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Sample records for american sturgeon pioneers

  1. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  2. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  3. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210 Section 223.210 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine...

  4. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210 Section 223.210 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine...

  5. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  6. David Lasser - An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the use of rockets for human spaceflight. His involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he moved on to pursue a distinguished, if turbulent, career in the labor movement. In lieu of an oral history, Mr. Lasser provided his recollections on the pioneering days of rocketry and his thoughts on mankind's destiny in space. This paper provides an overview of Mr. Lasser's life and accomplishments as an American spaceflight visionary, along with a compilation of the information that he graciously provided.

  7. David Lasser: An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the prospects of human spaceflight. Yet his involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he soon moved on to pursue a distinguished career in the cause of workers rights. In lieu of an oral history, the author corresponded with Mr. Lasser on a regular basis in the years before his death in 1996 to gather Mr. Lasser's views on human spaceflight activities as viewed from his unique perspective. This paper will document that correspondence with one of America's original spaceflight pioneers.

  8. Atlantic sturgeons (Acipenser sturio, Acipenser oxyrinchus): American females successful in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedemann, Ralph; Moll, Katja; Paulus, Kirsten B.; Scheer, Michael; Williot, Patrick; Bartel, Ryszard; Gessner, Jörn; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Recent molecular data on the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA have challenged the traditional view that the now extinct Baltic sturgeon population belonged to the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. Instead, there is evidence that American sea sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus historically immigrated into the Baltic Sea. In this study, we test the hypothesis that A. oxyrinchus introgressed into, rather than replaced, the A. sturio population in the Baltic. We established four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear MHC II antigen gene with a species-specific SNP pattern. Using an ancient DNA approach and two independent lines of molecular evidence (sequencing of allele-specific clones, SNaPshot), we detected both A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus alleles in the available museum material of the now extinct Baltic sturgeon population. The hybrid nature of the Baltic population was further confirmed by very high levels of heterozygosity. It had been previously postulated that the immigration of the cold-adapted A. oxyrinchus into the Baltic occurred during the Medieval Little Ice Age, when temperature likely dropped below the degree inducing spawning in A. sturio. Under this scenario, our new findings suggest that the genetic mosaic pattern in the Baltic sturgeon population (oxyrinchus mtDNA, sturio and oxyrinchus MHC alleles) is possibly caused by sex-biased introgression where spawning was largely restricted to immigrating American females, while fertilization was predominantly achieved by abundant local European males. The hybrid nature of the former Baltic sturgeon population should be taken into account in the current reintroduction measures.

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From Vischer Drawing REAR VIEW OF MISSION About 1870 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  10. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone…

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1790 Re- photo: January 1940 (From old drawing by Sukes, showing first church at left, second church being built near center - about 1790) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  12. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  13. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  14. How American dentists helped pioneer oxygenation of general anesthetics worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bause, George S

    2009-01-01

    Dentists Horace Wells and later William Morton introduced the world to general anesthesia with nitrous oxide and ether, respectively. During the latter half of the 1800s, some of their colleagues actually redefined anesthetic gas mixtures as ones including either room air or oxygen as a carrier gas. American dentists pioneered America's first series of bubble-through anesthetic vaporizers as well as early efforts in anesthesia literature and education. By the end of the 19th Century, America's leading dental supplier, S.S. White, was mass-producing an anesthesia apparatus which combined oxygen with nitrous oxide--a template or catalyst for the design of anesthesia machines worldwide. PMID:20222218

  15. A Tribute to Thomas P. Carter (1927-2001): Activist Scholar and Pioneer in Mexican American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a testimony to the late Dr. Thomas P. Carter. Well known for his classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect, Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a…

  16. Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Meteorological Observers in the American West.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.

    2004-09-01

    The technical achievements of Lewis and Clark have been celebrated in fields ranging from cartography to zoology. As America commemorates the bicentennial of their historic journey across the continent, this paper shows that their meteorological data and personal weather-related observations also are worthy of celebration. While the primary goal of the mission, as described by then-President Jefferson to the Congress, was economic and strategic, both Jefferson and cocaptains Lewis and Clark showed an interest in and capacity for scientific understanding of the meteorology of the then-unknown West. The seasonal evolution and variability of temperatures recorded for the first time by Lewis and Clark on the High Plains can now be shown to be quite close to average, thanks to many decades of collection of modern data by the U.S. Cooperative Observer Network stations along their route. While the diets, lives, and experiences of these early explorers and their men were profoundly different from those of modern Americans, the climate that they documented for the first time with care and accuracy remains familiar to us today.

  17. John Jones, M.D.: pioneer, patriot, and founder of American surgery.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, Adam D; Widmann, Warren D; Forde, Kenneth A; Hardy, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    John Jones was a pioneer of American Surgery. Born in Long Island, New York in 1729, he received his medical degree in France from the University of Rheims. He returned to the colonies and helped to establish the medical school that would later become Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons where he was appointed the first Professor of Surgery in the New World. He used his position to assert that surgeons trained in America should be familiar with all facets of medicine and not be mere technicians. Before the outbreak of the American Revolution, he wrote a surgical field manual, which was the first medical text published in America. A believer in the principles of the American Revolution, he would go on to count Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as his patients. Despite achieving many firsts in American medicine, his influence on surgical training is his most enduring legacy. PMID:20012608

  18. Habitat use of juvenile pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon with implications for water-level management in a downstream reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrity, P.C.; Guy, C.S.; Gardner, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    as Fort Peck can influence the amount of habitat available for pallid sturgeon. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Sturgeon study - specimens needed

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, D.E.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study to determine morphological criteria and verify those already suggested in the published literature for identifying the larvae of the Atlantic sturgeon and the endangered short nose sturgeon are presented. (ACR)

  20. Drift dynamics of larval pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in a natural side channel of the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Holte, L.D.; Lott, R.D.; Viste, W.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    The drift dynamics of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (1, 2, 6, and 10 d posthatch [dph]) and pallid sturgeon S. albus (1, 2, 5, 9, 11, and 17 dph) were examined in a natural side channel of the Missouri River to quantify the vertical drift location of larvae in the water column, determine the drift velocity of larvae relative to water velocity, and simulate the cumulative distance (km) drifted by larvae during ontogenetic development. Larvae were released at the side-channel inlet and sampled at points 100, 500, 900, and 1,300 m downstream. Larvae drifted primarily near the riverbed, as 58-79% of recaptured shovelnose sturgeon and 63-89% of recaptured pallid sturgeon were sampled in the lower 0.5 m of the water column. The transition from the drifting to the benthic life stage was initiated at 6 dph (mean length, 15.6 mm) for shovelnose sturgeon and at 11-17 dph (mean length, 18.1-20.3 mm) for pallid sturgeon. Across ages, the drift rates of larval shovelnose sturgeon averaged 0.09-0.16 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity. The drift rates of pallid sturgeon were similar to or slightly slower (0.03-0.07 m/s) than the mean water column velocity for 1-11-dph larvae. Conversely, 17-dph larval pallid sturgeon dispersed downstream at a much slower rate (mean, 0.20 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity) owing to their transition to benthic habitats. Drift simulations indicated that the average larval shovelnose sturgeon may drift from 94 to 250 km and the average larval pallid sturgeon may drift from 245 to 530 km, depending on water velocity. Differences in larval drift dynamics between species provide a possible explanation for differences in recruitment between shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  1. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  2. Distribution of lake sturgeon in New York: 11 years of restoration management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Dittman, D.E.; Carlson, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are native within the Lake Ontario drainage basin and listed as threatened by New York State. In 1995 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) initiated restoration management of lake sturgeon. This management included both protection of extant populations and stocking of uninhabited historic waters with juvenile sturgeon. A list compiled by NYSDEC of observations of lake sturgeon from New York State waters for the period encompassing 1800-2005 was combined with recent observations through 2008 and formatted (Geographic Information System) to allow mapping of sturgeon geographical distribution. Distributions of pre- and post-restoration sturgeon were examined by occurrence and type of observation. Distribution patterns indicated lakes and rivers with current sturgeon presence have increased from five to eight, which was the first-phase goal of the New York Lake Sturgeon Recovery Plan. Lake sturgeon have started to expand into joining water to include the Indian R., Oneida R., Seneca R. and Oswego R. The protected historic populations in the Niagara R., Grasse R., St. Lawrence R., and Lakes Erie and Ontario continue to have low numbers of sturgeon observations. This summary of mapped lake sturgeon distribution information will help in guiding research assessments to waters containing substantial populations. These accessible reaches provide a generous advantage to the released juveniles as they move toward the next goal of restoration, spawning of sturgeon in targeted waters. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  3. A comparative gene index for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Barbara; Mariani, Valentina; Malinverni, Roberto; Caprera, Andrea; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Sturgeons are archaic fishes phylogenetically distinct from Teleosts. They represent an important niche for aquaculture, particularly for the production of caviar and high quality fillets, while many natural populations in various world areas are today threatened by extinction. Knowledge of the sturgeon genome is limited, as it is the case of many other species of interest for fishery, aquaculture and conservation. Sequences from non-normalized libraries of skin and spleen of the American sturgeon (A. transmontanus) produced in our laboratories were analysed via a bioinformatic procedure, and compared to similar resources available for three Teleost species. Data collected during the analyses were stored in a database - the Sturgeon database (db) - that can be queried via a web interface. The Sturgeon db contains a total of 16,404 sequences from Acipenser transmontanus, Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar and Takifugu rubripes, each specie being represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from skin and spleen. Data contained in the database are the results of a number of analyses that mostly focus on sequence annotation and intra- and inter-species comparison. Putative SNP sites, tandem repeats, and sequences matching known protein patterns and motifs were also identified. The Sturgeon db is by now the only online resource dedicated to the analysis of A. transmontanus EST sequences, and represents a starting point for the investigation of the genome of sturgeons from a physiological perspective; it will be used to identify polymorphic markers to study, for example, fish pathologies or to survey fish disease resistance, and to produce gene expression arrays. Introduction of sequences from other species in the analysis pipeline allowed inter-species comparisons of transcripts distribution in Gene Ontology categories, as well as orthologs identification, despite the high sturgeon phylogenetic distance from other fish species. As a result of the EST analysis procedure

  4. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector. PMID:27374904

  5. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  6. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Gulf sturgeon, A. o. desotoi and European sturgeon A. sturio (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae) obtained through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Popović, Danijela; Baca, Mateusz; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of European sturgeon and two subspecies of the North American, Atlantic and Gulf sturgeons were determined using MiSeq Illumina technology. All three genomes show typical vertebrate organization. They possess 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (ribosomal RNA) genes and a non-coding control region. Excluding ND6, all protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand. The whole mitogenome sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KP997216-KP997218. PMID:26017050

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  11. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  12. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  13. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  14. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic sturgeon. 223.211 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... sturgeon listed in § 223.102(c)(29). (b)...

  15. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  16. Pioneer Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Channa Beth

    1987-01-01

    Profiles Herbert A. Sweet, founder and director of Acorn Farms Day Camp (Indiana) for 44 years. Includes reminiscences about the camp's program, staffing, food, World War II, affiliation with the American Camping Association, and camps/directors of today. (NEC)

  17. Thomas Addis, MD (1881-1949): Scottish-American clinical laboratory researcher, social activist and pioneer of renal medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated. PMID:21614781

  18. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  19. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  20. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  1. Otto lowenstein, pioneer pupillographer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H Stanley

    2005-03-01

    Otto Lowenstein, a pioneer in the study of pupil function, began his professional life as an academic neuropsychiatrist at the University of Bonn with an interest in experimental psychology. From his teacher Alexander Westphal, he developed a fascination with the pupil. He invented ingenious recording devices and took motion pictures of the pupils, graphing their movements. Forced to flee Nazi persecution in 1933, he took temporary refuge in Switzerland and eventually sacrificed a flourishing career in Europe to escape to New York. During the next 25 years, he collaborated with Irene Loewenfeld on experiments and publications related to the clinical use of pupillary signs and introduced pupillography to American neuro-ophthalmology. PMID:15756134

  2. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P < 0.03) 6 months postexposure. Fish fed calcein for 15 d (11.26 lm) were more brilliant (P < 0.002) than fish fed for either 5 d (3.02 lm) or 10 d (5.11 lm). Post hoc comparison of the three treatment groups showed that sturgeon fed powdered calcein for 15 d (14.06 lm) were brighter (P < 0.01) than fish fed encapsulated calcein (8.46 lm) or fish immersed in calcein (9.68 lm). In the second study, previouslymarked sturgeon were exposed to sunlight for 14months to determine their retention of calcein marks. Dorsal marks were no longer visible on fish exposed to 100% sunlight after 8 weeks. Most but not all fish exposed to 20% sunlight had no discernable dorsalmarks after 8 weeks, but ventral marks at the pectoral fin girdle were present on all fish in the 0% and 20% sunlight exposure treatments. Feeding calcein for 15 d appears to have excellent potential for practical application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  3. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  4. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  5. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  6. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  7. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  8. Programming for Pioneer 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shem, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Background on Pioneer probes 6 to 11 is given as well as an overview of the Pioneer Venus mission. A computer program was written in C language for analyzing radio signals from the Pioneer Venus orbiter. A second program was written to facilitate high gain antenna commands to move the antenna itself, to set the simulated spin period, and to set the attitude control system angle.

  9. Pioneer Saturn Encounter. [Pioneer 11 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Pioneer Saturn Spacecraft, which began its journey as Pioneer 11, provided the first close view of the rings of Saturn as well as its system of moons. Its payload of 11 operating instruments obtained or confirmed data about the mass, temperature, composition, radiation belts, and atmosphere of the planet and its larger satellite, Titan. It made photometric and polarization measurements of lapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys, as well as discovered additional rings. Scientific highlights of the mission are summarized. Color imagery provided by the photopolarimeter is included along with illustrations of the planet's magnetic field and radiation belts.

  10. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  11. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  12. Healthcare pioneers lead the way.

    PubMed

    Young, J K

    1992-04-01

    Using the Pioneer space program as a metaphor for the spirit of adventure, the vision and the innovation embodied by all Computers in Healthcare Pioneers, CIH names four new Pioneers for 1992. These new Pioneers as well as our 13 current Pioneers will be honored at the Seventh Annual Computers in Healthcare Conference and Exposition May 27 and 28 in San Diego. PMID:10117853

  13. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI, in the Federal Register (77 FR 21890). We did not receive any... final rule was published on October 24, 2005 in the Federal Register (70 FR 61380) to allow for one... published on June 5, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 26954), effective from June 1, 2009 to November...

  14. Modeling white sturgeon movement in a reservoir: The effect of water quality and sturgeon density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, A.B.; Jager, H.I.; Myers, R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a movement model to examine the distribution and survival of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in a reservoir subject to large spatial and temporal variation in dissolved oxygen and temperature. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were simulated by a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho for a typical wet, normal, and dry hydrologic year. We compared current water quality conditions to scenarios with reduced nutrient inputs to the reservoir. White sturgeon habitat quality was modeled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen and, in some cases, suitability for foraging and depth. We assigned a quality index to each cell along the bottom of the reservoir. The model simulated two aspects of daily movement. Advective movement simulated the tendency for animals to move toward areas with high habitat quality, and diffusion simulated density dependent movement away from areas with high sturgeon density in areas with non-lethal habitat conditions. Mortality resulted when sturgeon were unable to leave areas with lethal temperature or dissolved oxygen conditions. Water quality was highest in winter and early spring and lowest in mid to late summer. Limiting nutrient inputs reduced the area of Brownlee Reservoir with lethal conditions for sturgeon and raised the average habitat suitability throughout the reservoir. Without movement, simulated white sturgeon survival ranged between 45 and 89%. Allowing movement raised the predicted survival of sturgeon under all conditions to above 90% as sturgeon avoided areas with low habitat quality. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Movement and habitat use of green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris in the Rogue River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.L.; North, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Weber, J.; Lauck, L.

    2002-01-01

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) movement patterns and habitat use within the Rogue River, Oregon were evaluated using radio telemetry. Nineteen specimens ranging from 154 to 225 cm total length were caught by gill netting and tagged with radio transmitters during May-July 2000. One tagged green sturgeon was verified as a female near spawning condition. Individual green sturgeons spent more than 6 months in fresh water and traveled as far as river kilometer (rkm) 39.5. Green sturgeon preferred specific holding sites within the Rogue River during summer and autumn months. These sites were typically deep (> 5 m) low-gradient reaches or off-channel coves. Home ranges within holding sites were restricted. All tagged individuals emigrated from the system to the sea during the autumn and winter, when water temperatures dropped below 10??C and flows increased. This species is extremely vulnerable to habitat alterations and overfishing because it spawns in only a few North American rivers and individuals reside within extremely small areas for extended periods of time.

