aeronautics history, the Lewis Research Center and its transition to space, the relationship between NASA and the users of earth resources data, and methodology for researching a classified system for space reconnaissance.

  14. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  15. A nation challenged: the impact of foreign threat on America's tolerance for diversity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2008-08-01

    Three experiments investigated how perceived foreign threats to the United States can influence Americans' endorsement of assimilation and multiculturalism as models for foreign and domestic intergroup relations. The initial study, conducted during the 6-month anniversary of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (9/11), discovered that a diverse group of Americans preferred assimilation as a foreign policy and multiculturalism as a domestic policy. After reading that foreigners were supporting the dominant global status of the United States, however, Americans in Experiment 2 no longer expressed this preference for assimilation as a model for foreign intergroup relations. Experiment 3 discovered that Americans primed with 9/11 (i.e., a foreign threat) revealed higher levels of national identity than did those primed with the Columbine massacre (i.e., a domestic threat); moreover, level of national identity predicted support for multiculturalism as a domestic policy and assimilation as a foreign policy. PMID:18665704

  16. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  17. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  18. The Hidden Side of Zero Tolerance Policies: The African American Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Several papers have documented the disproportionate representation of African Americans in school discipline and incarceration settings as a result of zero tolerance policies. In 2009, a federal study of the Chicago Public School system found African American boys represented 23 percent of the school age population, 44 percent of students who were suspended, and 61 percent of students who were expelled within the 2007 school year. Twenty years after the implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988, studies show African Americans comprised a startling 74 percent of those incarcerated for drug offenses despite being only 15 percent of America’s drug users. Despite overwhelming evidence that suggests African Americans are adversely affected by zero tolerance policies, African American perceptions of zero tolerance policies remain relatively hidden in the literature. The current review seeks to explore a seemingly bidirectional process that involves how zero tolerance impacts African Americans and how African Americans perceive zero tolerance policies. PMID:25893006

  19. A brief history of the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools: shaping policy through collaboration.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1960s many foreign nurses arriving in New York City were unable to pass the New York State Board licensing examination. In this article, the author explains how a group of leaders and organizations proceeded systematically to address this problem through effective policy development. The process is presented from the establishment of a local program to meet the needs of this group of nurses to the creation of a national commission to oversee issues encountered by professionals seeking employment in the United States. Today, the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools is recognized worldwide as an authority on the education, registration, and licensure of nurses and other healthcare professionals. PMID:17941612

  20. An American plague: Pro-market believers in health policy

    PubMed Central

    de Kervasdoué, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Although American health policy debates address similar problems to other developed nations, it has factual and ideological specificities. I agree with Chinitz and Rodwin on the dominance of micro-economics thinking. However, I am not certain that learning from management theory or modifying medical education will be powerful enough to change the system. The vested interests of the stakeholders are too powerful, the more so when they are supported by economists who ideologically reinforce them and by neglecting the fact that the basic premises of market ideology are false when applied to medical care. There is enough empirical evidence to support that but, apparently, these facts do not dent these beliefs. PMID:25674574

  1. 77 FR 4807 - Revised Fee Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel From High-Income...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'' (61 FR 25092, May... FR 26507, May 28, 1996). The policy was subsequently revised only to address the question of how... SNF is shipped would affect the fee charged for participation (64 FR 18006, April 13, 1999)....

  2. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This unit provides secondary students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first chapter examines the economic and military concerns that…

  3. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  4. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  5. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670, authorizes the SA to grant revocable licenses permitting the erection and maintenance by the...

  6. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670, authorizes the SA to grant revocable licenses permitting the erection and maintenance by the...

  7. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670, authorizes the SA to grant revocable licenses permitting the erection and maintenance by the...

  8. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670, authorizes the SA to grant revocable licenses permitting the erection and maintenance by the...

  9. Black Americans and Public Policy: Perspectives of the National Urban League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban League, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of six commentaries represents the National Urban League's perspective on public policies needed to promote the interests of black Americans. Each commentary focuses on the present condition of blacks, details the impact of recent policy intiatives, and delineate's the League's proposals for improvement. "Black Americans and Public…

  10. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-American National Red Cross. 643.39... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... National Red Cross on military reservations, of buildings suitable for the storage of supplies for the...

  11. The Comparison of American and Taiwanese Parents' Expectations of Their Children Learning a Second/Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Chih-Chin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the comparison between American and Taiwanese parents' views on their young children learning a second/foreign language, the ideal language and learning age, and parents' perceptions regarding language. There were 24 U.S. and 44 Taiwanese participants who had at least one child studying in the day-care…

  12. The Foreign Born with Science and Engineering Degrees: 2010. American Community Survey Briefs. ACSBR/10-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambino, Christine; Gryn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This brief will discuss patterns of science and engineering educational attainment within the foreign-born population living in the United States, using data from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). The analysis is restricted to the population aged 25 and older, and the results are presented on science and engineering degree attainment by…

  13. 77 FR 13263 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109 - Watertown, NY; Amendment to Application; North American Tapes, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... number 48-2011 on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 43259, 7- 20-2011). The NAT facility (25 employees) is located... American Tapes, LLC (Textile Athletic Tape), Watertown, NY A request has been submitted to the Foreign... used to produce pressure-sensitive adhesive athletic tape with textile fabric backing material for...

  14. Foreign policy matters: a normative view of the G8 and population health.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-03-01

    The Group of Eight (G8) countries occupy a dominant position in the international economic and political order. Given what is known about influences on the social determinants of health in an interconnected world, the G8 are a logical starting point for any enquiry into the relations between foreign policy and health. We first make five arguments for adopting an explicitly normative, equity-oriented perspective on the performance of G8 policy in areas related to population health. We then examine G8 performance with respect to the crucial policy triad of development assistance, debt relief and trade, finding that neither rhetoric nor promising institutional innovation has been matched by resources commensurate with demonstrated levels of need. We conclude that it is necessary to pursue advocacy efforts based on the normative perspective we have put forward and that doing so effectively requires further investigation of why some policies are more receptive than others to policies of redistribution both within and outside their borders. PMID:17486209

  15. US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shuey, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

  16. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in U. S. foreign policy: The Middle East-Gulf Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    How Soviet leaders perceive U.S. intentions, capabilities, and actions plays an important role in the formulation of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and its relations with the United States. This book focuses on one such set of Soviet perceptions - how the oil factor and subsequent developments have influenced U.S. policy in the Middle East-Gulf region and what the implications of that policy are for the Soviet Union.

  17. Policy and Performance in American Higher Education: An Examination of Cases across State Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard, Jr.; Martinez, Mario

    2009-01-01

    "Policy and Performance in American Higher Education" presents a new approach to understanding how public policy influences institutional performance, with practical insight for those charged with crafting and implementing higher education policy. Public institutions of higher learning are called upon by state governments to provide educational…

  18. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  19. Perspectives of South American physicians hosting foreign rotators in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Medicine (EM) is increasingly becoming an international field. The number of fellowships in International EM in the USA is growing along with opportunities to complete international health electives (IHEs) during residency training. The impact on host institutions, however, has not been adequately investigated. The objective of this study is to assess the experience of several South American hospitals hosting foreign EM residents completing IHEs. Methods Anonymous, semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with physicians working in Emergency Departments in three hospitals in Lima, Peru and one hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. All participants reported previously working with EM foreign rotators. Interviews were analyzed qualitatively and coded for common themes. Results Three department chairs, six residents, and 15 attending physicians were interviewed (total = 24). After qualitative analysis of interviews, two broad theme categories emerged: Benefits and Challenges. Most commonly reported benefits were knowledge sharing about emergency medical systems (78%), medical knowledge transfer (58%), and long-term relationship formation (42%). Top challenges included rotator Spanish language proficiency (70%) lack of reciprocity (58%), and level of training and rotation length (25%). Spanish proficiency related directly to how involved rotators became in patient care (e.g., taking a history, participating in rounds) but was not completely prohibitive, as a majority of physicians interviewed felt comfortable speaking in English. Lack of reciprocity refers to the difficulty of sending host physicians abroad as well as failed attempts at building long-lasting relationships with foreign institutions. Lastly, 25% preferred rotators to stay for at least 1 month and rotate in the last year of EM residency. This latter preference increased knowledge transfer from rotator to host. Conclusions Our research identified benefits and challenges

  20. A Survey of Policy Changes: Foreign Students in Public Institutions of Higher Education from 1983 to 1985. IEE Research Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, William J., Jr.

    Changes in foreign student services and tuition and admission policies affecting foreign students from 1983 to 1985 were surveyed at 681 public colleges and universities. With annual percentage increases below 1%, most colleges had stable (42%) or declining (30%) foreign enrollment since 1983. A third of the schools did not maintain foreign…

  1. Network-based study on the relationship between arms exports and foreign policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Zhao, Ru-lan; Zhang, Zi-ke; Zhao, Jing

    2016-02-01

    According to the data of arms exports of the top 20 largest arms exports countries in 1993-2012, an arms exports network is constructed to study the relationship of the exporters. Then the topological properties of the network and its minimal spanning tree are calculated to weigh the influence and importance of a country in all exporters, and the time evolution of the properties. It turns out that the properties fluctuate with the time. Consequently, the correlations of the arms exporters are discussed with the recipients during and after the wars. Besides, a time delayed network is constructed. The correlations of the exporters with time lag are discussed by filtering the time delayed network in different ways. The interactions between the exporters are visualized after filtering. This study may shed new light on how arms exports reflect foreign policies.

  2. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the triangular…

  3. The Role of the United States in a Changing World. A Curriculum Unit on Foreign Policy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This 3- to 5-day currriculum unit for secondary students centers around four possible directions for U.S. foreign policy during the 1990s. Designed as a culminating exercise at the end of the year or as an introductory activity to open the semester, this unit, and the possible futures it presents, should be thought of as a vehicle for guiding…

  4. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  5. A Citizen's Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: Election '88. Nonpartisan Briefs on 18 Key Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    In order to make informed voting decisions citizens need background information on complex foreign policy issues facing the United States. This guide presents current issues and provides information to help citizens cast a thoughtful vote. The guide is divided into six main headings: Leadership; Security; Economic and Social Issues; Critical…

  6. "The CNN Effect:" TV & Foreign Policy. Study Guide. Episode #834. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, B. T.

    This program examines the current acceleration of the decision-making cycle in the conduct of foreign policy due to the instantaneous reporting of events, called "The CNN Effect." The sometimes paradoxical consequences of global media coverage are noted, along with the examination of the medium of television itself, and its shortcomings in…

  7. Jobs and Wages for Young Americans: Is Recovery Coming? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carew, Diana G.

    2014-01-01

    Four telling facts about jobs and wages for young Americans, as explained in this policy brief, suggest a labor market recovery is coming, although it will be gradual and uneven by educational attainment. Young Americans with a postsecondary degree are more likely to be employed, but the nature of their employment suggests they are taking…

  8. The Rhetoric of Prejudice and Public Policy Regarding the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Margaret E.

    This paper presents a review of written information concerning the American Indian that reveals stereotypes, prejudicial statements, and misrepresentation. While manifest destiny was the policy of the government during the late 1800s, social prejudice was used to develop a perception of the American Indians that justified removing them from their…

  9. 49 CFR 27.19 - Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... General § 27.19 Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act requirements and FTA policy. (a) Recipients subject to this part (whether public or private entities as defined in 49 CFR part 37) shall... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Americans with Disabilities...

  10. Misleading and dangerous: the use of the precautionary principle in foreign policy debates.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Alan; McLean, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarly research has suggested that the Bush Administration embraced the Precautionary Principle (PP) to formulate its policy on Iraq before the coalition invasion in 2003. The article below challenges this argument. Demonstrating the Bush Administration's antipathy--and at times hostility--to the PP in environmental politics, the article outlines the similarities and differences between usage of the PP in foreign policy debates on the one hand, and the established risk strategies of pre-emption and prevention on the other. The article examines the Bush Administration's reaction to Saddam's alleged weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programme by drawing on earlier conceptual work of the PP in international affairs: an acceptance of the limits of the usefulness of intelligence assessments; an openness to alternative solutions; proportionality of response; and reversing the onus of persuasion. Based on these four strands the article argues that the Bush Administration's decision to invade Iraq was based less on the PP and more on the idea of fighting a preventive war. PMID:20411855

  11. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  12. American Social Welfare Policy and Social Justice for Appalachia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, John G.

    This paper examines social welfare policy and its impacts on Appalachian children. The discussion is based on a notion that a just society meets basic needs of all its members. Current social policy: (1) does not include a comprehensive family policy; (2) depends on state and local contributions which are limited in rural Appalachia; (3) has…

  13. Placing Immigrants at Risk: The Impact of Our Laws and Policies on American Families. Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

    This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This first report in a series of four details the impact of American immigration laws and policies on U.S. families. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak…

  14. Language Policies in American Education: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisk, Maria Estela

    The history of American education is marked by attempts to grapple with the U.S. multilingual and multicultural situation. Bilingual education can be traced from the time of the first migration from Asia which formed the strain of the native American, through the migrations from Europe and Africa, to the influx of immigrants from all over the…

  15. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  16. The influence of foreign vs. North American emissions on surface ozone in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidmiller, D. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Bergmann, D.; Cuvelier, C.; Dentener, F. J.; Duncan, B. N.; Folberth, G.; Gauss, M.; Gong, S.; Hess, P.; Jonson, J. E.; Keating, T.; Lupu, A.; Marmer, E.; Park, R.; Schultz, M. G.; Shindell, D. T.; Szopa, S.; Vivanco, M. G.; Wild, O.; Zuber, A.

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP; http:// www.htap.org) project, we analyze results from 15 global and 1 hemispheric chemical transport models and compare these to Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) observations in the United States (US) for 2001. Using the policy-relevant maximum daily 8-h average ozone (MDA8 O3) statistic, the multi-model ensemble represents the observations well (mean r2=0.57, ensemble bias = +4.1 ppbv for all US regions and all seasons) despite a wide range in the individual model results. Correlations are strongest in the northeastern US during spring and fall (r2=0.68); and weakest in the midwestern US in summer (r2=0.46). However, large positive mean biases exist during summer for all eastern US regions, ranging from 10-20 ppbv, and a smaller negative bias is present in the western US during spring (~3 ppbv). In nearly all other regions and seasons, the biases of the model ensemble simulations are ≤5 ppbv. Sensitivity simulations in which anthropogenic O3-precursor emissions (NOx + NMVOC + CO + aerosols) were decreased by 20% in four source regions: East Asia (EA), South Asia (SA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA) show that the greatest response of MDA8 O3 to the summed foreign emissions reductions occurs during spring in the West (0.9 ppbv reduction due to 20% emissions reductions from EA + SA + EU). East Asia is the largest contributor to MDA8 O3 at all ranges of the O3 distribution for most regions (typically ~0.45 ppbv) followed closely by Europe. The exception is in the northeastern US where emissions reductions in EU had a slightly greater influence than EA emissions, particularly in the middle of the MDA8 O3 distribution (response of ~0.35 ppbv between 35-55 ppbv). EA and EU influences are both far greater (about 4x) than that from SA in all regions and seasons. In all regions and seasons O3-precursor emissions reductions of 20% in the NA

  17. The influence of foreign vs. North American emissions on surface ozone in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidmiller, D. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Bergmann, D.; Cuvelier, C.; Dentener, F. J.; Duncan, B. N.; Folberth, G.; Gauss, M.; Gong, S.; Hess, P.; Jonson, J. E.; Keating, T.; Lupu, A.; Marmer, E.; Park, R.; Schultz, M. G.; Shindell, D. T.; Szopa, S.; Vivanco, M. G.; Wild, O.; Zuber, A.

