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Sample records for american social medicine

  1. The Latin American Social Medicine database

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Waitzkin, Howard; Buchanan, Holly S; Teal, Janis; Iriart, Celia; Wiley, Kevin; Tregear, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Background Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM) database finally bridges this previous gap. Description This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. Conclusion This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM. PMID:15627401

  2. Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  3. Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  4. Précis of Paul Starr's The Social Transformation of American Medicine. 1982.

    PubMed

    Starr, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The following is a presentation of selected passages from The Social Transformation of American Medicine (original pages numbers enclosed in parentheses) in tandem with the names of the authors in this retrospective issue and the various themes and issues they address. PMID:15702519

  5. Increasing access to Latin American social medicine resources: a preliminary report*

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Holly Shipp; Waitzkin, Howard; Eldredge, Jonathan; Davidson, Russ; Iriart, Celia; Teal, Janis

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary report describes the development and implementation of a project to improve access to literature in Latin American social medicine (LASM). Methods: The University of New Mexico project team collaborated with participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Ecuador to identify approximately 400 articles and books in Latin American social medicine. Structured abstracts were prepared, translated into English, Spanish, and Portuguese, assigned Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and loaded into a Web-based database for public searching. The project has initiated Web-based publication for two LASM journals. Evaluation included measures of use and content. Results: The LASM Website (http://hsc.unm.edu/lasm) and database create access to formerly little-known literature that addresses problems relevant to current medicine and public health. This Website offers a unique resource for researchers, practitioners, and teachers who seek to understand the links between socioeconomic conditions and health. The project provides a model for collaboration between librarians and health care providers. Challenges included procurement of primary material; preparation of concise abstracts; working with trilingual translations of abstracts, metadata, and indexing; and the work processes of the multidisciplinary team. Conclusions: The literature of Latin American social medicine has become more readily available to researchers worldwide. The LASM project serves as a collaborative model for the creation of sustainable solutions for disseminating information that is difficult to access through traditional methods. PMID:14566372

  6. What Does Latin American Social Medicine Do When It Governs? The Case of the Mexico City Government

    PubMed Central

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs. PMID:14652327

  7. Social medicine and social policy.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application. PMID:6537694

  8. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  9. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine Journal Apps Sports Medicine Update Other Professional Resources ...

  10. [Social networks and medicine].

    PubMed

    Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P

    2015-11-01

    Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice. PMID:26685647

  11. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  12. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 billion paid out-of- ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Americans spend a good chunk of their health care ...

  13. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... ProSomnus Sleep Technologies Nierman Practice Management ResMed SML-Space Maintainers Laboratory ... Copyright © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American Academy of Dental Sleep ...

  14. Thomas Addis, MD (1881-1949): Scottish-American clinical laboratory researcher, social activist and pioneer of renal medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated. PMID:21614781

  15. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Louisville April 4-8, 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine ... of Louisville April 4-8, 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Patient Resources Oral Medicine practitioners are experts ...

  16. American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Olympics Fit Feet Joint Commission on Sports Medicine & Science Medical Fitness Association Dr. Blakes Healing Sole Stop ... Injuries IRRA Sports Podiatry Runblogger Running Times The Science of ... Map Copyright © American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine Website Design, Maintenance and Hosting by Catalyst Marketing / ...

  17. Recertification in internal medicine - the American experience.

    PubMed

    Dale, David C

    2007-11-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) sets standards and certifies and recertifies physicians to practise internal medicine and its subspecialties in America. The ABIM was established in 1936 as a non-profit corporation, one of many specialty boards, such as the American Board of Family Medicine, the American Board of Pediatrics, the American Board of Surgery, etc. The umbrella organisation for these groups is the American Board of Medical Specialties. Members of the American College of Physicians take certifying and recertifying examinations produced by ABIM. Beginning in 1990, ABIM certificates were valid for 10 years. To maintain certification, physicians were required to participate in ABIM maintenance of certification (MOC) programme. The goals are to improve quality of care, to set standards for clinical competency, to foster continuing scholarship, and lead to medical quality improvement. The MOC programme involves verification of credentials, completion of self-evaluation, and completion of a secure exam. The self-evaluation component is the most complex and has been the most controversial due to the diversity of internal medicine careers and continued learning patterns. ABIM continually introduces new options for evaluation of practice performance. In addition to recertification in General Internal Medicine, ABIM has subspecialty examinations. MOC has been well received by professional organisations, but there are areas of controversy. It has been accepted as an important way for internists to assure quality of practice and currency of medical information. PMID:18071595

  18. American College of Sports Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room Foundation Store Get Involved Advancing health through science, education and medicine About ACSM Who We Are Officer & Trustee Nominations ... Annual Meeting, 8th World Congress on Exercise is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Exercise and the Brain Dates: 30 May – ...

  19. Folk Medicine in the Filipino American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montepio, Susan N.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the health behaviors of Filipino Americans in Los Angeles, analyzing what these behaviors mean to the people who hold and perform them. First discussed are traditional folk medicine, then the current practices, which have resulted from immigration and the subsequent forming of new networks. (LHW)

  20. Changing the Face of American Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    If the mission of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is clear--"to change the face of medicine to reflect the face of America" said Dr. Charles Terrell, the group's vice president for diversity policy and programs, at the opening of AAMC's recent conference on career development for minority faculty--then another fact is equally…

  1. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  2. Editorial: American medicine and world health 1976.

    PubMed

    Knowles, J H

    1976-04-01

    Adding family planning and population programs to the list of tropical medicine components expands the definition of what might be called appropriate medicine for the developing countries. This comprehensive definition covers the topics of prime importance to the health and ultimate development of preindustrial societies. These topics are given low priority in all medical education. Nutrition has been left to the schools of public health. Schools of agriculture are interested in the quality and quantity of food production but not in the social and economic complexities of relating food production to the nutritional status of the population to be served. the variables are interdependent. In the world more than 3 billion people live on the margin of existence. High mortality contributes to high fertility rates because living children are the only available form of social security. Food production cannot keep pace. Malnutrition is a factor in at least 1/2 of the 45 million global deaths in those less than 5 years of age. In the Far East and Africa 25-30% of the population are undernourished. During the next 15 years the world may add 1 billion people to its present 4 billion and there may be 8 billion shortly after the year 2000. Of these 6.6 billion would be in developing countries. In Africa, South America, and the Middle East, surveys have shown that 96% of 1000 women in the third trimester of pregnancy and 75% of school children in South India were anemic. At least a 4% annual increase in food production is needed between now and the year 2000 to meet the needs of present malnutrition and projected population growth. The prospects of achieving this are not good. Also, of regional importance are vector borne and macroparasitic diseases and trachoma and yaws. Of universal importance are fecally related diseases and air-borne diseases. Malaria still persists in many areas with an estimated 1 million deaths annually. Recently the World Bank has paid increasing

  3. Social Medicine Then and Now: Lessons From Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316

  4. Social Policy and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Purcell, Patrick Frances

    The purpose of the monograph is to provide schools of social work and their teachers with a central core of information concerning the policy and provisions of law that affect American Indians. The core information is selective and is presented in seven chapters. The first chapter provides a brief historical overview of the unique relationship…

  5. [Design of a Curriculum Clinical Social Medicine].

    PubMed

    Gostomzyk, J G; Simoes, E; Mittelstaedt, G V

    2015-09-01

    The economic transformation of health care systems, which is supported by both the economic and the political sector, is in demand of constant humane correction. Legal regulations of social systems securing health corresponding to the code of social law are guard rails for a responsible use of limited resources and are subject to constant development. All doctors caring for patients should be in a position to reflect the real life context of their patients as both causal and modifying influence for health and disease from a social medical perspective, apart from their specific medical field of expertise.Accordingly 3 parts of sub-specialization training are suggested: clinical tasks of social medicine as detailed in the code of social law, clinical social medicine in health care according to the 5(th) book of the code of social law and social medicine in clinical social medicine/participation. Higher level-of-care hospitals, as well as rehabilitation clinics, should offer sub-specialization in social medicine without interruption of employment contracts. Corresponding criteria for the regulation on further education should be formulated by the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) as the competent scientific association and presented to the committee on further education of the Federal Medical Association. This aims at strengthening social medicine in clinical care. PMID:26154260

  6. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Medicine Program Announcement Type: New. Funding Opportunity Number: HHS... American Indians into Medicine Program. This program is authorized under the authority of 25 U.S.C....

  7. Locating global health in social medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues. PMID:24819951

  8. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2014-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  9. The necessity of social medicine in medical education.

    PubMed

    Westerhaus, Michael; Finnegan, Amy; Haidar, Mona; Kleinman, Arthur; Mukherjee, Joia; Farmer, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Research and clinical experience reliably and repeatedly demonstrate that the determinants of health are most accurately conceptualized as biosocial phenomena, in which health and disease emerge through the interaction between biology and the social environment. Increased appreciation of biosocial approaches have already driven change in premedical education and focused attention on population health in current U.S. health care reform. Medical education, however, places primary emphasis on biomedicine and often fails to emphasize and educate students and trainees about the social forces that shape disease and illness patterns. The authors of this Commentary argue that medical education requires a comprehensive transformation to incorporate rigorous biosocial training to ensure that all future health professionals are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to practice social medicine. Three distinct models for accomplishing such transformation are presented: SocMed's monthlong, elective courses in Northern Uganda and Haiti; Harvard Medical School's semester-long, required social medicine course; and the Lebanese American University's curricular integration of social medicine throughout its entire four-year curriculum. Successful implementation of social medicine training requires the institutionalization of biosocial curricula; the utilization of innovative, engaging pedagogies; and the involvement of health professions students from broad demographic backgrounds and with all career interests. The achievement of such transformational and necessary change to medical education will prepare future health practitioners working in all settings to respond more proactively and comprehensively to the health needs of all populations. PMID:25406609

  10. American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phenotype Severity and Mortality Advertisement Featured Resource: Self-Assessment Examinations Check out AANEM's self-assessment examinations (SAEs) for electrodiagnostic medicine and neuromuscular medicine. ...

  11. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Quality Tool Boxes Choosing Wisely Practice Management & Efficiencies Coding & Reimbursement Resources ICD-10 Resources Medicare Resources ... Medicine Quality Tool Boxes Choosing Wisely Practice Management & Efficiencies Coding & Reimbursement Resources Toolkit for Physicians Challenging Denials ...

  12. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  13. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteopathic medicine equivalent. CME Pathway A minimum of 60 credit hours of continuing medical education (CME) recognized ... be obtained by at-home CME activity. The 60 credit hours must be completed within the 36 ...

  14. Socialized medicine or state-ruled medicine: the Venezuelan dilemma.

    PubMed

    Morgado, P J

    1989-07-01

    The economic crisis in which Venezuela is living, caused by the fall in oil prices, has forced the government to reorganize its medical services. A central administrative organ, the National Health Service, has been created. It seeks to develop a social medicine directed at the less favored classes of the population. Notwithstanding the continuously rising costs of private medicine, which, until now, the government has permitted without restrictions, the shadow of government intervention looms ominously over private practice, where subemployment of doctors already exists, along with the growing tendencies of insurance companies to impose economic conditions. The Venezuelan Medical Federation, which, by law, groups all Venezuelan doctors, has began a battle on two main fronts: against the State intervention and against the insurance companies who hope to benefit at the expense of the already underpaid doctors. PMID:2737063

  15. Medicinal history of North American Veratrum

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids. PMID:25379034

  16. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recommended sports ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships.