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  17. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E., Jr.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  18. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W., Jr.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  19. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  20. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  1. Pioneer III Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

  2. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  3. The New Pioneers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrace, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Digital Principals are pioneers in digital technology and social media in the principalship. In this question and answer session, these principals share their philosophies and practices. Patrick Larkin discusses what else a principal must invest time and resources in for tech…

  4. Pioneer F Plaque Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  5. Pioneer F Plaque Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  6. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  7. TOXIC EFFECTS OF PCB126 AND TCDD ON SHORTNOSE STURGEON AND ATLANTIC STURGEON

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R. Christopher; Davis, Dawn D.; Habeck, Ehren A.; Roy, Nirmal K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:22825886

  8. Toxic effects of PCB126 and TCDD on shortnose sturgeon and Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R Christopher; Davis, Dawn D; Habeck, Ehren A; Roy, Nirmal K; Wirgin, Isaac

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:22825886

  9. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  10. Pioneering through chaos.

    PubMed

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra L; Edmonson, Cole; Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Kowalski, Karren

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 International Nursing Administration Research Conference, "Pioneering Through Chaos: Leadership for a Changing World," was held at the Texas Woman's University in Dallas, Texas, in the fall of 2014. The program drew more than 100 attendees from 4 countries. The conference informed attendees from both academe and practice about the role of nursing administration in navigating the dynamic healthcare climate. This article will report on the insights from the conference presenters. PMID:25689497

  11. Pioneer Venus Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Douglas E.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

  12. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar or caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon or paddlefish...

  13. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  14. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  15. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  16. Chemical composition of blood and bile of the shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Christenson, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of gallbladder bile and blood from shovelnose sturgeons (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) collected from the Chippewa River, Wisconsin, contained concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, inorganic phosphate, and total cholesterol closely comparable with those reported for similar samples from other species of freshwater sturgeons.

  17. Do Sturgeon limit burrowing shrimp populations in Pacific Northwest estuaries?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common seasonal inhabitants of coastal estuaries from California USA to British Columbia, Canada. Both species are anadromous spending significant portions of their lives at sea and in their natal streams, but t...

  18. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  19. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... affecting their continued existence. (3) The potential effects of climate change on each species and its... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  20. James E. Keeler: Pioneer American Astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2002-08-01

    Preface; 1. A raw country boy from Florida; 2. I shall be glad to keep him here for the present; 3. I could not ask for anything better; 4. Steady growth and excellent achievement; 5. A human being first and an astronomer afterwards; 6. The ablest spectroscopist in this country; 7. I have really counted more on you than on all the others together; 8. The best man for the place; 9. An ideal director and investigator; 10. The quality of his voice still rings in my ears; References; Bibliography; Index.

  1. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m{sup 3}/s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m{sup 3}/s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m{sup 3}/s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m{sup 3}/s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m{sup 3}/s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake.

  2. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  3. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Studies, Annual Report FY 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul J.; Siple, John T.

    1993-12-01

    This report evaluates natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River before, during and after the 1993 augmented discharge period. To determine how altering the operation of Libby Dam may improve conditions for natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River, discharge from Libby Dam (with no power peaking or load following) was increased to produce 20 kcfs ([plus minus] 2 kcfs) discharge at Bonners Ferry, Idaho, for a 14 day period June 2--16. Objectives of this research were to determine if white sturgeon spawned in the Kootenai River during 1993; and collect baseline biological data including timing, location, and habitat requirements of white sturgeon spawning in the Kootenai River in order to formulate and implement future flow regimes as effective recovery measures for white sturgeon. While sampling is not expected to collect a majority of white sturgeon eggs or larvae produced in a river, the fact that over 41,000 hours of sampling (combined gear) collected only 3 white sturgeon eggs and no larvae suggests that spawning conditions during 1993 were inadequate to benefit this population.

  4. The interplanetary pioneers. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Space Probe Project is explained to document the events which occurred during the project. The subjects discussed are: (1) origin and history of interplanetary Pioneer program, (2) Pioneer system development and design, (3) Pioneer flight operations, and (4) Pioneer scientific results. Line drawings, circuit diagrams, illustrations, and photographs are included to augment the written material.

  5. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    PubMed

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting. PMID:26929990

  6. [Obtaining sturgeon spawn in accordance with the German Pharmaceuticals Act].

    PubMed

    Bräuer, G; Emmerich, I U

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining sturgeon spawn in aquaculture is carried out with different objectives. Sturgeons are increasingly used for ornamental purposes or to serve as food. Previously, sturgeon roe was obtained primarily by surgical opening of the abdomen or during slaughter. Recently, in aquaculture roe has been increasingly produced by stripping off the eggs. In this new method it is necessary to synchronize spawn production by stimulating the fish through hormone usage. Therefore, the complete egg package can be taken from the fish, which avoids resorption disorders. This article discusses how this method can be evaluated from the perspective of drug law. PMID:24518883

  7. Gender identification of shovelnose sturgeon using ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and the application of the method to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.; Allert, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly sampling of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, a biological surrogate for the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, was conducted to develop a multiseasonal profile of reproductive stages. Data collected included histological characteristics of gonads from wild caught fish and laboratory and field ultrasonic and endoscopic images. These data were used to compare effectiveness of ultrasonic and endoscopic techniques at identifying gender of adult shovelnose sturgeon at different reproductive stages. The least invasive method (i.e. ultrasound) was least effective while the most invasive (i.e. endoscope through an abdominal incision) was the most effective at identifying shovelnose sturgeon gender. In most cases, success rate for identifying males was greater than females, with success at identifying both genders greater in more advanced reproductive stages. Concomitantly, for most months average reproductive stage was more advanced for males than females. April and May were the months with the most advanced reproductive stage, and were the months when ultrasound was most effective. Methods were also applied in the Upper Missouri River to validate their use on pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Ultrasound was successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender, however, endoscopic examination through the urogenital duct was only successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender when the urogenital duct was not opaque. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  9. Modeling the Pioneer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovitz, Jacques

    2007-04-01

    Scientists continue their attempts to model the observed Pioneer anomaly (PA) as an artifact of measurement or of equipment operation. Scientists also explore ``new physics'' as a possible explanation, but they have eliminated dark matter (DM). Here, the main arguments used to eliminate DM are refuted and then the anomaly is modeled by application of Newton laws to the observed macroscopic properties of DM. Around a central mass M, the modeling predicts a DM distribution that produces the PA at short distances (R smaller than 188 AU) from a star like the Sun, and a flat rotation curve at sufficiently large distances from the center of a galaxy. Below about 188 AU from the Sun, the modeling predicts that the anomaly may be expressed as PA = 8.3E-8 [R̂(-2)] -- 1 cm (s)̂(-2). It shows that the anomaly remains fairly constant down to 5 AU, decreases significantly from 5 AU to 1 AU where it becomes zero and changes sign below a distance of 1 AU, then increases rapidly in magnitude as R decreases in that range. Verifiable tests are proposed. Some related topics for future research are proposed.

  10. Pioneers of Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslabar, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students explore the geography, science and technology, and societal issues related to the historic flight of James Banning and Thomas Allen; the first African-American men to fly across the United States in 1932. Provides a lesson plan and a geographic map that traces the flight. (MDH)

  11. Optimal design of artificial reefs for sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbrough, Cody; Cotel, Aline; Kleinheksel, Abby

    2015-11-01

    The Detroit River, part of a busy corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie, was extensively modified to create deep shipping channels, resulting in a loss of spawning habitat for lake sturgeon and other native fish (Caswell et al. 2004, Bennion and Manny 2011). Under the U.S.- Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, there are remediation plans to construct fish spawning reefs to help with historic habitat losses and degraded fish populations, specifically sturgeon. To determine optimal reef design, experimental work has been undertaken. Different sizes and shapes of reefs are tested for a given set of physical conditions, such as flow depth and flow velocity, matching the relevant dimensionless parameters dominating the flow physics. The physical conditions are matched with the natural conditions encountered in the Detroit River. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry and dye studies, flow structures, vorticity and velocity gradients at selected locations have been identified and quantified to allow comparison with field observations and numerical model results. Preliminary results are helping identify the design features to be implemented in the next phase of reef construction. Sponsored by NOAA.

  12. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  13. Pioneer 11's New Saturn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

  14. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  15. Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford ... one who helped us understand.” Read More "Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction" Articles Scientific Research has Revolutionized our ...

  16. Identification and response to metals of metallothionein in two ancient fishes: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Eisner, Bryanna K; Heide, Timon; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve B

    2015-05-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are among the most sensitive species of fishes to Cu, Cd, and Zn, but there is no information about sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). To begin to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) of sensitivity of sturgeons to metals a cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) was amplified from livers of white sturgeon (WS-MT) and lake sturgeon (LS-MT), and expression in response to Cu, Cd, or Zn was characterized in liver explants from each species. The primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 20 cysteine residues, which is the same as MTs of teleost fishes. However, the primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 63 amino acids, which is longer than any MT identified in teleost fishes. Abundance of transcripts of WS-MT in explants exposed to 0.3, 3, 30, or 100 μg/L of Cu was 1.7-, 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.6-fold less than in controls, respectively. In contrast, abundances of transcripts of WS-MT were 3.3- and 2.4-fold greater in explants exposed to 30 μg/L of Cd and 1000 μg/L of Zn, respectively. Abundance of transcripts of LS-MT was not significantly different at any concentration of Cu, Cd, or Zn. MT is hypothesized to represent a critical mechanism for detoxification of metals. Therefore, results of this study suggest that sensitivity of sturgeons to exposure to Cu, Cd, or Zn might be a result of the relatively lesser maximal response of MT to metals. The study also suggestslake sturgeon might be more sensitive than white sturgeon to metals. PMID:25795035

  17. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested. PMID:24567827

  18. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species. PMID:26611005

  19. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  20. Sturgeon conservation genomics: SNP discovery and validation using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R; Gharbi, K; Mugue, N; Martinsohn, J; Senn, H; Davey, J W; Pourkazemi, M; McEwing, R; Eland, C; Vidotto, M; Sergeev, A; Congiu, L

    2013-06-01

    Caviar-producing sturgeons belonging to the genus Acipenser are considered to be one of the most endangered species groups in the world. Continued overfishing in spite of increasing legislation, zero catch quotas and extensive aquaculture production have led to the collapse of wild stocks across Europe and Asia. The evolutionary relationships among Adriatic, Russian, Persian and Siberian sturgeons are complex because of past introgression events and remain poorly understood. Conservation management, traceability and enforcement suffer a lack of appropriate DNA markers for the genetic identification of sturgeon at the species, population and individual level. This study employed RAD sequencing to discover and characterize single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers for use in sturgeon conservation in these four tetraploid species over three biological levels, using a single sequencing lane. Four population meta-samples and eight individual samples from one family were barcoded separately before sequencing. Analysis of 14.4 Gb of paired-end RAD data focused on the identification of SNPs in the paired-end contig, with subsequent in silico and empirical validation of candidate markers. Thousands of putatively informative markers were identified including, for the first time, SNPs that show population-wide differentiation between Russian and Persian sturgeons, representing an important advance in our ability to manage these cryptic species. The results highlight the challenges of genotyping-by-sequencing in polyploid taxa, while establishing the potential genetic resources for developing a new range of caviar traceability and enforcement tools. PMID:23473098

  1. The Origin And Migration Of Primordial Germ Cells In Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Goto, Rie; Adachi, Shinji; Inoue, Kunio; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser) have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT) assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts. PMID:24505272

  2. The Pallid Sturgeon: Scientific Investigations Help Understand Recovery Needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  3. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  4. Biological assessment for the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur 1818, the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muska, C.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is listed as an endangered species in the United States. Prior to 1982, the presence of shortnose sturgeon had not been documented in the middle reaches of the Savannah River. However, shortnose sturgeon larvae were collected in 1982-1983 near the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility, as part of the SRP aquatic ecology program. This biological assessment was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts of present and proposed SRP operations on the shortnose sturgeon. This assessment is based on existing information on the life history and habitat preferences of the shortnose sturgeon, a description of the Savannah River Plant including plant operations which may potentially impact the shortnose sturgeon and consultations with local experts. From this information, it is concluded that the existing and proposed operations (specifically L-Reactor operation) of the Savannah River Plant will not affect the continued existence of the shortnose sturgeon the Savannah River.

  5. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    Flows in the Kootenai River for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning in 1998 were expected to be at a minimum because the snow pack in the basin was only about 79% normal, and local inflow was expected to be very low, <142 m{sup 3}/s (5,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry from late April through early May were at about 425 m{sup 3}/s (15,000 cfs) while water temperature ranged from about 8 to 10 C (45 to 50 F). Spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began on May 18 when flow at the dam was brought up to 765 m{sup 3}/s (27,000 cfs). Unusually frequent rains and several enormous storms brought peak flows at Bonners Ferry to over 1,175 m{sup 3}/s (41,500 cfs) on May 27, temperature ranged between 8 and 10.6 C (45 to 51 F). Flow gradually subsided at Bonners Ferry during June and was steady at 708 to 765 m{sup 3}/s (25,000 to 27,000 cfs) while temperature gradually rose to 14.4 C (58 F). Forty-seven adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,220 hours of angling and setlining effort between March 1 and April 15, 1998 by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Sonic and radio tags were attached to four female and five male sturgeon during this effort. From April 1 through July 31, 1998, a total of 17 fish were monitored specifically for pre-spawn and spawning activities. White sturgeon spawning location, timing, frequency, and habitat were evaluated by sampling for eggs with artificial substrate mats. Four hundred and eighty-four eggs were collected, 393 eggs (81%) were collected on 60 standard mats, and 91 eggs (19%) were collected on seven experimental mats with drift nets. Ten eggs collected with experimental mats were found mixed with sand, suggesting eggs are moving in the lower water column with sand. The middle Shorty's Island reach (rkm 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (173) while the Deep Creek section (rkm 237.6-240.5) produced 112 eggs. No eggs were collected above the Deep Creek section (>rkm 240.5). Four hundred

  6. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  7. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows

    PubMed Central

    Verhille, Christine E.; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento–San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February–May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April–May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October–November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are

  8. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

  9. Pioneer F mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Waller, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The experimental designs for the Pioneer F mission to Jupiter are described. The spacecraft is designed to make measurements of the planet's atmosphere, radiation belts, heat balance, magnetic fields, moons, and other related phenomena. The mission also characterizes the heliosphere, the interstellar gas, cosmic rays, asteroids, and meteoroids between the earth and 2.4 billion kilometers from the sun.

  10. Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wolfgang L.

    2001-03-01

    Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

  11. Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  12. Carl Thoresen: The Evolving Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex H. S.

    2009-01-01

    This interview with Carl E. Thoresen highlights the experiences, relationships, and ideas that have influenced this pioneering psychologist throughout the past half century. His scholarly work, professional service, teaching, and mentorship have motivated many counseling psychologists to radically expand their areas of inquiry. He was among the…

  13. Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

  14. Pioneer venus radar mapper experiment.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, G H; Ford, P G; Brown, W E; Kaula, W M; Keller, C H; Masursky, H; McGill, G E

    1979-02-23

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 1/2500 and may be substantially smaller. PMID:17833006

  15. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  16. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3). (1) Scientific Research and Monitoring Exceptions. The prohibitions of... to ongoing or future Federal, state, or private-sponsored scientific research or monitoring activities if: (i) The scientific research or monitoring activity complies with required state reviews...

  17. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... objectives and justification, a summary of the study design and methodology, estimates of the total non..., or California Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, or Alaska Department of Fish and Game; (iii) The activity benefits...

  18. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  19. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... the Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In ...