    2009-03-01

    As part of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP; http://www.htap.org/) project, we analyze results from 16 global and hemispheric chemical transport models and compare these to Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) observations in the United States (US) for 2001. Using the policy-relevant maximum daily 8-h ozone (MDA8 O3) statistic, the multi-model ensemble represents the observations well (mean r2=0.57, ensemble bias=+4.1 ppbv for all regions and all seasons) despite a wide range in the individual model results. Correlations are strongest in the NorthEastern US during spring and fall (r2=0.68); and weakest in the Midwestern US in summer (r2=0.46). However, large positive mean biases exist during summer for all Eastern US regions, ranging from 10-20 ppbv, and a smaller negative bias is present in the Western US during spring (~3 ppbv). In most all other regions and seasons, the biases of the model ensemble simulations are ≤5 ppbv. Sensitivity simulations in which anthropogenic O3-precursor emissions (NOx+NMVOC+CO+aerosols) were decreased by 20% in each of four source regions: East Asia (EA), South Asia (SA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA) show that the greatest response of MDA8 O3 to the summed foreign emissions reductions occurs during spring in the West (0.9 ppbv reduction due to 20% reductions from EA+SA+EU). East Asia is the largest contributor to MDA8 O3 at all ranges of the O3 distribution for most regions (typically ~0.45 ppbv). The exception is in the NorthEastern US where European emissions reductions had the greatest impact on MDA8 O3, particularly in the middle of the MDA8 O3 distribution (response of ~0.35 ppbv between 35-55 ppbv). In all regions and seasons, however, O3-precursor emissions reductions of 20% in the NA source region decrease MDA8 O3 the most - by a factor of 2 to nearly 10 relative to foreign emissions reductions. The O3 response to anthropogenic NA emissions is

  18. The American Foreign Exchange Option in Time-Dependent One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Exchange Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, Nasir Shashiashvili, Malkhaz

    2009-06-15

    The classical Garman-Kohlhagen model for the currency exchange assumes that the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates are constant and the exchange rate follows a log-normal diffusion process.In this paper we consider the general case, when exchange rate evolves according to arbitrary one-dimensional diffusion process with local volatility that is the function of time and the current exchange rate and where the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates may be arbitrary continuous functions of time. First non-trivial problem we encounter in time-dependent case is the continuity in time argument of the value function of the American put option and the regularity properties of the optimal exercise boundary. We establish these properties based on systematic use of the monotonicity in volatility for the value functions of the American as well as European options with convex payoffs together with the Dynamic Programming Principle and we obtain certain type of comparison result for the value functions and corresponding exercise boundaries for the American puts with different strikes, maturities and volatilities.Starting from the latter fact that the optimal exercise boundary curve is left continuous with right-hand limits we give a mathematically rigorous and transparent derivation of the significant early exercise premium representation for the value function of the American foreign exchange put option as the sum of the European put option value function and the early exercise premium.The proof essentially relies on the particular property of the stochastic integral with respect to arbitrary continuous semimartingale over the predictable subsets of its zeros. We derive from the latter the nonlinear integral equation for the optimal exercise boundary which can be studied by numerical methods.

  19. Advancing Democratic Principles: A European Examines a Neglected American Asset. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseler, Stephen

    According to this essay by a visiting scholar from Great Britain, there will always be a debate in democratic societies, about the proper role of morality in fashioning and articulating foreign policy. This ambivalence has been reflected in the uneven approach to the problem exhibited by successive United States administrations. There are two…

  20. Crime and American Culture. Ethics and Public Policy Essay #43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    The great waves of foreign immigration, the onset of rapid industrialization, the emergence of an urban working class--all features of the post Civil War United States that might have contributed to rising crime rates--did not. Ted Robert Gurr suggests that a growth of the "civilizing process" occurred in which people turned away from violence and…

  1. Foreign Dental Graduates: Admission Criteria and Predicted Success in an American Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Halbert C.

    1980-01-01

    To ensure that foreign dental graduates have the knowledge and professional skills necessary to practice dentistry in the United States, several dental schools have established international student programs. A study to determine effective predictors of the success of foreign dentists at the University of Southern California is reported.…

  2. On the Dominant Status of American Educational Market for Foreign Students since 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The article first probes into some reasons for the formation and the rise of the world educational market for foreign students. Then the article focuses on several important ensuring the absolutely dominant status of the U.S. educational market for foreign students in the world since 1980s and finally concludes that it is the U.S. world-leading…

  3. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  4. Native American Students: Affordability and Access. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Native American students in Washington attend more than 40 postsecondary institutions and participate in college at a rate greater than their proportional presence in the population. They are just as likely to apply for and receive financial aid as other groups, a little less likely to borrow to attend college, and experience a greater gap than…

  5. U.S. Mental Health Policy: Addressing the Neglect of Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.; Yee, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Although Asian Americans are proportionally the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States, federal mental health policies have neglected their special needs. U.S. federal mental health policy has shifted in the past 50 years from an emphasis on increasing accessibility to treatment to improving the quality of care and focusing on the brain as the basis of mental illness. However, the mental health needs of Asian Americans have been a relatively low priority. Myths about Asian Americans that have led to the general neglect of their mental health needs are that they: (a) are a small group; (b) are a successful group and do not experience problems; and (c) do not experience mental health disparities. Nevertheless, Asian Americans are a significant proportion of the population which experiences acculturative stress and discrimination that are often associated with psychopathology. However, Asian Americans who experience psychopathology are less likely than other groups to use mental health services. Political efforts must be made to get Asian Americans into positions of leadership and power in which they can make decisions about mental health policy priorities. PMID:24490000

  6. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  7. Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  8. Domestic politics and international expertise in the history of American disability policy.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E D

    1989-01-01

    Architects of American disability policy partly emulated British and German social insurance programs through the New Deal's early years. Thereafter, social planners failed to tailor European manpower and income-maintenance programs to gain American lawmakers' approval. Distrust between the planners and legislators, intrafederal bureaucratic competition, congressional responsiveness to particular interests, and revitalized federalism all politically hindered Social Security from becoming a full-fledged social insurance program. Public/private-sector linkages, court actions, and voluntaryism constitute other salient American means of aiding persons with disabilities. PMID:2532295

  9. A comparison of predictors of success on NCLEX-RN for African American, foreign-born, and white baccalaureate graduates.

    PubMed

    Endres, D

    1997-10-01

    This retrospective study was concerned with identifying the strongest predictors of success for African American and foreign-born baccalaureate graduates on the NCLEX-RN from the following nine variables--the admission grade point average, medical-surgical nursing grade point average, nursing grade point average, cumulative grade point average, percentile rank on the Mosby Assess Test, age at the time of the licensing examination, number of semesters needed to complete the nursing curriculum, licensed vocational nurse status, and the number of Ds and Fs received in nursing courses--and comparing these with predictors of success for white baccalaureate graduates. Three random samples of 50 African American, foreign-born, and white graduates from four baccalaureate schools from May 1987 through May 1992 were selected from a total population of 1,205. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, two-way analysis of variance, and discriminant analysis were used to analyze the data. Students in all three ethnic groups with a Mosby Assess Test percentile rank below 21 and a D or F in a nursing course were more likely to fail the NCLEX-RN than those with a higher percentile rank and no Ds or Fs. PMID:9348478

  10. Accent, perpetual foreigner stereotype, and perceived discrimination as indirect links between English proficiency and depressive symptoms in Chinese American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The current study uses García Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444 adolescents (239 girls and 205 boys, with a mean age of 13.0 years for Wave 1 and 17.0 years for Wave 2) and their parents living in major metropolitan areas of Northern California were collected. The structural equation modeling analyses indicate that self-reported low levels of English proficiency among Chinese American adolescents in middle school are related to these same students later reporting that they speak English with an accent in high school, which in turn relates significantly to their perceiving that they have been stereotyped as perpetual foreigners. For girls, a perpetual foreigner stereotype relates to perceptions of chronic daily discrimination, increasing the risk of depressive symptoms. For boys, the path is different: A perpetual foreigner stereotype is apparently related to discriminatory victimization experiences, which increase the risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:21244164

  11. Accent, Perpetual Foreigner Stereotype, and Perceived Discrimination as Indirect Links between English Proficiency and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The current study uses Garcia Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) Racial Triangulation Theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444 adolescents (239 girls and 205 boys, with a mean age of 13.0 for Wave 1 and 17.0 for Wave 2) and their parents living in major metropolitan areas of Northern California were collected. The structural equation modeling analyses indicate that self-reported low levels of English proficiency among Chinese American adolescents in middle school are related to these same students later reporting that they speak English with an accent in high school, which in turn relates significantly to their perceiving that they have been stereotyped as perpetual foreigners. For girls, a perpetual foreigner stereotype relates to perceptions of chronic daily discrimination, increasing the risk of depressive symptoms. For boys, the path is different: a perpetual foreigner stereotype is apparently related to discriminatory victimization experiences, which increase the risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:21244164

  12. Towards an "Americanization" of Dutch Drug Policy? [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ineke Haen; And Others

    Historically, the Netherlands liberal approach to the problems related to drug use has been based on tolerance and a pragmatic concern for "harm reduction." Since the early 1980s, however, a shift has taken place in the direction of a tougher policy. This document describes: (1) the main features of the Dutch approach to the control of…

  13. Workforce Development Policy: Unrealized Potential for Americans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Bruyere, Susanne M.; Karpur, Arun; Nazarov, Zafar; VanLooy, Sara; Reiter, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities have lower rates of workforce participation and lower earnings than their nondisabled peers. This article traces the history of the U.S. workforce development policy framework, including the Workforce Investment Act of 1998; the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; and the impact of the Ticket to Work and Work…

  14. Policy Expansion of School Choice in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Langevin, Warren E.

    2007-01-01

    This research study explores the policy expansion of school choice within the methodological approach of event history analysis. The first section provides a comparative overview of state adoption of public school choice laws. After creating a statistical portrait of the contemporary landscape for school choice, the authors introduce event history…

  15. Policy Challenges for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Peter Nien-Chu

    2006-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical commitments by AAPI populations to educational advocacy, this article analyzes the current US educational policy context of No Child Left Behind at the national and local level, and argues that both its rhetoric and system of "accountability" have been crafted in ways that are completely unaccountable to…

  16. [From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].

    PubMed

    Maletta, H

    1988-12-01

    The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling

  17. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  18. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  19. How Paradigms Create Politics: The Transformation of American Educational Policy, 1980-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Jal

    2013-01-01

    American educational policy was rapidly transformed between 1980 and 2001. Accountability was introduced into a sphere that had long been loosely coupled, both major political parties reevaluated longstanding positions, and significant institutional control over the schooling shifted to the federal government for the first time in the nation's…

  20. Am I My Brother's Keeper? African American Men's Health Within the Context of Equity and Policy.

    PubMed

    Enyia, Okechuku Kelechi; Watkins, Yashika J; Williams, Quintin

    2016-01-01

    African American men's health has at times been regarded as irrelevant to the health and well-being of the communities where they are born, grow, live, work, and age. The uniqueness of being male and of African descent calls for a critical examination and deeper understanding of the psycho-socio-historical context in which African American men have lived. There is a critical need for scholarship that better contextualizes African American Male Theory and cultural humility in terms of public health. Furthermore, the focus of much of the social determinants of health and health equity policy literature has been on advocacy, but few researchers have examined why health-related public policies have not been adopted and implemented from a political and theoretical policy analysis perspective. The purpose of this article will be to examine African American men's health within the context of social determinants of health status, health behavior, and health inequalities-elucidating policy implications for system change and providing recommendations from the vantage point of health equity. PMID:25424505

  1. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  2. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  3. American Indian Policy Review Commission Special Joint Task Force Report on Alaskan Native Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. Washington, DC. American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    Impact of the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) on Alaskan Natives, particularly at village levels, is the focus of a joint task force report on Alaskan Native issues. Prepared for the American Indian Policy Review Commission, the report is the work of representatives from task forces on tribal government, federal, state, and tribal…

  4. Financial Adequacy, Retirement, and Public Policy: A Study of the Perceptions of Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David Alan

    This study examined the perceptions of older Americans on the financial aspects of retirement and on policy matters which directly bear on their income maintenance positions. A descriptive survey was made of older persons participating in senior citizen multipurpose centers and clubs. The findings showed that 57% of the respondents perceived their…

  5. Shaping the Future of American Youth: Youth Policy in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne, Ed.

    This volume contains 14 essays and commentaries on youth development penned by educators, policymakers, and leaders of youth development organizations. The papers, written to commemorate 10 years of American Youth Policy Forum's service, were originally presented at a forum in Washington, D.C., in January 2003. Following are the papers: "Genesis…

  6. The Impact of High-Stakes Accountability Policies on Native American Learners: Evidence from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines research on the impacts of high-stakes accountability policies in the USA--in particular, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001--on Native American learners. NCLB's goals are laudable: close the achievement gap by making schools accountable for learning among all student groups, and by ensuring that all students are…

  7. Future of the American Family: A Comparative Analysis of Public Policy Research Definitions of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Catherine

    This paper presents a review of commonly used family models which illustrate the wide range of differences in definition of the American family. Its purpose is to help assure that national family policy is based on a definition of family made in the broadest possible context. The major part of the paper discusses five commonly used models. The…

  8. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  9. The Political University: Policy, Politics, and Presidential Leadership in the American Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    The problems and prospects of American research universities are discussed in light of such issues as shifting federal policies, resource constraints, increased partnerships with business and industry, and the changing needs and perceptions of the larger society. The book captures the collective experiences of 12 former university presidents who…

  10. Editorial: Conflict of interest policy for Editors of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrity in the publication process requires impartiality at all levels of review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) adheres to the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writin...

  11. Association of American Universities Policy Recommendations for President-Elect Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this document, the Association of American Universities offers a series of research and technology policy recommendations that would help our nation to continue its global pre-eminence in science and high technology, improve the quality of life and national security of our citizens, and speed our nation's economic recovery. After policy…

  12. Optimizing Health Care for Foreign Students in the United States and American Students Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. Health Association, Evanston, IL.

    This workbook is organized around 15 guidelines for improving health care for foreign students in the United States and U.S. students abroad. Each guideline is described in a chapter followed by self-assessment questions enabling the evaluation of the adequacy of campus health programs. Each chapter concludes with an invitation to outline goals…

  13. The Foreign Teaching Assistant and the Culture of the American University Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadow, Stephen A.; Maxwell, Monica A.

    Often foreign teaching assistants (TAs) are assigned to lead a discussion-type class on the undergraduate level. Such an assignment requires skills, in addition to English language skills, which their own educational background has not developed in them. To help make up for their lacking skills, a short course, combining a series of minilectures…

  14. American Dissertations on Foreign Education. A Bibliography with Abstracts. Africa. Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of annotated bibliographies on foreign education. Two hundred and ninety one abstracts of dissertations on African education are arranged alphabetically by author. Although the earliest citation is dated 1947, most of them date from the 1960's and 70's. For the most part, the abstracts are lengthy and include a…

  15. 76 FR 66684 - Foreign-Trade Zone 29-Louisville, KY, Application for Subzone; North American Stainless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... alloys, aluminum, zinc, zinc alloys, manganese metal, titanium waste and scrap, unwrought molybdenum and unwrought titanium (duty rate ranges from duty-free to 15%). NAS has indicated that they will accept a restriction requiring all foreign status ferrosilicon, molybdenum and titanium (HTSUS 7202.21, 8102.94,...