    PubMed

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark

    2015-02-01

    The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. PMID:25361787

  17. American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sep 1, 2016 American Institute of Medical and Biological Imaging DEADLINE | DATE: Sep 15, 2016 Board of Directors Nominations EVENT | DATES: Oct 29-30, 2016 2016 Laser Aesthetics Course Early Career Network The ASLMS Early Career Network aims to support ...

  18. American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Involved Communities Advanced Lung Disease Forum Psychiatry, Psychology, Mental Health Forum Social Work Forum SIG Instructions ... HPM Lecture Series Research Scholars Mentoring Scholarship About History Position Statements Access to Palliative Care and Hospice ...

  19. Social media in travel medicine: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipti; Jermacane, Daiga

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media is widespread and provides new opportunities for healthcare professionals and healthcare organisations to interact with patients, the public, policy makers, and each other. Social media offers the possibility of providing users with up-to-date information when, where, and how they want it, but it also brings with it some challenges. With increasing use of social media, there is potential to change the way travel medicine is delivered; practitioners should consider how to exploit the benefits in their practice, and not be afraid to experiment. However they need to be cognizant of the potential pitfalls. The information exchanged requires careful application as it may not always achieve the desired outcome, it needs to be monitored for quality, accuracy, and reliability, and confidentiality and privacy must be maintained. Most importantly, as social media becomes more sophisticated and widely adopted in the healthcare arena, further evaluation and research is required to understand its impact and its application to travel medicine. PMID:25817428

  20. Beyond the malaise of American medicine.

    PubMed

    Marcus, L J; Dorn, B C

    2001-01-01

    Over the past two decades, physicians have suffered declines in real income, community standing, and of collegiality. Physicians must not view themselves solely as victims of the sweeping changes in current medical care delivery. They have both the opportunity and the duty to reassert their true role as compassionate conveyors of the science and the art of medicine. This article explores the historic trends that have led to our current state. It also explores the exciting possibilities open to doctors to assume a renewed elevated status that both they and their patients yearn for. PMID:11345875

  1. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

  2. Older African Americans' Beliefs about Pain, Biomedicine, and Spiritual Medicine.

    PubMed

    Booker, Staja Q

    2015-01-01

    Persistent (chronic) pain prompts older African Americans (AAs) to utilize a combination of biomedicine (BM) and spiritual medicine (SM)for pain management. Because less is known about how older AAs use these pain management interventions, healthcare providers are unable to provide holistic care and optimal pain management. Using a Christian and Afrocentric perspective, this article reviews older AAs use of BM and SM, offering reconmendations on how to integrate BM and SM for pain management. PMID:26211300

  3. American Medicine's Golden Age: What Happened to It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Defining medicine's golden age as freedom from adverse comment in mass and highbrow media, discusses: (1) the evolution of the medical image; (2) factors responsible for ending the golden age; (3) criticisms related to physicians' sacerdotal, technical, and social roles; and (4) the erosion of physicians' professional status. (SK)

  4. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recommended sports ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships.

    PubMed

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The following sports ultrasound (SPORTS US) curriculum is a revision of the curriculum developed by the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) in 2010. Several changes have been made to the curriculum with the primary aim of providing a pathway by which a sports medicine fellow can obtain sufficient SPORTS US training to become proficient in the core competencies of SPORTS US. The core competencies of SPORTS US are outlined in the learning objectives section of this document. The term "SPORTS US" was purposefully chosen rather than "musculoskeletal ultrasound" (MSK US) because it was recognized by the panel that the evolving field of SPORTS US encompasses non-MSK applications of ultrasound such as the FAST examination (focused assessment with sonography for trauma). Although the SPORTS US core competencies in this curriculum are all MSK in nature, they represent the minimum SPORTS US knowledge a sports medicine fellow should acquire during fellowship. However, additional training in more advanced MSK and non-MSK applications of ultrasound can be provided at the fellowship director's discretion. Completion of this SPORTS US curriculum fulfills the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine's (AIUM) requirements to perform an MSK US examination and the prerequisites for the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography's (ARDMS) MSK sonography certification examination. PMID:25536482

  5. Social Work Practice with Native American Families: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintemute, Ginger, Ed.; Messer, Bonnie, Ed.

    A handbook on social work practice with Native American families, developed for use by students in undergraduate social work programs and by social service practitioners who work with Native American people, is divided into four sections. The first section contains four articles, written by Joseph A. Dudley (Methodist minister and Yankton Sioux)…

  6. Dangers and opportunities for social media in medicine.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2013-09-01

    Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the dangers of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how changes in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine-improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375

  7. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  8. Salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora.

    PubMed

    Min, Gi-Sik; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Siddall, Mark E

    2010-12-01

    A variety of bioactive proteins from medicinal leeches, like species of Hirudo , have been characterized and evaluated for their potential therapeutic biomedical properties. However, there has not previously been a comprehensive attempt to fully characterize the salivary transcriptome of a medicinal leech that would allow a clearer understanding of the suite of polypeptides employed by these sanguivorous annelids and provide insights regarding their evolutionary origins. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library-based analysis of the salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, reveals a complex cocktail of anticoagulants and other bioactive secreted proteins not previously known to exist in a single leech. Transcripts were identified that correspond to each of saratin, bdellin, destabilase, hirudin, decorsin, endoglucoronidase, antistatin, and eglin, as well as to other previously uncharacterized predicted serine protease inhibitors, lectoxin-like c-type lectins, ficolin, disintegrins and histidine-rich proteins. This work provides a lens into the richness of bioactive polypeptides that are associated with sanguivory. In the context of a well-characterized molecular phylogeny of leeches, the results allow for preliminary evaluation of the relative evolutionary origins and historical conservation of leech salivary components. The goal of identifying evolutionarily significant residues associated with biomedically significant phenomena implies continued insights from a broader sampling of blood-feeding leech salivary transcriptomes. PMID:21158638

  9. Nuremberg and Tuskegee: lessons for contemporary American medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Pressel, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of German doctors during the Nazi regime are well known and documented. They include efforts at eugenic sterilization and euthanasia, gruesome medical experimentation, and contributions to genocide. The German medical profession embraced the Nazi ideology of racial superiority. Nazi doctors enthusiastically perverted traditional medical mores of viewing each patient as a full individual towards a misguided sense of protecting the racial well-being of the nation from the perceived threat of certain groups of people. Similarly, some 20th-century American physicians engaged in activities prompted by a misguided sense of patients' worth as individuals. This essay will examine the ethical problems of Nazi medicine and ethical missteps in the United States in the context of challenges for contemporary physicians, particularly the way in which we refer to our patients. PMID:14717481

  10. Confronting Drowsy Driving: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Morgenthaler, Timothy; Chervin, Ronald; Carden, Kelly; Kirsch, Douglas; Kristo, David; Malhotra, Raman; Martin, Jennifer; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene; Weaver, Terri; Wise, Merrill

    2015-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious public health concern which is often difficult for individual drivers to identify. While it is important for drivers to understand the causes of drowsy driving, there is still insufficient scientific knowledge and public education to prevent drowsy driving. As a result, the AASM is calling upon institutions and policy makers to increase public awareness and improve education on the issue, so our society can better recognize and prevent drowsy driving. The AASM has adopted a position statement to educate both healthcare providers and the general public about drowsy driving risks and countermeasures. Citation: Watson NF, Morgenthaler T, Chervin R, Carden K, Kirsch D, Kristo D, Malhotra R, Martin J, Ramar K, Rosen I, Weaver T, Wise M. Confronting drowsy driving: the american academy of sleep medicine perspective. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1335–1336. PMID:26414989

  11. [DGSMP - Interdisciplinarity to Advance Social Medicine and Prevention of Illness].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, T; Mittelstaedt, G v

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) refers back to a tradition of over more than 100 years, nevertheless having a critical look at it. As a scientific medical society the DGSMP promotes cross-sectoral configuration of contemporary social medicine to the benefit of both, general welfare and individual health in form of prevention, rehabilitation, re-integration, palliation and long-term care. Human medicine is the lead discipline in the interdisciplinary approach by the DGSMP in order to create - facing the dynamics in the health care system - professional prerequisites to maintain and update solidarity and equity in medical services on a scientific basis. PMID:26906538

  12. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  13. American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine in 2006: embracing the future.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Mitchell

    2007-04-01

    The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) modified its mission and structure in 1997 to become an organization focused on medical rehabilitation research. Initially, this transformation accelerated an already diminishing membership, a weakened financial condition, and some level of dysfunction within the organizational structure. In recent years, with the advent of evidence-based practice and the expectation that empirical research is critical to the survival of clinical specialties such as rehabilitation medicine, ACRM has become re-energized. New initiatives have been spawned that have led to stabilization and an influx of new members, a measurable improvement in the quality of scientific presentations at, and participation in, the annual meetings, efforts directed toward increasing the visibility and involvement of ACRM on an international level, programming directed toward early career scientists, strong public policy advocacy, and renewed and expanded inter-organizational partnerships. In addition, the financial position of ACRM has improved markedly and prospects toward long-term fiscal health and growth are "the new reality." ACRM has now moved significantly beyond the "survival" step of the Maslow hierarchy toward the goal of self-actualization. PMID:17398238

  14. Social determinants of prescribed and non-prescribed medicine use

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to describe the use of prescribed and non prescribed medicines in a non-institutionalised population older than 15 years of an urban area during the year 2000, in terms of age and gender, social class, employment status and type of Primary Health Care. Methods Cross-sectional study. Information came from the 2000 Barcelona Health Interview Survey. The indicators used were the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in the two weeks prior to the interview. Descriptive analyses, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results More women than men took medicines (75.8% vs. 60% respectively). The prevalence of use of prescribed medicines increased with age while the prevalence of non-prescribed use decreased. These age differences are smaller among those with poor perceived health. In terms of social class, a higher percentage of men with good health in the more advantaged classes took non-prescribed medicines compared with disadvantaged classes (38.7% vs 31.8%). In contrast, among the group with poor health, more people from the more advantaged classes took prescribed medicines, compared with disadvantaged classes (51.4% vs 33.3%). A higher proportion of people who were either retired, unemployed or students, with good health, used prescribed medicines. Conclusion This study shows that beside health needs, there are social determinants affecting medicine consumption in the city of Barcelona. PMID:20441578

  15. Asian American-white American differences in expressions of social anxiety: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sumie; Liu, Joyce F; Longworth, Sandra L; Minn, Janice Y

    2002-08-01

    This study examined whether Asian American-White American differences on a trait measure of social anxiety extend to nonverbal behavior and to reports of anxiety-related emotions during a 3-min social performance task. Forty Asian Americans and 40 White Americans completed a trait measure of social anxiety and rated their emotions before, and immediately after, a social performance task. Their videotaped behavior was coded using microlevel behavioral codes (e.g., gaze avoidance, fidgeting). Results indicated that Asian Americans reported more anxiety than White Americans on the trait measure and on the emotion rating scales but that they did not differ substantially on microlevel behavioral indexes of social anxiety. Implications of ethnic variations in the patterns of anxious responding are discussed. PMID:12143101