  20. The Pioneer Valley Studies Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabeck, Bernard A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Greenfield Community College's Pioneer Valley Studies Summer Institute, which offers elementary and secondary school teachers in-depth exposure to the history, literature, science, art, and architecture of Pioneer Valley, Massachusetts. (DMM)

  1. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment. PMID:22890615

  2. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  3. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  4. Alternative Method of Removing Otoliths from Sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths. PMID:27403646

  5. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  6. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  7. Pioneer Saturn celestial mechanics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Biller, E. D.; Wong, S. K.; Hubbard, W. B.; Macfarlane, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper investigates a continuous round-trip radio link at S band (2.2 GHz) that was maintained during the Pioneer Saturn encounter between stations of the Deep Space Network and the spacecraft. From an analysis of the Doppler shift in the radio carrier frequency, a number of gravitational effects on the trajectory were determined. Gravitational moments for Saturn were found from a preliminary analysis, as well as mass values for the Saturn satellites Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan. It was determined that the densities of all three satellites are low and consistent with the compositions of ices. Theoretical calculations for the Saturn interior are described which use the latest observational data, including Pioneer Saturn and state-of-the-art physics for the internal composition.

  8. Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    Maurice Wilkes is generally known today as the first professor of computers at Cambridge University (Cambridge, U. K. ), director of the Mathematical Laboratory (later Computer Laboratory) there, and designer of the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) computer, the first operational machine to utilize the concept of stored program. His autobiography, Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer, should be of interest to geophysicists for at least several reasons.

  9. Redox Pioneer: Professor Helmut Sies

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Professor Helmut Sies Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2459–2468. The joy of exploring the unknown and finding something novel and noteworthy: what a privilege! —Prof. Helmut Sies PMID:25178739

  10. First record predation on white sturgeon eggs by sympatric fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the occurrence of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in guts of four species of fish from the Columbia River. Three of the species—northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, largescale sucker Catostomus macrocheilus, and prickly sentpin Cottus asper—are native to the river and one, common carp Cvprinus carpio, is exotic.

  11. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigation, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.; Wakkinen, Virginia; Kruse-Malle, Gretchen

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 1.48 billion cubic meters (1.2 MAF, million acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 1 to June 28, 1994. This release of water provided approximately 566 To/s (20 thousand cubic feet per second, kcfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Between February and early April 1994, 15 adult sturgeon (10 females, 5 males) in late vitellogenic stage were captured and fitted with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters. A total of 31 sturgeon were monitored. Ten hatchery reared juvenile white sturgeon equipped with radio and sonic tags were released in pools down river of Kootenai Falls, Montana. All ten sturgeon had moved between 60 and 97 km (37.3 and 60.3 mi) down river of release sites within one month. Movements coincided with major flow peaking associated with hydropower production at Libby Dam, located upriver of the release site

  13. Fertility of a spontaneous hexaploid male Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evolution of sturgeons and paddlefishes (order Acipenseriformes) is inherently connected with polyploidization events which resulted in differentiation of ploidy levels and chromosome numbers of present acipenseriform species. Moreover, allopolyploidization as well as autopolyploidization seems to be an ongoing process in these fishes and individuals with abnormal ploidy levels were occasionally observed within sturgeon populations. Here, we reported occurrence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) male with abnormal ploidy level for this species, accessed its ploidy level and chromosome number and investigate its potential sterility or fertility in comparison with normal individuals of sterlet (A. ruthenus), Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii). Results Acipenser ruthenus possessed 120 chromosomes, exhibiting recent diploidy (2n), A. gueldenstaedtii and A. baerii had ~245 chromosomes representing recent tetraploidy (4n), and A. baerii male with abnormal ploidy level had ~ 368 chromosomes, indicating recent hexaploidy (6n). Genealogy assessed from the mtDNA control region did not reveal genome markers of other sturgeon species and this individual was supposed to originate from spontaneous 1.5 fold increment in number of chromosome sets with respect to the number most frequently found in nature for this species. Following hormone stimulation, the spontaneous hexaploid male produced normal sperm with ability for fertilization. Fertilization of A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii ova from normal 4n level females with sperm of the hexaploid male produced viable, non-malformed pentaploid (5n) progeny with a ploidy level intermediate to those of the parents. Conclusion This study firstly described occurrence of hexaploid individual of A. baerii and confirmed its autopolyploid origin. In addition to that, the first detailed evidence about fertility of spontaneous hexaploid sturgeon was provided. If 1.5 fold increment in

  14. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  15. Physical and hormonal examination of Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon reproductive stage: A reference guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    From May 2001 to June 2002 Wildhaber et al. (2005) conducted monthly sampling of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) to develop methods for determination of sex and the reproductive stage of sturgeons in the field. Shovelnose sturgeon were collected from the Missouri River and ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and blood and gonadal tissue samples were taken. The full set of data was used to develop monthly reproductive stage profiles for S. platorynchus that could be compared to data collected on pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This paper presents a comprehensive reference set of images, sex steroids, and vitellogenin (VTG, an egg protein precursor) data for assessing shovelnose sturgeon sex and reproductive stage. This reference set includes ultrasonic, endoscopic, histologic, and internal images of male and female gonads of shovelnose sturgeon at each reproductive stage along with complementary data on average 17-?? estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, VTG, gonadosomatic index, and polarization index. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  16. Distribution and movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Mangold, M.F.; Skjeveland, J.E.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    During a reward program for Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus), 40 federally endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) were captured and reported by commercial fishers between January 1996 and January 2000 from the Chesapeake Bay. Since this is more than double the number of published records of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay between 1876 and 1995, little information has been available on distributions and movement. We used fishery dependent data collected during the reward program to determine the distribution of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay. Sonically-tagged shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River were tracked to determine if individuals swim through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Shortnose sturgeon were primarily distributed within the upper Chesapeake Bay. The movements of one individual, tagged within the Chesapeake Bay and later relocated in the canal and Delaware River, indicated that individuals traverse the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

  17. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  18. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  19. Effects of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Jeff D.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.; Hansen, Kirk A.; Steuck, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have become an increasingly important commercial species in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) because of the collapse of foreign sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) populations and bans on imported caviar. In response to concerns about the sustainability of the commercial shovelnose sturgeon fishery in the UMR, we undertook this study to describe the demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon population and evaluate the influence of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the UMR. A total of 1,682 shovelnose sturgeon were collected from eight study pools in 2006 and 2007 (Pools 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18). Shovelnose sturgeon from upstream pools generally had greater lengths, weights, and ages than those from downstream pools. Additionally, mortality estimates were lower in upstream pools (Pools 4, 7, 9, and 11) than in downstream pools (Pools 13, 14, 16, and 18). Linear regression suggested that the slower growth of shovelnose sturgeon is a consequence of commercial harvest in the UMR. Modeling of potential management scenarios suggested that a 685-mm minimum length limit is necessary to prevent growth and recruitment overfishing of shovelnose sturgeon in the UMR.

  20. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail. PMID:26873823

  1. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  2. Sir Almroth Wright: pioneer immunologist.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-03-01

    This year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Almroth Edward Wright, whose pioneer work in immunology saved countless lives, especially in the First World War, but whose name and work are all but forgotten today. Wright was born in 1861 in Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, where his father, an Irish protestant and considerable Hebrew scholar, was the minister. Almroth's Swedish mother, the daughter of NW Almroth, governor of the mint in Stockholm, was responsible for his unusual first name. She had the rare distinction of having served as a nurse with Florence Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari in the Crimean War. PMID:21475098

  3. Effects of sediment cover on survival and development of white sturgeon embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, T.J.; Congleton, J.L.; Anders, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus (embryo incubation unit [EIU]) was developed and used to assess the relationship between sediment cover (Kootenai River sediments, 97% by weight in the 0.83-mm- to 1.0-mm-diameter range) and survival of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus embryos in the laboratory. An apparatus-testing trial assessed the effects of two sediment depths (5 and 20 mm), three EIU ventilation hole sizes (4.8, 6.8, and 9.5 mm) providing three levels of intrasediment flow, and EIU location (upstream or downstream in laboratory troughs) on embryo survival at two above-substrate flow velocities (0.05 and 0.15 m/s). A second trial assessed the effects of sediment cover duration (5-mm sediment cover for 4, 7, 9, 11, or 14 d, with a ventilation hole size of 9.5 mm and a flow velocity of 0.17 m/s) on mean embryo survival and larval length and weight. In the apparatus-testing trial, embryo survival was reduced (P < 0.0001) to 0-5% under sediment covers of either 5 or 20 mm in both the higher-flow and lower-flow troughs; survival in control EIUs without sediments exceeded 80%. Survival was not significantly affected by ventilation hole size but was weakly affected by EIU location. In the second trial, embryo survival was negatively correlated (P = 0.001) with increasing duration of sediment cover and was significantly higher for embryos covered for 4 d (50% survival) or 7 d (30% survival) than for those covered for 9, 11, or 14 d (15-20% survival). Sediment cover also delayed hatch timing (P < 0.0001) and decreased mean larval length (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that sediment cover may be an important early life stage mortality factor in rivers where white sturgeon spawn over fine-sediment substrates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  4. Pioneer saturn celestial mechanics experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J D; Null, G W; Biller, E D; Wong, S K; Hubbard, W B; Macfarlane, J J

    1980-01-25

    During the Pioneer Saturn encounter, a continuous round-trip radio link at S band ( approximately 2.2 gigahertz) was maintained between stations of the Deep Space Network and the spacecraft. From an analysis of the Doppler shift in the radio carrier frequency, it was possible to determine a number of gravitational effects on the trajectory. Gravitational moments ( J(2) and J(4)) for Saturn have been determined from preliminary analysis, and preliminary mass values have been determined for the Saturn satellites Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan. For all three satellites the densities are low, consistent with the compositions of ices. The rings have not been detected in the Doppler data, and hence the best preliminary estimate of their total mass is zero with a standard error of 3 x 10(-6) Saturn mass. New theoretical calculations for the Saturn interior are described which use the latest observational data, including Pioneer Saturn, and state-of-the-art physics for the internal composition. Probably liquid H(2)O and possibly NH(3) and CH(4) are primarily confined in Saturn to the vicinity of a core of approximately 15 to 20 Earth masses. There is a slight indication that helium may likewise be fractionated to the central regions. PMID:17833560

  5. Laboratory studies on the vulnerability of young white sturgeon to predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite evidence of annual spawning by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in rivers of the northwestern United States and Canada, in some years and locations little or no recruitment of age-0 white sturgeon has been observed. We examined the vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles to predation to further understand possible causes of mortality. We were particularly interested in the vulnerability of older larvae and juveniles because at about 25 mm total length (TL) white sturgeon develop sharp dorsal and lateral scutes that may act as a morphological defense. In the laboratory, white sturgeon ranging from newly hatched larvae to about 170-mm TL juveniles were exposed to predatory fishes they might encounter in the natural environment. We found that channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (mean TL = 464 mm) and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (mean TL = 472 mm) ate white sturgeon up to mean sizes of 121 and 134 mm TL, respectively. Conversely, similarly sized walleyes Sander vitreus ingested almost no white sturgeon, although juvenile walleyes (mean TL = 184 mm) ate white sturgeon up to 59 mm TL. The smallest predator we tested, prickly sculpins Cottus asper (mean TL = 126 mm), ate white sturgeon up to a mean TL of 50 mm. Our study demonstrated that predation is a likely cause of mortality of age-0 white sturgeon and may be contributing to the year-class failures that have been observed. In addition, the results from this study could be used to reduce the predation risk of artificially propagated white sturgeon released to augment declining populations since fish could be reared to sizes where their vulnerability is low.

  6. Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

  7. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (P<0.001) of C18:2n6 in farm raised eggs (6.5 mg/100g total lipid) than wild eggs (0.6 mg/100g total lipid) while other differences between fatty acids were smaller. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) was higher (P<0.02) in farm-raised (5.56 mg/100g) than wild (4.49 mg/100g). Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3), C18:1 cis 9&10, and C20:4n6 were not different for origin of the eggs. Concentration of selenium was markedly higher (P<0.001) in eggs from wild sturgeon (10.0 mg/kg dry weight) than farm-raised sturgeon (2.7 mg/kg dry weight). Concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium did not differ between farm-raised and wild eggs. Arsenic concentration in wild eggs was 3.3mg/kg dry weight whereas arsenic was not detected in the farm-raised eggs. Fatty acid and mineral compositions of eggs differed significantly between farm-raised and wild sturgeon and these should be investigated further as biological markers for forensic

  8. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  9. Imaging photopolarimeter on pioneer saturn.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, T; Baker, L R; Beshore, E; Blenman, C; Burke, J J; Castillo, N D; Dacosta, B; Degewij, J; Doose, L R; Fountain, J W; Gotobed, J; Kenknight, C E; Kingston, R; McLaughlin, G; McMillan, R; Murphy, R; Smith, P H; Stoll, C P; Strickland, R N; Tomasko, M G; Wijesinghe, M P; Coffeen, D L; Esposito, L

    1980-01-25

    An imaging photopolarimeter aboard Pioneer 11, including a 2.5-centimeter telescope, was used for 2 weeks continuously in August and September 1979 for imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations of Saturn, its rings, and Titan. A new ring of optical depth < 2 x 10(-3) was discovered at 2.33 Saturn radii and is provisionally named the F ring; it is separated from the A ring by the provisionally named Pioneer division. A division between the B and C rings, a gap near the center of the Cassini division, and detail in the A, B, and C rings have been seen; the nomenclature of divisions and gaps is redefined. The width of the Encke gap is 876 +/- 35 kilometers. The intensity profile and colors are given for the light transmitted by the rings. A mean particle size less, similar 15 meters is indicated; this estimate is model-dependent. The D ring was not seen in any viewing geometry and its existence is doubtful. A satellite, 1979 S 1, was found at 2.53 +/- 0.01 Saturn radii; the same object was observed approximately 16 hours later by other experiments on Pioneer 11. The equatorial radius of Saturn is 60,000 +/- 500 kilometers, and the ratio of the polar to the equatorial radius is 0.912 +/- 0.006. A sample of polarimetric data is compared with models of the vertical structure of Saturn's atmosphere. The variation of the polarization from the center of the disk to the limb in blue light at 88 degrees phase indicates that the density of cloud particles decreases as a function of altitude with a scale height about one-fourth that of the gas. The pressure level at which an optical depth of 1 is reached in the clouds depends on the single-scattering polarizing properties of the clouds; a value similar to that found for the Jovian clouds yields an optical depth of 1 at about 750 millibars. PMID:17833555

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  11. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  12. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  13. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  14. A Nuclear DNA Perspective on Delineating Evolutionarily Significant Lineages in Polyploids: The Case of the Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    PubMed Central

    King, Tim L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population. PMID:25166503

  15. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum).

    PubMed

    King, Tim L; Henderson, Anne P; Kynard, Boyd E; Kieffer, Micah C; Peterson, Douglas L; Aunins, Aaron W; Brown, Bonnie L

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an "endangered species threatened with extinction" in the US and "Vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population. PMID:25166503

  16. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Timothy L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population.

  17. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  18. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use...

  19. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use...

  20. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Bergthold, Casey L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2010-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The general Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project strategy is to integrate field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, habitat requirements, and physiology to produce a predictive understanding of sturgeon population dynamics. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery-Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary research tasks engaging multiple disciplines that primarily address spawning as a probable limiting factor in reproduction and survival of the pallid sturgeon. The research is multifaceted and is designed to provide information needed for management decisions impacting habitat restoration, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research activities and progress towards understanding of the species are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2009.

  1. A Conceptual Life-History Model for Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Galat, David L.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Braaten, P. J.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic physical changes to these rivers. These changes have been implicated as causative agents in the decline of pallid sturgeon. The pallid sturgeon, federally listed as endangered, is endemic to the turbid waters of the Missouri River and the Lower Mississippi River. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon historically was more common and widespread than the pallid sturgeon. Habitat alteration, river regulation, pollution, and over-harvest have resulted in the now predictable patterns of decline and localized extirpation of sturgeon across species and geographic areas. Symptomatic of this generalized pattern of decline is poor reproductive success, and low or no recruitment of wild juveniles to the adult population. The purpose of this report is to introduce a conceptual life-history model of the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons. The conceptual model provided here was developed to organize the understanding about the complex life history of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. It was designed to be used for communication, planning, and to provide the structure for a population-forecasting model. These models are intended to be dynamic and responsive to new information and changes in river management, thereby providing scientists, stakeholders, and managers with ways to improve understanding of the effects of management actions on the ecological requirements of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. As new scientific knowledge becomes available, it could be included in the model in many ways at various integration levels.