  16. North American Free Trade Agreement: Mexico`s petroleum sector (Part I and Part II). Joint Hearings before the Subcommittees on International Economic Policy and Trade and Western Hemisphere Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, March 26 and May 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Joint hearings were held on the The North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA): Mexico`s Petroleum Sector. The purpose of this session was to receive a report from the General Accounting Office. The report Mexican Oil: Issues Affecting the Potential U.S. Trade and Development was requested by the Congress to aid in deciding if Oil should be included in the NAFTA. The report included: (1) recent trends in Mexican oil production and exports and the primary factors affecting Mexico`s ability to meet current production and export goals, (2) the views of U.S. oil-producing and oil service contracting companies regarding principal barriers to and potential benefits of U.S. trade with and investment in Mexico`s petroleum sector and the response of Mexican officials to those views, and (3) U.S. government efforts to assist Mexico`s petroleum sector. Prepared statements of government and industry officials were included in the record of the proceedings.

  17. Federalism and the determinants of environmental policy in the American states

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s the American states experienced a resurgence in the field of environmental policy. Innovation increased as state legislatures reacted to growing environmental problems. This study addresses the determinants of state policy in three areas: air pollution control, water pollution control, and hazardous waste policy. The findings are analyzed in the context of federalism, as the ongoing debate over the proper role of the federal and state governments is discussed in terms of environmental policy. The study utilizes bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine four sets of variables: pollution severity conditions, political conditions, economic conditions, and social conditions. A pollution severity hypothesis, which states that increased levels of pollution within a state will lead to more stringent policy, is tested. Pollution severity can interact with other types of variables, and its influence on state policy is likely to be mitigated by other forces. The findings of the analysis suggest the need to study specific types of environmental policy, in order to develop a full understanding of state pollution control efforts on the whole. Differences are found between the determinants of spending and regulatory policy. Factors impacting state policy include pollution severity, ideology, political culture, and age. Importantly, economic factors were found to have almost no impact on state environmental policy. The findings of the study suggest that the use of federal funds as a tool to correct state differences may be misguided since economic conditions rarely affect policy creation. Further research, however, should continue to address this issue, since conditions in the states are constantly shifting. Other important areas of future research should include additional state policy types, party elites, and political variables in general, since the debate over federalism and environmental policy will likely become more salient in the 1990s.

  18. Foreign offshore worker injuries in foreign waters: why a United States forum

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterfield, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    When foreigners are injured or killed in offshore oil operations in foreign jurisdictional waters, US laws do not always apply as they would if the plaintiffs are American or resident aliens. The courts must first consider whether the Jones Act, Death on the High Seas Act, general maritime law, or a combination of laws applies and whether the court should assume jurisdiction or use the doctrine of forum non conveniens. Cases involving foreign offshore workers are used to illustrate the factors involved in each application and to consider the foreign-policy implication when foreign nationals assume that American laws and morality accompany multinational business. Congress has yet to resolve the issues, although a bill was proposed in 1980. 75 references. (DCK)

  19. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This teacher's resource book is designed to accompany a unit that provides high school students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first…

  20. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  1. Risk and preventive factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease among foreign-born older Vietnamese Americans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh; Allen, Nancy A; Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi; Lee, Hae Nim; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data was used to examine associations of bodyweight, lifestyles, and demographic variables with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and heart disease among foreign-born older Vietnamese adults. CHIS consisted of 709 Vietnamese Americans aged 50 to 85. Thirteen percent reported T2DM and 11% had heart disease. Using logistic regression, body mass index ≥ 24, age ≥ 65, and female were significantly associated with T2DM. There was significant interaction effect of alcohol consumption and psychological distress with T2DM. The interaction of vegetable consumption, poverty, and length of living in the U.S. was significantly associated with heart disease. PMID:24483331

  2. 77 FR 50628 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Public Notice in this docket (77 FR 24452, April 24, 2012) inviting comment on the legal and policy... Collins or Susan O'Connell, Policy Division, International Bureau, FCC, (202) 418-1460 or via the Internet... approach, the approval process will be consistent with the Commission's policy framework for...

  3. An Official American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Policy Statement

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Daniel R.; Diamond, Edward; Fan, Vincent S.; Maurer, Janet R.; Mularski, Richard A.; Peters, Jay I.; Halpern, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation’s Choosing Wisely campaign aims to curb health-care costs and improve patient care by soliciting lists from medical societies of the top five tests or treatments in their specialty that are used too frequently and inappropriately. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians created a joint task force, which produced a top five list for adult pulmonary medicine. Our top five recommendations, which were approved by the executive committees of the ATS and American College of Chest Physicians and published by Choosing Wisely in October 2013, are as follows: (1) Do not perform CT scan surveillance for evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules at more frequent intervals or for a longer period of time than recommended by established guidelines; (2) do not routinely offer pharmacologic treatment with advanced vasoactive agents approved only for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension to patients with pulmonary hypertension resulting from left heart disease or hypoxemic lung diseases (groups II or III pulmonary hypertension); (3) for patients recently discharged on supplemental home oxygen following hospitalization for an acute illness, do not renew the prescription without assessing the patient for ongoing hypoxemia; (4) do not perform chest CT angiography to evaluate for possible pulmonary embolism in patients with a low clinical probability and negative results of a highly sensitive D-dimer assay; (5) do not perform CT scan screening for lung cancer among patients at low risk for lung cancer. We hope pulmonologists will use these recommendations to stimulate frank discussions with patients about when these tests and treatments are indicated—and when they are not. PMID:24889436

  4. Foreign investment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report focuses on the effects of foreign direct investment in the United States. GAO examines foreign investment in four industries: baking, where possible control over bank lending is of concern; petroleum, where questions about increased dependence on foreign oil have arisen; chemicals, where the foreign-owned share of U.S. assets is among the highest of all industry sectors; and biotechnology, an emerging sector of potentially strategic commercial importance. In this report, GAO spells out the policy concerns in each sector, identifies the data available to analyze these concerns, and evaluates the concerns.

  5. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health. PMID:27564438

  6. Objectifying the Subjective: toward the Development of a Computerized Database of the Treatment of Ethnicity and Foreignness in American Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas C.; Cortes, Carlos E.

    This paper reports on a project to construct a computerized database of the treatment of ethnic groups and foreign nations in American motion pictures. The project is being conducted in response to a need for a scholarly examination of how film depicts these groups and nations. Since these media presentations are important influences on public…

  7. Using the Learners-as-Ethnographers Approach to Enhance Intercultural Learning among American College Students Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Minhui

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how the learners-as-ethnographers (LAE) approach facilitated intercultural learning among American students learning Chinese as a foreign language. Two research questions addressed the effectiveness of the LAE approach and students' learning experiences in a non-immersion context. I designed six ethnographic tasks for the…

  8. 77 FR 25400 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY; Application for Manufacturing Authority; North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... to manufacture athletic tape under FTZ procedures within FTZ 109 (76 FR 43259-43260, 7-20-2011; Amendment--77 FR 13263-13264, 3-6-2012). The rebuttal comments submitted on April 18, 2012, on behalf of NAT...; North American Tapes, LLC; Comment Period on New Evidence The FTZ Board is inviting public comment...

  9. Achievement Levels Among Foreign-Born and Native-Born Mexican American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baral, David P.

    The study compared the academic achievement of 59 recent Mexican immigrant and 59 native-born Mexican American junior high school students in Nogales, Arizona. Three different types of variables were investigated: measures of student achievement, family background factors, and acculturative stress variables. Data were obtained from the school…

  10. Joint Venture Marketing Training: Development Marketing Plans Utilizing Foreign and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, David; Jones, Kevin

    This paper describes a workshop prepared and presented by the Business Administration Department of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, that is designed to provide training in evaluating a European market for an American product and preparing a plan for marketing the product in Europe. It is noted that the program can work with both students…

  11. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ..., North American Tapes, LLC, (Textile Athletic Tape), Watertown, NY A request has been submitted to the...) with textile backing material for the U.S. market and export. The manufacturing process under FTZ... textile fabrics (duty rates: 10.5, 14.9%). The facility can produce up to 12.5 million square meters...

  12. Are the American Psychological Association’s Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    After 9–11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists’ involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article’s purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, “However well intended, were APA’s interrogation policies ethically sound?”; “Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?”; “Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?”; and “Should APA continue to endorse its post-9–11 detainee interrogation policies?” PMID:22096660

  13. Policy Direction and Development Trends for Sino-Foreign Partnership Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the background and substance of the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools." It specifies both the contributions and limitations of the regulations for the sound development of such schools. At a time when international cooperation in running schools is intensifying,…

  14. Spanish Only for Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES): Competing Discourses in Local Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko; Catlett, Shawna

    2008-01-01

    Teaching Spanish has become increasingly popular in the United States due to demographic shifts. This study focuses on a Spanish-only initiative for an existing Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program proposed by a southeastern public school district's school board. It analyzes discourses underlying the policymakers' rationales…

  15. Global Change and Africa: Implications for U.S. Policy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathy, Comp.; And Others

    The Stanley Foundation annually assembles a panel of experts from the public and private sectors to assess specific foreign policy issues and to recommend future directions. The round-table discussion summarized in this report focused on the future of Africa and the changing global context of U.S. policy toward Africa. While the Cold War has…

  16. Words vs. deeds: Americans' energy concerns and implementation of green energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinker, Garrett C.

    As the effects of climate change become increasingly clear, nations, international organizations, and corporations are working together to help mitigate these negative effects before they become irreversible. The United States, as the world's largest emitter per capita, has a responsibility to take quick and decisive action to decrease carbon emissions. And while an overwhelming majority of Americans believe that green energy policies are the right step forward, few have taken meaningful steps to actually implement these policies. Green and energy efficient technologies such as hybrid and electric cars, smart meters, and solar panels---technologies that would reduce our carbon footprint---are currently purchased or used by very few households. There is a clear gap between our words and deeds. Using the University of Texas at Austin Energy Poll dataset, this paper examines this gap and analyzes how income may influence what people say, versus how they act, seeking to better understand how income influences peoples' energy behaviors. Previous literature suggests that income has proven to be an inconsistent measure of concern for energy use. Through two OLS models, this paper finds that income is negatively correlated with Americans' concern for energy usage, while finding that there is a positive correlation between income and Americans' implementation of energy efficient technologies. Further, there is a nonlinear relationship between income groups and how Americans both think about their energy usage and actually implement more energy efficient measures.

  17. Canadian/American oil diplomacy: the adjustment of conflicting national oil policies, 1955-1973

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study focuses on two primary objectives: the identification and analysis of those factors which have had the most significant influence on the process, and the testing of the hypothesis that the process of Canadian/American diplomacy is more formal and highly structured than has been suggested in the past. Eight major factors that have particularly influenced the process of Canadian/American oil diplomacy are identified and examined: (1) extra-continental factors; (2) oil-industry pressures; (3) US preoccupation with national security requirements; (4) Canadian preoccupation with its dependence upon the US; (5) internal bureaucratic environments in Canada and in the US; (6) disparate perceptions of the Canadian/American relationship; (7) level of diplomatic intervention; and (8) type of diplomatic intervention. The role of these factors are examined during three main eras of Canadian/American oil diplomacy between 1955 and 1973: (1) the era of policy formalization from 1955 until 1961; (2) the era of the numbers game from 1961 until 1967, when emphasis was placed in negotiating permissible levels of Canadian oil exports to the United States; and (3) the era of transition from 1968 until 1973. While not attempting to examine Canadian/American oil diplomacy within the framework of a single theoretical approach to negotiations, the concluding chapter places oil diplomacy within the context of a process model of negotiations.

  18. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  19. Across Generations: Culture, History, and Policy in the Social Ecology of American Indian Grandparents Parenting Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.; Cross, Suzanne L.; Stutzky, Glenn R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of ecological factors related to the experience of American Indian grandparents raising their grandchildren. Elements of American Indian culture and history, and United States policy, were used to generate explanatory hypotheses that were subjected to a thematic analysis of qualitative interview data. This…

  20. Beyond Self-Interest: Asian Pacific Americans toward a Community of Justice. A Policy Analysis of Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Gabriel; And Others

    In this policy analysis of affirmative action, four Asian Pacific American law professors make a case for affirmative action with a special focus on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs). It is asserted that affirmative action produces many benefits, such as reducing the harm of racism, promoting equal opportunity, and advancing racial justice. However,…

  1. High School Civics Textbooks: What We Know versus What We Teach about American Politics and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee-Libey, David

    2015-01-01

    Scholars of American politics and public policy recognize the interdependence of governments and corporations in the United States. This article presents research findings that high school civics textbooks, where most Americans first encounter the research and theories of political science, have little to say about this interdependence. This…

  2. Understanding U.S. Foreign Policy: The Role of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Karen

    1985-01-01

    The battle between the media and the government over what the public should know and whose side the press should be on began long before Vietnam. A history of censorship is presented. The American public deserve to hear all sides, for example with regard to Central America. (RM)

  3. The Atlantic Alliance at 35. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 268.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this six-chapter report examines the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) first 35 years and probes the extent to which the alliance can find common ground on the perennial issues of military doctrine,…

  4. Authentic Development in Africa. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 274.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Brian W.

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this five-chapter report explores Africa's attempts to lay the developmental foundations of a prosperous, modern economy shaped and molded to the cultural norms of the African people. Four central points addressed…

  5. Foreign and Domestic Policy Belief Structures in the U.S. and British Publics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Mitchell, Neil J.; Herron, Kerry G.

    2004-01-01

    Scholars have made little progress in exploring the degree to which research on belief structures among Americans may be generalizable to other political systems and geopolitical contexts. The distribution and structure of mass beliefs related to nuclear security, missile defenses, and nuclear energy issues in the United States and Great Britain…

  6. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from participation.

  7. Scholars, Dollars, and Public Policy: New Frontiers in Corporate Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W.; And Others

    Financial contributions by American corporations that are designed to influence domestic or foreign policies are discussed. After identifying ways that business corporations can influence either general policy or particular decisions, a brief history of corporate philanthrophy in the United States and financial support for public policy purposes…

  8. Health-related quality of life and health behaviors in a population-based sample of older, foreign-born, Chinese American adults living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Laura C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S; Kwon, Simona C

    2014-10-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged ≥ 65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged ≥ 65 years and foreign-born. Four health-related quality of life and three behavioral risk factor outcome variables were examined. Descriptive statistics were conducted by gender, and logistic regression models assessed sociodemographic and health factors associated with each outcome. Few women were current smokers (1.3% vs. 14.8% of men), 19% of respondents ate fruits and vegetables more than or equal to five times daily, and one-third of individuals received sufficient weekly physical activity. Days of poor health were similar to the national population aged ≥ 65 years, while self-reported fair or poor health was much greater among our Chinese sample; over 60% of respondents rated their health as fair or poor. Lower education and lower obesity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking among men, and older age was significantly associated with insufficient physical activity overall. Female gender was significantly associated with all poor health days; older age was significantly associated with poor days of physical health, and lower income was significantly associated with poor days of physical health and fair or poor self-reported health. This study provides important health-related information on a rapidly growing older population and highlights future research areas to inform culturally appropriate health promotion and disease prevention strategies and policies within community-based settings. PMID:25274716

  9. Presidential Initiatives and Foreign News Coverage: The Carter Human Rights Policy's Effect on U.S. Coverage of Central and South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Catherine

    A study was conducted to determine what, if any, effect President Jimmy Carter's human rights policy had on American newspaper coverage of Central and South America. The "New York Times,""Washington Post,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Los Angeles Times" during the years of 1975, 1977, 1978, and 1982 (when the policy had been replaced by the…

  10. Privatizing Schooling and Policy Making: The American Legislative Exchange Council and New Political and Discursive Strategies of Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.; Donchik, Liliana Montoro

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) as an example of a unique node within larger policy networks composed of new policy entrepreneurs (e.g., venture philanthropists, think tanks, private "edubusinesses" and their lobbyists, advocacy organizations, and social entrepreneurs). These new policy…

  11. Report on Indian Education--Task Force Five: Indian Education--Final Report to the American Indian Policy Review Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirbeck, Helen Maynor; And Others

    The report of the Task Force on Indian Education to the American Indian Policy Review Commission delineates the interweaving of past policies and practices with present needs and concerns of Indian education. Reviewing 400 years of Indian education, the report was compiled from federal, state, local, and private records, public hearings,…

  12. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco."…

  13. Educating Muslim American Youth in a Post-9/11 Era: A Critical Review of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonet, Sally Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Through a review of educational research literature this piece explores how federal politics and policies have trickled down into secondary schools, and what the effects of these policies have been on secondary schools, paying particular attention to the effects on Muslim American youth. The main research questions are: What federal and state…

  14. High School to College Transition Policy in the American States: Conceptual and Analytic Perspectives on Conducting Across-State Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Michael; Heller, Donald E.; Lee, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have paid scant attention to the opportunities and the barriers associated with across-state study of college-transition policies, although the American states comprise a social system especially well suited for comparative analysis. What sorts of questions should researchers ask about college-transition policies and programs? How…

  15. 48 CFR 25.201 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 25.201 Section 25.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.201 Policy. Except as provided in...