  16. The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiodo, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

  17. All Health Is Global Health, All Medicine Is Social Medicine: Integrating the Social Sciences Into the Preclinical Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jennifer; Greene, Jeremy A; Farmer, Paul E; Jones, David S

    2016-05-01

    As physicians work to achieve optimal health outcomes for their patients, they often struggle to address the issues that arise outside the clinic. Social, economic, and political factors influence patients' burden of disease, access to treatment, and health outcomes. This challenge has motivated recent calls for increased attention to the social determinants of health. At the same time, advocates have called for increased attention to global health. Each year, more U.S. medical students participate in global health experiences. Yet, the global health training that is available varies widely. The discipline of social medicine, which attends to the social determinants of disease, social meanings of disease, and social responses to disease, offers a solution to both challenges. The analyses and techniques of social medicine provide an invaluable toolkit for providing health care in the United States and abroad.In 2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new course, required for all first-year students, that teaches social medicine in a way that integrates global health. In this article, the authors argue for the importance of including social medicine and global health in the preclinical curriculum; describe Harvard Medical School's innovative, integrated approach to teaching these disciplines, which can be used at other medical schools; and explore the barriers that educators may face in implementing such a curriculum, including resistance from students. Such a course can equip medical students with the knowledge and tools that they will need to address complex health problems in the United States and abroad. PMID:26703416

  18. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action. PMID:21356076

  19. American Indians Today. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…

  20. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  1. Medicine, morality and health care social media.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Farris K

    2012-01-01

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online. PMID:22856531

  2. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  3. The American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare: History and Grand Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Flynn, Marilyn S.; Fraser, Mark W.; Brekke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualized by social work deans and actualized with the support of major social work organizations, the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare was established in 2009. This article describes the historical context and creation of the Academy, whose objectives include recognizing outstanding social work scholars and practitioners;…

  4. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    PubMed

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship. PMID:25076202

  5. Emotion Socialization and Ethnicity: An Examination of Practices and Outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American Families

    PubMed Central

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of “adaptive” and “maladaptive” emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed. PMID:23766738

  6. Assimilation and Cultural Pluralism in American Social Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, R. Fred

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the philosophies of assimilationist liberalism and cultural pluralism as they emerged between 1900 and 1925 in opposition to social Darwinism and the immigration restriction, eugenics, and Americanization movements. (GC)

  7. The Americanization of School Sports: Historical and Social Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengale, John D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the American system of school athletics from the time of the Puritans to the present day is discussed, and the social ramifications of our contemporary sports culture are considered. (LH)

  8. Horatio Alger in the Newsroom: Social Origins of American Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jack R.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that American newspaper editors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries came from elite social backgrounds, which is contrary to the rags-to-riches image fostered by previous historians. (RB)

  9. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  10. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  11. New Social Learning from Two Spirit Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…

  12. Social Studies; Grade 11: American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus, revised in 1967, presents a thematic approach to history instruction with emphasis on concept development and relevant understandings. Five major topics focus on these areas: (1) American People (Immigration and Reaction to Immigrants, American Culture Patterns, Population, Civil Rights; (2) Government and Politics (Constitutional…

  13. Learning Styles and Lessons from the Medicine Wheel: A Native American Philosophy, a Proposed Integrated Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murk, Peter J.; And Others

    The Medicine Wheel is a Native American legend in which a circle contains countless points each of which represents a different, yet valid, perspective on the nature of reality. According to the Medicine Wheel legend, the north offers the gift of wisdom, the east offers illumination, the south offers innocence, and the west offers introspection.…

  14. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

  15. Reading baby books: medicine, marketing, money and the lives of American infants.

    PubMed

    Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books. PMID:21847846

  16. Social Messages, Social Context, and Sexual Health: Voices of Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…

  17. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  18. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  19. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  20. At what cost? The social impact of American Indian gaming.

    PubMed

    Peacock, T D; Day, P A; Peacock, R B

    1999-01-01

    American Indian gaming has been called the "new buffalo." It has the potential to greatly influence cultural traditions on American Indian reservations. This study looks at the social impact that American Indian gaming is having on one reservation in northern Minnesota. Tribal members share strong feelings, both positive and negative, about the issue. Concerns about gaming include an increase in gambling abuse and addiction; a lack of appropriate child care; and concern that gaming is replacing traditional social activities. Some express concern that American Indian values are being replaced by materialism. Supporters of gaming point out that gaming provides tribal members with an opportunity to learn job skills and have gainful employment. Implications for social policy are given. PMID:10538184

  1. HIV Stigma and Social Support among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E. Maxwell; Banks, Denedria; Bing, Eric G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract HIV-related stigma and discrimination negatively impact African Americans living with HIV. Social support theory hypothesizes that social support can serve to protect individuals against the negative effects of stressors, such as discrimination, by leading them to interpret stressful occasions less negatively. This study sought to examine the relationship between perceived social support and perceived HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 283 HIV-positive African Americans was recruited from three social service agencies. Bivariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine the variables predicting perceived HIV stigma. The study participants were found to have a wide variety of opinions concerning perceived HIV stigma. Of the three different sources of perceived social support examined (from family, friends and a “special person”), only perceived social support from friends was found to be related to perceived HIV stigma when controlling for the presence of other relevant factors. High perceived social support from friends was associated with less perceived HIV stigma. Other factors associated with low perceived HIV stigma included a lack of current symptoms of major depression, a longer time since HIV diagnosis and higher education. Information about the beneficial effects of perceived social support from friends and other factors can help to provide guidance to those working to decrease the negative impact of HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. PMID:18373417

  2. Developing Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning: The American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Moceri, Dominic C.

    2012-01-01

    Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman's work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL's…

  3. Teaching about Social Issues in American History. Four Demonstration Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kownslar, Allan O.

    By focusing on controversial social/political issues in high school American history and social studies courses, classroom teachers can help students develop critical thinking skills. Contemporary issues of a controversial nature are particularly good topics for high school because students are generally familiar with the issues through exposure…

  4. Effects of Social Environment on Japanese and American Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    The social backgrounds of Japanese and Americans differ in ways that impede complete communication. The Japanese people, historically controlled by the forces of nature, have formed groups as the minimum functioning social units. The individual is only part of the group, and individual rights and obligations have not been clearly developed.…

  5. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  6. Are They "American" Enough to Teach Social Studies?: Korean American Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Experiences in American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonjung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores three Korean American social studies teachers' experiences of teaching social studies, focusing on their curricular and pedagogical perceptions and practices. Framed by sociocultural theory, this study aims to shed light on the heterogeneous stories and socially and culturally contextualized teaching experiences of Korean…

  7. Social class and heart disease mortality among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol R; Moore, Latetia; Chen, Fangfei

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine variation in heart disease death rates by the social class of decedents. The term, "social class" refers to a complex set of phenomena such as control over economic resources, social status, and power relative to others in society. The target population for this study was African-American adults aged 35-74 years old who resided in the United States during the years 1996-1997. As a proxy for social class, we examined 5 levels of educational attainment: 0-8 years of school completed (Social Class I), 9-11 years of school completed (Social Class II), high school graduate/12 years of school completed (Social Class III), some college completed (Social Class IV), and college degree completed (Social Class V). Older age, male gender, and lower social class were all independently associated with higher heart disease death rates. For all ages, more disadvantaged social classes had a higher risk of heart disease mortality. The highest relative risks were found for Social Classes I and II among the younger age groups. Many of the "prerequisites" for the "heart healthy lifestyle" are predicated on the benefits of a privileged social class position. For African Americans, there are the additional stressors of segregation, exclusion, and discrimination to overcome, as well as the cumulative physiological toll of lifetime resistance to various forms of racism. For many African Americans in disadvantaged social class positions, the obstacles to reducing the risk for heart disease are very difficult to overcome. PMID:12477160

  8. Doctoring the Genitals: Towards Broadening the Meaning of Social Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination. PMID:26132069

  9. American Indian Languages: Cultural and Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Shirley; Miller, Wick R.

    This book introduces the general reader to the mosaic of American Indian languages and cultures as they exist in time and space, and supplies limited technical linguistic orientation to encourage further exploration of language interrelationships, cultures, and other ways of knowing. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status, diversity, and…

  10. Social network bridging potential and the use of complementary and alternative medicine in later life.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Alyssa W; Cornwell, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) is typically modeled as a function of individual health beliefs, including changes in perceptions of conventional medicine, an orientation toward more holistic care, and increasing patient involvement in health care decision-making. Expanding on research that shows that health-related behavior is shaped by social networks, this paper examines the possibility that CAM usage is partly a function of individuals' social network structure. We argue that people are more likely to adopt CAM when they function as bridges between network members who are otherwise not (or poorly) connected to each other. This circumstance not only provides individuals with access to a wider range of information about treatment options, it also reduces the risk of sanctioning by network members if one deviates from conventional forms of treatment. We test this idea using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study of older Americans. Analyses of egocentric social network data show that older adults with bridging potential in their networks are significantly more likely to engage in a greater number of types of CAM. We close by discussing alternative explanations of these findings and their potential implications for research on CAM usage. PMID:26207353

  11. The Social Involvement of American Widows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Helena Z.

    1970-01-01

    It is concluded that most older men are married, while most older women are widows. Widowhood breaks many societal ties. With nine million in the U.S., widows are a significant social group, with numerous implications. (SD)

  12. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system. PMID:25375148

  13. Social Media in Professional Medicine: New Resident Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the effects of formal social media instruction and policy on young professionals’ ability to navigate case-based scenarios about online behavior in the context of professional medicine. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving the new resident physicians at a large academic medical center. Medical residents from 9 specialties were invited to participate and answer an anonymous questionnaire about social media in clinical medicine. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC), chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used as appropriate, and the correct responses were compared between different groups using the Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance. Results Familiarity with current institutional policy was associated with an average of 2.2 more correct responses (P=.01). Instruction on social media use during medical school was related to correct responses for 2 additional questions (P=.03). On dividing the groups into no policy exposure, single policy exposure, or both exposures, the mean differences were found to be statistically significant (3.5, 7.5, and 9.4, respectively) (P=.03). Conclusions In this study, a number of young physicians demonstrated a casual approach to social media activity in the context of professional medical practice. Several areas of potential educational opportunity and focus were identified: (1) online privacy, (2) maintaining digital professionalism, (3) safeguarding the protected health information of patients, and (4) the impact of

  14. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  15. Racial identity, social context, and race-related social cognition in African Americans during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social interactions (social expectations). Expectations of racial discrimination were assessed using vignettes of cross-race social situations involving an African American child in a social interaction with European Americans. There were 3 major findings. First, expectations for discrimination declined slightly from 3rd to 5th grade. Second, although racial composition of children's classrooms, number of European American friends, gender, and family poverty status were largely unrelated to social expectations, having more African American friends was associated with expecting more discrimination in cross-racial interactions from 3rd to 5th grade. Third, increases in racial centrality were related to increases in discrimination expectations, and increases in public regard were associated with decreases in discrimination expectations. These data suggest that as early as 3rd grade, children are forming attitudes about their racial group that have implications for their cross-race social interactions. PMID:18999320

  16. The short history and tenuous future of medical professionalism: the erosion of medicine's social contract.

    PubMed

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2008-01-01

    The profession of medicine is based on a shared set of tacit and explicit agreements about what patients, doctors, and society at large should be able to expect from each other, a social contract that defines the profession. Historically, the development of this set of agreements depended upon the creation of social organizations that could speak for the entire profession. Over the last several decades, however, the perceived need for these organizations, and especially the umbrella organization for the profession, the American Medical Association, has waned. The reasons for this are complex, but the consequences are significant: an eroding social contract, fragmentation, lack of cohesion and integrity, and loss of the public's confidence. The present social contract is one-dimensional, overly simplistic, and failing to sustain the public's trust. To address these problems, a renewed social contract is necessary. Although this renewed contract should be based on foundations similar to the original, it must directly confront such contemporary challenges as resource allocation and conflicts of interest. Equally as important, to reinvigorate our social contract more physicians will need to come to grips with a basic truth: to sustain professionalism we need a strong, unified professional association. PMID:18997359

  17. American Social Welfare Policy and Social Justice for Appalachia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, John G.