  2. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for the repackaging country if different from the country of origin. (iii) Lot identification number...) Export quotas. Commercial shipments of sturgeon caviar from stocks shared between different countries may...) Documentation requirements. Unless the sturgeon caviar qualifies as a personal or household effect under §...

  3. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay...

  4. Diel activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in a northwest Florida bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, B.M.; Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we assess patterns in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi over a 24-h period in the Pensacola bay system, Florida. Although seasonal migration of sturgeon is well documented, little information is available pertaining to daily variation in activity. We surgically implanted 58 Gulf sturgeon with acoustic transmitters in the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October 2005. Gulf sturgeon location was monitored using an array of 56 fixed-station acoustic receivers. The relationship between frequency of Gulf sturgeon observations recorded on all acoustic receivers and time of day for all seasons combined indicated a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf sturgeon were frequently detected at night in all seasons with the exception of summer. Consecutive hourly observations indicated lateral movement of Gulf sturgeon between independent acoustic receivers on 15% of all observations of individuals. The use of an acoustic receiver array not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but also provides insight into nocturnal behavior of Gulf sturgeon not previously identified. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  5. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay...

  6. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use...

  7. Captive Breeding Programs Based on Family Groups in Polyploid Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids (“BreedingSturgeons”). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction. PMID:25356794

  8. Characterization and inhibition of nitrite uptake in shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are underway to culture the endangered shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum for possible reintroduction. As part of a larger project to develop culture techniques for this species, the uptake of nitrite was evaluated in fingerlings (16.5 ?? 4.85 g; mean ?? SD). Plasma nitrite concentrations increased significantly with exposure time (0-5 d) and dose (0-4 mg nitrite-N/L). Shortnose sturgeon fingerlings were able to concentrate nitrite in their plasma to more than 63 times the environmental concentration. Chloride, as either sodium chloride or calcium chloride, partially inhibited nitrite uptake. However, calcium chloride was a better inhibitor. After previous exposure (2 d at 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L) plasma nitrite-N decreased from 165.5 to 36.7 mg/L during a 3-d simultaneous exposure to 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L and treatment with 40 mg chloride/L as calcium chloride. The addition of calcium chloride to the water appeared to be an effective means of preventing nitrite uptake and treating nitrite toxicity in hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon fingerlings.

  9. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb; James, Mr Brad; McAdam, Dr Steve

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  10. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  11. The Pioneer Anomaly as a Coulomb Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft can be explained as a Coulomb attraction between the positively-charged Solar System (due to cosmic rays) and the negatively-charged spacecraft (due to alpha-particle emission from the radioisotope thermoelectric generators).

  12. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  13. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  14. A century of influence: Part 1. Orthodontic pioneers.

    PubMed

    Burke, Chris

    2015-05-01

    The story of orthodontics during the first 100 years of Journal publication can be told through the people who lived it. As part of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics' Centennial Celebration, we present 100 people who most influenced the specialty during the last 100 years. Part 1 describes the orthodontic pioneers who were born in the 1800 s. They were broadly educated in the sciences, and most studied orthodontics with Angle, Dewey, or Lischer. They were innovators and inventors, and they laid the foundation of the specialty during the early years of the 20th century. PMID:25925639

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic Bight): Atlantic and shortnosed sturgeons

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the Atlantic sturgeon. During non-spawning periods, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the Atlantic sturgeon. Atlantic sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female Atlantic sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  17. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  18. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  19. Characterization and Expression of Cytochrome P4501A in Atlantic Sturgeon and Shortnose Sturgeon Experimentally Exposed to Coplanar PCB 126 and TCDD

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nirmal K; Walker, Nichole; Chambers, R. Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    The AHR pathway activates transcription of CYP1A and mediates most toxic responses from exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Therefore, expression of CYP1A is predictive of most higher-level toxic responses from these chemicals. To date, no study had developed an assay to quantify CYP1A expression in any sturgeon species. We addressed this deficiency by partially characterizing CYP1A in Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and then used derived sturgeon sequences to develop reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays to quantify CYP1A mRNA expression in TCDD and PCB126 treated early life-stages of both species. Phylogenetic analysis of CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C and CYP3A deduced amino acid sequences from other fishes and sturgeons revealed that our putative Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon CYP1A sequences most closely clustered with previously derived CYP1A sequences. We then used semi-quantitative and real-time RT-PCR to measure CYP1A mRNA levels in newly hatched Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon larvae that were exposed to graded doses of waterborne PCB126 (0.01–1000 parts per billion (ppb)) and TCDD (0.001–10 ppb). We initially observed significant induction of CYP1A mRNA compared to vehicle control at the lowest doses of PCB126 and TCDD used, 0.01 ppb and 0.001 ppb, respectively. Significant induction was observed at all doses of both chemicals although lower expression was seen at the highest doses. We also compared CYP1A expression among tissues of i.p. injected shortnose sturgeon and found significant inducibility in heart, intestine, and liver, but not in blood, gill, or pectoral fin clips. For the first time, our results indicate that young life-stages of sturgeons are sensitive to AHR ligands at environmentally relevant concentrations, however, it is yet to be determined if induction of CYP1A can be used as a biomarker in environmental

  20. Stream interfaces and energetic ions in corotating interaction regions: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    SciTech Connect

    Intriligator, D.S.; Siscoe, G.L. |; Wibberenz, G.; Kunow, H.; Gosling, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic solar wind ions (5-23 MeV) associated with the trailing reverse shock found to be consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers. The observations cover the middle latitude region 20-30 deg.of south heliosphere. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Redox pioneer: professor Barry Halliwell.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Shazib

    2011-05-01

    Professor Barry Halliwell is recognized as a Redox Pioneer because he has published eight articles on redox biology that have been each cited more than 1000 times, and 158 articles that have been each cited more than 100 times. His contributions go back as far as 1976, when he was involved in elucidation of the Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle, an efficient mechanism for preventing oxidative damage to chloroplasts. His subsequent work established the important role of iron and zinc in free radical reactions and their relevance to human pathologies. Professor Halliwell is also a leader in developing novel methodology for detecting free radical intermediates in vivo, and his contributions to our knowledge of reactive nitrogen species are highly significant. His sustained excellence won him the top-cited scientist award in the United Kingdom in biomedical sciences in 1999, and in 2003 he was recognized as a highly cited scientist by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) for work on plant antioxidants, and the same year ranked 28 out of 5494 biochemists/biologists for scientific impact. Two pieces of his scholarly work have been listed as Citation Classics by ISI, and in 2007 his laboratory was ranked number 1 worldwide based on highest citation score in research on free radicals. PMID:20969479

  2. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  3. Secrets of PDA's pioneering dynamism.

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    In 16 years, Thailand's Population and Community Development Association (PDA) went from being gone of the smallest nongovernment organization (NGO) to being the largest, an indication of the success of its innovative development programs. Originally known as the Community-Based Family Planning Services, the organization began 1974 with a staff of 10. Funded entirely through grants from the International Planned Parenthood Federation, its mission was to promote the 1st community-based contraceptive distribution program in Thailand. But now, PDA has a staff of 600 and enjoys the help of 16,000 volunteers across the country. Its more than 50 projects include efforts in family planning, parasite control, sanitation, income-generation, anti-AIDS campaigns, etc. As part of its parasite control project, PDA began promoting water and sanitation improvements. This pioneer program gave PDA invaluable experience in program development. PDA learned of the necessity to take a people-oriented approach to development, involving the local communities in all stages of the project's design and implementation. Furthermore, PDA began encouraging and assisting income-generating activities in the communities, which help fund the parasite control project. While PDA still relies on foreign assistance for 60% of its budget, PDA has launched in Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development, a program to involve Thailand-based companies in rural development by getting them to provide their expertise and technical assistance, this program might serve as a model not only for NGOs in Thailand, but for all other developing countries. PMID:12316321

  4. Redox Pioneer: Professor Irwin Fridovich

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Professor Irwin Fridovich Dr. Irwin Fridovich (Ph.D., 1955) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because as first/last author he has published at least 1 paper on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 papers each cited over 100 times. In collaboration with his graduate student, Joe McCord, Dr. Fridovich discovered the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Subsequently, he and his colleagues demonstrated that the enzyme is ubiquitous among aerobic biota and comprises a critical defense against oxidative stress. With coworkers, Dr. Fridovich identified the first physiological targets of superoxide, the iron–sulfur clusters of dehydratases. They also showed that SOD is just one of several strategies by which cells fend off oxidative stress. It is now clear that organisms are chronically exposed to endogenous superoxide; further, microbes, plants, and mammals all employ superoxide as a weapon to poison their competitors. Thus, the achievement of Fridovich's laboratory was not only the seminal discovery of SOD but also the painstaking work over the subsequent decades that illuminated its place in biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 355–340. When, by chance, you make an observation that cannot be explained in terms of current knowledge, do not hesitate to pursue it even though it may seem esoteric or unimportant. It may well lead you to discoveries of considerable importance. —Professor Irwin Fridovich PMID:20518701

  5. Alice Childress: A Pioneering Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Guillory, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    Interview with Alice Childress (born 1920), an actress, playwright, novelist, editor, and lecturer. Her "Gold through the Forest" (1952) was the first play by a Black woman to be produced professionally on the American stage. Her latest play, "Moms," was produced in New York City in 1987. (BJV)

  6. Ability of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to utilize different carbohydrate sources.

    PubMed

    Hung, S S; Fynn-Aikins, F K; Lutes, P B; Xu, R P

    1989-05-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon were fed isonitrogenous diets containing 27.2% glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, lactose, dextrin, raw corn starch or cellulose for 8 wk. Growth, body composition, plasma chemistry (with the exception of glucose), and liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49), malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, 1.1.1.42) activities of sturgeon were significantly (P less than 0.05) affected by the different dietary carbohydrate sources. Sturgeon fed either the maltose or glucose diets had the highest percent energy retained, followed by those fed either the dextrin, raw corn starch or sucrose diets, whereas those fed either the lactose, fructose or cellulose diets had the lowest. Sturgeon fed either the maltose or glucose diets were hyperlipidemic, having twice the amount of plasma total lipid, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol as fish fed the other carbohydrate sources. These two carbohydrate sources were also more lipogenic: maltose- or glucose-fed sturgeon had significantly higher body lipid and liver G6PDH, malic enzyme, and ICDH activities. The poor ability of sturgeon to utilize either sucrose or lactose appears to be due to low intestinal sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48) and lactase (EC 3.2.1.108) activities. Intestinal aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.11), maltase (EC 3.2.1.20), sucrase and lactase activities of sturgeon were not affected by feeding different carbohydrate sources for 8 wk. PMID:2723821

  7. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  8. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  9. Shovelnose sturgeon spawning in relation to varying discharge treatments in a Missouri River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, B.J.; Guy, C.S.; Camp, S.L.; Gardner, W.M.; Kappenman, K.M.; Webb, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16°C to 19°C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11°C to 23°C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12°C-24°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12°C-24°C) or optimal (16°C-20°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River.

  10. Sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus phylogeny and PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; VanWalleghem, Elissa; Anderson, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    Sturgeon epitheliotropic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can cause a lethal disease of the integumentary system. These viruses have not been assigned to any currently recognized family or genus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using the major capsid protein (MCP) showed that the sturgeon NCLDVs formed a cohesive taxonomic group, could be identified to the species or possibly sub-species level and formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the Megavirales. The genetic relatedness of the sturgeon virus MCP allowed design of 3 PCR diagnostic tests with analytical specificity (ASp) inclusive of this group of viruses. The conventional PCR test, C1, had broader ASp than the 2 quantitative PCR tests, Q1 and Q2, and was inclusive of the sturgeon viruses as well as some viruses belonging to the families Mimi-, Phycodna-, or Iridoviridae. Q2 had broader specificity than Q1 but both tests recognized the sturgeon NCLDVs and did not cross-react with co-localizing sturgeon herpesviruses. Analytical test performance characteristics evaluated for Q1 and Q2 revealed sensitive assays with observed 50% limits of detection between 3 and 6.25 plasmid copies and high intra- and inter-assay repeatability. Q1 was used to test for sturgeon viruses in endangered populations of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens within the Winnipeg River or Nelson River drainage systems of Manitoba, Canada. Test results indicated that namao virus is endemic in the Nelson River water basin. These tests meet the analytical requirements for diagnostic testing in Canada and are useful tools for disease management in sturgeon conservation stocking programs in North America. PMID:26648102

  11. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

  12. Cell fate control by pioneer transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2016-06-01

    Distinct combinations of transcription factors are necessary to elicit cell fate changes in embryonic development. Yet within each group of fate-changing transcription factors, a subset called 'pioneer factors' are dominant in their ability to engage silent, unmarked chromatin and initiate the recruitment of other factors, thereby imparting new function to regulatory DNA sequences. Recent studies have shown that pioneer factors are also crucial for cellular reprogramming and that they are implicated in the marked changes in gene regulatory networks that occur in various cancers. Here, we provide an overview of the contexts in which pioneer factors function, how they can target silent genes, and their limitations at regions of heterochromatin. Understanding how pioneer factors regulate gene expression greatly enhances our understanding of how specific developmental lineages are established as well as how cell fates can be manipulated. PMID:27246709

  13. The Interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 3: Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The operational aspects of the Pioneer program are described. The phases of the program discussed include: prelaunch operations, launch to DSS acquisition, near-earth operations, nominal and extended cruise, and scientific results.

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  15. Age and growth of lake sturgeon in the upper St. Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Dropkin, D.S.; LaPan, S.R.; McKenna, J.E., Jr.; Klindt, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) over time in the upper St. Lawrence River was examined. Growth of lake sturgeon collected during 1993 and 1994 below Robert Moses Dam near Massena, New York, was compared to that reported for the same population almost 25 years earlier. The data suggest that lake sturgeon growth was similar to that reported in the previous study. However, significant differences in the elevations of regression models between males and fish of unknown sex in both data sets suggest possible sexual dimorphism in growth at younger ages.

  16. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, Palmer

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  17. Pioneer to encounter Saturn on September 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The encounter of the Pioneer 11 Spacecraft with Saturn, designed to provide information on the evolution of the Sun and its planets, is described. Photographs and measurements of Saturn, its rings, and several of its 10 satellites, including Titan, to be taken by Pioneer instruments, are emphasized. The encounter sequence and spacecraft trajectory are discussed. A description of Saturn and its atmosphere is included. Onboard instruments and experiments are also described.

  18. Effects of Seismic Air Guns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Carlson, Thomas J; Gross, Jackson A; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David; Powell, Lynwood; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon and paddlefish were placed at different distances from a seismic air gun array to determine the potential effects on mortality and nonauditory body tissues from the sound from a single shot. Fish were held 7 days postexposure and then necropsied. No fish died immediately after sound exposure or over the postexposure period. Statistical analysis of injuries showed no differences between the experimental and control animals in either type or severity of injuries. There was also no difference in injuries between fish exposed closest to the source compared with those exposed furthest from the source. PMID:26611044

  19. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  20. A Bicentennial Review of the Black Contribution to American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ella D. Lewis

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of black people in American history, specific individuals are identified who played major roles in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, exploration and pioneering, and science and technology. (AV)

  1. Upstream migration of two pre-spawning shortnose sturgeon passed upstream of Pinopolis Dam, Cooper River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finney, S.T.; Isely, J.J.; Cooke, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Two shortnose sturgeon were artificially passed above the Pinopolis Lock and Dam into the Santee-Cooper Lakes in order to simulate the use of a fish-passage mechanism. Movement patterns and spawning behavior were studied to determine the potential success of future shortnose sturgeon migrations if and when a fish-migration bypass structure is installed. In addition to movement patterns, water temperature was monitored in areas that shortnose sturgeons utilized. Shortnose sturgeon migrated through a large static system to a known shortnose sturgeon spawning area more than 160 km upstream where water temperatures were consistent with known shortnose sturgeon spawning temperatures. No specific movement patterns in the reservoir system were recorded during downstream migrations.