  16. 48 CFR 25.102 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 25.102 Section 25.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 25.102 Policy. Except as provided in 25.103, acquire...

  17. 48 CFR 25.201 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 25.201 Section 25.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American-Construction Materials 25.201 Policy. Except as provided in 25.202,...

  18. 48 CFR 25.201 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 25.201 Section 25.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.201 Policy. Except as provided in...

  19. 48 CFR 25.102 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 25.102 Section 25.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American-Supplies 25.102 Policy. Except as provided in 25.103, acquire...

  20. 48 CFR 25.102 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 25.102 Section 25.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 25.102 Policy. Except as provided in 25.103, acquire...

  1. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Foreign Language Anxiety: A Comparative Study of Taiwanese and American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, John G.; Tsai, Ling-ling

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the level of foreign language anxiety in the classroom, plus the correlation between foreign language anxiety and cooperative learning attitudes and practice among university students at one university in the United States and three universities in Southern Taiwan. Two instruments (The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety…

  2. The Potential of Applying Judeo-Christian Ethics to Tax Policy in Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Susan Pace

    2008-01-01

    This article extends the author's previous domestic analysis of tax policy and education finance under the moral principles of Judeo-Christian ethics to the international arena, beginning with an examination of the English-speaking OECD countries, which are the most economically and culturally similar to the United States. Although the tax and…

  3. English for University Administrative Work: English Officialization Policy and Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…

  4. Debtor States and the World Market: Explaining Mexican and Brazilian Foreign Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Dennis John

    The ways in which world market instabilities affect indebted developing countries and explanations of their differential policy responses are the central issues addressed in this paper. The development of Brazil and Mexico is examined as examples of middle-income developing nations whose economies have assumed dependent development. Dependent…

  5. Central America: Current Crisis and Future Prospects. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 271.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Jorge I.; Lindenberg, Marc

    One of a series of booklets on world issues, this document summarizes some of the salient aspects of Central America with special attention given to Nicaragua and El Salvador. The booklet identifies the interests, policies, and choices of the major actors in the drama that engulfs the region and, increasingly, much of the world. Chapter one…

  6. What Should Be the Future Direction of the Foreign Policy of the United States?: National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1979-1980, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This book provides information on the 1979-80 national high school debate topic (United States foreign policy). The volume begins with a group of articles selected to provide an overview of foreign policy considerations and a general context for discussions of the three propositions within the designated topic. The book also contains sections with…

  7. An Epidemiological Investigation of Male-Female Differences in Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems between US-Born and Foreign-Born Latino and Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.; McBride, Orla

    2013-01-01

    Background. It has been widely documented that males were more likely to drinking alcohol and have alcohol use disorders (AUD). The degrees of the male-female differences in drinking and AUD have varied across countries. The reasons behind these variations have not been fully understood. The current study compared the estimated male-female differences across US-born and foreign-born Latino and Asian Americans with respect to alcohol drinking behavior and AUD. Method. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a national household survey of adults with Latinos and Asian decent in the United States. Male-female differences were estimated for drinking behavior and AUD among drinkers for US-born and foreign-born individuals, respectively. Zero-inflated Poisson regressions were utilized to estimate male-female differences in the number of AUD clinical features once it occurs. Results. Larger male-female differences were found for foreign-born individuals as compared to US-born individuals, especially the occurrence of AUD among drinkers. Once AUD clinical feature occurs, there was no male-female difference for foreign-born individuals, while there was a males excess in the number of clinical features for US-born individuals. Conclusion. Results from this study supports the importance of sociocultural influence in drinking and AUD. Implications for prevention and intervention programs were discussed. PMID:24826365

  8. Debt and Democracy in Latin America. U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Airlie House, Proceedings on Strategy for Peace, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    An annual assembly of a panel of experts from the public and private sectors assessed specific foreign policy issues and recommended future direction. The oneset of the debt crisis in 1982 generated fears regarding the future of democracy in Latin America. The focus on the assembled experts was on the role of external pressures and the impact of…

  9. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Foreign Policy: Student Experiences of Learning through Face-to-Face and Online Discussion and Their Relationship to Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Piggott, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents research on students' experiences of learning through a blend of face-to-face and online discussion. The participants in our study were students enrolled in a foreign policy course at a major Australian university. Students' conceptions of learning through discussion, and their approaches to both face-to-face and online…

  10. Initial Survey of Foreign Language Teaching Policies, Facilities and Methodology in the Caribbean. Linguistic Documentation for the Developing Countries: Cases, Problems, Solutions, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Denis, Comp.

    A study sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization had the following objectives: (1) to describe and evaluate the policies, practices, facilities, and methodology of foreign language teaching in the Commonwealth Caribbean, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles, and Cuba; (2) to…

  11. Strategy for Peace 1984. The Stanley Foundation US Foreign Policy Conference Report (25th, Annapolis, Maryland, October 11-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Proceedings are summarized of a conference in which 62 foreign policy professionals met to recommend strategies for peace in the areas of U.S.-Soviet competition in the Third World, space weapons and arms control, objectives of U.S. economic and security assistance, and the United States and UNESCO. Four sections focusing on each of these areas…

  12. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  13. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    PubMed Central

    Roditis, Maria L; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton; Fallin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants 16 campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August, 2013. Methods Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) Position Statement on Tobacco. The Institutional Grammar Tool was used to breakdown policy statements into Strategies, Norms, or Rules. Differences in ACHA score and number of Strategies, Norms, and Rules were assessed by region, policy, and institution type. Results Median ACHA score was 0.35 (scale of 0–1). Schools with 100% tobacco-free policies had highest ACHA scores, but failed to address relationships between schools and tobacco companies. Less than half the schools assessed (7/16) had Rules (enforceable penalties related to policies). In 67% of the policy statements, individuals doing the action were implied (not specifically stated). Conclusion Campuses should address ACHA recommendations related to campus relationships with tobacco companies, include enforceable rules, and specify individuals and entities covered by policy. PMID:25257333

  14. Dr. Inside and Dr. Outside: Physicists Involved With National Security and Foreign Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Peter D.

    2009-05-01

    Physicists have had a special interest in American national security and arms control since at least the Manhattan Project. They have served our country in uniform and in the career civil service. Some have left academic careers for brief periods to work as political appointees, consultants, or resident scholars and then returned to an academic life, but often with changed goals. Some have tried government life and left nearly immediately, while others dipped a toe in and decided to stay. I will look at real-life examples, mostly using real names, drawn from my career and circle of colleagues to try to explain why some physicists have been extremely successful, why others have not, and what happens to a physicist who moved to Washington and decides to stay. I will also discuss routes into public service for those interesting in giving it a try.

  15. Recent Works on American Society. An Annotated Bibliography for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay; Edwards, Catherine

    Designed to enable European educators to obtain contemporary materials about American society, this annotated bibliography lists over 70 publications, most of which were published between 1963 and 1983. Following an introduction, the bibliography is arranged into seven chapters. Entries in sections I through IV focus on American foreign policy and…

  16. An American plague: Pro-market believers in health policy: Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    PubMed

    de Kervasdoué, Jean

    2015-02-01

    Although American health policy debates address similar problems to other developed nations, it has factual and ideological specificities. I agree with Chinitz and Rodwin on the dominance of micro-economics thinking. However, I am not certain that learning from management theory or modifying medical education will be powerful enough to change the system. The vested interests of the stakeholders are too powerful, the more so when they are supported by economists who ideologically reinforce them and by neglecting the fact that the basic premises of market ideology are false when applied to medical care. There is enough empirical evidence to support that but, apparently, these facts do not dent these beliefs. PMID:25674574

  17. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  18. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  19. Do Latin American Scientific Journals Follow Dual-Use Review Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Edith Gladys

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

  20. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    PubMed

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

  1. Mortality of White Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: The Causes and Consequences for Health of Welfare State Institutions and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

    2005-01-01

    The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences. PMID:15787952

  2. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  3. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-03-10

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or former smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the health of the public; however, definitive data are lacking. The AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the US Food and Drug Administration and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. This policy statement was developed by a joint writing group composed of members from the Tobacco and Cancer Subcommittee of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Science Policy and Government Affairs (SPGA) Committee and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Tobacco Cessation and Control

  4. [International cooperation and affirmative action policies: the role of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    PubMed

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da

    2010-07-01

    The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration. PMID:20694349

  5. American Indian/Alaska Native cancer policy: systemic approaches to reducing cancer disparities.

    PubMed

    Warne, Donald; Kaur, Judith; Perdue, David

    2012-04-01

    Members of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes have a unique political status in the United States in terms of citizenship, and that political status determines eligibility for certain unique healthcare services. The AI/AN population has a legal right to healthcare services based on treaties, court decisions, acts of Congress, Executive Orders, and other legal bases. Although the AI/AN population has a right to healthcare services, the Indian Health Service (the federal agency responsible for providing healthcare to AI/ANs) is severely underfunded, limiting access to services (including cancer care). In order to overcome distinct cancer health disparities, policy changes will be needed. This paper reviews the historical pattern of AI/AN healthcare and the challenges of the complex care needed from prevention through end-of-life care for cancer. PMID:22311689

  6. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The Health Policy Attitudes of American Medical Students: A Pilot Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dugger, Robert A.; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Messina, Catherine; Bronson, Richard; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about American medical student’s attitudes toward caring for the uninsured, limiting physician reimbursement and the role of cost-effectiveness data in medical decision-making. We assessed American medical student’s attitudes regarding these topics as well as demographic predictors of those attitudes, and compared them to practicing physicians. Methods and Findings A survey instrument was explicitly designed to compare medical student attitudes with those previously reported by physicians. Between December 1st 2010 and March 27th 2011 survey responses were collected from more than 2% of the total estimated 2010–2011 US medical student population enrolled at 111 of 159 accredited US medical schools within the 50 United States (n = 2414 of possible 98197). Medical students were more likely to object to reimbursement cuts, and more likely to object to the use of cost effectiveness data in medical decision making than current physicians according to the literature. Specialty preference, political persuasion, and medical student debt were significant predictors of health policy attitudes. Medical students with anticipated debt in excess of $200,000 were significantly less willing to favor limiting reimbursement to improve patient access (OR: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59–0.89]), and significantly more likely to object to using cost effectiveness data to limit treatments (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05–1.60) when compared to respondents with anticipated debt less than $200,000. Conclusions When compared to physicians in the literature, future physicians may be less willing to favor cuts to physician reimbursements and may be more likely to object to the use of cost effectiveness data. Political orientation, specialty preference and anticipated debt may be important predictors of health policy attitudes among medical students. Early career medical providers with primary care ambitions and those who anticipate less debt may

  8. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight. PMID:19285205

  9. Meetings of the American Indian Policy Review Commission (January 6, 7, February 4 and 5, 1977). Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The meetings of the American Indian Policy Review Commission on January 6, 1977, were concerned with the markup of the first draft of the final report, the status of the Commission extension, training, distribution of task force reports, and transition coordination. The session on February 4 opened with the announcement that the Senate had passed…

  10. Community Development by American Indian Tribes: Five Case Studies of Establishing Policy for Tribal Members with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Kathy; Fowler, LaDonna; Seekins, Tom; Locust, Carol; Clay, Julie

    2000-01-01

    The Tribal Disability Actualization Process used culturally appropriate deliberation processes and particpatory action research in considering policies for American Indians with disabilities. Talking circles on five reservations were used to achieve consensus on the needs of people with disabilities and derive community-driven solutions that are…

  11. The Evolving Position of the American Psychiatric Association on Firearm Policy (1993-2014).

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Richard J; Appelbaum, Paul S; Pinals, Debra A

    2015-06-01

    Before the Supreme Court's 2008 decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, the American Psychiatric Association's position on gun policy reflected the strong gun control perspective championed by the nation's public health establishment. After Heller declared that an individual's right to bear arms is constitutionally protected, the APA refocused its attention on the specific aspects of firearm policy that implicate the interests and rights of persons with mental illness. Psychiatrists are mindful of the need to curtail firearm access by persons with mental disorders that elevate the risk of suicide or violence to others, but they are also opposed to stigmatization, discrimination, and unfair treatment of individuals based on mental illness. Although civil commitment is an acceptable basis for prohibiting access to firearms, other adjudications of conduct indicative of elevated risk should also be included. Every state should provide a fair and reasonable process for restoring firearm rights after a suitable waiting period based on individualized assessment of whether the person remains at an elevated risk. However, restricting firearm rights of persons solely on the basis of a diagnosis of a mental disorder or voluntary treatment, whether in-patient or outpatient, discourages treatment and would be counterproductive. PMID:26036695

  12. "I like the Americans...but I Certainly Don't Aim for an American Accent": Language Attitudes, Vitality and Foreign Language Learning in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladegaard, Hans J.; Sachdev, Itesh

    2006-01-01

    The power and status of America in the world today are undeniable. This paper presents some empirical data about the attitudes and perceptions Danish learners of EFL have about British and American English. Ninety-six EFL learners participated in a verbal-guise experiment that involved rating different accents of English: American, Australian,…

  13. American Transgressive Interventions: The Question of Genocide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, David

    2007-01-01

    This author, a teacher of political science and liberal studies, states his belief that challenging students to examine and analyze radical ideas develops their capacity to think clearly and skeptically. Following in this spirit, this essay examines the discrepancy between the stated objectives of American foreign policy and its practice. The…

  14. Reserve policy for the nuclear age: the development of post-war American reserve policy, 1943-1955

    SciTech Connect

    Sinks, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    This study isolates three key themes: the influence of non-military considerations in reserve policy; inter-service differences over reserve policy; and the conflict between traditional reserve policies and the strategic requirements of the post-war era. After a brief review of Army and Navy reserve policy from the turn of the century to World War II, the wartime plans of the War Department for post-war reserve policy are examined. Key problems are UMT, the post-war role of the National Guard and the unit-pool conflict. The dissertation then traces the activation phase of Army reserve policy in 1946-47. The post-war development and implementation of Navy and Army Air Forces reserve policies are also examined. The differences in reserve policy among the four services are highlighted. The various attempts to review and refashion reserve policy in 1948-49 are then reviewed in detail. The second half of the dissertation focuses on the impact of the Korean War and the New Look on reserve policy. It is concluded that given the tremendous obstacles to the development of a coherent, rational reserve policy in the post-war era, the reserve structure created after World War II must be regarded as a significant achievement.

  15. 75 FR 81708 - Notice of Decision To Issue Buy American Waivers for Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Detection Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... from both domestic and foreign manufacturers producing FOD detection equipment (75 FR 47344). Following... were any U.S. manufacturers that can produce sufficient and reasonable amounts of stationary FOD... manufacturer stationary FOD detection equipment meeting the requirements of Advisory Circular 150/ 5220-24....