    This paper examines social welfare policy and its impacts on Appalachian children. The discussion is based on a notion that a just society meets basic needs of all its members. Current social policy: (1) does not include a comprehensive family policy; (2) depends on state and local contributions which are limited in rural Appalachia; (3) has…

  18. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  19. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  20. Social Capital: Strengthening Mexican-American Families through Parenting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…

  1. Counterfeit Social Capital and Mexican-American Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    A critical issue facing U.S. schools and one with broad social implication is the persistent disparity in educational achievement between racial/ethnic groups. The achievement gap may be particularly pronounced for Mexican-Americans who constitute the vast majority of U.S. Latinos and are among the most educationally at risk of all Latino…

  2. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  3. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  4. Social Relationships in the Church during Late Life: Assessing Differences between African Americans, Whites, and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans. PMID:21998489

  5. Difficult reputations and the social reality of occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Draper, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This response to Tee Guidotti's (2008) critique of Elaine Draper's 'The Company Doctor: Risk, Responsibility, and Corporate Professionalism' (2003) argues that a forthright examination of the conflicts of those working in the field of occupational medicine is essential to maintaining the health of the profession and to promoting constructive policies. Research for 'The Company Doctor' reveals how doctors walk a tightrope of professional demands on them. The author describes how corporate employment affects medicine and science and how professionals working in corporations are subject to the decisions of company managers and to economic and legal imperatives stemming from their status as corporate employees. Analyzing company doctors' role in confronting toxics and responding to liability fears in corporations, the author argues that problems of lost credibility, stigmatization, and tarnished reputation that company doctors describe largely stem from the organizational constraints, economic interests, and other aspects of the social context of their work. These social forces exert powerful pressure on the ethical framework and daily work lives of these professionals as well as on the reputation of their field. The author discusses ways in which the conflicting demands from being both a corporate employee and a physician are a social and structural problem beyond individual ethics. PMID:18826879

  6. Access to essential medicines: a Hobbesian social contract approach.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states' sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in his Leviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters. PMID:15842722

  7. Twelve tips for teaching social determinants of health in medicine.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Artze-Vega, Isis; Wells, Alan L; Mora, Jorge Camilo; Gillis, Marin

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: There has been a recent movement towards social accountability in medical schools, which includes integrating the social, economic, and cultural determinants of health into the curriculum. Medical schools and their guiding bodies have met this challenge of educating future physicians to provide effective care to diverse populations with varying response and successes. Because these topics have not been systematically taught in most medical school curricula, strategies are needed to teach them alongside clinical sciences. Aim and method: We provide 12 tips on how to teach social determinants of health and cultural competency to undergraduate medical students. These recommendations are based on a review of the literature and our experience in developing and delivering a longitudinal course over the last five years. Conclusion: Medical students must be taught to think critically about the social and cultural issues impacting health, and the intersection with the basic biology and clinical skills. Teaching social determinants of health in medicine requires keeping the material concrete and applicable. Educators must engage students in active learning strategies, reflection, and focus on how to make the material relevant to the clinical care of patients. PMID:25373885

  8. Comparing the Performance of Allopathically and Osteopathically Trained Physicians on the American Board of Family Medicine's Certification Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Thomas R.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Schulte, Bradley M.; Leigh, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Background: Two medical specialty boards offer certification in family medicine: the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians (AOBFP). The AOBFP certification is offered only to graduates of osteopathic colleges; however, graduates of both osteopathic and allopathic medical schools who have…

  9. Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: implications for physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a burgeoning of research and writing on the connections between religion and health. The very best of this work comes from epidemiologic studies of African Americans. This paper summarizes results of these investigations, including findings identifying effects of religious participation on both physical and mental health outcomes. Evidence mostly supports a protective religious effect on morbidity and mortality and on depressive symptoms and overall psychological distress among African Americans. This paper also carefully discusses what the results of these studies mean and do not mean, an important consideration due to frequent misinterpretations of findings on this topic. Because important distinctions between epidemiologic and clinical studies tend to get glossed over, reports of religion-health associations oftentimes draw erroneous conclusions that foster unrealistic expectations about the role of faith and spirituality in health and healing. Finally, implications are discussed for clinical practice, medical education and public health. PMID:15712787

  10. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  11. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers' SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in…

  12. Quantifying Globalization in Social Work Research: A 10-Year Review of American Social Work Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…

  13. Social medicine vs professional dominance: the German experience.

    PubMed Central

    Light, D W; Liebfried, S; Tennstedt, F

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the efforts by German workers' groups and pioneering social physicians to design health care services oriented to prevention and cost-effective treatment. Jews played a key role in developing these prototypes of today's health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs). The growing success of these services threatened private practitioners in a number of ways. They formed a trade union and took militant action. Stage by stage, the profession asserted its dominance, culminating in an alliance with the National Socialists and Hitler to take over these services and to purge them of socialist and Jewish physicians. Medical societies assisted Hitler in his policies of "purification," and the health care delivery systems shifted from being local, patient-centered, and health-oriented to being national, physician-centered, and focused on curing illness. After World War II, these changes were not reversed as part of denazification, and 40 years later, social medicine has yet to recover. PMID:3510052

  14. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Worthen, Paul L; Johnson, Matthew; Graf, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The gut bacteria of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, were characterized. Biochemical tests and DNA sequences indicated that Aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. In this work we identified a new habitat for A. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and Aeromonas species. PMID:17114316

  15. The Use of Traditional and Western Medicine among Korean American Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Miyong; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Kim B.; Duong, Diep N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of traditional and western medicine by Korean American elderly people, noting factors associated with their health-seeking behaviors and health service utilization. Interview data indicate that respondents used a broad spectrum of health resources, both traditional and western. Health insurance status and source of health care…

  16. Assessing the Viability of External Searchable Resources on the American Board of Family Medicine's Certification Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Thomas R.; Peabody, Michael R.; Stelter, Keith L.; Hagen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of our study was to assess the need for an external searchable resource to be used in conjunction with the American Board of Family Medicine's (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians (MC-FP) Examination, discuss the philosophical question of whether an ESR should be allowed on the examination, and outline…

  17. African Americans in Science, Mathematics, Medicine, and Invention, Curriculum Guide. A Multicultural Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    "The Contributions of African Americans to Science, Medicine, and Invention" is a 39-minute videotape developed for elementary and middle school students and staff. The video, the script, and the curriculum guide in this kit provide significant historical information that is not often available. The video uses student actors to stress the economic…

  18. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  19. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  20. Choosing Wisely® in Preventive Medicine: The American College of Preventive Medicine's Top 5 List of Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Catherine J; Freeman, Randall J; Mohammad, Amir; Costales, Victoria C; Titus, Tisha M; Harvey, Bart J; Sherin, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    The Choosing Wisely(®) initiative is a national campaign led by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, focused on quality improvement and advancing a dialogue on avoiding wasteful or unnecessary medical tests, procedures, and treatments. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) Prevention Practice Committee is an active participant in the Choosing Wisely project. The committee created the ACPM Choosing Wisely Task Force to lead the development of ACPM's recommendations with the intention of facilitating wise decisions about the appropriate use of preventive care. After utilizing an iterative process that involved reviewing evidence-based literature, the ACPM Choosing Wisely Task Force developed five recommendations targeted toward overused services within the field of preventive medicine. These include: (1) don't take a multivitamin, vitamin E, or beta carotene to prevent cardiovascular disease or cancer; (2) don't routinely perform prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer; (3) don't use whole-body scans for early tumor detection in asymptomatic patients; (4) don't use expensive medications when an equally effective and lower-cost medication is available; and (5) don't perform screening for cervical cancer in low-risk women aged 65 years or older and in women who have had a total hysterectomy for benign disease. The Task Force also reviewed some of the barriers to implementing these recommendations, taking into account the interplay between system and environmental characteristics, and identified specific strategies necessary for timely utilization of these recommendations. PMID:27155735

  1. Raising the ivory tower: the production of knowledge and distrust of medicine among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, J; Flannery, M A; Clair, J M

    2007-03-01

    African American distrust of medicine has consequences for treatment seeking and healthcare behaviour. Much work has been done to examine acute events (eg, Tuskegee Syphilis Study) that have contributed to this phenomenon and a sophisticated bioethics discipline keeps watch on current practices by medicine. But physicians and clinicians are not the only actors in the medical arena, particularly when it comes to health beliefs and distrust of medicine. The purpose of this paper is to call attention not just to ethical shortcomings of the past, but to the structural contexts of those events and the contributions and responsibilities of popular media and academic disciplines in the production of (often mythic) knowledge. We argue that ignoring context and producing inaccurate work has real impacts on health and healthcare, particularly for African Americans, and thus engenders ethical obligations incumbent on disciplines traditionally recognised as purely academic. PMID:17329393

  2. Rasing the ivory tower: the production of knowledge and distrust of medicine among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, J; Flannery, M A; Clair, J M

    2007-01-01

    African American distrust of medicine has consequences for treatment seeking and healthcare behaviour. Much work has been done to examine acute events (eg, Tuskegee Syphilis Study) that have contributed to this phenomenon and a sophisticated bioethics discipline keeps watch on current practices by medicine. But physicians and clinicians are not the only actors in the medical arena, particularly when it comes to health beliefs and distrust of medicine. The purpose of this paper is to call attention not just to ethical shortcomings of the past, but to the structural contexts of those events and the contributions and responsibilities of popular media and academic disciplines in the production of (often mythic) knowledge. We argue that ignoring context and producing inaccurate work has real impacts on health and healthcare, particularly for African Americans, and thus engenders ethical obligations incumbent on disciplines traditionally recognised as purely academic. PMID:17329393

  3. Mixing It Up: International Graduate Students' Social Interactions with American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice, Andrea G.