  2. Noel T. Keen--pioneer leader in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Collmer, Alan; Gold, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Noel T. Keen (1940-2002) made pioneering contributions to molecular plant pathology during a period when the study of disease mechanisms was transformed by the new tools of molecular genetics. His primary contributions involved race-specific elicitors of plant defenses and bacterial pectic enzymes. In collaboration with Brian J. Staskawicz and Frances Jurnak, respectively, Noel cloned the first avirulence gene and determined that pectate lyase C possessed a novel structural motif, known as the parallel beta-helix. Noel received his B.S. and M.S. from Iowa State University in Ames and his Ph.D. from the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1968. He joined the faculty of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Riverside the same year and remained there his entire career. He served as Chair of the department from 1983 to 1989 and in 1997 assumed the William and Sue Johnson Endowed Chair in Molecular Plant Pathology. He became a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1991, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1996, a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 1997, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1997. He was serving as President of the American Phytopathological Society (2001-2002) at the time of his death. PMID:17459000

  3. Proteome analysis of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) ova.

    PubMed

    Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2008-12-01

    The Persian sturgeon ova are a key material both for inevitable artificial propagation and for caviar production. In this study, the proteome profile of Persian sturgeon ova was analyzed using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF in order to determine its protein composition. Out of 192 spots analyzed with MALDI-TOF/TOF, 107 spots corresponding to 73 different proteins were identified. The identified proteins were classified into 11 groups with regard to their main known function involving cell structure (24.65%), translation and transcription (12.32%), metabolism and energy production (12.32%), protein synthesis (9.60%), membrane protein receptors or cell signaling (8.21%), cell defense (5.47%), transport (5.47%), cell division (8.21%), vitellogenin (2.73%), unclassified (6.84%) and unknown function (4.10%). The results of this study provide a valuable resource for molecular analysis of normal and abnormal conditions affecting female reproduction. Moreover, it may help to better understand factors affecting caviar quality during refrigerated storage. PMID:18054827

  4. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon. PMID:20184647

  5. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  6. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  7. Influence of externally attached trasmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: Control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  8. Influence of externally attached transmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  9. Lake sturgeon population attributes and reproductive structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, S. L.; Chipps, Steven R.; Windels, S. K.; Webb, M.A.H.; McLeod, D. T.; Willis, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantified were the age, growth, mortality and reproductive structure of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) collected in the US and Canadian waters of the Namakan Reservoir. The hypotheses were tested that (i) age and growth of lake sturgeon in the Namakan Reservoir would differ by sex and reproductive stage of maturity, and (ii) that the relative strength of year-classes of lake sturgeon in the reservoir would be affected by environmental variables. To quantify age, growth and mortality of the population, existing data was used from a multi-agency database containing information on all lake sturgeon sampled in the reservoir from 2004 to 2009. Lake sturgeon were sampled in the Minnesota and Ontario waters of the Namakan Reservoir using multi-filament gillnets 1.8 m high and 30–100 m long and varying in mesh size from 178 to 356 mm stretch. Reproductive structure of the lake sturgeon was assessed only during spring 2008 and 2009 using plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. Ages of lake sturgeon >75 cm ranged from 9 to 86 years (n = 533, mean = 36 years). A catch-curve analysis using the 1981–1953 year classes estimated total annual mortality of adults to be 4.8% and annual survival as 95.2%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was found that total annual precipitation was positively associated with lake sturgeon year-class strength in the Namakan Reservoir. A 10 cm increase in total annual precipitation was associated with at least a 39% increase in the odds of occurrence of a strong year class of lake sturgeon in the reservoir. Plasma steroid analysis revealed a sex ratio of 2.4 females: 1 male and, on average, 10% of female and 30% of male lake sturgeon were reproductively mature each year (i.e. potential spawners). Moreover, there was evidence based on re-captured male fish of both periodic and annual spawning, as well as the ability of males to rapidly undergo gonadal maturation prior to spawning. Knowledge of lake sturgeon

  10. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2015-11-01

    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain. PMID:26553379

  11. First record of a Polypodium sp. parasitizing eggs of shovelnose sturgeon from the Wabash River, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Stefanavage, Tom; Goforth, Reuben

    2010-03-01

    This article reports the presence of an endocellular parasite, Polypodium sp., in the eggs of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus from the Wabash River, Indiana. The parasite was detected in 18% (2/11) of adult female sturgeon necropsied in April 2008. This constitutes the first record of this parasite in this host and in Indiana. The implications for the quality of the caviar remain unknown at this time. PMID:20575363

  12. Green Sturgeon Distribution in the Pacific Ocean Estimated from Modeled Oceanographic Features and Migration Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huff, David D.; Lindley, Steven T.; Wells, Brian K.; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41–51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36–37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information. PMID:23029274

  13. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001) and linearly (r2 = 0.12, P = 0.0006) for larval Ephemeroptera, but the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.0001). These results provide the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  14. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  15. Movements of White Sturgeon in Lake Roosevelt : Final Report 1988-1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, Ann L.

    1992-06-01

    Historically, white sturgeon moved throughout the Columbia River system, ranging freely from the estuary to the headwaters, with the possible exception of limited passage at Cascades, Celilo and Kettle Falls during spring floods. Construction of Rock Island Dam in 1933, followed by Bonneville in 1938 and Grand Coulee in 1941, completely disrupted sturgeon migratory opportunity, and with the 17 successive Columbia and Snake river dams constructed over the next 32 years an entirely different river system was created for the species. Sturgeon caught between dams were essentially isolated populations with severely limited reproduction potential. Some reservoirs ran from dam to dam with no river habitat remaining, while other reaches had various lengths of free running river, but drastically reduced from historical situations. However, if reservoirs provide habitat for sturgeon use, and therefore compensate to some degree for river loss, the major limiting factors associated with population viability may be reduced spawning success, either from lack of suitable area or poor incubation environments. The most upstream impoundment of the Columbia River in the United States is Lake Roosevelt, behind Grand Coulee Dam. If sturgeon don`t use Lake Roosevelt the capacity of the system to sustain a large sturgeon population would be understandably limited, and much reduced from the pre-dam era. In general this study found that sturgeon spawner aggregations from early spring to mid- summer depend most heavily on the timing of increasing water temperature. In the spring the water temperatures seem to stimulate the fish to start feeding and leave deep pools. The summer provides access to broader and shallower areas for food. The study on sturgeon movement was an attempt to define habitat use in such a reservoir/river system.

  16. Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

  17. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16-140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001) and linearly (r2 = 0.12, P = 0.0006) for larval Ephemeroptera, but the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.0001). These results provide the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  18. Documentation of a Gulf sturgeon spawning site on the Yellow River, Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiser, Brian R.; Berg, J.; Randall, M.; Parauka, F.; Floyd, S.; Young, B.; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Parauka and Giorgianni (2002) reported that potential Gulf sturgeon spawning habitat is present in the Yellow River; however, efforts to document spawning by the collection of eggs or larvae have been unsuccessful in the past. Herein, we report on the first successful collection of eggs from a potential spawning site on the Yellow River and the verification of their identity as Gulf sturgeon by using molecular methods.

  19. Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade.

    PubMed

    Boscari, E; Barmintseva, A; Pujolar, J M; Doukakis, P; Mugue, N; Congiu, L

    2014-05-01

    Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America. Our test is based on the discovery of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ribosomal protein S7, supplemented with the Vimentin gene and the mitochondrial D-loop. Test validations performed in 702 specimens of target and nontarget sturgeon species demonstrated a 100% identification success for Acipenser naccarii, A. fulvescens, A. stellatus, A. sinensis and A. transmontanus. In addition to species identification, our approach allows the identification of Bester and AL hybrids, two of the most economically important hybrids in the world, with 80% and 100% success, respectively. Moreover, the approach has the potential to identify many other existing sturgeon hybrids. The development of a standardized sturgeon identification tool will directly benefit trade law enforcement, providing the tools to monitor and regulate the legal trade of caviar and protect sturgeon stocks from illicit producers and traders, hence contributing to safeguarding this group of heavily threatened species. PMID:24219811

  20. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1991-10-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 332 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989 and 1990. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 880 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 638 to 1,211. Culture of one pair of sturgeon in 1990 was of limited success. Less than 5% of eggs hatched with 50% initial mortality of fry. The contribution of contaminants found in eggs (aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and organochlorides) toward this poor survival is unknown. Handling problems with the eggs at the time of spawning complicated our results. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements. Sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia-Idaho border and seek out deep holes or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall. Seasonal differences in use of depth and velocity parameters were found between sexes and among seasons. No relationships were found between sturgeon movement and month, water temperature, flow, and flow change. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that up to 30% of the variance in individual sturgeon movement was explained by the combination of the four variables.

  1. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  2. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  3. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River: annual report 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Annis, Mandy L.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Fuller, D. B.; Haas, Justin D.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; McElroy, Brandon J.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2011 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult sturgeon, and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and including downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2011.

  4. Capture locations and growth rates of Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Eyler, S.M.; Mangold, M.F.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little information exists on temporal and spatial distributions of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus in the Chesapeake Bay. Approximately 3,300 hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon comprised of two size groups were released into the Nanticoke River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, on 8 July 1996. During January 1996-May 2000, 1099 Atlantic sturgeon were captured incidentally (i.e., bycatch) by commercial watermen in the Chesapeake Bay, including 420 hatchery-reared individuals. Wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon were captured primarily in pound nets and gill nets. Biologists tagged each fish and recorded weight, length, and location of capture. Although two adults greater than 2000 mm fork length (FL) were captured in Maryland waters, wild sturgeon were primarily juveniles from Maryland and Virginia waters (415 and 259 individuals below 1000 mm FL, respectively). A growth rate of 0.565 mm/d (N = 15, SE = 0.081) was estimated for wild individuals (487-944 mm TL at release) at liberty from 30 to 622 d. The average growth of the group of hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon raised at 10??C exceeded that of the group raised at 17??C. Our distributional data based on capture locations are biased by fishery dependence and gear selectivity. These data are informative to managers, however, because commercial effort is widely distributed in the Chesapeake Bay, and little distributional data were available before this study.

  5. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  6. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Age, growth, mortality, and abundance of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An increased understanding of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) population dynamics is a key requirement for successful management efforts. Little is known regarding the Grasse River population of lake sturgeon except that it is one of a few populations in New York State where spawning has been documented. Thus our purpose was to assess the current status of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River system, including age, growth, mortality, and abundance. Age was determined for 196 of 211 lake sturgeon by examination of sectioned pectoral fin rays. Ages ranged from 0 to 32 years and the annual mortality rate for fish between ages 7 and 14 was 16.8%. The weight (W, g) to total length (TL, mm) relationship was W = 1.281 x 10-6TL3.202. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was TL = 1913(1-e-0.0294(t+9.5691)). While the range of observed ages was similar to that of nearby St. Lawrence River populations, mean weight at age for an individual at 1000 mm TL was lower than that observed for lake sturgeon within Lake St. Francis of the St. Lawrence River. Predicted growth based on von Bertalanffy parameters was similar to that observed for the nearby Lake St. Francis. An open population estimator using the POPAN sub-module in the Program MARK produced an abundance estimate of 793 lake sturgeon (95% CI = 337-1249).

  8. Use of behavioral and physiological indicators to evaluate Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawning success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Annis, M.L.; Bryan, J.L.; Griffith, S.A.; Holan, S.H.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were captured in the Lower Missouri River in March 2004 to evaluate the effectiveness of physiology, telemetry and remote sensor technology coupled with change point analysis in identifying when and where Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawn. Captured sturgeons were instrumented with ultrasonic transmitters and with archival data storage tags (DST) that recorded temperature and pressure. Female sturgeon were tracked through the suspected spawning period. Thereafter, attempts were made to recapture fish to evaluate spawning success. At the time of transmitter implantation, blood and an ovarian biopsy were taken. Reproductive hormones and cortisol were measured in blood. Polarization indices and germinal vesicle breakdown were assessed on the biopsied oocytes to determine readiness to spawn. Behavioral data collected using telemetry and DST sensors were used to determine the direction and magnitude of possible spawning-related movements and to identify the timing of potential spawning events. Upon recapture observations of the ovaries and blood chemistry provided measures of spawning success and comparative indicators to explain differences in observed behavior. Behavioral and physiological indicators of spawning interpreted along with environmental measures may assist in the determination of variables that may cue sturgeon reproduction and the conditions under which sturgeon successfully spawn. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  9. Development of conceptual ecological models linking management of the Missouri River to pallid sturgeon population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the process of developing and refining conceptual ecological models (CEMs) for linking river management to pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics in the Missouri River. The refined CEMs are being used in the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis to organize, document, and formalize an understanding of pallid sturgeon population responses to past and future management alternatives. The general form of the CEMs, represented by a population-level model and component life-stage models, was determined in workshops held in the summer of 2013. Subsequently, the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team designed a general hierarchical structure for the component models, refined the graphical structure, and reconciled variation among the components and between models developed for the upper river (Upper Missouri & Yellowstone Rivers) and the lower river (Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam). Importance scores attributed to the relations between primary biotic characteristics and survival were used to define a candidate set of working dominant hypotheses about pallid sturgeon population dynamics. These CEMs are intended to guide research and adaptive-management actions to benefit pallid sturgeon populations in the Missouri River.

  10. Effect of exposure of sturgeon roe to low-intensity laser radiation on the hardiness of juvenile sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavskiia, V. Yu.; Barulin, N. V.

    2008-03-01

    We present data on the effect of polarized laser radiation in the near IR region of the spectrum with wavelength 808 nm on the resistance of juvenile sturgeon to oxygen deficiency in the habitat when the fertilized roe are briefly exposed to radiation in the organogenesis stage. The magnitude of the stimulating effect depends on the exposure time (t) and power density (P) of the radiation and also on its modulation frequency (F). For optimal irradiation parameters (cw mode, P = 2.9 mW/cm2, t = 60 sec), the hardiness of the juveniles increases by a factor of ˜1.5 compared with the control group. The maximum differences in the sensitivity of embryos to cw and pulsed radiation are observed for F = 1 Hz; as the modulation frequency increases up to F = 50 Hz, the magnitude of the photobiological effect approaches a level typical for cw exposure. We show that the duration of the dark period (pause time) between pulses is the critical parameter determining the dependence of the stimulating effect on the modulation frequency. We discuss questions concerning use of the indicated physical factor in the technology for raising sturgeon under industrial fish farming conditions.

  11. Comet Halley: The view from Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The plans to scan Halley's Comet at close range using the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are discussed. The composition of comets, their paths through space, and the history of comet encounters are examined. An ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the spacecraft will determine the composition of the gaseous coma and will measure the total gas production during its passage. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter will observe the comet for five weeks before solar interference with communications occurs as Venus passes on the far side of the Sun from Earth. Diagrams of the solar system and the relationship of the comet to the planets and the Sun are provided.

  12. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval

  13. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Peterson, Douglas L.

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  14. NAWIG News: The Native American Wind Interest Group Newsletter, Spring 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  15. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  16. Identification of plasma glucocorticoids in pallid sturgeon in response to stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, M.A.H.; Allert, J.A.; Kappenman, K.M.; Marcos, J.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Shackleton, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to teleosts, little is known about the stress response in chondrosteans, and the glucocorticoid(s) most responsive to stress have never been definitively determined in sturgeon. In terms of cortisol production, pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have a low physiological response to stress compared to other sturgeons (Acipenser sp.). Because of this, our null hypothesis was that cortisol is not the predominant glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress in pallid sturgeon. Our objective was to identify the putative glucocorticoids present in the plasma of pallid sturgeon during the stress response. Pallid sturgeon were subjected to a severe confinement stress (12 h) with an additional handling stressor for the first 6 h. Control fish were not subjected to confinement but were handled only to collect blood. Blood plasma was collected at time 0, 6, and 12 h. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to screen the plasma for the spectrum of glucocorticoids and determine the putative steroid secreted during the stress response. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid detected in stressed pallid sturgeon. In addition, the cortisol metabolites cortisone, alloTHE (5??-pregnane-3??,17??,21-triol-11,20-dione), allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one), and allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one) were detected. Plasma cortisol increased from a resting concentration of 0.67 ng/ml to 10.66 ng/ml at 6 h followed by a decrease to 6.78 ng/ml by 12 h. Plasma glucose increased significantly by time 6 and 12 h in both stressed and unstressed groups and remained elevated at time 12 h, while resting lactate concentrations were low to non-detectable and did not increase significantly with the stressor over time. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid synthesized and secreted in response to a stressor in pallid sturgeon. Though the proportional increase in plasma cortisol in stressed pallid sturgeon was lower than

  17. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  18. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  19. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  20. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Judi

    2014-01-01

    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  1. Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

  2. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  3. A Pioneer of Collegiate Women's Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This article features North Carolina State University's Kay Yow, a pioneer of collegiate women's sports. An Olympic gold medal champion whose entire coaching career has been spent in her home state of North Carolina, Yow has amassed a remarkable lifetime win-loss record of 729-337. She is one of only six coaches to have won at least 700 career…

  4. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeng, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…

  5. Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Peter

    1983-01-01

    On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

  6. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2013-04-19

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  7. Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…

  8. Programs of 1992 Winning Teams. Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Great Lakes Governors, Inc., Madison, WI.