  16. [Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].

    PubMed

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use. PMID:24473612

  17. Advancing Clinical Practice and Policy through Guidelines. The Role of the American Thoracic Society

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of an overwhelmingly large and growing medical literature, providers often turn to clinical practice guidelines to inform the decisions they make with patients. By systematically appraising the evidence and providing transparent recommendations for practice, guidelines have the potential to improve both bedside decision-making and health policy. This potential has not been fully realized because most guidelines lack transparency, are tainted by conflicts of interest, or fail to employ rigorous methods to appraise the evidence. To address the shortcomings of past guidelines, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published recommendations for trustworthy guidelines, effectively setting the “gold standard” for what constitutes a high-quality guideline. Along with many other groups that develop guidelines, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) is rapidly evolving processes for development and implementation to meet many of the IOM standards. This Pulmonary Perspective describes the rapidly changing landscape of clinical practice guidelines, the role of the ATS in this landscape, and the activities the ATS is engaged in to ensure that the guidelines it produces are of the highest quality with the broadest impact. PMID:23392437

  18. Whither American Social Policy? Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States. Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local governments, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle will be a series of reports, based on a series of small…

  19. President Nixon Sets New Indian Policies and Goals: A New Era for the American Indians; The American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard M.

    The July 8, 1970 President's Message to the United States Congress on the American Indians is presented in this paper. The speech covered self-determination without termination, the repeal of the termination law, Indian directed programs, the restoration of Blue Lake to Taos Pueblo, local school control, economic development legislation, Indian…

  20. The Cocaine Connection: Drug Trafficking and Inter-American Relations. Headline Series No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Merrill

    Traditionally U.S. drug policy and antidrug action has been focused on blaming traffickers and fighting suppliers. Only recently have people in the United States begun to acknowledge the part played by U.S. demand for illegal drugs. Past antidrug policy emphasized the foreign origin of the drugs, and tended to blame Latin American producers and…

  1. British and American Influences on the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language from the 1950s till the 1970s Mediated by the British Council and the Council of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg B.

    A research project concerned with the development of English as a school subject in the Norwegian elementary and junior high school identifies and describes British and American influences on the theoretical climate of foreign language teaching in Western Europe from the 1950's to the 1970's. A distinct British influence, the so-called Palmer,…

  2. Policy recommendations to guide the use of telemedicine in primary care settings: an American College of Physicians position paper.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Hilary; Sulmasy, Lois Snyder

    2015-11-17

    Telemedicine-the use of technology to deliver care at a distance-is rapidly growing and can potentially expand access for patients, enhance patient-physician collaboration, improve health outcomes, and reduce medical costs. However, the potential benefits of telemedicine must be measured against the risks and challenges associated with its use, including the absence of the physical examination, variation in state practice and licensing regulations, and issues surrounding the establishment of the patient-physician relationship. This paper offers policy recommendations for the practice and use of telemedicine in primary care and reimbursement policies associated with telemedicine use. The positions put forward by the American College of Physicians highlight a meaningful approach to telemedicine policies and regulations that will have lasting positive effects for patients and physicians. PMID:26344925

  3. Health inequalities: promoting policy changes in utilizing transformation development by empowering African American communities in reducing health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Social inequalities in the United States resulted in negative health outcomes for the African Americans. Their stressful living conditions of poverty, discrimination, racism, abuse and rejection from American society contribute to their negative health outcomes. The lifestyles of African Americans have been influenced by poverty and prior injustices, which have molded their worldview of health and illness. Dr. Martin Luther King, national civil rights leader, brought about social change with much prayer; however, he went a step further with collective gatherings to include the power of non-violence massive public demonstrations. This paper is an analytical review of the literature addressing social inequalities impacting on health inequalities of African Americans resulting in health disparities. Policy changes are propose by implementing transformation development and community empowerment models as frameworks for community/public health nurses in guiding African American communities with addressing health disparities. These models empower members of the community to participate in a collaborative effort in making political and social changes to improve their overall health outcomes. PMID:24575590

  4. Native American Education Research and Policy Development in an Era of No Child Left Behind: Native Language and Culture during the Administrations of Presidents Clinton and Bush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, David

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the history of policy development in Native American education from the second term of President William J. Clinton and his signing of Executive Order 13096 of August 6, 1998 on American Indian/Alaska Native education, through the passage and implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and initial consideration of its…

  5. From the American Psychological Association to the American Psychology Association--An Organization for Psychologists or for the Discipline? 2007 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…

  6. Motivating Students in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grittner, Frank M.

    Motivating students to study foreign languages is a unique problem within American culture. Experience suggests that Americans are psychologically inhibited from identifying with other people because of sensitiveness to their immigrant past. Some foreign language educators have concluded that, because of this past, teaching of foreign languages…

  7. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  8. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  9. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  10. Humanity, U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy and the Select Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Broadus N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines United States policy and practices in regard to immigrants and refugees. Observes that recent changes in refugee and immigration legislation may have provided the catalyst for less racial and ethnic discrimination in American domestic and foreign policy. Suggests that current trends point to the possibility of unity in cultural pluralism.…

  11. Educational Leaves for Employees. European Experience for American Consideration. A Report for the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Moltke, Konrad; Schneevoigt, Norbert

    Educational leave policies--paid time-off from work for educational purposes--in France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden are compared and extensively analyzed, and also, to a lesser degree, the policies in Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. These analyses, intended to be relevant to the American scene in relation to…

  12. Zero Tolerance Educational Policies and Expansion of the School-to-Prison Pipeline for African American Males: A Multi-Conceptual Analysis of the Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Wayne V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore, examine, and analyze the United States (US) Zero Tolerance (ZT) educational policies and practices of the school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon. This study specifically explored the influence of the ZT policy on African American males becoming part of that system. The study was guided by three…

  13. Asian Americans: America's Fastest Growing Minority Group. Population Trends and Public Policy. Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.; Felt, Judy C.

    Newly available statistical data from the March 1990 Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS) indicates that Asians and Pacific Islanders were the fastest growing minority group in the United States during the 1980s. While the size of the Asian American population trails behind the Hispanic American and Black populations, changes in…

  14. African American Males in School and Society: Practices and Policies for Effective Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polite, Vernon C., Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.

    This collection provides many insights into the condition of African American males, emphasizing educational attainment and achievement, and offers methodologies for documenting how the social and educational worlds of African American males intersect. The essays are: (1) "Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts" (Michele Foster and…

  15. Federal Higher Education Policy Priorities and the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE), consisting of a national commission, research advisory group, and research team at New York University, aims to engage realistic and actionable discussions about the mobility and educational opportunities for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)…

  16. Toward Emancipatory Education: An Application of Habermasian Theory to Native American Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Fred Edward

    2012-01-01

    This piece is an examination of the efficacy of the use of Habermasian models of communication and education in developing an effective emancipatory model of education for Native American populations. The general field of epistemology, from the dominant and Native American perspectives, will be explored to determine the overlap between the…

  17. Should Discipline Hurt? Shifting American Spanking Beliefs and Implications for School Corporal Punishment Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    American opinion on spanking has shifted. Most Americans agreed with the necessity of sometimes spanking children, but proportions disagreeing increased 15 percentage point (94% overall) between 1986 (16%) and 2010 (31%). Growing proportions disagreed with spanking in each consecutive decade for all significant generational cohorts, with the…

  18. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Disclosure Policy Fails to Accurately Inform Its Members of Potential Conflicts of Interest.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, Dylan; Smith, Karen; Tanzer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) disclosure policy is designed to ensure that members involved in education or policy development remain free of outside influence. Although mandatory for these members, it is voluntary for the rest of the AAOS membership. To determine surgeon compliance with disclosure policy, we conducted a study in which we compared surgeon-consultants' disclosures as posted on 6 major orthopedic companies' websites in 2011 with those surgeons' disclosures as listed in AAOS disclosure program records. We found that 549 AAOS members were identified by at least 1 company as having received consulting payments. Overall, 44% of AAOS members did not comply with disclosure policy, or their information was not available on the AAOS website (range, 37%-61%). This study demonstrated that AAOS's policy of mandatory disclosure for select members and voluntary disclosure for all other members is ineffective. The AAOS disclosure program and the potential consequences of noncompliance need to be reevaluated by the organization if it wants its program to succeed. PMID:26161764

  19. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  20. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development. PMID:25526849

  1. Processing the War in Iraq while Learning about American Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, David M.

    2010-01-01

    When political knowledge is scarce, affective attitudes, which can consist of emotion-driven feelings regarding political figures, government, country, and foreign nations, often assist policy judgment. Based on pre- and post-surveys administered in Introduction to American Politics courses, fall 2003-fall 2005, this study examines how political…

  2. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms. PMID:20799669

  3. Promoting Physical Activity Through the Shared Use of School Recreational Spaces: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Young, Deborah R.; Spengler, John O.; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R.; Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces. PMID:24134355

  4. Current Readings on the Iran-Iraq Conflict and Its Effects on U.S. Foreign Relations and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    1989-01-01

    Provides background on the Iran-Iraq conflict and suggests readings dating from 1980 to 1988 in both English and Arabic which are classified under seven broad categories: the roots of the conflict; Iran-United States relations; the American hostage crisis; the Iran-Contra affair; periodicals and indexes; online databases; and bibliographies. (105…

  5. Megatrends in American Society: Policy Issues for State Education Agencies. An Issues Analysis Paper. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    This paper attempts to match identified large-scale social trends (derived from the popular book "Megatrends" by John Naisbitt) to possible state education agency (SEA) policy positions. The first part of the analysis explores possible implications of these "megatrends" for SEA policy development. The trends discussed show America moving: (1) from…

  6. A Survey of the Home Furlough Policies of American Correctional Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert R.; Milan, Michael A.

    A survey determining how widespread the policy of prisoner furloughs has become and how well the programs which have been implemented are operated was conducted. A questionnaire regarding home furlough policies was distributed to the directors of the departments of corrections of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Federal Bureau of…

  7. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-02-01

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. PMID:25573384

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    2003-06-15

    As the leading organization representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reaffirms its commitment to integrating cancer risk assessment and management, including molecular analysis of cancer predisposition genes, into the practice of oncology and preventive medicine. The primary goal of this effort is to foster expanded access to, and continued advances in, medical care provided to patients and families affected by hereditary cancer syndromes. The 1996 ASCO Statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility set forth specific recommendations relating to clinical practice, research needs, educational opportunities, requirement for informed consent, indications for genetic testing, regulation of laboratories, and protection from discrimination, as well as access to and reimbursement for cancer genetics services. In updating this Statement, ASCO endorses the following principles: Indications for Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends that genetic testing be offered when 1) the individual has personal or family history features suggestive of a genetic cancer susceptibility condition, 2) the test can be adequately interpreted, and 3) the results will aid in diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer. ASCO recommends that genetic testing only be done in the setting of pre- and post-test counseling, which should include discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early detection and prevention modalities. Special Issues in Testing Children for Cancer Susceptibility: ASCO recommends that the decision to offer testing to potentially affected children should take into account the availability of evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the probability of developing a malignancy during childhood. Where risk-reduction strategies are available or cancer predominantly develops in childhood, ASCO believes that

  9. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment, and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Shelton Dunston, Brenda; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is 5 times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended that (a) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders, (b) local HIV-prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission, (c) resources should be distributed to the most heavily affected neighborhoods of Philadelphia, and (d) faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment, and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This community-based participatory research case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  10. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  11. Indochina Policy for the Next Administration. Report of the Strategy for Peace, US Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Recommended guidelines for U.S. policy toward Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos were developed by a bipartisan group of experts. General premises are stated first, followed by specific recommendations on how to assist in bringing about a settlement in Cambodia; how to pursue U.S. bilateral relations with Vietnam on refugees, the prisoner of war/missing…

  12. 26 CFR 46.4371-2 - Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign insurers; scope of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indemnity, fidelity, or surety bond is made, continued, or renewed, if issued: (1) By a nonresident alien... section 4372(c). (b) Life insurance, sickness, and accident policies, and annuity contracts. Unless the... contract is made, continued, or renewed, if issued: (1) By a nonresident alien individual, a...

  13. What is substance use all about? Assumptions in New York’s drug policies and the perceptions of drug using low-income African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    The current paper uses intersectionality and standpoint theories to examine the social impact of solely relying on Eurocentric worldviews when developing drug policies that affect low-income African-American communities. It is argued that low-income African-Americans share a unique cultural and historical background that must be taken into account in the development and implementation of policies and interventions that impact this population. Analysis of longitudinal qualitative data will compare the assumptions informing New York’s Rockefeller Drug Laws with the worldviews of drug using and low-income African-Americans in New York City while examining the impact of these policies in participants’ lived experiences. PMID:20224744

  14. AMERICAN PRINTING HOUSE FOR THE BLIND, INC., ITS HISTORY, PURPOSES AND POLICIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    FOUNDED IN 1858, THE AMERICAN PRINTING HOUSE (APH) FOR THE BLIND IN LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY, IS THE WORLD'S LARGEST PUBLISHER OF LITERATURE FOR THE BLIND. IN 1965-66 THE OPERATING BUDGET EXCEEDED $3 MILLION, AND THERE WERE 440 PART-TIME EMPLOYEES. A HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF APH INCLUDES CONTROVERSY RESULTING IN THE FINAL CHOICE OF…

  15. Official Policy Positions of the National Congress of American Indians for Convention Year 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Congress of American Indians, Washington, DC.

    During its convention year of 1977-78, the National Congress of American Indians held an annual convention in Dallas in September, 1977, an executive council meeting in Washington in January, 1978, a special conference on federal recognition and the impact of the Oliphant decision in Nashville, Tennessee in March, 1978, and a mid-year conference…

  16. Educational Exchanges: Essays on the Sino-American Experience. Research Papers and Policy Studies 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallgren, Joyce K., Ed.; Simon, Denis Fred, Ed.

    The essays in this monograph (except one) were originally presented and discussed at the Conference on Sino-American Cultural and Scientific Exchanges held in Honolulu, Hawaii in February 1985. Frank Ninkovich presents some of the thoughts that characterized the U.S. approach to cultural exchanges before 1940. In her essay on the pre-World War II…

  17. Overrepresentation of African American Students in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Pamela; Rose, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The overrepresentation of ethnic minority students, particularly African American males, in the exclusionary discipline consequences of suspension and expulsion has been consistently documented during the past three decades. Children of poverty and those with academic problems are also overrepresented in such discipline consequences. Sadly, a…

  18. Educational Equity Policies and the Centralization of American Public Education: The Case of Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrogordato, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    Sixty years ago, federal guidelines regarding the instruction of special populations in American public schools were nonexistent. Racial minorities, language minorities, women, the poor, and those with physical and mental disabilities had not been identified as groups that needed special protections. Much has changed since then. Federal…

  19. Who Speaks for American Judaism? Competing Approaches to Public Issues. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Seymour N.

    Rabbi Seymour N. Siegel presents four theses in the main address entitled "American Jews and Political Life": (1) Jewish voters as a group are more liberal than the general voting public. (2) Jewish organizations generally represent the views of their constituencies. (3) The liberal orientation in the Jewish community is true neither to Jewish…

  20. Writing Policies and Procedures in a U.S./South American Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Barry L.

    2000-01-01

    Explores two cases of professional communication among United States and South American personnel in one multinational organization in Quito, Ecuador. Suggests that a mere taboo approach to teaching cross-cultural communication will not work. Finds that collaborative writing proved to be a good form of intercultural training for both United States…

  1. Native American Navajo Teenage Parenting Women, Cross-Generational Support and Implications for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalla, Rochelle L.; Gamble, Wendy C.