    2004-01-01

    The researcher surveyed 497 graduate international students at a research university regarding their social patterns. Previous research indicates that they benefit from interactions with Americans. Students who socialized with Americans the most functioned comfortably in the American culture, socialized with students from other countries, and…

  4. Use of alternative medicine for weight loss among Mexican-American women

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Elder, Charles; Funk, Kristine; DeBar, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for weight loss among Mexican-American women. Design Cross-sectional survey of different CAM modalities, including traditional Mexican medicine therapies. Settings The sample was drawn from women participating in a weight-loss program in Portland, Oregon. Subjects Sample consisted of 31 adult Mexican-American women. Results Most respondents reported using some form of CAM for weight loss, with most reporting using herbs and teas (70%), home remedies (61%) and massage (55%). Conclusions Mexican-American women report using a wide range of CAM therapies for weight loss. Understanding their patterns of use will enhance cultural competence of health care professionals and help address their medical needs. PMID:22773011

  5. Use of alternative medicine for weight loss among Mexican-American women.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Elder, Charles; Funk, Kristine; Debar, Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for weight loss among Mexican-American women. Cross-sectional survey of different CAM modalities, including traditional Mexican medicine therapies. The sample was drawn from women participating in a weight-loss program in Portland, Oregon. Sample consisted of 31 adult Mexican-American women. Most respondents reported using some form of CAM for weight loss, with most reporting using herbs and teas (70 %), home remedies (61 %) and massage (55 %). Mexican-American women report using a wide range of CAM therapies for weight loss. Understanding their patterns of use will enhance cultural competence of health care professionals and help address their medical needs. PMID:22773011

  6. Social media in the emergency medicine residency curriculum: social media responses to the residents' perspective article.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bryan D; Kobner, Scott; Trueger, N Seth; Yiu, Stella; Lin, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant innovations revolving around the featured article and made possible by the immediacy of social media technologies. Six online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and YouTube, which featured 3 preselected questions. Engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools, and themes were identified by content curation. The dialogue resulted in 1,222 unique page views from 325 cities in 32 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 569,403 Twitter impressions, and 120 views of the video interview with the authors. Five major themes we identified in the discussion included curriculum design, pedagogy, and learning theory; digital curation skills of the 21st-century emergency medicine practitioner; engagement challenges; proposed solutions; and best practice examples. The immediacy of social media technologies provides clinicians the unique opportunity to engage a worldwide audience within a relatively short time frame. PMID:25725591

  7. Pathology and the corporate transformation of American medicine.

    PubMed

    Lambird, P A

    1986-04-01

    Corporate medicine is a cultural response to increasing medical costs, a transformation made possible by an oversupply of physicians. The independence of physicians is being curtailed. Nonetheless, corporate needs for medical efficiency, low costs, and good outcomes match the capabilities of pathology and assure that the specialty will have a major corporate role. Pathologists as individuals may face sharply different outcomes. Those pathologists who own laboratories, who are good managers, who a extremely productive, or who are excellent clinicians have good opportunities, as do a few individuals with highly developed technical or subspeciality skills, Eventually, hospital chains are likely to be replaced by physician-owned or -controlled corporations, further strengthening pathology's role. Pathologists in academic and independent laboratory settings are likely to do well. Pathology organizations must take a leadership role in preparing pathologists for what can be a bright future. PMID:3754115

  8. Race-Conscious Professionalism and African American Representation in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-07-01

    African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere. PMID:26760060

  9. Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916

  10. The Cleveland Clinic: a distinctive model of American medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic is a large healthcare system based in Cleveland, Ohio (USA) with an extensive American (throughout Northeast Ohio; Weston, Florida; and Las Vegas, Nevada) and global presence (in Abu Dhabi, UAE; and with training alumni in >70 countries). Cleveland Clinic was founded in 1921 as a distinctive medical model with a tripartite mission of “better care of the sick, investigation of their problems, and more teaching of those who serve” which has been vibrantly maintained. Distinctive aspects of the Clinic include its being a closed staff, salaried, group practice which is physician-led and which features 1-year faculty appointments and a vigorous annual review process for all physicians and leaders. Regarding its tripartite mission, the Clinic has demonstrated longstanding clinical excellence, e.g., with consistent ranking as first in cardiovascular care in U.S. News and World Report and top-10 rankings in at least 12 other specialties. A longstanding tradition of research has contributed landmark discoveries, including performance of the first coronary revascularization procedure, the first intra-coronary angiogram, the world’s third face transplant, ongoing development of a breast cancer vaccine, etc. Regarding education, the Clinic serves many educational audiences excellently through its Education Institute. These audiences include medical students, graduate medical trainees, faculty physicians, nurses, and allied health providers (both within the Cleveland Clinic and from other institutions worldwide), and patients. The Education Institute also includes the Cleveland Clinic Academy, which offers training in leadership competencies to physicians, nurses, and healthcare administrators both within the Cleveland Clinic and to visitors from abroad (through the Executive Visitors Program and the Samson Global Leadership Academy for Healthcare Executives). The latter program is an intensive 2-week residential leadership development course for

  11. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…

  12. [Significance of social medicine in the medical contract office].

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Strebl, H; Weltle, D; Zeller, W; Lehnert, G

    1998-02-01

    In the German statutory social security system, the necessity of long-term care for chronically ill persons with multi-morbidity and reduced performance has made the socio-medical management of illness and its consequences an important characteristic of primary medical activity. In routine practice a discrepancy between the practical demands and social-medical insights has often been observed. With this in mind, the aim of our pilot study was to systematically collect data on the state of the art and attitudes towards the relevant spheres of work in a defined group of physicians and analyse this data. The study was carried out in the form of a voluntary questionnaire within the medical association (Arztlicher Kreisverband-AKV) in the area of Erlangen-Hochstadt. The database was a computer-processible, anonymous questionnaire with which first of all general socio-demographic and activity-related data was collected. The following 10 questions included, in addition to an estimation of the participants' own socio-medical knowledge, questions on the general status of socio-medical knowledge and how the individual gained this knowledge and the importance of socio-medical themes in routine practice. The data was evaluated using descriptive statistics in the form of exploratory data analysis. Of the 320 physicians registered at the time of the investigation (4/96), 89 (31 female doctors, 58 male doctors) sent back a questionnaire that proved useful (returns: approx. 28%). Significant sex-related or specialisation-related differences with regard to participation in the study were not observed. The ratio of female to male doctors and of general practitioners to specialists in the study collective corresponded more or less to the distribution in the total group. The participants had a median age of 41 years (minimum 31, maximum 71) and had been in practice for a median of 11 years (maximum 43 years, minimum 1 year). 36% were general practitioners, 64% specialists. 97

  13. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  14. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy. Ethnicity and Public Policy Series, Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E., Ed.; Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed.

    This book discusses legal and social aspects of public policy in American society and their relationship to fulfilling the promise of social justice for American Indians. U.S. public policy is viewed as reflecting the collective sentiments of the electorate. If the American people have the will to bring about change in the socioeconomic conditions…

  15. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  16. Subjective Social Status and Health Behaviors Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Nguyen, Nga; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations of the US and community subjective social status (SSS) ladders with smoking status, at-risk drinking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and body mass index among 1467 church-going African American adults from a larger cohort study. Methods Regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographics, examined associations between SSS ladders and health behaviors. Results The SSS-US ladder was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (p = .007) and physical activity (p = .005). The SSS-community ladder was not significantly associated with any health behaviors. Conclusions Among this sample of African Americans, the SSS-US ladder is more predictive of some health behaviors than is the SSS-community ladder. PMID:22943107

  17. The Familial Socialization of Culturally Related Values in Mexican American Families.

    PubMed

    Knight, George P; Berkel, Cady; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M

    2011-10-01

    Research has documented a relation between parents' ethnic socialization and youth's ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers' and fathers' Mexican American values and ethnic socialization efforts are linked to their children's ethnic identity and Mexican American values, in a sample of 750 families (including 467 two-parent families) from an ongoing longitudinal study of Mexican American families (Roosa, Liu, Torres, Gonzales, Knight, & Saenz, 2008). Findings indicated that the socialization of Mexican American values was primarily a function of mothers' Mexican American values and ethnic socialization, and that mothers' Mexican American values were longitudinally related to children's Mexican American values. Finally, these associations were consistent across gender and nativity groups. PMID:22021936

  18. A Study of State Social Studies Standards for American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Connor K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…

  19. Social and Individual Predictors of Substance Use for Native American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliher, Renee V.; Evans, Colette M.; Weiser, Desmond

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a primary concern for youth worldwide and increasingly so for Native American youth. Guided by theoretical models of the socialization of substance use in children and adolescents, we conducted a preliminary examination of socialization factors specific to Native American youth. Strong, pro-social bonds with three primary…

  20. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  1. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  2. Social agency versus global determinism in Latin American urban development.

    PubMed

    Batley, R

    1997-11-01

    This paper focuses on liberalization and globalization as contributing factors to the process of urban restructuring in Latin America, and explores five propositions that argue against the determinism of technology and global forces and favor the possibility of influential local action. The five propositions are as follows: 1) the inequalities apparent in Latin American cities are not the inevitable result of globalization; 2) the factors that make a city sustainable economically and environmentally are different for the various sections of its population; 3) the destiny of cities is not determined but subject to the influence of social agents; 4) among the decisive social agents are local politicians and managers; and 5) effective urban policy requires sustained management. PMID:12295233

  3. [Japanese medicines studied by Hepburn, an American missionary, in 1860s].

    PubMed

    Amano, H; Kawabuchi, M; Tanaka, Y; Sugihara, M

    1994-01-01

    In the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate when Japan was opened its door to trade, J.C. Hepburn came to Japan, and he contributed to the modernization of Japan as a missionary, a doctor and an instructor. His great academic achievement was publishing a Japanese-English and English-Japanese dictionary. The dictionary contained words which were generally used in those days. It is said that it was way of living and culture in Japan as seen by an American. Words about medicine show the conditions of the business of medicine in those days. Until 1889 a pharmacist was not professionalized yet, nor was the separation of dispensary from medical practice effective. As most of doctors were Chinese herb doctors, there was not the word "MD." As Chinese doctors were the leading ones, lots of words about herb were mentioned. We can find only a few words about chemicals. The common people used patent medicine such as Daranisuke, Mankintan. Less than 100 years, sorts of medicine in Japan have changed to those of medicine in Western countries. PMID:11613505

  4. Community Violence, Interpartner Conflict, Parenting, and Social Support as Predictors of the Social Competence of African American Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…

  5. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  6. Siblings, Birth Order, and Cooperative-Competitive Social Behavior: A Comparison of Anglo-American and Mexican-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Kagan, Spencer

    1982-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that differences in cooperative-competitive social behavior between Anglo-Americans and Mexican Americans is a result of larger family size among the latter group. Found that, even after controlling for number of siblings and birth order, statistically significant differences in such behavior remained between the two groups.…

  7. Americans with Disabilities Act considerations for the practice of occupational medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Steven; Shults, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), although developed in the context of civil rights legislation, is likely to have notable impact on the practice of occupational medicine. The ADA contains provisions limiting the use of preplacement examinations to determinations of the capability to perform the essential functions of the job and of direct threat to the health and safety of the job applicant and others. The Title 1 employment provisions of the ADA established definitions and requirements similar to those found in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; leading cases that have been litigated under the Rehabilitation Act, as amended, are described. The limitations of available scientific and medical information related to determinations of job capability and direct threat and ramifications of the ADA on the practice of occupational medicine are discussed.

  8. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    PubMed Central

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-01-01

    Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be

  9. A Personalized Medicine Approach for Asian Americans with the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2*2 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Eric R.; Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Small, Bryce A.; Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in heterozygotes. Furthermore, this variant is associated with a higher risk for several diseases affecting many organ systems, including a particularly high incidence relative to the general population of esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant, describe why this variant needs to be considered when selecting drug treatments, and suggest a personalized medicine approach for Asian American carriers of this variant. We also discuss future clinical and translational perspectives regarding ALDH2*2 research. PMID:25292432

  10. Targeting the American Market for Medicines, ca. 1950s–1970s:

    PubMed Central

    Quirke, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    summary The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of “scientific marketing.” PMID:25557515

  11. European American and African American Mothers’ Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children’s Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers’ responses to their children’s negative emotions and teachers’ reports of children’s academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children’s negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children’s current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children’s negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children’s school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children’s competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens. PMID:23914076

  12. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation.