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in kindergarten through grade 12 by accelerating the use of educational technology. The program spotlights 24 project teams from Great Lakes states that are already using technology in creative ways in the following states: (1) Illinois; (2) Indiana; (3) Michigan; (4)…

  9. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone. PMID:19209070

  10. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  11. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  12. Following in Pioneer Footsteps: Reflections on an Independent Study Fellowship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Joellen

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experiences with an Independent Study in the Humanities Fellowship. She researched the personal diaries of women pioneers who made the overland journey west in the 1800s, visited pioneer museums, and drove over the Oregon trail. (SM)

  13. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiVincenti, Louis, Jr.; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  14. Avoidance of Pile-Driving Noise by Hudson River Sturgeon During Construction of the New NY Bridge at Tappan Zee.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon movements were monitored during a pile-driving operation. Fewer sturgeon were detected during pile driving and remained for a shorter time than during silent control periods. Moreover, the short time spent by sturgeon near pile driving suggests that they were unlikely to have reached the criterion of 187 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative sound exposure level. These results suggest that sturgeon are likely to avoid impact pile driving and not remain long enough to experience physiological effects, thus providing empirical evidence that the 206 dB re 1 μPa peak sound pressure level is the appropriate criterion for assessing the impacts of pile-driving noise on sturgeon. PMID:26611004

  15. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-12-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians. PMID:24450055

  16. Age estimation for shovelnose sturgeon: A cautionary note based on annulus formation in pectoral fin rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, K.W.; Travnichek, V.H.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.; Papoulias, D.; Tillett, D.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the age and growth of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, but only one study attempted to validate age estimation techniques. Therefore, our objective was to use marginal increment analysis to validate annulus formation in pectoral fin rays of shovelnose sturgeon collected from the Missouri River. We also compared the precision of age estimates between two different readers. Marginal increment distance indicated that for most of the populations an opaque band was laid down in pectoral fin rays during the summer. However, opaque bands were formed throughout the year in some individuals, which could be problematic when using fin rays for age estimation. The agreement of age estimates by two readers for shovelnose sturgeon was only 18%, and differences in ages between the two readers increased for older fish. The presence of split annuli, false annuli, spawning bands, imbedded rays, and deteriorating sections made individual growth rings difficult to separate. Our findings verified that opaque bands are formed annually during the summer in the pectoral fin rays of most shovelnose sturgeon, but some individuals form opaque bands during other times. Pectoral fin rays will probably continue to be the most practical method of age estimation in shovelnose sturgeon, but ages estimated by this method should be used with caution.

  17. Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Popoff, N.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Wright, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the movements and depths used by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus with acoustic telemetry technologies in the lower Columbia River provided information on diel and seasonal migrations, local movements, and site fidelity. White sturgeon moved to shallower water at night and showed greater activity, inferred from rates of movement, than during daytime. The extent of local movement within a season was variable among fish; some fish readily moved among habitats while the movements of others were more constrained. White sturgeon were absent from the study area (river kilometers 45-52) during winter and returned from upstream during the spring, confirming an upstream seasonal migration in the fall and downstream migration in spring. The return of individual fish and reoccupation of areas previously inhabited showed that some white sturgeon exhibit site fidelity. This work shows that studies seeking to characterize habitat for white sturgeon need to be cognizant of diel migrations and site fidelity. We urge caution in the use of limited fish location data to describe habitats if diel activities and fine-scale movements are not known.

  18. A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, H.I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, James Angus; Lepla, K.B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  19. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions. PMID:27095630

  20. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000). PMID:22990022

  1. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  2. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  3. Crawford Williamson Long: The True Pioneer of Surgical Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia and analgesia are as old as mankind itself. However, we now know that the true pioneer of surgical anesthesia through inhalation of ether was Doctor Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878), who endeavored to help his profession and mankind without pursuing any reward or honor. Crawford Williamson Long was a great and beloved American surgeon. He was a well-educated and elegant man with an outstanding personality. Crawford was born in Danielsville, Georgia, in the United States and was the son of James Long and Elizabeth Ware Long. He married Mary Caroline Swain Long and gave birth to 12 children. Long proved the effectiveness of ether after painlessly removing a tumor from the neck. In 1847, a rivalry broke out among Horace Wells, Charles Thomas Jackson, and William Thomas Green Morton for the primacy as regards the discovery of anesthesia. The US Congress offered itself to arbitrate the case of the so called "ether controversy." Finally, a few years after the end of the North American Civil War, while taking care of a patient, Crawford passed away, presumably after suffering a stroke. PMID:26268419

  4. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  5. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  6. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  7. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The research tasks in the 2013 scope of work emphasized understanding reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon, and hatch and drift of free embryos and larvae. These tasks were addressed in four study sections located in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam, including downstream reaches of the Milk River, the Lower Yellowstone River, and the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2013.

  8. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the potomac river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Breece, M.; Atcheson, M.; Kieffer, M.; Mangold, M.

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: A saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  10. Fatty acid composition in tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Westenius, Eini; Halonen, Toivo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2014-09-15

    The fatty acid (FA) compositions of the diet and diverse tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were analyzed in detail to assess their nutritional quality. Twelve male fish were sampled for muscle, fat, liver, brain, gill, kidney and gonad and the tissue FA measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The FA profile of the diet diverged from the FA signatures of the tissues, where the sturgeons accumulated particular highly-unsaturated FA (HUFA). They were probably derived from the diet but, as previous studies have shown that fish can also have desaturase enzymes, endogenous synthesis of these FA cannot be excluded. The sturgeon muscle tissue contained HUFA in proportions comparable to those of other fish species that are considered good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity were also within the values considered to be health-promoting. PMID:24767029

  11. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay / Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26°C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8 μg g-1 selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65 kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval sturgeons

  12. [Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, demographic history, and population structure of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869].

    PubMed

    Shedko, S V; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A; Koshelev, V N; Shedko, M B

    2015-02-01

    The variability of the mtDNA control region (D-loop) was examined in Amur sturgeon endemic to the Amur River. This species is also classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened species. Sequencing of 796- to 812-bp fragments of the D-loop in 112 sturgeon collected in the Lower Amur revealed 73 different genotypes. The sample was characterized by a high level of haplotypic (0.976) and nucleotide (0.0194) diversity. The identified haplotypes split into two well-defined monophyletic groups, BG (n = 39) and SM (n = 34), differing (HKY distance) on average by 3.41% of nucleotide positions upon an average level of intragroup differences of 0.54 and 1.23%, respectively. Moreover, the haplotypes of the SM groups differed by the presence of a 13-14 bp deletion. Most ofthe samples (66 out of 112) carried BG haplotypes. Overall, the pattern of pairwise nucleotide differences and the results of neutrality tests, as well as the results of tests for compliance with the model of sudden demographic expansion or with the model of exponential growth pointed to a past significant increase in the number of Amur sturgeon, which was most clearly manifested in the analysis of data on the BG haplogroup. The constructed Bayesian skyline plots showed that this growth began about 18 to 16 thousand years ago. At present, the effective size of the strongly reduced (due to overharvesting) population of Amur sturgeon may be equal to or even lower than it was before the beginning of this growth during the Last Glacial Maximum. The presence in the mitochondrial gene pool ofAmur sturgeon of two haplogroups, their unequal evolutionary dynamics, and, judging by scanty data, their unequal representation in the Russian and Chinese parts of the Amur River basin point to the possible existence of at least two distinct populations of Amur sturgeon in the past. PMID:25966586

  13. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P < 0.001), mass (r2 = 0.896; P < 0.001), and age (r2 = 0.396; P = 0.029). However, fish size and age did not correlate to egg size (P > 0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  14. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  15. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  16. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 Μv/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed. PMID:24372943

  17. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I; Kültz, Dietmar

    2010-07-15

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay/Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26 degrees C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8microgg(-)(1) selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval

  18. Exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium results in biochemical, histological and transcriptional alterations.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Niknejad, Mahtab; Shabani, Ali; Safari, Roghieh

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon is one of the endangered families of fish in the Caspian Sea region, where there is up to 80% of their global caching. Unfortunately, in recent years, increase of pollutants has been resulted in their total population reduction. Due to their benthic nature, sturgeons are at great risk of exposing to contaminants such as cadmium. Despite their endangered status in the Caspian Sea, there are only a few studies on characterizing the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to cadmium. Adverse effects associated with pollution on angiogenesis are mediated by hypoxia inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this investigation, gene expression of two distinct HIFs-1, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and VEGF was investigated at the mRNA transcript levels after exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium. VEGF, HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions in treated Persian sturgeon were greater than controls. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also observed in cortisol and glucose levels compared to the control group especially in the fish exposed to higher cadmium concentration (800 μg/L). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were increased in the cadmium-exposed fish, although the observed increases were not significant between the control and 200 μg/L cadmium treatment at some sampling time points. Gill tissues also showed histopathological changes in the cadmium treatments. Overall, results indicated that cadmium resulted in some alterations in biochemical parameters, mRNA transcript level expression of two important angiogenesis related genes as well as histological alterations in Persian sturgeon. PMID:26687766

  19. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  20. Growth rates of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on growth during the larval and young-of-year life stages in natural river environments is generally lacking for most sturgeon species. In this study, methods for estimating ages and quantifying growth were developed for field-sampled larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the upper Missouri River. First, growth was assessed by partitioning samples of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon into cohorts, and regressing weekly increases in cohort mean length on sampling date. This method quantified relative growth because ages of the cohorts were unknown. Cohort increases in mean length among sampling dates were positively related (P < 0.05, r2 > 0.59 for all cohorts) to sampling date, and yielded growth rate estimates of 0.80–2.95 mm day−1 (2003) and 0.44–2.28 mm day−1 (2004). Highest growth rates occurred in the largest (and earliest spawned) cohorts. Second, a method was developed to estimate cohort hatch dates, thus age on date of sampling could be determined. This method included quantification of post-hatch length increases as a function of water temperature (growth capacity; mm per thermal unit, mm TU−1), and summation of mean daily water temperatures to achieve the required number of thermal units that corresponded to post-hatch lengths of shovelnose sturgeon on sampling dates. For six of seven cohorts of shovelnose sturgeon analyzed, linear growth models (r2 ≥ 0.65, P < 0.0001) or Gompertz growth models (r2 ≥ 0.83, P < 0.0001) quantified length-at-age from hatch through 55 days post-hatch (98–100 mm). Comparisons of length-at-age derived from the growth models indicated that length-at-age was greater for the earlier-hatched cohorts than later-hatched cohorts. Estimated hatch dates for different cohorts were corroborated based on the dates that newly-hatched larval shovelnose sturgeon were sampled in the drift. These results provide the first quantification of growth dynamics

  1. Is hepatic oxidative stress a main driver of dietary selenium toxicity in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)?

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Most species of sturgeon have experienced significant population declines and poor recruitment over the past decades, leading many, including white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to be listed as endangered. Reasons for these declines are not yet fully understood but benthic lifestyle, longevity, and delayed sexual maturation likely render sturgeon particularly susceptible to factors such as habitat alteration and contaminant exposures. One contaminant of particular concern to white sturgeon is selenium (Se), especially in its more bioavailable form selenomethionine (SeMet), as it is known to efficiently bioaccumulate in prey items of this species. Studies have shown white sturgeon to be among the most sensitive species of fish to dietary SeMet as well as other pollutants such as metals, dioxin-like chemicals and endocrine disrupters. One of the primary hypothesized mechanisms of toxicity of SeMet in fish is oxidative stress; however, little is know about the specific mode by which SeMet affects the health of white sturgeon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize oxidative stress and associated antioxidant responses as a molecular event of toxicity, and to link it with the pathological effects observed previously. Specifically, three-year-old white sturgeon were exposed for 72 days via their diet to 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 or 104.4µg Se per g feed (dm). Doses were chosen to range over a necessary Se intake level, current environmentally relevant intakes and an intake representing predicted increases of Se release. Lipid hydroperoxides, which are end products of lipid oxidation, were quantified as a marker of oxidative stress. Changes in gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, apoptosis inducing factor and caspase 3 were quantified as markers of the response to oxidative stress. Concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides were highly variable within dose groups and no dose response was observed

  2. The far reaches of the solar wind - Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 plasma results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S. E.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Selected plasma parameters observed by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 between launch (1972 and 1973) and the end of 1979 are used to find the large-scale radial structure of the solar wind. Comparison of data from the two spacecraft is used to separate temporal from spatial variations. The average bulk speed is found to remain constant at about 430 km/s, with stream structure still evident, though of diminished amplitude, at 20.5 AU (Pioneer 10's distance by the end of 1979). Proton density, flux, pressure, and kinetic energy flux are found to have radial profiles consistent with 1/R-squared. Proton temperatures decrease as R to the -0.6 power, too slowly for an adiabatic expansion.

  3. Diet composition and feeding patterns of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.; Shuman, D.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, Steven R.; Peters, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two-hundred and seven adult shovelnose sturgeon ranging from 450 to 718 mm in length were sampled from June to October 2001 and May to July 2002 to determine diet composition and feeding patterns in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae and nymphs (>99% composition by number). Diptera of the family Chironomidae were the dominant prey items in both years and composed 98.1% of the shovelnose sturgeon diet in 2001 and 96.8% in 2002. Chironomidae were primarily represented by the four genera Paracladopelma, Chernovskiia, Saetheria and Robackia accounting for 90.2% of the ingested prey items in 2001 and 83.6% in 2002. In addition, shovelnose sturgeon showed in both years a generalized feeding pattern towards Ephemeroptera of the families Isonychiidae and Caenidae, as well as Trichoptera of the family Hydropsychidae. Other aquatic insects, terrestrial invertebrates and fishes were found infrequently and in low numbers in shovelnose sturgeon diets. The four most abundant Chironomidae genera are often found on sand and the high abundance of these taxa in the diet suggests that shovelnose sturgeon feed primarily near or on this substrate type. This highlights the importance of habitats that provide sand substrate for shovelnose sturgeon foraging in the lower Platte River.

  4. Diet composition and feeding patterns of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.; Shuman, D.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Peters, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two-hundred and seven adult shovelnose sturgeon ranging from 450 to 718mm in length were sampled from June to October 2001 and May to July 2002 to determine diet composition and feeding patterns in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae and nymphs (>99% composition by number). Diptera of the family Chironomidae were the dominant prey items in both years and composed 98.1% of the shovelnose sturgeon diet in 2001 and 96.8% in 2002. Chironomidae were primarily represented by the four genera Paracladopelma, Chernovskiia, Saetheria and Robackia accounting for 90.2% of the ingested prey items in 2001 and 83.6% in 2002. In addition, shovelnose sturgeon showed in both years a generalized feeding pattern towards Ephemeroptera of the families Isonychiidae and Caenidae, as well as Trichoptera of the family Hydropsychidae. Other aquatic insects, terrestrial invertebrates and fishes were found infrequently and in low numbers in shovelnose sturgeon diets. The four most abundant Chironomidae genera are often found on sand and the high abundance of these taxa in the diet suggests that shovelnose sturgeon feed primarily near or on this substrate type. This highlights the importance of habitats that provide sand substrate for shovelnose sturgeon foraging in the lower Platte River. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  5. [Intraspecific genetic polymorphism of Russian sturgeon Acipencer gueldenstaedtii].