    This study examined teenage parenting among Native Americans, focusing on the support received from grandmothers. The sample was comprised of 15 subjects living on a Navajo reservation: 8 adolescent mothers between 16 to 19 years--most with one child and enrolled either in high school or in an alternative education program; and seven women…

  2. African American Family Life: Ecological and Cultural Diversity. Duke Series in Child Development and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C., Ed.; Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts from different disciplines to offer new perspectives on contemporary African American families. A wealth of knowledge is presented on the heterogeneity of Black family life today; the challenges and opportunities facing parents, children, and communities; and the impact on health and development of key…

  3. Transnational Tobacco Company Influence on Tax Policy During Privatization of a State Monopoly: British American Tobacco and Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Townsend, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. The International Monetary Fund encourages privatization of state-owned tobacco industries. Privatization tends to lower cigarette prices, which encourages consumption. This could be countered with effective tax policies. We explored how investment by British American Tobacco (BAT) influenced tax policy in Uzbekistan during privatization there. Methods. We obtained internal documents from BAT and analyzed them using a hermeneutic process to create a chronology of events. Results. BAT thoroughly redesigned the tobacco taxation system in Uzbekistan. It secured (1) a reduction of approximately 50% in the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) an excise system to benefit its brands and disadvantage those of its competitors (particularly Philip Morris), and (3) a tax stamp system from which it hoped to be exempted, because this would likely facilitate its established practice of cigarette smuggling and further its competitive advantage.. Conclusions. Privatization can endanger effective tobacco excise policies. The International Monetary Fund should review its approach to privatization and differentiate the privatization of an industry whose product kills from privatization of other industries. PMID:17138915

  4. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. PMID:25646389

  5. Tobacco Industry Influence on the American Law Institute's Restatements of Torts and Implications for Its Conflict of Interest Policies.

    PubMed

    Laposata, Elizabeth; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2012-11-01

    The American Law Institute ("ALI") is a prestigious and influential organization that creates treatises on the current state of the law, including "Restatements" of case law that guide judicial decisions and legislation. This paper uses previously secret tobacco industry documents made available as the result of state and federal litigation against the industry to describe how the tobacco companies, acting both indirectly through their trade organization, the Tobacco Institute, and directly, using influential lawyers, quietly influenced the ALI's writing of the Restatements. The tobacco industry's ease of access to the ALI calls into question the Institute's independence, the preparation of major policy documents such as the Restatements, as well as the Institute's ability to monitor and control conflicts of interest. The ALI's conflict of interest policies lag behind comparable organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, and are insufficient to protect Institute projects from significant outside influence. Because of the undisclosed influence of the tobacco industry over the ALI, courts and legislatures should not apply the principles embodied in the Restatements in tort cases against the tobacco companies for injuries suffered from tobacco use. Until the ALI implements strong conflict of interest policies to ensure independence from private-interest manipulation, courts and legislatures should not rely on Institute reports and recommendations as neutral scholarly summaries of the law that should guide judicial and legislative decision-making. PMID:23633723

  6. Foreign Language Skills and Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Peter A.

    Students of foreign languages insist on seeing the evidence that foreign language skills have something to do with getting jobs in the "real world." Evidence is being ammassed which does show this to be true. Several studies have revealed that American firms are looking for qualified personnel who possess language skills. A survey was initiated at…

  7. Alcohol Practices, Policies, and Potentials of American Colleges and Universities. An OSAP White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigen, Lewis D.

    This white paper describes the extent of drinking on college campuses; the health, social, academic, and economic costs thereof; means of education and intervention available to schools; and the relationship of many university policies and practices to this problem. The paper is organized into two major sections. The first describes the nature of…

  8. Aging and Developmental Disabilities: Demographic and Policy Issues Affecting American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David

    1999-01-01

    This commentary discusses the structure of residential care in the United States, the aging of caregivers and the growing demand for services, the increased longevity of persons with developmental disabilities, the long waiting lists for services, and state initiatives to address waiting lists. Policy considerations and recommendations are…

  9. Affirmative Action in Antidiscrimination Law and Policy: An Overview and Synthesis. SUNY Series in American Constitutionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Samuel; Leiter, William M.

    This book focuses on the legal and ideological controversy over the application of affirmative action policy to combat discrimination based on race, national origin/ethnicity, and gender. After the introduction, seven chapters discuss (2) "The Roots of Affirmative Action, the Women's Movement, and the Groups Covered by Affirmative Action" (e.g.,…

  10. Poor Children and American Social Policy: Are We Meeting Our Responsibilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidei, Nancy

    As a result of budget cuts and policy changes, health, nutrition, and social welfare programs have been rendered less able to help children and families, particularly those families hard hit by the recession. It is argued that there is no excuse for these cuts and that if the economy were growing and employment levels were high, the budget cuts…

  11. The Status of the American Family: Policies, Facts, Opinions, and Issues. NEA Research Memo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This report of the National Education Association gathers information from a variety of sources and studies giving special emphasis to families with children. Section I, Federal Policy Issues and the Family, includes a brief summary of the Carter administration's plans and activities and the following essays: Is Government Helping or Hurting…

  12. The Carnegie Corporation of New York and American Educational Policy 1945-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weischadle, David E.

    Foundation involvement in policy development for public education raises basic questions concerning the control of a prime societal function. During the Cold War era (1945-1970) the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded projects according to its philosophical interests, using its financial and organizational prominence and cooperative strategies…

  13. The Negro in the Tobacco Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Ash, Robert I.

    The tobacco industry has employed Negroes since its inception in Colonial Virginia. This study is primarily concerned with the course of Negro employment and industry racial policies in the industry processing, manufacturing, selling, and distributing of cigarettes and manufactured tobacco, as distinct from the cigar industry which involves quite…

  14. Excellence in Education. The States Take Charge. American Enterprise Institute Studies in Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.; Hartle, Terry W.

    This book presents a brief description and analysis of the activity of State governments in making educational policy during the past two years. The following three trends are cited as important in the States' increased role: (1) increased State spending on education relative to Federal and local spending; (2) court ordered school finance reform…

  15. Making Americans: UNO Charter Schools and Civic Education. Policy Brief 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feith, David

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the third in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. The UNO Charter School Network includes 13 schools serving some 6,500 students across Chicago. Located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods, the…

  16. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  17. Recommendations for implementing policy, systems, and environmental improvements to address chronic diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  18. (Case studies examining energy policies and strategies for water resources development): Foreign trip report, May 7--13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1989-05-24

    The traveler met with colleagues involved with Project 12.2 of the IHP of UNESCO to discuss and finalize case studies that are being prepared for a report entitled ''Case Studies Examining Energy Policies and Strategies for Water Resources Development.'' Draft case studies from the United States, Brazil, Norway, and Czechoslovakia were reviewed and discussed. The traveler was appointed editor of the final report. The traveler met with staff of the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Secretary General of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Executive Secretary to the National Energy Commission of Brazil, and the newly created Brazilian Institute of the Environment. The traveler was briefed on the functions of these departments, and he briefed them on water resource activities conducted at ORNL. The traveler presented a seminar at Eletrobras (national electric utility) in Brazil on environmental research at ORNL.

  19. Health policy and ethnic diversity in older Americans. Dissonance or harmony?

    PubMed Central

    Wray, L A

    1992-01-01

    The rapid growth and diversity of the older population have long-term implications for health care policies in the United States. Current policies designed for a homogeneous population are increasingly obsolete. To ameliorate obstacles that handicap many ethnic minority elders and to provide equal access to adequate and acceptable health care, several factors need to be considered. Enhanced data collection and analytic techniques are needed. The effects of race or ethnicity must be separated from other biologic, environmental, socioeconomic, cultural, and temporal factors on health status and behavior. Health care professionals and organizations serving minority elders must continue to expand their advocacy efforts to articulate the findings and their concerns to policymakers. Policymakers must understand and acknowledge the implications of an increasingly diverse society and determine what will constitute adequate, accessible, and acceptable health care within continuing fiscal constrains. Program planning, implementation, and evaluation methods must be revised to meet future health care needs effectively and efficiently. PMID:1413784

  20. Appalachian policy, the corporate state, and American values: a critical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the historical interplay of Appalachia and America over the past hundred years. The focus is on questions of culture and ideology, policy, and values as these have been constituted in the development of our corporate state and its penetration and integration of the region. A careful examination of Henry Shapiro's Appalachia on our Mind brings to the surface many of the assumptions and values generally underlying the social and public policies binding the nation and the region. Ideological aspects in the genesis of the region as a social problem receive considerable attention. It becomes apparent that understanding Appalachia hinges on critical, historical perspectives on modern America: the liberal tradition, the technological world view, and the politicized economy of the corporate state. The notion that time stood still in Appalachia (the static image) has developed in ways that deflect or obscure comprehension of the region's particular form of modernization. 34 references.

  1. Human genome research and the public interest: Progress notes from an American Science Policy Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Juengst, E.T. )

    1994-01-01

    This essay reviews the efforts of the US Human Genome Project to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of new advances in human genetics. Since 1990, approximately $10 million has been awarded by the National Institutes of Health and the DOE, in support of 65 research, education, and public discussion projects. These projects address four major areas of need: (1) the need for both client-centered assessments of new genetic services and for improved knowledge of the psychosocial and ethnocultural factors that shape clients' clinical genetic experiences; (2) the need for clear professional policies regarding human-subject research, clinical practical standards, and public health goals in human genetics; (3) the need for social policy protection against unfair access to and use of personal genetic information; (4) the need for improved public and professional understanding and discussion of these issues. The Human Genome Project's goal is to have defined, by 1995, policy options and programs capable of addressing these needs. 47 refs.

  2. The Humanities and the Art of Public Discussion, Volume 3. Essays and Commentaries on Freedom of Expression, America's Role in the World, and U.S. Energy Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie Pickering; And Others

    The three essays in this collection (the third in a series) explore the implications of free speech, the roots of American foreign policy, and the relation between U.S. political tradition and the formulation of policies on energy. Each essay is accompanied by a commentary. The essays, their authors, and the commentaries are: "The Pig in the…

  3. Meetings of the American Indian Policy Review Commission (February 24, 25, March 4, May 12, 13, and 16, 1977). Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    These meetings of the American Indian Policy Review Commission were concerned with the markup of various sections of the final report, some sections having to do with Indian law, Indian history, Indian education, Alaska Natives, and funding of Indian programs. On February 25, there was a discussion of education recommendations including one on the…

  4. Funding of Assistive Technology to Make Work a Reality, Part II: Using the Americans with Disabilities Act to Fund AT. Policy & Practice Brief #13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Ronald M.

    2004-01-01

    This is a continuation of "Funding of Assistive Technology to Make Work a Reality" (Work and AT), Article # 3 in this Policy and Practice Brief Series. This article will review the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), with a particular emphasis on how the ADA can be used to ensure that a person with a disability has access to…

  5. Data Comparability and Public Policy: New Interest in Public Library Data. Papers Presented at Meetings of the American Statistical Association. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The four papers contained in this volume were presented at the August 1994 meetings of the American Statistical Association as a session titled, "Public Policy and Data Comparability: New Interest in Public Library Data." The first paper, "Public Library Statistics: Two Systems Compared" (Mary Jo Lynch), describes two systems that collect data on…

  6. A Case Study Examining the Influence of Black Greek Letter Fraternal Presence, Policies, and Practices on African American Male Student Success at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Stanley Duane

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was conducted at a mid-sized university in the southeastern United States to determine if a nexus existed among BGLF presence, policies, and practices at a PWI that influences the student success of African American males. This research focused on the analysis of two direct associations--the association between the BGLF…

  7. Americans Speak out: Are Educators and Policy Makers Listening?--The 40th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2008-01-01

    Parents, educators, political leaders--all Americans need the information contained in this article. But why this poll? First, it's not just a quick snapshot of public perception. Rather, it is a serious research tool, conducted annually, that allows Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) members and other educators and policy makers to track public opinion from…

  8. Meetings of the American Indian Policy Review Commission (March 5, May 2, June 13, July 11, and September 12, 1975). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs met on March 5, 1975, to organize and select officers and members of the American Indian Policy Review Commission. Senator James Abourzek was elected chairman and Representative Lloyd Meeds was elected vice chairman. Rules of procedure were tentatively adopted. Mr. Ernie Stevens was then selected as…

  9. The American atom: A documentary history of nuclear policies from the discovery of fission to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.C.; Cantelon, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    In selecting these historical documents the authors have applied three general tests: first, does the document help tell the story of the development of American nuclear policy in a nontechnical way; second, is the source primary rather than secondary, written by an actor in the drama rather than by a member of the audience; third, does the document provide coverage of the major chapters in the story. The Manhattan Project was America's $2 billion secret project to build an atomic bomb. Many documents associated with the project have come to light only in recent years. In Section II they use the letters of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the recently declassified minutes of policy committees to tell the story of how the bomb was designed and built and how the decision was made to drop the first uranium and plutonium devices on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. How did a weapon of war become the key to a peacetime industry. In considering atomic energy after World War II, they focus in Section III on the legislative enabling acts that established the Atomic Energy Commission, the short-lived dream of international control of nuclear weapons under the Baruch Plan, and the ''atoms for peace'' program of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. By 1954 the highly classified work on nuclear weapons paralleled a new development of nuclear energy and power reactors. Knowledge was shared with both private industry and other countries. The fruits of this program are considered in the later section on nuclear power.

  10. Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L

    1985-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent. PMID:3888870

  11. Foreign Language Study: One of the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kenneth D.

    1983-01-01

    Documenting the decline in foreign language literacy among Americans and the decrease in foreign language requirements in high schools and colleges, the author stresses the intrinsic value of learning languages. He makes recommendations for improving foreign language study and attitudes toward it. (SK)

  12. Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy 1985. Sixth Annual Report Submitted to the Congress by the President Pursuant to Section 503(b) of Title V of Public Law 95-426. Serial E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    The Reagan administration's annual report to the Congress on international activities in the fields of science and technology (S&T) for fiscal year 1984 consists of three parts. The two chapters in part I (S&T in American diplomacy) examine S&T in American foreign policy and resources necessary for successful diplomacy. The two chapters in part II…

  13. Informatics, evidence-based care, and research; implications for national policy: a report of an American Medical Informatics Association health policy conference

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don E

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased level of activity in the biomedical and health informatics world (e-prescribing, electronic health records, personal health records) that, in the near future, will yield a wealth of available data that we can exploit meaningfully to strengthen knowledge building and evidence creation, and ultimately improve clinical and preventive care. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2008 Health Policy Conference was convened to focus and propel discussions about informatics-enabled evidence-based care, clinical research, and knowledge management. Conference participants explored the potential of informatics tools and technologies to improve the evidence base on which providers and patients can draw to diagnose and treat health problems. The paper presents a model of an evidence continuum that is dynamic, collaborative, and powered by health informatics technologies. The conference's findings are described, and recommendations on terminology harmonization, facilitation of the evidence continuum in a “wired” world, development and dissemination of clinical practice guidelines and other knowledge support strategies, and the role of diverse stakeholders in the generation and adoption of evidence are presented. PMID:20190052

  14. Strategic implications of the succession of Kim Jong IL for US foreign policy towards North Korea. Master`s thesis, 2 August 1994-2 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McElree, J.A.

    1995-06-02

    This study analyzes the strategic implications of the dynastic succession of Kim Jong IL for U.S. foreign policy towards North Korea. The proliferation of nuclear weapons by North Korea threatens vital U.S. interests in Northeast Asia and challenges U.S. regional and global leadership. In order to properly respond to the North Korean nuclear threat, it is essential to understand the man who will dictate North Korean actions--Kim Jong IL. The study examines Kim Jong Il`s background, training, experience, personality, leadership characteristics, and the challenges he will face. The analysis of Kim Jong IL indicates that he is a rational actor who has and will continue to act in a rational manner in pursuit of his desired ends. The framework for analysis is the Strategic Estimate Process. Alternative courses of action are developed using the four elements of national power. The study identifies the strategic implications of probable North Korean actions and recommends appropriate U.S. courses of action on the basis of feasibility, acceptability, and suitability in achieving U.S. objectives in support of U.S. interests.