  13. Beliefs About Asthma and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Low-Income Inner-City African-American Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Birck, Kathleen; Hufford, David J; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Weaver, Terri E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gap in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality is increasing in low-income racial/ethnic minority groups as compared with Caucasians. In order to address these disparities, alternative beliefs and behaviors need to be identified. OBJECTIVE To identify causal models of asthma and the context of conventional prescription versus complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in low-income African-American (AA) adults with severe asthma. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six women and 2 men, aged 21 to 48, who self-identified as being AA, low-income, and an inner-city resident. APPROACH Transcripts of semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were inductively analyzed using the constant comparison approach. RESULTS Sixty-four percent of participants held biologically correct causal models of asthma although 100% reported the use of at least 1 CAM for asthma. Biologically based therapies, humoral balance, and prayer were the most popular CAM. While most subjects trusted prescription asthma medicine, there was a preference for integration of CAM with conventional asthma treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine was considered natural, effective, and potentially curative. Sixty-three percent of participants reported nonadherence to conventional therapies in the 2 weeks before the research interview. Neither CAM nor nonmedical causal models altered most individuals (93%) willingness to use prescription medication. Three possibly dangerous CAM were identified. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of patient-generated causal models of asthma and use of CAM in this population. Discussing patients' desire for an integrated approach to asthma management and involving social networks are 2 strategies that may enhance patient-provider partnerships and treatment fidelity. PMID:16995890

  14. Racial and Ethnic Socialization in Later Generations of a Mexican American Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Reyes, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same…

  15. Relationship between Social Class and Racial Prejudice on Home Management Skills among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Catherine Walker

    The relationship of social class and racial prejudice to the home management skills of black Americans was the focus of this study. A questionnaire (a copy of which appears in an appendix) was used to interview a sample of 100 people divided into four subgroups: low social class blacks, low social class whites, middle social class blacks, and…

  16. Perceived Racial Discrimination, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three competing models of the relations among perceived discrimination, social support, and indicators of psychological adjustment in a sample of 135 African American college students. The three competing models, social support buffering, social support mobilization, and social support deterioration, were…

  17. Mexican American Social Workers' Perceptions of Doctoral Education and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijerina, Mary; Deepak, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    An increase in Latinos in the social work academy is critical due to current underrepresentation in social work education programs and rapid Latino population growth in the United States. In this qualitative study, perceptions of Mexican American master's of social work-level practitioners regarding social work doctoral education and academia…

  18. Korean American maternal acceptance-rejection, acculturation, and children's social competence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Han, Geunhye; McCubbin, Marilyn A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection and children's social competence and the role that maternal acculturation (ie, American orientation, Korean orientation) played in this relationship in a sample of 53 Korean American mothers. Self-report data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple hierarchical regressions. Low maternal acceptance-rejection was positively related to children's low social competence. Mothers' American orientation had a moderating effect on the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection and children's social competence. Findings indicate the importance of providing parenting guidelines to mothers who are low on both acceptance-rejection and American orientation. PMID:17413815

  19. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  20. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  1. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  2. English and American Residential Secondary Schools: A Comparative Study of the Reproduction of Social Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Persell, Caroline H.

    1985-01-01

    Elite secondary boarding schools educate and socialize students from socially elite backgrounds in ways that reflect the different characters of English and American society. Observations and interviews in 5 English and 12 American elite schools focused on leadership styles; discipline; curriculum; teaching style; and the structure of…

  3. African American Female Faculty in Predominantly White Graduate Schools of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janice Berry; Clark, Trenette T.; Bryant, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This study of African American female faculty in predominantly White schools of social work was designed to examine the unique experience of these faculties. The examination also aimed to develop a better understanding of the challenges and the experiences of these faculty members. This exploratory study sampled African American female social work…

  4. Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities between Native and Anglo Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…

  5. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  6. Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them. PMID:24162183

  7. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: prevention of cold injuries during exercise.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J; Ducharme, Michel B; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Glickman, Ellen; Sallis, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that exercise can be performed safely in most cold-weather environments without incurring cold-weather injuries. The key to prevention is use of a comprehensive risk management strategy that: a) identifies/assesses the cold hazard; b) identifies/assesses contributing factors for cold-weather injuries; c) develops controls to mitigate cold stress/strain; d) implements controls into formal plans; and e) utilizes administrative oversight to ensure controls are enforced or modified. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that: 1) coaches/athletes/medical personnel know the signs/symptoms and risk factors for hypothermia, frostbite, and non-freezing cold injuries, identify individuals susceptible to cold injuries, and have the latest up-to-date information about current and future weather conditions before conducting training sessions or competitions; 2) cold-weather clothing be chosen based on each individual's requirements and that standardized clothing ensembles not be mandated for entire groups; 3) the wind-chill temperature index be used to estimate the relative risk of frostbite and that heightened surveillance of exercisers be used at wind-chill temperatures below -27 degrees C (-18 degrees F); and 4) individuals with asthma and cardiovascular disease can exercise in cold environments, but should be monitored closely. PMID:17095937

  8. What's in a name? Generics and the persistence of the pharmaceutical brand in American medicine.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores the complex role that brand names have played in the maintenance of therapeutic standards within twentieth-century American medicine. What made a generic drug generic in the second half of the twentieth century--and by extension, what made a nonproprietary drug not proprietary in the first half--was dependent on changing drug branding practices and evolving standards of evidence attached to claims of therapeutic efficacy and safety. This article maps three eras of shifting oppositions between branded and unbranded pharmaceuticals. First, an era of "ethical marketing," extending from before the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 into roughly the 1930s, which pitted nonproprietary or "ethical" pharmaceuticals against proprietary or patent medicines; second, an era of ascendant brand-name prescribing from the 1930s until roughly the 1960s, as manufacturers of innovative and patent-protected "specialty" drugs depicted generic production as a form of counterfeiting; and finally, an era of generic backlash from the 1960s onwards, which assumed the interchangeability of branded and generic drugs. This article uses clinical, popular, policy, and trade literatures to explore the enduring roles of brand-logic in the face of generic competition in the American drug market. PMID:20858701

  9. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  10. A Social Network System Based on an Ontology in the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Kyun; Han, Jeong-Min; Song, Mi-Young

    We in this paper propose a social network based on ontology in Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM). By using the social network, researchers can find collaborators and share research results with others so that studies in Korean Medicine fields can be activated. For this purpose, first, personal profiles, scholarships, careers, licenses, academic activities, research results, and personal connections for all of researchers in KIOM are collected. After relationship and hierarchy among ontology classes and attributes of classes are defined through analyzing the collected information, a social network ontology are constructed using FOAF and OWL. This ontology can be easily interconnected with other social network by FOAF and provide the reasoning based on OWL ontology. In future, we construct the search and reasoning system using the ontology. Moreover, if the social network is activated, we will open it to whole Korean Medicine fields.

  11. Social support among African-American adults with diabetes. Part 1: Theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M. E.; Tilley, B. C.; McDonald, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects African Americans in disproportionate numbers relative to whites. Proper management of this disease is critical because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with poor diabetes management. The role of social support in promoting diabetes management and improved glycemic control among African Americans is a little-explored area. This article, the first in a two-part series, provides a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between social support and glycemic control among African-American adults. PMID:9640907

  12. Ethical, legal and social implications of incorporating personalized medicine into healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kyle B; Rothstein, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    As research focused on personalized medicine has developed over the past decade, bioethics scholars have contemplated the ethical, legal and social implications of this type of research. In the next decade, there will be a need to broaden the focus of this work as personalized medicine moves into clinical settings. We consider two broad issues that will grow in importance and urgency. First, we analyze the consequences of the significant increase in health information that will be brought about by personalized medicine. Second, we raise concerns about the potential of personalized medicine to exacerbate existing disparities in healthcare. PMID:25601880

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in African Americans With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    TAMHANE, ASHUTOSH; McGWIN, GERALD; REDDEN, DAVID T.; HUGHES, LAURA B.; BROWN, ELIZABETH E.; WESTFALL, ANDREW O.; CONN, DOYT L.; JONAS, BETH L.; SMITH, EDWIN A.; BRASINGTON, RICHARD D.; MORELAND, LARRY W.; BRIDGES, S. LOUIS; CALLAHAN, LEIGH F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Racial/ethnic differences with regard to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use have been reported in the US. However, specific details of CAM use by African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are lacking. Methods. Data were collected from African Americans with RA enrolled in a multicenter registry regarding the use of CAM, including food supplements, topical applications, activities, and alternative care providers. Factors associated with CAM use by sex and disease duration were assessed using t-test, Wilcoxon’s rank sum test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the 855 participants, 85% were women and mean age at enrollment was 54 years. Overall, ever using any of the CAM treatments, activities, and providers was 95%, 98%, and 51%, respectively (median of 3 for number of treatments, median of 5 for activities, and median of 1 for providers). Those with longer disease duration (>2 years) were significantly more likely (odds ratio >2.0, P < 0.05) to use raisins soaked in vodka/gin, to take fish oils, or to drink alcoholic beverages for RA treatment than those with early disease. As compared to men, women were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to pray/attend church, write in a journal, and use biofeedback, but were less likely to smoke tobacco or topically apply household oils for treatment of RA. Conclusion. CAM use was highly prevalent in this cohort, even in individuals with early disease. Health care providers need to be aware of CAM use as some treatments may potentially have interactions with conventional medicines. This could be important within this cohort of African Americans, where racial disparities are known to affect access to conventional care. PMID:23983105

  14. Changing health care quality paradigms: the rise of clinical guidelines and quality measures in American medicine.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit

    2012-12-01

    Clinical guidelines and quality measures are important new paradigms for conceptualizing and managing quality in the United States. Researchers have proposed that professional elites-including members of academic medicine-were an important cause of the shift to guidelines and measures. This paper draws on content analysis of abstracts focused on quality in major American medical journals between 1975 and 2009 to empirically assess whether and how paradigms for managing quality changed in academic medicine. The content analysis shows that guidelines- and measures-based approaches to quality increased in prominence. Individual expertise-based approaches to quality, however, remain important. Concurrent with changing paradigms in academic medicine, there was a reorientation of policy toward increased use of guidelines and measures the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United States. This policy reorientation was informed by earlier work by medical researchers proposing new approaches to quality. The policy reorientation was followed by an increase in the prominence of guidelines and measures in medical research. PMID:22920278

  15. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  16. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  17. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  18. Global emergency medicine journal club: social media responses to the January 2014 online emergency medicine journal club on subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa M; Rosenberg, Hans; Lin, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    From January 20 to 24, 2014, Annals continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 Journal of the American Medical Association article "Clinical Decision Rules to Rule Out Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Acute Headache" by Perry et al. This online journal club used the power of rapid Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and more detailed discussions hosted on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. There were more than 1,431 individuals from 501 cities in 59 countries who viewed the blog post. During this 5-day event, 28 comments (average word count 153 words) and 206 tweets were made. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated during this novel, multiplatform approach. PMID:24951414

  19. Assessment of the social accountability of the faculty of medicine at University of Gezira, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elsanousi, S; Elsanousi, M; Khalafallah, O; Habour, A