    PubMed

    Timoshkina, N N; Barmintseva, A E; Usatov, A V; Miuge, N S

    2009-09-01

    Three populations (Azov, Caspian, and Black Sea) of Russian sturgeon Acipenser queldenstaedtii were tested for polymorphism at nuclear (RAPD and microsatellites) and mitochondrial (PCR identification of two mito-types) markers. In addition, morphometric analysis of he representatives of Azov population was carried out. According to the morphological characters, the Black Sea population occupied an intermediate position between the Caspian and Azov populations, reflecting the phylogeography of this species. In agreement with the morphometric data, genetic distances (the data of STR analysis) also placed the Black Sea population between the Caspian and Azov populations (FST = 0.058 and 0.043). The genetic distance between the Azov and Caspian population was somewhat higher (FST = 0.070). The highest allelic polymorphism at four microsatellite loci was found observed in Caspian population, while the lowest polymorphism was in the Sea of Azov. RAPD analysis distinguished high polymorphism within the populations, although it was not feasible for interpopulation analysis. Using the method differentiating the "baerii-like" and typical "gueldenstaedtii" mitotypes, the absence of the "baerii-like" marker in the Black Sea population was demonstrated. The frequency of this marker in Caspian and Azov populations constituted 31.1 and 1.8%, respectively. Possible evolutionary reasons for the interpopulation differences observed are discussed. PMID:19824546

  6. Diet of first-feeding larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, W.D.; McCabe, G.T., Jr.; Parsley, M.J.; Hinton, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In some Snake and Columbia River reservoirs, adult white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common but few juvenile fish are found, indicating a lack of spawning success or poor survival of larvae. In contrast, recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon to juvenile and adult stages is successful in the unimpounded Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. The availability and size of preferred prey during the period when white sturgeon larvae begin exogenous feeding could be an important determinant of year-class strength. To explore this issue, we examined the diet composition of 352 larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon collected from 1989 through 1991 in the lower Columbia River. Samples were collected downstream from Bonneville Dam and upstream from the dam in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs. Fish that ranged in size from 15 to 290 mm in total length fed primarily on gammarid amphipods (Corophium spp.) during all months. This diet item became increasingly important to all sizes of white sturgeon examined as they grew. The length of Corophium spp. eaten by larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon increased with increasing fish length (r2 = 45.6%, P < 0.0001). Copepods (Cyclopoida), Ceratopogonidae larvae, and Diptera pupae and larvae (primarily chironomids) were also consumed, especially at the onset of exogenous feeding. A small percentage of white sturgeon were found with empty stomachs during June (1.6% downstream from Bonneville Dam) and July (4.5% downstream and 2.6% in the reservoirs). Diets of larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon from both impounded and free-flowing sections of the Columbia River were similar and we found no evidence of larval starvation in the areas investigated, areas currently supporting healthy white sturgeon populations.

  7. Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

  8. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  9. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Dolph L

    2016-07-01

    Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1-9. PMID:26984707

  10. The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael

    2007-03-21

    The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

  11. The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly

    ScienceCinema

    Nieto, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

  12. Magnetometer deployment mechanism for Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A three segment, 15-foot boom mechanism was developed to deploy magnetometers from the Pioneer Venus orbiter spinning shelf. The stowage mechanism is designed to contain the magnetometers during launch and to deploy these instruments by centrifugal force upon pyrotechnic release. Unique graphite-epoxy boom segments are used for a lightweight design with sufficient strength to withstand a 7.5 g orbit insertion force while extended. The detailed design is described along with the test methods developed for qualification in a one-g field.

  13. Magnetometer deployment mechanism for Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A three segment, 15-foot boom mechanism was developed to deploy magnetometers from the Pioneer Venus orbiter spinning shelf. The stowage mechanism is designed to contain the magnetometers during launch and to deploy these instruments by centrifugal force upon pyrotechnic release. Unique graphite-epoxy boom segments are used for a lightweight design with sufficient strength to withstand a 7.5 g orbit insertion force while extended. The detailed design is described, along with the test methods developed for qualification in a one-g field.

  14. Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

    2007-12-01

    In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that

  15. Pioneer Venus multiprobe entry telemetry recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.; Ramos, R.

    1980-01-01

    The entry phase of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission involved data transmission over a two hour span. The criticality of recovering those two hours of data, coupled with the fact that there were no radio signals from the probes until their arrival at Venus, dictated unique telemetry recovery approaches on the ground. The result was double redundancy, use of spectrum analyzers to aid in rapid acquisition of the signals, and development of a technique for recovery of telemetry data without the use of real time coherent detection, which is normally employed for all other planetary missions.

  16. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Elvira, Benigno

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe. PMID:26717564

  17. [Alice Hamilton (1869-1970): a pioneer of occupational medicine and public health].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M; Steplewski, Z

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was the mother of occupational health a pioneer in public health in the United States. She worked as a doctor in Hull House, the first settlement house, and she was an advocate of the birth-control movement. She led pioneering studies of occupational head, mercury, carbon monoxide poisoning and many other chemical intoxications of workers. She was an assistant professor of industrial medicine at the Harvard Medical School (1919-1935). During the years 1924-1930 she worked for the Health Organization of the League of Nations. From 1943 she acted as a vice-president of the American Health Association. Alice Hamilton was an expert in the field of occupational lead poisoning. PMID:10438256

  18. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation

  19. Awakening Minorities: American Indians, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John R.; And Others

    As noted in the Preface, social scientists are entering a period of shared realization that the United States is in a crucial period of transition. "Trans-action" magazine, a pioneer in social programs for changing the society, has dedicated itself for 7 years to the task of reporting the strains and conflicts within the American system and has…

  20. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    PubMed

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said. PMID:26913881

  1. Horton Falls named for Pioneer Hydrologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Vincent

    A beautiful 80-foot waterfall in the Catskill Mountains was recently named after Robert E. Horton (1875-1945), a pioneer hydrologist and active AGU member for many years. Officially named Horton Falls, the waterfall, located a few miles east of Voorheesville, N.Y., in Albany County, was an important part of Horton's hydrological laboratory. The U.S. Board on Geographic Names approved the name at its November 8, 1990 meeting.Horton lived close to the falls and operated his hydrological laboratory at its crest in the old La Grange Grist Mill, which used hydropower generated by the falling waters of the La Grange Mill Pond, originally impounded by a wooden log dam 100 feet upstream of the mill. As far as can be determined, the pioneer La Granges, who built and operated the mill, never used the 85-foot head made available to them by the waterfalls. Horton, however, did, and ran a vertical and a horizontal iron water wheel to spin a DC electricity-generating turbine, which he used for heat, light, and power in his home and laboratory.

  2. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  4. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species. PMID:24714585

  6. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... recruitment, commercial harvest, pollution and contaminants, and hybridization (55 FR 36641, September 6, 1990...) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (55 FR 36641, September 6, 1990). The pallid sturgeon has a flattened, shovel... under the Act (55 FR 36641). At the time of listing, the primary threats and vulnerabilities for...

  7. Adverse health effects and histological changes in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Gagnon, Danielle; Hecker, Markus

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that selenium (Se) released to the aquatic environment can have devastating effects on local wildlife. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have a life history particularly susceptible to contaminants, and their protection is of interest as they are culturally and economically important, and many populations are classified as endangered. During the present 72-d dietary study, multiple signs of decreased health and Se lethality were observed. Juvenile white sturgeon were given diets containing 1.4 μg, 5.6 μg, 22.4 μg, or 104.4 μg selenomethionine/g food (dry mass). Selenium accumulated in muscle and liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Edema causing exophthalmos developed within 15 d and 23 d, and lethal effects occurred in 54% and 22% of fish in the high- and medium-dose groups, respectively. Growth and hepatosomatic index were significantly lower in the high-dose group, which also had a high incidence of food avoidance. Histology of the liver revealed a dose-dependent increase in melanomacrophage aggregates and decrease of energy stores, which indicated toxicity. These results indicate that white sturgeon are susceptible to the effects of Se accumulation over relatively short time periods. This stresses the need for continued sturgeon research and studies looking into the environmental fate and regulation of released Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1741-1750. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632643

  8. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

  9. A PROTOCOL FOR THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE OF ATLANTIC STURGEON SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term, liquid-phase storage trials were conducted in 2009 on Atlantic sturgeon semen obtained from captive males, held at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Fish Technology Center and wild males, collected ripe on the spawning grounds from the Hudson River. Semen samples collected, c...

  10. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LAKE STURGEON, ACIPENSER FULVESCENS: ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective analysis of the duration of motility of sperm from the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, has been performed using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis at 200 frames/s. Motility was measured in both 1993 and 1994. The percentage of activated motile sperm and the...

  11. Discrete choice modeling of shovelnose sturgeon habitat selection in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnot, T.W.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Millspaugh, J.J.; DeLonay, A.J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Bryan, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantive changes to physical habitat in the Lower Missouri River, resulting from intensive management, have been implicated in the decline of pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (S. platorynchus) sturgeon. To aid in habitat rehabilitation efforts, we evaluated habitat selection of gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon during the spawning season in two sections (lower and upper) of the Lower Missouri River in 2005 and in the upper section in 2007. We fit discrete choice models within an information theoretic framework to identify selection of means and variability in three components of physical habitat. Characterizing habitat within divisions around fish better explained selection than habitat values at the fish locations. In general, female shovelnose sturgeon were negatively associated with mean velocity between them and the bank and positively associated with variability in surrounding depths. For example, in the upper section in 2005, a 0.5ms-1 decrease in velocity within 10m in the bank direction increased the relative probability of selection 70%. In the upper section fish also selected sites with surrounding structure in depth (e.g., change in relief). Differences in models between sections and years, which are reinforced by validation rates, suggest that changes in habitat due to geomorphology, hydrology, and their interactions over time need to be addressed when evaluating habitat selection. Because of the importance of variability in surrounding depths, these results support an emphasis on restoring channel complexity as an objective of habitat restoration for shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  12. EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION AND THEOPHYLLINE ON MOTILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE STURGEON (ACIPENSER FULVESCENS) SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and theophylline treatment on sperm motility of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).Motility was recorded at 0 and 5 min postactivation.The effect of cryopreservation on sperm acrosin-...

  13. Discrete choice modeling of shovelnose sturgeon habitat selection in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnot, T.W.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Millspaugh, J.J.; DeLonay, A.J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Bryan, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantive changes to physical habitat in the Lower Missouri River, resulting from intensive management, have been implicated in the decline of pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (S. platorynchus) sturgeon. To aid in habitat rehabilitation efforts, we evaluated habitat selection of gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon during the spawning season in two sections (lower and upper) of the Lower Missouri River in 2005 and in the upper section in 2007. We fit discrete choice models within an information theoretic framework to identify selection of means and variability in three components of physical habitat. Characterizing habitat within divisions around fish better explained selection than habitat values at the fish locations. In general, female shovelnose sturgeon were negatively associated with mean velocity between them and the bank and positively associated with variability in surrounding depths. For example, in the upper section in 2005, a 0.5 m s-1 decrease in velocity within 10 m in the bank direction increased the relative probability of selection 70%. In the upper section fish also selected sites with surrounding structure in depth (e.g., change in relief). Differences in models between sections and years, which are reinforced by validation rates, suggest that changes in habitat due to geomorphology, hydrology, and their interactions over time need to be addressed when evaluating habitat selection. Because of the importance of variability in surrounding depths, these results support an emphasis on restoring channel complexity as an objective of habitat restoration for shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  14. Control of sturgeon sperm motility: Antagonism between K+ ions concentration and osmolality.

    PubMed

    Prokopchuk, Galina; Dzyuba, Borys; Rodina, Marek; Cosson, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa are stored in a quiescent state in the male reproductive tract and motility is induced in response to various environmental stimuli, such as change of osmolality (general case) and a decrease of extracellular K+ in fish from Acipenseridae family. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between osmolality and extracellular K+ concentration in controlling sperm motility in sturgeon. Pre-incubation of sturgeon sperm for 5s in hypertonic solutions of glycerol, NaCl, or sucrose (each of 335 mOsm/kg osmolality) prepares sturgeon spermatozoa to become fully motile in presence of high concentration of K+ ions (15 mM), which has previously been demonstrated to fully repress motility. Furthermore, presence of 0.5mM KCl during the high osmolality pre-incubation exposure completely prevented subsequent spermatozoa activation in a K+-rich media. Manipulating the transport of K+ ions by the presence of K+ ionophore (valinomycin), it was concluded that once an efflux of K+ ions, the precursor of sturgeon sperm motility activation, is taking place, spermatozoa then become insensitive to a large extracellular K+ concentration. PMID:26633858

  15. ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF JUVENILE SHORTNOSE STURGEON TO LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campbell, Jed G. and Larry R. Goodman. 2004. Acute Sensitivity of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon to Low Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. EPA/600/J-04/175. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):772-776. (ERL,GB 1155).

    There is considerable concern that factors such as eutrophication, ...

  16. Anatomical, hormonal and histological descriptions of captive Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) with intersex gonads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Karen; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Din, Svetlana Yom; Goldberg, Doron; Pearlson, Oren; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2006-09-15

    Sturgeons are known throughout the world as the source of black caviar. Their declining populations in their native habitats, mainly the Caspian Sea, due to over-fishing for meat and caviar production, destruction of their spawning grounds and water pollution, have led to their introduction into aquaculture in areas with suitable conditions, including Israel. Recently, we noticed an unusual phenomenon in these normally gonochoristic species. Several 5-year-old female sturgeons were found to have one or more testicular sections in each of their two gonads, forming an intersexual gender. Further examination of other fish from the same age group revealed 14% fish with intersex gonads among a population of 5000 fish that had been pre-selected as females. This phenomenon has not been found however in other age groups of Russian sturgeons, cultured at the same facility. Sturgeons are a generally gonochoristic species, and hermaphroditism is only very infrequently observed under natural or normal breeding conditions. Moreover, these rare cases have all been from polluted habitats. The present work is the first description of fish containing intersex gonads in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii). We describe the phenomenon anatomically and histologically, and examine plasma steroid levels and pituitary gonadotropin gene expression by comparing fish with intersex gonads with normal females and males of the same age group. Intersex gonads were typical female ovaries with one or more white testicular components embedded in each. The testis components were not uniform in size or location among the two gonads of each fish or among different fish, and they showed marked differences in distribution. The ovarian component of the intersex gonad was at the pre-vitellogenic stage as in normal females, and the testis component contained spermatids and mature spermatozoa as in normal males of the same age. However, in terms of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone plasma levels

  17. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  18. Status of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Potomac River. Part 1: Field Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, Boyd; Breece, Matthew; Atcheson, Megan; Kieffer, Micah; Mangold, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Field studies during more than 3 years (March 2004–July 2007) collected data on life history of Potomac River shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum to understand their biological status in the river. We sampled intensively for adults using gill nets, but captured only one adult in 2005. Another adult was captured in 2006 by a commercial fisher. Both fish were females with excellent body and fin condition, both had mature eggs, and both were telemetrytagged to track their movements. The lack of capturing adults, even when intensive netting was guided by movements of tracked fish, indicated abundance of the species was less than in any river known with a sustaining population of the species. Telemetry tracking of the two females (one during September 2005–July 2007, one during March 2006–February 2007) found they remained in the river for all the year, not for just a few months like sturgeons on a coastal migration. Further, one fish used the same freshwater reach during three summers. The two sturgeons used different reaches during some seasons, with one fish using saline water more than the other. The adults homed to small reaches in the same month each year, like shortnose sturgeon in their natal river. The total reach used by tracked sturgeons was 124 km (rkm 63–187), of which the lowermost 78 km, which was used for summering and wintering, contained the freshwater: saltwater interface. The most upstream reach used (rkm 185–187) contained potential spawning habitat. This reach was visited by one female on a pre-spawning migration in April 2006, but spawning was likely unsuccessful. Water quality (dissolved oxygen and temperature) in the summering–wintering reach was adequate all the year, although during the summer it was minimally acceptable. We periodically recaptured the same tagged female and found she healed well after tagging, appeared healthy in body and fins, grew well, and rapidly matured a new clutch of eggs. All surveys indicated adults

  19. PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A. ); Thompson, Bruce R.; Dan G. Cacuci

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

  20. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/ g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September 22, 1935 DETAIL OF BUCKET. - Pounding Mill, Pioneer Museum, Route 441 (moved from Deep Creek), Cherokee, Swain County, NC

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September 22, 1935 DETAIL OF ROCKER. - Pounding Mill, Pioneer Museum, Route 441 (moved from Deep Creek), Cherokee, Swain County, NC

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September 22, 1935 GENERAL VIEW PESTLE IN LOWERED POSITION. - Pounding Mill, Pioneer Museum, Route 441 (moved from Deep Creek), Cherokee, Swain County, NC

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September 22, 1935 GENERAL VIEW, PESTLE IN RAISED POSITION. - Pounding Mill, Pioneer Museum, Route 441 (moved from Deep Creek), Cherokee, Swain County, NC

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Edouard E. Exline, Photographer September 22, 1935 DETAIL OF PESTLE AND MORTAR. - Pounding Mill, Pioneer Museum, Route 441 (moved from Deep Creek), Cherokee, Swain County, NC

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Collection of Society of California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Collection of Society of California Pioneers & Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, San Francisco F. Marryat, Watercolor 1850 - Sansome Street, Historic View, 1850, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 BRONZE TABLET HISTORICAL MARKER - Hobson Grist Mill (Monument & Millstones), DuPage County Pioneer Park, Naperville, Du Page County, IL

  8. Radiation belts of Jupiter - A second look. [Pioneer 11 flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, R. W.; Mcilwain, C. E.; Mogro-Campero, A.