  15. Immigration Facts on Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. policymakers have put forth various immigration reform proposals to improve retention of foreign students obtaining advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from American universities. These students are considered particularly desirable because they, like their American counterparts, offer the types of…

  16. Retail Health Clinics: A Policy Position Paper From the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Hilary; Erickson, Shari

    2015-12-01

    Retail health clinics are walk-in clinics located in retail stores or pharmacies that are typically staffed by nurse practitioners or physician assistants. When they entered the marketplace in the early 2000s, retail clinics offered a limited number of services for low-acuity conditions that were paid for out of pocket by the consumer. Over the past decade, business models for these clinics have evolved to accept public and private health insurance, and some are expanding their services to include diagnosis, treatment, and management of chronic conditions. Retail health clinics are one of several methods of health care delivery that challenge the traditional primary care delivery model. The positions and recommendations offered by the American College of Physicians in this paper are intended to establish a framework that underscores patient safety, communication, and collaboration among retail health clinics, physicians, and patients. PMID:26457377

  17. America's Role in the World: Challenges to American Businesses and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, James M.; Daalder, Ivo H.

    2005-01-01

    At its Summer 2003 meeting, the Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) engaged the questions of America's role in the post-Sept.11, 2001 world. Following a series of panel presentations, BHEF members specifically examined the important issues of sustaining, legitimating, and using American power. Six major foreign policy challenges facing the…

  18. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

  19. Policy Shocks: On the Legal Auspices of Latin American Migration to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare the transition into legal permanent residence (LPR) of Mexicans, Dominicans, and Nicaraguans. Dominicans had the highest likelihood of obtaining residence, mostly sponsored by parents and spouses. Mexicans had the lowest LPR transition rates and presented sharp gender differentials in modes: women mostly legalized through husbands while men were sponsored through IRCA, parents. Nicaraguans stood in-between, presenting few gender differences in rates and modes of transition and a heavy dependence on asylum and special provisions such as IRCA and NACARA. I argue these patterns stem from the interplay of conditions favoring the emigration of and the specific immigration policy context faced by migrant pioneers; the influence of social networks in reproducing the legal character of flows; and differences in the actual use of kinship ties as sponsors. I discuss the implications of these trends on the observed gendered patterns of migration from Latin America. PMID:21921965

  20. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Design Cross‐sectional, observational. Subjects Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida—all leading sources of California's crime guns—where these restrictions do not exist. Main outcome measures Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate (“straw”) gun purchases. Results Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9–10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5–2.2%), p = 0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p = 0.06). Conclusions California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed. PMID:17567968

  1. 22 CFR 501.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Policy. 501.1 Section 501.1 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS APPOINTMENT OF FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.1 Policy. It is the policy of the Broadcasting Board of Governors that Foreign Service Officers occupy positions in which there is a need...

  2. Foreign Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lee W.

    2006-01-01

    The admirable ideal of "total" immersion in a foreign culture privileges students who plan early on for foreign study, establish early language fluency and elect majors and activities that make it easier to leave campus. Other students often find that they lack the language skills to qualify for many foreign programs or are unable to reconcile…

  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. PMID:26324357

  4. Using Evidence-Based Policy, Systems, and Environmental Strategies to Increase Access to Healthy Food and Opportunities for Physical Activity Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  5. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  6. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning…

  7. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2015-04-21

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are growing in popularity, but their safety and efficacy as a smoking cessation aid are not well understood. Some argue that they have the potential to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality and could be a useful tool for reducing tobacco-related harm. Others express concern that the health effects of ENDS use are unknown, that they may appeal to young people, and that they may encourage dual use of ENDS and traditional tobacco products. Although ENDS are a new and unregulated product, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has proposed regulations that would deem ENDS to be subject to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which regulates cigarettes and other tobacco products. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians offers policy recommendations on ENDS regulation and oversight, taxation, flavorings, promotion and marketing, indoor and public use, and research. This paper is not intended to offer clinical guidance or serve as an exhaustive literature review of existing ENDS-related evidence but to help direct the College, policymakers, and regulators on how to address these products. PMID:25894027

  8. Germs and Jim Crow: the impact of microbiology on public health policies in progressive era American South.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Race proved not merely a disadvantage in securing access to prompt and appropriate medical care, but often became a life and death issue for blacks in the American South during the early decades of the twentieth century. This article investigates the impact some of the new academic disciplines such as anthropology, evolutionary biology, racially based pathology and genetics had in promoting scientific racism. The disproportionately high morbidity and mortality rates among blacks were seen as a consequence of inherent racial deficiencies that rendered any attempt to ameliorate their situation as futile. While the belief in a different pathology in blacks initially deterred most health officials from taking any action, advances in medicine and microbiology, in particular the germ theory, stirred a variety of responses out of sheer self preservation, as fears among whites at the first sign of an epidemic initiated sporadic and limited actions. Ironically, in an era of deepening scientific racism, public health initiatives based on a better understanding of disease causing microorganisms, gradually improved black health. However, some public health measures were hijacked by eugenicists and racists and, rather than addressing the ill health of blacks, public health policy complied with the new laws of heredity by promoting drastic measures such as involuntary sterilization or even abortion. This further complicated the strained relationship between southern blacks and health care professionals and effected ongoing distrust towards public healthcare services. PMID:20027786

  9. Health and Mental Health Policies' Role in Better Understanding and Closing African American-White American Disparities in Treatment Access and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.

    2012-01-01

    Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health…

  10. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25... exception from the requirements of the Buy American Act based on the unreasonable cost of...

  11. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25... exception from the requirements of the Buy American Act based on the unreasonable cost of...

  12. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: tobacco control--reducing cancer incidence and saving lives. 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-07-15

    As an international medical society dedicated to cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates a fundamental reform of United States and international policy toward addictive tobacco products. ASCO's goal is the immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world. The centerpiece of ASCO's policy is the recommendation for an independent commission to study the tobacco problem in all of its dimensions: social, medical, legal, and economic (both domestically and globally). The commission membership should include broad-based representation and expertise on tobacco issues. In ASCO's view, tobacco control efforts to date have been less than successful because they are too fragmented and incremental, leaving many important issues unaddressed. A more comprehensive solution could flow from this study, including input from a variety of government agencies involved with public health, agriculture, First Amendment and other legal considerations, and international trade. The study, within defined time limits, should culminate in a report that outlines a strategy for achieving immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world, including explicit plans and a timetable for implementation. Although this comprehensive approach to tobacco control will take many years to implement even under the best of circumstances, there are certain measures that could be undertaken immediately with meaningful impact on tobacco usage. These include: Increasing efforts to discourage tobacco use, particularly among the young Raising federal excise taxes by at least $2 per pack and encouraging states to consider tobacco taxes as a first resort in revenue enhancement Ensuring that tobacco settlement funds be devoted only to health-related projects, including medical treatment, biomedical research, and tobacco prevention efforts Requiring disclosure of all ingredients in tobacco products Comprehensively

  13. The Effects of Computer-Mediated Reading Supports on the Reading Comprehension and the Reading Behavior of Beginning American Readers of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aweiss, Salem

    A study investigated the relative effectiveness of three kinds of computer-mediated support for developing reading comprehension among learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Subjects were 24 first-year students of AFL at the college level. The students were given computer-assisted reading instruction at four levels of treatment: control…

  14. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of foreign government information... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Foreign Government Information § 2400.38 Protection of foreign...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of foreign government information... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Foreign Government Information § 2400.38 Protection of foreign...

  16. Survey of foreign graduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In the 1983 American Institute of Physics (AIP) Graduate Student Survey, the issue of foreign versus national students in U.S. graduate programs was explored. In the past decade, the number of entering graduate students from foreign nations in American universities has risen from about 600 to about 1100, an increase from 23% in 1973 to 40% in 1983 of all entering physics graduate students in the United States. There are more than 10,000 graduate students in physics in the United StatesThe benefits, or lack thereof, of having foreign graduate students raises a number of philosophical points. Like all students, foreign students learn from academic programs; but at high competitive levels, they contribute as well. The essence of growth in any academic program is described by the creativity supplied by ever incoming students. In an academically competitive system the question of foreign students displacing U.S. students in graduate programs has no definition. On the other hand, what about the graduate job market after graduation? Some would point to the return of foreign graduates to their homeland as an example of U.S. education efforts not benefitting U.S. society, at least directly. Others worry about foreign graduates flooding the U.S. job market.

  17. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  18. Multi-Ethnicity in the Malaysian Workplace: The Net Balance of 35 Years of Affirmative Policies as Observed by a Foreign Visitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesino, Max U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the net societal balance of post-independence affirmative action policies in Malaysia. Social imbalances prompted the country to implement affirmative policies to uplift the majority natives (Malays, Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak, etc.). These policies were reluctantly accepted by the immigrant communities (Chinese,…

  19. Exploring the Heritage of American Higher Education: The Evolution of Philosophy and Policy. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. Grady; Aper, Jeffery

    This book seeks to describe broadly some of the important historic movements in the evolution of American higher education, and to explore some of its major philosophical principles and traditions, as a way to understand the issues that currently challenge higher education and to examine current efforts for reform and renewal. The book's 10…

  20. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal AGENCY: Foreign... Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC). DATES: Effective... Secretary and the USTR concerning agricultural trade policy. The committee is intended to ensure...

  1. Predictors of Outcomes for African Americans in a Rehabilitation State Agency: Implications for National Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Oberoi, Ashmeet K.; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Alvarado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    A review of vocational rehabilitation (VR) data from a Midwestern state was conducted to identify predictors of rehabilitation outcomes for African American consumers. The database included 37,404 African Americans who were referred or self-referred over a period of five years. Logistic regression analysis indicated that except for age and…

  2. Twelve Inconvenient Truths about American Higher Education. A Policy Paper from the Center for College Affordability and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard

    2012-01-01

    American universities, we are often told, are the best in the world. Rankings of schools worldwide done by organizations in both China and Great Britain consistently are dominated by U.S. institutions. More than half of the top 100 schools (and eight of the top 10) in the Shanghai rankings, for example, are American schools. A huge portion of…

  3. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 3: Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the National Labor Relations Act.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the third part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issues of race and national origin under the Civil Rights Act, disability under the Americans With Disabilities Act, and employees' rights to engage in concerted activities under the National Labor Relations Act. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed. PMID:24776832

  4. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-09-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  5. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  6. American Urogynecologic Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  7. 22 CFR 71.6 - Services for distressed Americans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Services for distressed Americans. 71.6 Section 71.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... distressed Americans. Officers of the Foreign Service shall extend every possible aid and assistance...

  8. 22 CFR 71.1 - Protection of Americans abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of Americans abroad. 71.1 Section 71.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... Americans abroad. Officers of the Foreign Service shall perform such duties in connection with...

  9. 22 CFR 71.1 - Protection of Americans abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protection of Americans abroad. 71.1 Section 71.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... Americans abroad. Officers of the Foreign Service shall perform such duties in connection with...

  10. 22 CFR 71.1 - Protection of Americans abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protection of Americans abroad. 71.1 Section 71.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... Americans abroad. Officers of the Foreign Service shall perform such duties in connection with...

  11. 22 CFR 71.6 - Services for distressed Americans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Services for distressed Americans. 71.6 Section 71.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... distressed Americans. Officers of the Foreign Service shall extend every possible aid and assistance...

  12. 22 CFR 71.1 - Protection of Americans abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protection of Americans abroad. 71.1 Section 71.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... Americans abroad. Officers of the Foreign Service shall perform such duties in connection with...

  13. 22 CFR 71.6 - Services for distressed Americans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services for distressed Americans. 71.6 Section 71.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... distressed Americans. Officers of the Foreign Service shall extend every possible aid and assistance...

  14. 22 CFR 71.1 - Protection of Americans abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protection of Americans abroad. 71.1 Section 71.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... Americans abroad. Officers of the Foreign Service shall perform such duties in connection with...

  15. 22 CFR 71.6 - Services for distressed Americans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Services for distressed Americans. 71.6 Section 71.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... distressed Americans. Officers of the Foreign Service shall extend every possible aid and assistance...

  16. 22 CFR 71.6 - Services for distressed Americans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Services for distressed Americans. 71.6 Section 71.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND... distressed Americans. Officers of the Foreign Service shall extend every possible aid and assistance...

  17. The University's Role in Foreign Student Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    Perspectives on international educational exchange and the needs of foreign students for academic and career advising and assistance in adjusting to a new culture are considered. Obtaining a degree from an American higher education institution is highly desired by many persons in developing countries, and the high standards foreign students have…

  18. Establishing as the Policy of the United States the Preservation, Protection, and Promotion of the Rights of Indigenous Americans To Use, Practice and Develop Native American Languages, and for Other Purposes. Report To Accompany S.J. Res. 379 from the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This report was submitted in support of a joint resolution (S.J. Res. 379) to establish as the policy of the United States the preservation, protection, and promotion of the right of indigenous Americans to practice and develop their indigenous languages. Traditional languages are an integral part of Native American culture, heritage, and…

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  20. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  1. Chapter 4: Contesting the Model Minority and Perpetual Foreigner Stereotypes--A Critical Review of Literature on Asian Americans in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Jennifer C.; Lee, Sharon S.; Pak, Yoon K.

    2007-01-01

    There are several aims of this literature review. At its basic level, the authors' goal is to provide readers with content knowledge of the educational research on Asian Americans, highlighting important findings and key studies in the field. It is their goal to identify themes and trends and look to important future directions as a whole,…

  2. Students' Preferences on the Use of Mother Tongue in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms: Is It the Time to Re-Examine English-Only Policies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreli, Emre; Oyman, Nadire

    2016-01-01

    In literature on bilingual teaching, different perspectives exist for and against the use of first language (L1) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. There is a continuing matter of debate on whether L1 contributes to or precludes the learning of a second language (L2). Numerous studies have been conducted on this topic, but no clear…

  3. Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, M. G., Ed.

    Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

  4. Foreign Accent Syndrome, a Rare Presentation of Schizophrenia in a 34-Year-Old African American Female: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Asogwa, Kenneth; Nisenoff, Carolina; Okudo, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare phenomenon where speech is characterized by a new accent to the patient's native language. More than 100 cases with the syndrome have been published, the majority of which were associated with observed insults of the speech center. Some other cases have been described without identifiable organic brain injury, especially in patients with psychiatric illness. This paper presents a patient with schizophrenia and FAS, without any evidence of organic brain injury. FAS recurred during psychotic exacerbation and did not reverse before transfer to a long-term psychiatric facility. The case is discussed in the context of a brief review of the syndrome. PMID:26925283

  5. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement: opportunities in the patient protection and affordable care act to reduce cancer care disparities.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Polite, Blase N; Halpern, Michael T; Stranne, Steven K; Winer, Eric P; Wollins, Dana S; Newman, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Patients in specific vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides both opportunities and challenges for addressing cancer care disparities and access to care. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates for policies that ensure access to cancer care for the underserved. Such policies include insurance reform and the reduction of economic barriers to quality health care. Building on ASCO's prior statement on disparities in cancer care (2009), this article summarizes elements of the health care law that are relevant to cancer disparities and provides recommendations for addressing major provisions in the law. It outlines specific strategies to address insurance reform, access to care, quality of care, prevention and wellness, research on health care disparities, and diversity in the health care workforce. ASCO is committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among the most vulnerable patients. PMID:21810680

  6. The influence of words as determinants of U.S. international and domestic health policy--part I.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Thomas W

    The power of words--and their context in the "American narrative,"--to affect international and domestic health policy, both proposal and implementation, is analyzed. The complexity of the implications for U.S. foreign policy as well as for disease outbreaks and potential bioterrorism are illustrated, with liberal references to the works of novelist James Joyce, film director Frederico Fellini, and economist/political activist Robert Reich. PMID:17686680

  7. Perceptions of Americans and the Iraq Invasion: Implications for Understanding National Character Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R

    2007-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of the "typical American" from 49 cultures around the world. Contrary to the ethnocentric bias hypothesis, we found strong agreement between in-group and out-group ratings on the American profile (assertive, open-minded, but antagonistic); Americans in fact had a somewhat less desirable view of Americans than did others. Within cultures, in-group ratings were not systematically more favorable than out-group ratings. The Iraq invasion had a slight negative effect on perceptions of the typical American, but people around the world seem to draw a clear distinction between U.S. foreign policy and the character of the American people. National character stereotypes appear to have a variety of sources and to be perpetuated by both cognitive mechanisms and socio-cultural forces. PMID:18618011

  8. Part-Time Faculty Personnel Management Policies. American Council on Education/Macmillan Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biles, George E.; Tuckman, Howard P.