    2016-04-01

    A socially accountable medical school is one that directs its education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community it serves and verifying its impact on the community. This study aimed to assess the social accountability of the University of Gezira faculty of medicine in Sudan. We reviewed the literature, faculty documents and reports and used both the World Health Organization social accountability grid and the conceptualization-production-usability model as frameworks for analysis. In most of the domains and phases of the social accountability grid, the faculty's educational programme was found to be well-planned and well-implemented, demonstrating an impact on the community and active participation in health-system development in the local area. The University of Gezira faculty of medicine is socially responsible and responsive and is on the way to becoming fully socially accountable in certain aspects. PMID:27432408

  20. Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

    2014-01-01

    African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

  1. Native Americans: We Are Here. Newsweek Social Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Beverly

    This teaching guide contains objectives, activities, vocabulary, suggested readings, visuals, and readings divided into four units of instruction about Native Americans. Unit I examines the history of Native Americans on the North American continent from the precolonial period to the present. Unit II explores representative tribes of the eastern…

  2. Profiles of Racial Socialization among African American Parents: Correlates, Context, and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; Lima, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Self report and observational data on racial socialization practices in a sample of 218 African American parents of young children were used to determine whether or not parents could be characterized in terms of their pattern of racial socialization practices. Parents fell into four groups: silence about race, emphasis on cultural socialization,…

  3. "Our Family Business Was Education": Professional Socialization among Intergenerational African-American Teaching Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingus, Jeannine E.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher socialization is primarily examined as an institutional-based phenomenon, with particular focus on individuals' PK-12 schooling experiences, teacher education programs, or workplace-based socialization. This study situates professional socialization experiences of African-American teachers within teaching families, examining how culturally…

  4. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  5. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  6. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  7. Culturally Distinctive and Academic Socialization: Direct and Interactive Relationships with African American Adolescents' Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shauna M.; Smalls, Ciara

    2010-01-01

    Theories of ethnic minority development have largely suggested that African American parents engage in a combination of practices that include culturally distinctive socialization as well as behaviors that are characteristic of more universal forms of academic socialization. However, few studies have examined how these socialization dimensions…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Domestic American and International Chinese Students' Social Media Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…

  9. The medical ethos and social responsibility in clinical medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    The medical profession will face many challenges in the new millennium. As medicine looks forward to advances in molecular genetics and the prospect of unprecedented understanding of the causes and cures of human disease, clinicians, scientists and bioethicists may benefit from reflection upon the origins of the medical ethos and its relevance to postmodern medicine. Past distortions of the medical ethos, such as Nazism and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, as well as more recent experience with the ethical challenges of employer-based market driven managed care, provide important lessons as medicine contemplates the future. Racial and ethnic disparities in health status and access to care serve as a reminders that the racial doctrines that fostered the horrors of the Holocaust and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study have not been completely removed from contemporary thinking. Inequalities in health status based on race and ethnicity, as well as socioeconomic status, attest to the inescapable reality of racism in America. When viewed against a background of historical distortions and disregard for the traditional tenets of the medical ethos, persistent racial and ethnic disparities and health and the prospect of genetic engineering raise the specter of discrimination because of genotype, a postmodern version of "racist medicine" or of a "new eugenics." There is a need to balance medicine's devotion to the wellbeing of the patient and the primacy of the patient-physician relationship against with the need to meet the health care needs of society. The challenge facing the medical profession in the new millennium is to establish an equilibrium between the responsibility to assure quality health care for the individual patient while affecting societal changes to achieve "health for all." PMID:11405593

  10. Undergraduate education in social and preventive medicine at the University of Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Ross, W F

    1975-01-11

    Since 1967, the academic discipline of social and preventive medicine has been taught to medical students at the University of Rhodesia. The emphasis has been on the basic principles underlying the epidemiology of disease and the medical services required to suit the needs of Rhodesia. In 1970, a course in medicalsociology and in 1972, a course in pschology were introduced, and these courses havesupplemented the teaching of medicine in general and of social and preventive medicine in particular. The course is examined in some detail and evidence is submitted concerning the particular content and methodology used in this course of instruction for undergraduates. Reference is also made to a scheme of attachment to medical practitioners and a period spent during the final undergraduate year in a rural situation as part of the faculty programme of instruction in community medicine. PMID:1114400

  11. 1980 Survey of Faculty Teaching in Departments of Medicinal/Pharmaceutical Chemistry at American Colleges of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin

    1981-01-01

    An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)

  12. A Rare Mullerian Duct Anomaly Not Included in the Classification System by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shereene J.; Badawy, Shawky Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    This is a case report of a 37-year-old female with a uterine septum (two cavities), a normal single fundal contour, two cervices, and a longitudinal vaginal septum. This is a rare finding that is not described in the current classification system by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. PMID:23573434

  13. Communication in the Service of American Health...A Bicentennial Report from the National Library of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Programs of the National Library of Medicine over almost a century and a half are described, ranging from a history of American medical literature and the development of medical indexing to modern technological developments. Activities covered include the development of the Toxicology Information Program and the online data base TOXLINE; the…

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  16. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  17. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  18. Social Work and Evaluation: Why You Might Be Interested in the American Evaluation Association Social Work Topical Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy C.; Kazi, Mansoor A.

    2012-01-01

    With increased pressure on programs to evaluate outcomes, the issue of evaluation in social work has never been so topical. In response to these pressures, there has been a growing interest in evidence-based practice and strategies for the evaluation of social work programs. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is an international…

  19. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  20. Beliefs in traditional Chinese medicine efficacy among Chinese Americans: implications for mental health service utilization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Corsini-Munt, Serena; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2009-03-01

    We examined how community attitudes towards traditional Chinese conceptions of health and Western dichotomization of illness might affect perceptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) efficacy in order to identify factors underlying psychiatric service underutilization among Chinese-Americans. We administered an experimental vignette to assess perceived illness, severity, and beliefs of TCM efficacy for physical and psychiatric disorders among 90 Chinese-Americans ascertained through a national telephone survey. Perceived illness severity was unrelated to assessment of TCM effectiveness. However, psychiatric conditions tended to be viewed as distinct from physical disorders, and TCM use was endorsed as less effective for psychiatric illnesses when compared with physical illnesses. Furthermore, differences in perceived TCM efficacy appeared to be magnified among US-born respondents, with US-born respondents endorsing lower efficacy for psychiatric disorders than foreign-born respondents. These findings suggest that TCM use for psychiatric disorders may decrease with Westernization, but might delay access to psychiatric services among first-generation immigrants. PMID:19282690

  1. Balancing Two Cultures: American Indian/Alaska Native Medical Students' Perceptions of Academic Medicine Careers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas. PMID:26896055

  2. [Emergency medicine interventions for psycho-social crisis].

    PubMed

    Pajonk, Frank-Gerald B; D'Amelio, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Psycho-social crisis intervention has emerged to be a routine treatment application in the pre-hospital emergency medical system in Germany. It is applied to both patients with psychiatric disorders and in psycho-social crises. For the latter, a psycho-physiological reaction is typical that can be treated with the BELLA concept. Psycho-social crisis intervention for the emergency physician must be regarded as psychological first-aid and is characterised by an immediate start, a limited time frame, consideration of security aspects, flexibility and a determination to pre-set goals and their achievements. We recommend to adequately document this complex service. PMID:23929164

  3. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  4. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  5. What Are American Youth Thinking? An Examination of Political and Social Attitudes of American Youth in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    This examination of political and social attitudes of American youth in the 1980's begins with a comparison of the youth of the 1960's with the youth of the 1970's. Results from four major studies are presented and a composite picture of youth in the eighties is presented. Findings show that the personal and professional values of American…

  6. Ethnic Identity in African American and European American Preadolescents: Relation to Self-Worth, Social Goals, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…

  7. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  8. Native Americans' choice of species for medicinal use is dependent on plant family: confirmation with meta-significance analysis.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Daniel E; Estabrook, George F

    2003-07-01

    We test the hypothesis that the choice by traditional people of species of plants for medicinal use does or does not depend on the families to which those species belong. Our geographic context is continental North America north of the Rio Grande River. Our plant context is flowering plants. Our ethnological context is Native American traditions. Our null hypothesis is that the probability of any species being medicinal is the fraction of all species that are medicinal, no matter the family to which that species may belong. Classical statistical techniques and the experience of ethnobiologists had already made it clear that among very large plant families, most have either very many or very few medicinal species. Here we use intense computation to simulate thousands of data sets to create predictions to compare with the observed data for medium and small families. Our results clearly show that a surprising number of medium and small families also have very many or very few medicinal species. Recent molecular, fossil and cytological studies have confirmed the evolutionary naturalness of most plant families. This suggests that species in the same family may have inherited from common ancestors similar ecological adaptations, such as ways to protect themselves from herbivores, pathogens or decomposers. Some of these adaptations affect the physiology of the attacking organisms, suggesting an explanation for the clear preferences of Native American traditions to choose medicinal species from some families much more than from others, regardless of the size of those families. PMID:12787954

  9. Social-Cultural Setting and Educational Backgrounds of Selected American Leaders: 1775-1831. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakosteen, Mehdi

    A survey of the educational background of American leaders in the context of a social-cultural setting is offered in this Volume II monograph which is divided into three major parts. Part one, a brief introduction, gives an overview of American education from 1776-1830 furnishing information on educational theory, practice, and methods in that…

  10. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  11. Individual and Social Factors Related to Urban African American Adolescents' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Owens, Delila; Piliawsky, Monte

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the academic success of urban, African American youth. Participants were 118 African American male and female ninth graders from a large urban high school in the Midwest. A majority of students at the school receive free or reduced lunch. Factors studied were social support from five…

  12. Rethinking Social Studies for a Critical Democracy in American Indian/Alaska Native Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Steven; Lindley, Lorinda

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examines an elementary social studies methods course taught on an American Indian reservation through a state university. Data were collected from American Indian pre-service teachers over four years through taped interviews, classroom observations, and a review of homework and in-class assignments. A Freirean critical pedagogy…

  13. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  14. Social Loafing on an Optimizing Task: Cross-Cultural Differences Among Chinese and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrenya, William K., Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    American and Chinese students (Grades 6 and 9) performed an auditory tracking task that required counting tone patterns alone and in pairs. The Americans tended to work harder individually, while the Chinese performed better in pairs. These findings contradict earlier suggestions that "social loafing" is a transcultural phenomenon. (KH)

  15. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  16. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  17. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  18. A Social Cognitive Examination of East Asian American Career Development: Contextual Factors Influencing Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…

  19. New Social Learning from Two Spirit Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…

  20. Caregiver Mental Health, Neighborhood, and Social Network Influences on Mental Health Needs among African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…

  1. Features of Digital African American Language in a Social Network Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a social network site (SNS) where specific interlocutors communicate by combining aspects of academic American English (AE), digital language (DL), and African American Language (AAL)--creating a digital form of AAL or digital AAL (DAAL). This article describes the features of DAAL in the discursive, online context of MySpace,…

  2. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…

  3. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  4. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  5. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions. PMID:24397599