    A framework for integrating part-time college faculty into an existing institutional structure is presented. Suggestions are offered on ways that department and division heads can make personnel policies that meet both the part-timer's need for fairness, certainty, and structure, and the college's need for flexibility and order. Policies are…

  9. Politics Can Limit Policy Opportunism in Fiscal Institutions: Evidence from Official General Fund Revenue Forecasts in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Lewis, David E.; Douglas, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Governments make policy decisions in the same areas in quite different institutions. Some assign policymaking responsibility to institutions designed to be insulated from myopic partisan and electoral pressures and others do not. In this study, we claim that differences in political context and institutional design constrain the policy choices…

  10. Lecture Discourse of a Foreign TA: A Preliminary Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A study of the communication skill needs of the foreign teaching associate (TA) in American universities focused on two questions: (1) What does a foreign TA do to communicate information in an American classroom in terms of comunication strategies and devices for cohesion and coherence of discourse? and (2) How does this compare with the way an…

  11. The Quiet American Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legters, Lyman H.

    1984-01-01

    What is wrong in the American parochialism about foreign languages is the assumption that language acquisition is a cosmetic gain, without any immediate or forseeable practical use. Languages will only be learned effectively when Americans learn that they can be used in getting tasks accomplished. (MSE)

  12. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern-European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097

  13. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  14. EVALUATING THE FOREIGN-STUDY PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUPP, THEODORE H.

    A SUPERIOR STUDY-ABROAD PROGRAM SHOULD BE CONCERNED WITH THE BALANCE IN THE ACADEMIC PROGRAM BETWEEN FOREIGN UNIVERSITY COURSES AND THOSE ESPECIALLY PLANNED FOR AMERICAN STUDENTS, AND THE CAREFUL TRANSPOSITION OF GRADING AND CREDIT ALLOWANCES TO AMERICAN STANDARDS. OTHER AREAS TO CONSIDER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROGRAMS ARE A HIGHLY…

  15. 22 CFR 101.2 - Promotion of American interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotion of American interests. 101.2 Section... FUNCTIONS § 101.2 Promotion of American interests. Officers of the Foreign Service shall further the... potentialities of their districts as a market for American products or as a competitor of American products...

  16. 22 CFR 101.2 - Promotion of American interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Promotion of American interests. 101.2 Section... FUNCTIONS § 101.2 Promotion of American interests. Officers of the Foreign Service shall further the... potentialities of their districts as a market for American products or as a competitor of American products...

  17. 22 CFR 101.2 - Promotion of American interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotion of American interests. 101.2 Section... FUNCTIONS § 101.2 Promotion of American interests. Officers of the Foreign Service shall further the... potentialities of their districts as a market for American products or as a competitor of American products...

  18. 75 FR 35684 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership or Control by a Foreign Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ..., ``Policy Guidance for Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI).'' The DTM revises the description of...) 09-019, ``Policy Guidance for Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI),'' which requires... (DTM) 09-019, ``Policy Guidance for Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI),'' effective June...

  19. The strategic genius of Jonathan Letterman: the relevancy of the American Civil War to current health care policy makers.

    PubMed

    Place, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    With expanding health insurance coverage, innovative technologies, improved diagnostic acumen, and pharmaceutical additions combining to increase life expectancy, quality of life, and concomitant costs, the American health care system is under significant stress. However, it pales in comparison to the challenges faced by health care leaders during the American Civil War. As we approach the 150th anniversary of the conclusion of that war, it is appropriate to review key strategic health care decisions faced by military leaders during the Civil War and how their resultant outcomes may provide an appropriate perspective for today's leaders. PMID:25735014

  20. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. Methods and Findings In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical

  1. Effectiveness of tobacco control among Chinese Americans: a comparative analysis of policy approaches versus community-based programs

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne; Yerneni, Rajeev; Das, Dhiman; Nguyen, Nam; Hung, Dorothy; Burton, Dee; Chin, Margaret; Chang, Ming-der; Cummings, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Précis City wide tobacco control policies such as cigarette taxes and smoke free air policies are effective among Chinese immigrants. In addition, community-based tailored tobacco control interventions may increase the reduction in smoking prevalence rates beyond that achieved from public policies. Objective To estimate the effectiveness of a tailored multi component community-based smoking cessation intervention among Chinese immigrants living in NYC, implemented within the context of state and city-wide tobacco control policy initiatives for the general population. Methods A pre-post-test quasi-experimental design with representative samples from Chinese populations living in two communities in NYC: Flushing, Queens, the intervention community and Sunset Park, Brooklyn, the comparison community. From November 2002 to August 2003 baseline interviews were conducted with 2537 adults aged 18–74. In early 2006, 1,384 participants from the original cohort completed the follow-up interview. During the intervention period (October 2003 to September 2005), both communities were exposed to tobacco control public policy changes. However, only Flushing received additional linguistically and culturally-specific community-level tobacco control interventions. Results From 2002 to 2006 overall smoking prevalence among Chinese immigrants declined from 17.7% to 13.6%, a relative 23% decrease. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, there was an absolute 3.3% decrease in smoking prevalence attributed to policy changes with an additional absolute decline in prevalence of 2.8% in the intervention community relative to the control community. Conclusion City wide tobacco control policies are effective among high-risk urban communities, such as Chinese immigrants. In addition, community-based tailored tobacco control interventions may increase the reduction in smoking prevalence rates beyond that achieved from public policies. PMID:18687355

  2. Guests or Immigrants? Contradiction and Change in the German Immigration Policy Debate since the Recruitment Stop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.; Miller, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews conflicting West German immigration policies toward the growing number of foreign workers since 1973. Emphasizes the contradiction between policies that encourage foreigners to return home and those that encourage the integration of foreigners into German society. (FMW)

  3. “The law was actually drafted by us but the Government is to be congratulated on its wise actions”: British American Tobacco and public policy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Collin, Jeff; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective British American Tobacco (BAT) has historically enjoyed a monopoly position in Kenya. Analysis of recent tobacco control debates and a case study of BAT's response to the emergence of competition in Kenya are used to explore the company's ability to shape public policy and its treatment of tobacco farmers. Design Analysis of internal industry documents from BAT's Guildford depository, other relevant data and interviews with key informants. Results BAT enjoys extensive high‐level political connections in Kenya, including close relationships with successive Kenyan presidents. Such links seems to have been used to influence public policy. Health legislation has been diluted and delayed, and when a competitor emerged in the market, BAT used its contacts to have the government pass legislation drafted by BAT that compelled farmers to sell tobacco to BAT rather than to its competitor. BAT was already paying farmers less than any other African leaf‐growing company, and the legislation entrenched poor pay and a quasi‐feudal relationship. BAT's public relation's response to the threat of competition and the ministers' public statements extolling the economic importance of tobacco growing suggest that BAT has manipulated tobacco farming as a political issue. Conclusions The extent of BAT's influence over public policy is consistent with the observations that, despite ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, progress in implementing tobacco control measures in Kenya has been limited. The benefits of tobacco farming seem to be deliberately exaggerated, and an analysis of its true cost benefits is urgently needed. Tobacco farmers must be protected against BAT's predatory practices and fully informed about its activities to help them have an informed role in policy debates. As image, particularly around the importance of tobacco farming, seems key to BAT's ability to influence policy, the truth about its treatment of farmers must be

  4. Federal Public Policy and the Education of American Indian Exceptional Children and Youth: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Bruce A.

    Reviewing enrollment trends in federal, public, and tribally controlled schools, this report examines progress in the education of American Indian handicapped children since the passage in 1975 of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The first section provides numbers of Indian handicapped and gifted and talented children receiving…

  5. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  6. Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

  7. Access and Equity for African American Students in Higher Education: A Critical Race Historical Analysis of Policy Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Patton, Lori D.; Wooden, Ontario S.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education has been characterized as "one of the greatest hopes for intellectual and civic progress in this country. Yet for many Americans, however, it has been seen as part of the problem rather than the solution" (Boyer, 1997, p. 85). Some have acknowledged that higher education is a public good through which individual participation…

  8. Is the Moratorium over? African American Psychology Professionals' Views on Intelligence Testing in Response to Changes to Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Collectively, advocates for the well-being of African American children have long called for a moratorium on the use of intelligence testing for the placement of children in special education. With the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, intelligence testing is no longer required and in some states prohibited…

  9. Smoking among Asian Americans: acculturation and gender in the context of tobacco control policies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijian; Kwon, Simona C; Weerasinghe, Isha; Rey, Mariano J; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2013-09-01

    New York City (NYC) has experienced significant decline in smoking prevalence since its antismoking campaign; however, the rates among NYC's Asian communities have persisted since 2002. Using combined data from the REACH US Risk Factor Survey (2009-2011), this article examined ethnic- and gender-specific smoking behaviors and the effects of acculturation and location of residence on cigarette smoking behavior among Chinese, Korean, Asian Indians, and other Asian Americans. Results indicated that current smoking prevalence was higher for men than women among all four groups. Korean men and women had the highest current smoking rates whereas Indians had the lowest among the four subgroups. Asian American women reporting speaking only English at home had higher current smoking prevalence, but this was not observed for men. Living in Sunset Park, an emerging Asian ethnic enclave, was associated with higher odds of smoking than living in other locations in NYC. In conclusion, smoking prevalence varied across gender and ethnic subgroups among Asian Americans in NYC. A "one-size-fits-all" type of intervention strategy for "pan-Asians" could not be effective. Community-based culturally appropriate and gender-specific interventions for smoking cessation might be an option for Asian Americans residing in linguistically isolated ethnic enclaves. PMID:23667057

  10. The Americans with Disabilities Act and Family and Medical Leave Act: Legal Requirements, Negotiations and Policy Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juengart, Laurie S.

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) are two major pieces of social legislation that impact private and public employers, including school districts. Public school employers must have thorough awareness of the legal requirements of both laws and must analyze the ways in which those requirements…

  11. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 161.2 Section 161.2 Foreign Relations... POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 161.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of State to use all... anticipating and preventing a decline in the quality of the world environment....

  12. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy. 161.2 Section 161.2 Foreign Relations... POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 161.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of State to use all... anticipating and preventing a decline in the quality of the world environment....

  13. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY... information. Classified foreign government information shall be protected as is prescribed by this...

  14. The extent to which school district competitive food and beverage policies align with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: implications for federal regulations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Linda M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 authorized the Secretary of the US Department of Agriculture to establish science-based nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold in school that are, at a minimum, aligned with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), while still providing districts with discretion in regulating the competitive food and beverage environment. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which district competitive food and beverage policies had specific and required limits aligned with 2010 DGA recommendations, and to inform US Department of Agriculture efforts as they develop competitive food and beverage standards. Competitive food and beverage policies were compiled for the 2009-2010 school year from a nationally representative sample of 622 districts. Each policy was double-coded for compliance with selected 2010 DGA recommendations (ie, restrictions on sugars, fats, trans fats, and sodium in foods and restrictions on regular soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat content of milk). Descriptive statistics were computed, clustered to account for the sample design, and weighted to account for districts nationwide. District nutrition policies were strongest for elementary schools. Nationwide, <5% of districts met or exceeded all of the previously mentioned nutrient requirements examined. Fat and sugar content of foods and soda availability were more commonly addressed. Areas that require attention include stronger nutrition standards at the secondary level, limits on trans fats, sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages other than soda, and fat content of milk, and greater availability of produce and whole grains at all sale locations. PMID:22507758

  15. Free trade and occupational health policy: an argument for health and safety across the North American workplace.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article considers the argument that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) would encourage US and Canadian industry to relocate their hazardous manufacturing operations to Mexico. Proponents of this view believe that this industrial flight south would worsen working conditions in Mexico as well as lower occupational health and safety standards in the US and Canada. In evaluating this argument, the article examines working conditions in US-owned factories in the Mexican maquiladora zone, reviews the current occupational health and safety regulatory structure in Mexico, and considers those institutions established by the European Community to protect workers against the flight of hazardous industries. The article concludes that the harmonization of labor norms throughout North American and the establishment of a functional North American regulatory structure following the precedents set by the European Community are necessary steps to ensure that NAFTA does not produce the feared flight of hazardous industries to Mexico nor degrade the health of workers in Mexico, Canada, or the US. PMID:7892635

  16. Four Topics in Latin American History: The People; Nation Building; Race, Class, and Identity; and Foreign Policy: U.S. and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett; Gill, Barbara

    This curricular unit is intended for use at the secondary level. The understandings in Topic I are organized under four main heaings: The Indigenous Population or the pre-Columbian civilizations; The Immigrants from Europe and West Africa; Slavery In Latin America during the pre-colonial and colonial periods and, Race mixture including racial…

  17. Perceptions of Americans and the Iraq Invasion: Implications for Understanding National Character Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of the “typical American” from 49 cultures around the world. Contrary to the ethnocentric bias hypothesis, we found strong agreement between in-group and out-group ratings on the American profile (assertive, open-minded, but antagonistic); Americans in fact had a somewhat less desirable view of Americans than did others. Within cultures, in-group ratings were not systematically more favorable than out-group ratings. The Iraq invasion had a slight negative effect on perceptions of the typical American, but people around the world seem to draw a clear distinction between U.S. foreign policy and the character of the American people. National character stereotypes appear to have a variety of sources and to be perpetuated by both cognitive mechanisms and socio-cultural forces. PMID:18618011

  18. Franz Boas and his plans for an International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Godoy, R

    1977-07-01

    The expansionist policy of the United States at the turn of the century widened the horizons of American anthropology. The International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology was one of the first attempts by American anthropologists to carry out systematic research in foreign lands. Motivated partly by a wish to strengthen the quality of American anthropology, Franz Boas succeeded in gaining the cooperation of several European and American institutions. The purpose of the school was to conduct rigorous anthropological investigations in Mexico. Obsessed with professionalizing the discipline, Boas failed to take into account the turbulent political climate of Mexico when planning the school. Although it did good work for a number of years (1910-1914), the school was broken up forever in 1914 because of the Mexican revolution. Attempts at resurrection failed for numerous reasons. PMID:332760

  19. Being Part of a People: Ridgeview Classical Schools and Civic Education. AEI Program on American Citizenship. Policy Brief 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonch, William

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief is the sixth in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. The brief reports on Ridgeview Classical Schools, an integrated K-12 public charter school in Fort Collins, Colorado. The school contains an elementary,…

  20. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health POLICY STATEMENT: Guidelines for the Administration of Medication in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Nursing, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing physicians as well as school administrators and health staff on the administration of medications to children at school. The statement addresses over-the-counter products, herbal medications, experimental drugs that are…