  6. Social Capital and Smoking Among Asian American Men: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how different dimensions of social capital (i.e., family and friend connections, neighborhood and family cohesion, family conflict) were associated with smoking behavior among a nationally representative sample of Asian American men and whether the associations varied by ethnic group. Methods. The sample consisted of 998 adult Asian American men who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey from 2002 to 2003. We conducted weighted multivariate logistic regressions on data for the sample and for each of 4 ethnic subgroups (Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Other). Results. Vietnamese American men had the highest prevalence of current smoking; Chinese American men, the lowest. After controlling for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and perceived discrimination, neighborhood cohesion was inversely associated with smoking among Asian American men, and family and friend connections and family cohesion were not. An exception was family cohesion, which was associated with increased odds of smoking among Filipino American men. Conclusions. The relationship between social capital and smoking among Asian American men varied according to specific dimensions of social capital and was ethnicity specific. These findings highlight the need for smoking prevention and cessation interventions to take into consideration the heterogeneity that exists among Asian Americans. PMID:22401511

  7. Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE) is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152). Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS). Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051). Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS score. Residents with

  8. Integration of molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science for global precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science. PMID:26636627

  9. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    PubMed

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed. PMID:25300193

  10. Does American Social Work Have a Progressive Tradition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Social work authors in the 1950s claimed progressivism as a unique social work "tradition" and set of values, and this historical interpretation has influenced many versions of social work history since that time. Today, other voices in the profession claim various divergent traditions for social work and note that the progressive tradition has…

  11. Integrating Genomics into Clinical Oncology: Ethical and Social Challenges from Proponents of Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Settersten, Richard A.; Juengst, Eric T.; Fishman, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The use of molecular tools to individualize health care, predict appropriate therapies and prevent adverse health outcomes has gained significant traction in the field of oncology, under the banner of “personalized medicine.” Enthusiasm for personalized medicine in oncology has been fueled by success stories of targeted treatments for a variety of cancers based on their molecular profiles. Though these are clear indications of optimism for personalized medicine, little is known about the ethical and social implications of personalized approaches in clinical oncology. The objective of this study is to assess how a range of stakeholders engaged in promoting, monitoring, and providing personalized medicine understand the challenges of integrating genomic testing and targeted therapies into clinical oncology. The study involved the analysis of in-depth interviews with 117 basic scientists, clinician-researchers, clinicians in private practice, health professional educators, representatives of funding agencies, medical journal editors, entrepreneurs, and insurers whose experiences and perspectives on personalized medicine span a wide variety of institutional and professional settings. Despite considerable enthusiasm for this shift, promoters, monitors and providers of personalized medicine identified four domains which will still provoke heightened ethical and social concerns: (1) informed consent for cancer genomic testing, (2) privacy, confidentiality, and disclosure of genomic test results, (3) access to genomic testing and targeted therapies in oncology, and (4) the costs of scaling up pharmacogenomic testing and targeted cancer therapies. These specific concerns are not unique to oncology, or even genomics. However, those most invested in the success of personalized medicine view oncologists’ responses to these challenges as precedent-setting because oncology is farther along the path of clinical integration of genomic technologies than other fields

  12. Emotion Socialization Practices in Latina and European American Mothers of Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157

  13. Teaching about Arab Americans: What Social Studies Teachers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    External influences in the universal culture have significantly affected the image of Arab Americans and their children. Although Arab Americans are less visible than other minorities, the anti-Arab perception in the media makes them more visible in a negative way. Based on an ethnographic study investigating the experiences of Arabic-speaking…

  14. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  15. Applying Social Cognitive Career Development Theory to Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei

    This paper hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation lead Asian American individuals to have more self-efficacy and interests in non-stereotypical occupations. One hundred eighty-seven Asian American students from various college campuses completed the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identify Acculturation Scale, the Confidence Inventory, and the…

  16. Social Support Structures and African-American Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry-El, Judith A.; And Others

    An issue currently facing the African-American community is the incidence of divorce, which is presently at a higher rate than that of other groups. This study focused on the supportive networks of African-American couples utilizing a network analysis approach to examine the relationship between the networks, and marital satisfaction among the…

  17. Moderating Effects of Perceived Social Benefits on Inhalant Initiation Among American Indian and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swaim, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived social benefits moderated the relationship between social influence variables (school attachment, peer inhalant use, perceived family caring, parental monitoring) and stage of inhalant initiation (Study 1), and lifetime inhalant use (Study 2). Participants were 7th–12th grade students attending schools on or near American Indian reservations with comparisons made between American Indian and White students. A total of 3498 American Indian and 1596 White students were surveyed. Differences in mean levels of social influence variables were found across ethnicity and stage of inhalant initiation and lifetime inhalant use. SEM models were evaluated to examine variable relationships for the two studies. For Study 1, social influence variables did not clearly differentiate early versus later inhalant initiators, and perceived social benefits failed to serve as a moderator. More differences were observed between users and non-users across measures of social influence (Study 2). Perceived social benefits generally did not moderate the relationships with two exceptions. Low perceived social benefits provided greater protection against the influence of peers on lifetime inhalant use among White students, while high perceived social benefits increased risk of peer influence among American Indian students. PMID:26962974

  18. Development and promotion in translational medicine: perspectives from 2012 sino-american symposium on clinical and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical translational medicine (CTM) is an emerging area comprising multidisciplinary research from basic science to medical applications and entails a close collaboration among hospital, academia and industry. Findings This Session focused discussing on new models for project development and promotion in translational medicine. The conference stimulated the scientific and commercial communication of project development between academies and companies, shared the advanced knowledge and expertise of clinical applications, and created the environment for collaborations. Conclusions Although strategic collaborations between corporate and academic institutions have resulted in a state of resurgence in the market, new cooperation models still need time to tell whether they will improve the translational medicine process. PMID:23369198

  19. Medicine 2.0: Social Networking, Collaboration, Participation, Apomediation, and Openness

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In a very significant development for eHealth, a broad adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and approaches coincides with the more recent emergence of Personal Health Application Platforms and Personally Controlled Health Records such as Google Health, Microsoft HealthVault, and Dossia. “Medicine 2.0” applications, services, and tools are defined as Web-based services for health care consumers, caregivers, patients, health professionals, and biomedical researchers, that use Web 2.0 technologies and/or semantic web and virtual reality approaches to enable and facilitate specifically 1) social networking, 2) participation, 3) apomediation, 4) openness, and 5) collaboration, within and between these user groups. The Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) publishes a Medicine 2.0 theme issue and sponsors a conference on “How Social Networking and Web 2.0 changes Health, Health Care, Medicine, and Biomedical Research”, to stimulate and encourage research in these five areas. PMID:18725354

  20. Medicine 2.0: social networking, collaboration, participation, apomediation, and openness.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2008-01-01

    In a very significant development for eHealth, broad adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and approaches coincides with the more recent emergence of Personal Health Application Platforms and Personally Controlled Health Records such as Google Health, Microsoft HealthVault, and Dossia. "Medicine 2.0" applications, services and tools are defined as Web-based services for health care consumers, caregivers, patients, health professionals, and biomedical researchers, that use Web 2.0 technologies and/or semantic web and virtual reality approaches to enable and facilitate specifically 1) social networking, 2) participation, 3) apomediation, 4) openness and 5) collaboration, within and between these user groups. The Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) publishes a Medicine 2.0 theme issue and sponsors a conference on "How Social Networking and Web 2.0 changes Health, Health Care, Medicine and Biomedical Research", to stimulate and encourage research in these five areas. PMID:18725354

  1. Social-Cognitive Predictors of College Student Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; Dorman, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little research has addressed the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among undergraduate students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to: (1) measure the prevalence and type of CAM use among a sample of college undergraduates, and (2) test the significance of select social-cognitive…

  2. Perspectives of South American physicians hosting foreign rotators in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Medicine (EM) is increasingly becoming an international field. The number of fellowships in International EM in the USA is growing along with opportunities to complete international health electives (IHEs) during residency training. The impact on host institutions, however, has not been adequately investigated. The objective of this study is to assess the experience of several South American hospitals hosting foreign EM residents completing IHEs. Methods Anonymous, semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with physicians working in Emergency Departments in three hospitals in Lima, Peru and one hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. All participants reported previously working with EM foreign rotators. Interviews were analyzed qualitatively and coded for common themes. Results Three department chairs, six residents, and 15 attending physicians were interviewed (total = 24). After qualitative analysis of interviews, two broad theme categories emerged: Benefits and Challenges. Most commonly reported benefits were knowledge sharing about emergency medical systems (78%), medical knowledge transfer (58%), and long-term relationship formation (42%). Top challenges included rotator Spanish language proficiency (70%) lack of reciprocity (58%), and level of training and rotation length (25%). Spanish proficiency related directly to how involved rotators became in patient care (e.g., taking a history, participating in rounds) but was not completely prohibitive, as a majority of physicians interviewed felt comfortable speaking in English. Lack of reciprocity refers to the difficulty of sending host physicians abroad as well as failed attempts at building long-lasting relationships with foreign institutions. Lastly, 25% preferred rotators to stay for at least 1 month and rotate in the last year of EM residency. This latter preference increased knowledge transfer from rotator to host. Conclusions Our research identified benefits and challenges

  3. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  4. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  5. [National pharmaceutical policy in Colombia and social security reform: access and rational use of medicines].

    PubMed

    Mejia Restrepo, Samuel; Velez Arango, Alba Lucía; Buritica Arboleda, Olga Clemencia; Arango Mejia, María Cristina; Rio Gomez, Jaime Alberto del

    2002-01-01

    Based on the new social security system in Colombia (1993), which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical policy and evaluated their application, using indicators and a specific disease (diabetes mellitus) as a marker. Although there is a legal framework providing the people's right to access health care services and essential medicines, the country lacks a comprehensive pharmaceuticals policy. Most of the institutions experience problems in distributing the medicines listed under the Mandatory Health Plan, a low percentage of medicines is dispensed at zero cost, and a major portion of patients purchase medicines through associations of diabetics or rely on alternative medicine. The study unveiled several obstacles to equity in health care coverage and access to essential medicines. PMID:12118308

  6. Social identity and arterial blood pressure in the African-American community.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that racism may account in part for health inequalities between African Americans and other ethnic groups in the United States. While there is a strong plausibility to this suggestion, specifying the causal pathways through which enduring patterns of prejudice and discrimination affect pathophysiologic processes has proven difficult. The aim of this paper is to suggest just such a specification of this effect, building on prior work locating this process in social interaction. It is argued that, in mundane social interaction, African-American ethnicity as a status attribute overrides the other social attributes through which individuals structure the social identities that mediate mundane social interaction. Three specific variables that influence social identity are examined: lifestyle incongruity, stressful life events, and identity accumulation. Using data collected in an African-American community in the rural South, it was found that these three variables are related to blood pressure in interaction with socioeconomic status. Additionally, each of the three variables is related to individuals' perceptions of racism in mundane interactions. This pattern of results suggests that the attribution of lower social status to African-American ethnicity within the color-conscious society of the U.S., and the subsequent effect of this attribution on social interaction, in part account for observed health inequalities. PMID:8882846

  7. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  8. Social Capital and Student Learning: Empirical Results from Latin American Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joan B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between social capital and student math and language achievement and the probability of promotion, using data gathered from fourth grade classrooms in public schools in four Latin American cities. The results suggest that social capital among teachers in a school, between teacher and…

  9. Social Cognitive and Cultural Orientation Predictors of Well-Being in Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors…

  10. How Religious, Social, and Cultural Capital Factors Influence Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael

    2010-01-01

    Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…