    1975-01-01

    The outbound leg of the Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby explored a region farther from the equator than that traversed by Pioneer 10, and the new data require modification or augmentation of the magnetodisk model based on the Pioneer 10 flyby. The inner moons of Jupiter are sinks of energetic particles and sometimes sources. A large spike of particles was found near Io. Multiple peaks occurred in the particle fluxes near closest approach to the planet; this structure may be accounted for by a complex magnetic field configuration. The decrease in proton flux observed near minimum altitude on the Pioneer 10 flyby appears attributable to particle absorption by Amalthea.

  9. PIONEER VENUS 1 SPACECRAFT UNDERGOES INSPECTION PRIOR TO ENCAPSULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA's Pioneer Venus-A spacecraft undergoes inspection in Kennedy Space Center Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF) prior to encapsulation for move to the launch site. Pioneer Venus-A is scheduled for launch from Cape Canaveral's Complex 36 no earlier than May 20. Liftoff atop an Atlas Centaur rocket is scheduled during an opportunity extending from 9:13 to 9:28 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Pioneer Venus-A is scheduled to enter orbit around Venus on December 4. Pioneer Venus-B, a multi- probe spacecraft, is scheduled for launch to Venus on August 7.

  10. Brain ventricle development in H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) larvae.

    PubMed

    Tavighi, S H; Saadatfar, Z; Shojaei, B; Rassouli, M Behnam

    2016-09-01

    The development of ventricles in the brain of H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) from 1 to 54 days old is presented in this study. The components observed in the 1-day-old ventricular system were the telencephalic, tectal, and cerebellar ventricles. These ventricles were not observed to have any recess or sulcus. They were surrounded by copious ependymal and embryonic cells. Two different parts were detected in the 6-day-old telencephalic ventricle: the olfactory and lateral ventricle. The olfactory ventricle was observed as a cranial extension of the telencephalic ventricle from 6 days old, as was the inner cell layer of the olfactory bulb (ic) adjacent to this extension. In the preoptic region, the lateral ventricle was connected to the preoptic recess from 15 days old, and this recess was connected by the interventricular foramen to the third ventricle in the diencephalon. At 6 days old, the third ventricle in the diencephalon was visible at the caudal part of the lateral ventricle, and the third ventricle had a recess near to the inferior lobe of the hypothalamus. At 6 days old, the tectal ventricle was observed to have bilateral extensions which proceeded to grow with age. The cerebellar ventricle, situated between the two lobes of the cerebellum, was observed from 1 day old. The cerebellar ventricle grew with age, extending laterally from 6 days old. The connection of the cerebellar ventricle to the fourth ventricle in the medulla oblongata was visible from 6 days old. Upon dividing the ventricular system into three regions (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), stereological studies performed utiizing Cavalieri's principle indicated that the forebrain ventricular region had the smallest volume while the hindbrain ventricular region had the largest. PMID:26530640

  11. [Discrimination of interspecific hybrids in natural populations of Amur sturgeon fishes using multilocus RAPD-PCR markers].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N; Rozhkovan, K V; Ivanov, S A

    2008-01-01

    RAPD-PCR analysis of 46 individuals of sturgeons from Amur River has been carried out. Genetic status of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 and kaluga Huso dauricus Georgi, 1775 native populations has been estimated. Genetic evidences of hybrid origin for two phenotypical hybrids were obtained; estimations of genetic distances between species and hybrids appeared to be at interspecific level. The exact test for differentiation of populations (Exact test) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis were estimated to be the most effective for species and hybrid discrimination, respectively. According to data obtained populations of sturgeon fishes which inhabit Amur River maintained an essential level of genetic variability; the presence of hybrids is regarded as one of risk factors. Multilocus RAPD-PCR markers admit as the convenient and reliable tool for genetic monitoring of Amur River sturgeons to preserve their gene pool. PMID:19140442

  12. Effects of acoustic tag implantation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens: lack of evidence for changes in behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    An assumption of studies using acoustic telemetry is that surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters or tags does not alter behavior of tagged individuals. Evaluating the validity of this assumption can be difficult for large fish, such as adult sturgeons, not amenable to controlled laboratory experimentation. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when this assumption was valid for adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens tagged with large (34 g) acoustic transmitters and released into the St. Clair River during 2011–2014. The hypothesis that activity and reach-scale distributions of tagged and untagged lake sturgeon did not differ was tested by comparing movement frequencies, movement rates (speed-over-ground), and location-specific detection probabilities between newly-tagged lake sturgeon and presumably fully-recovered conspecifics tagged and released in prior years.

  13. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Reduced Feeding of Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon during Their Prolonged River Residence Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Schell, D. M.; Frazer, T.; Hoyer, M.; Chapman, F. A.

    2001-09-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios were used to delineate food sources for Gulf of Mexico sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus de sotoi), an anadromous fish that migrates between Gulf of Mexico and the coastal rivers in south-east U.S.A. The large difference in isotope ratios (˜11‰) between freshwater food sources and fish muscle tissue suggests that the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon do not feed significantly in fresh waters. Isotope ratio data from this study and also from the literature indicate that the growth of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon is almost entirely supported by coastal marine food sources. It is likely that Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use the cool springs that seep into the river as a thermal refuge during their river residence in summer and that thermal barriers may prevent the fish from exploiting the rich food sources available in the warmer portions of the Suwannee River.

  14. Identifying structural elements needed for development of a predictive life-history model for pallid and shovelnose sturgeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Galat, D.L.; Jacobson, R.B.; Simpkins, D.G.; Braaten, P.J.; Korschgen, C.E.; Mac, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic changes to the river systems and their biota. These changes have been implicated in the decline of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which has been listed as a United States federal endangered species. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) is more common and widespread but has also been in decline. The decline of pallid sturgeon is considered symptomatic of poor reproductive success and low or no recruitment. In order to organize information about these species and provide a basis for future development of a predictive model to help guide recovery efforts, we present an expert-vetted, conceptual life-history framework that incorporates the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons.

  15. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt. PMID:26123778

  16. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. PMID:24920077

  17. Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitats for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, David H.

    2005-07-01

    For rare and endangered species, bioenergetics modeling can represent a valuable approach for understanding issues of habitat value and connectivity among potential habitats within nurseries in restoration programs. We used multivariable bioenergetics and survival models for Atlantic sturgeon to generate spatially explicit maps of potential production in the Chesapeake Bay. For the period 1993-2002, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality effects (temperature, dissolved oxygen [DO] and salinity) on potential production were evaluated. In addition, two forecasted scenarios were modeled: one implementing newly revised U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay, and the other assuming a bay-wide increase of 1 °C due to an underlying trend in regional climate. Atlantic sturgeon's low (survival/growth) tolerance to temperatures >28 °C was a critical constraint during their first 1-2 summers of life. Hatched in freshwater (spring to mid-summer), young-of-the-year were predicted to occupy cooler (deeper) areas as temperature approached sub-lethal levels. While most thermal refuges were located down-estuary, a large fraction of potential refuges were unsuitable due to persistent hypoxia and/or salinity levels beyond the limited osmoregulatory capabilities of early juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. As a result, suitable summer habitats for juvenile Atlantic sturgeons in the Chesapeake Bay were predicted to be spatially restricted and variable between years, ranging from 0 to 35% of the modeled bay surface area. In critical (drought) years, almost no summer habitat was predicted to be available for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Value and size of nursery habitat was highly sensitive to climatic oscillations and anthropogenic interventions affecting freshwater inflow, water temperature and/or DO. Achieving EPA DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay was predicted to increase total suitable habitat by 13% for an average year, while increasing

  18. Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin Ting Justin

    2014-06-01

    Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:24354350

  19. Hydraulic and Substrate Maps of Reaches Used by Sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus) in the Lower Missouri River, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E., III; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a repository of reach-scale maps of hydraulic and substrate characteristics generated for the habitat-use portion of an interdisciplinary sturgeon research project on the Lower Missouri River (from Gavins Point Dam to the junction with the Mississippi River). The maps were derived from hydroacoustic data sets that were collected for the purpose of assessing physical aquatic habitat in the vicinity of locations of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Hydroacoustic data sets were collected at the reach scale (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) in order to include the immediate vicinity of a targeted sturgeon location as well as the full range of habitat available at the bend and crossover scale. Reaches typically were surveyed on the day following the relocation of a telemetered sturgeon and at a discharge within 10 percent of the discharge on the sturgeon relocation date in order to characterize as closely as possible the channel morphology and flow-field conditions at the time that the sturgeon was present. One hundred fifty-three reaches were mapped during April-September in the years 2005 through 2007, with the majority of data collection occurring in the months of May and June (coinciding with the period of sturgeon migration and spawning in the Lower Missouri River). Interpolated maps (grid cell size, 5 meters) depict depth, generalized substrate, and depth-averaged velocity. Side-scan sonar imagery is also available for a subset of reaches. Collectively, the maps represent more than 20 percent of the length of the Lower Missouri River.

  20. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  1. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  2. Pioneer probe mission with orbiter option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A spacecraft is described which is based on Pioneer 10 and 11, and existing propulsion technology; it can transport and release a probe for entry into Jupiter's atmosphere, and subsequently maneuver to place the spacecraft in orbit about Jupiter. Orbital operations last 3 years and include maneuvers to provide multiple close satellite encounters which allow the orbit to be significantly changed to explore different parts of the magnetosphere. A mission summary, a guide to related documents, and background information about Jupiter are presented along with mission analysis over the complete mission profile. Other topics discussed include the launch, interplanetary flight, probe release and orbit deflection, probe entry, orbit selection, orbit insertion, periapsis raising, spacecraft description, and the effects of Jupiter's radiation belt on both orbiter and the probe.

  3. A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.

    1993-01-01

    The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

  4. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  5. Freeman Allen: Boston's pioneering physician anesthetist.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel D; Morris, Alina J; Rockoff, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    On October 16, 1846 dentist William T. G. Morton successfully demonstrated at the Massachusetts General Hospital that ether could prevent the pain of surgery. For decades afterwards, the administration of anesthesia in the United States was generally relegated to dentists, medical students, junior surgical trainees, or even nonmedical personnel. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a few pioneering physicians began devoting their careers to administering anesthesia to patients, studying ways to make it safer and more effective, and teaching others about its use. One of these individuals was Freeman Allen, who was appointed the first physician anesthetist to the medical staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital and several other major hospitals in Boston. We describe this remarkable man, his contributions to the early development of anesthesiology as a medical specialty, and the true cause of his untimely death. PMID:25329027

  6. Plasma analyzer for the Pioneer Jupiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckibbin, D. D.; Wolfe, J. H.; Collard, H. R.; Savage, H. F.; Molari, R.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA/Ames Research Center Plasma Probe on board the Jupiter Missions of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The instrument has two quadrispherical electrostatic analyzer units; one has high sensitivity and resolution and the other is capable of measuring large fluxes of solar wind particles. The two analyzer units measure particle energy-to-charge ratio, flux, and direction of flow for positive ions and electrons over the wide range of particle densities found in the solar wind during the Jupiter missions. Data formats in space and ground data processing, the NASA/Ames Research Center plasma probe calibration facility, and the instrument response functions are also described.

  7. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Redox pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton.

    PubMed

    Stamler, Jonathan S

    2013-09-10

    [Figure: see text] Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757-764. PMID:23815466

  9. Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Professor Stuart A. Lipton Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764. PMID:23815466

  10. Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

  11. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  12. The interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 2: System design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer systems, subsystems, and ground support activities are described. Details are given on the launch trajectory and solar orbit plans, spacecraft design approach and evolution, scientific instrument, test and ground support equipment, Delta launch vehicle, tracking and communication, and data processing equipment. Pioneer specifications, and reliability and quality assurance are also included.

  13. PIONEER VENUS 1 SPACECRAFT PARTIALLY COVERED BY ENCAPSULATION SHROUD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Segments of the shroud that will protect Pioneer Venus-A as it moves through the atmosphere following launch on a flight to Venus are moved into position to encapsulate the spacecraft. Pioneer Venus-A is scheduled for launch from Complex 36, Cape Canaveral, on May 20. Liftoff is scheduled during a opportunity extending from 9:13 to 9:28 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Pioneer Venus-A, to be renamed Pioneer Venus-1 after launch, will be placed in orbit around Venus on December 4. A second Pioneer Venus, a multi-probe spacecraft, is scheduled for launch August 4. The two scientific spacecraft are designed to sample Venusian weather patterns and hopefully provide answers for scientist to some of the unknown factors of the Venus atmosphere.

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1990-06-01

    The population of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River has continued to decline since 1983, in spite of a closure to harvest in the U.S. section of the river. Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 228 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 850 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 574 to 1,463. At present, we do not understand what mechanisms are limiting recruitment. Over the past 70 years, the lower Kootenai River has been extensively diked for flood control, effectively eliminating backwater and slough areas that may have provided juvenile rearing habitat: Contaminants have entered the river system via mining operations and agricultural practices. In 1972, Libby Dam began operation, reversing the natural flow regime of the river, and releasing frequent power peaking flows. Of 179 fish that were surgically sexed, 37% were female and 35% were male. Thirty-four percent of the females held developing oocytes. All oocyte samples from nine females contained copper (1.18 to 2.50 {micro}g/g) and zinc (15.6 to 32.8 {micro}g/g). Most samples also contained organochloride residues such as DDT, DDD, DDE, and PCBs (0.215 to 1.080 {micro}g/g, combined). River sediment samples contained 1.62 to 12.8 {micro}g/g copper and 22.4 to 70.6 {micro}g/g zinc, but no organochloride residues. Electrophoretic analysis of muscle samples indicated reduced heterogeneity compared with lower basin white sturgeon and showed a significantly different degree of variation between the two stocks in seven enzyme systems. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements in response to water flow

  15. Distribution and composition pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different tissues of sturgeons collected from Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=16), and Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=7) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March and April 2011. The distribution and composition pattern of PAHs in the different tissues of sturgeons, and the effects of lipid content in sturgeon tissues and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of PAHs congeners on them were analyzed. The levels of total PAHs in the various tissues of Persian sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon ranged from 2.095 to 6.587 and 1.942 to 6.206 μg g(-1)dw, respectively. Stellate sturgeon showed significantly higher levels of heavy PAHs (⩾ 4-rings) than Persian sturgeon. The analysis has revealed a high degree of differential accumulation of the studied PAHs in the tissues of the both species. Low molecular weight PAHs predominated in the sturgeons, accounting for 81.89% of the total PAHs. Among the sixteen tested PAHs, naphthalene was the most dominant congener, followed by phenanthrene and fluorene. The PAHs levels and distribution in the tissues of sturgeons are dependent on both the Kow of PAH congeners and the lipid content in these tissues. There was a significant positive relationship (r=0.868, p<0.005) between lipid content and PAHs levels. The statistically significant negative relationships (p<0.01) were found between log Kow and log-transformed PAHs levels for muscle tissues of both sturgeon species. PMID:25462300

  16. Comparative ontogenetic behavior and migration of kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, from the Amur River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Cao, W.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed embryos (first life phase after hatching) and larvae (period initiating exogenous feeding) to day-30 (late larvae) for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Day-0 embryos of both species strongly preferred bright, open habitat and initiated a strong, downstream migration that lasted 4 days (3 day peak) for kaluga and 3 days (2 day peak) for Amur sturgeon. Kaluga migrants swam far above the bottom (150 cm) on only 1 day and moved day and night; Amur sturgeon migrants swam far above the bottom (median 130 cm) during 3 days and were more nocturnal than kaluga. Post-migrant embryos of both species moved day and night, but Amur sturgeon used dark, cover habitat and swam closer to the bottom than kaluga. The larva period of both species began on day 7 (cumulative temperature degree-days, 192.0 for kaluga and 171.5 for Amur sturgeon). Larvae of both species preferred open habitat. Kaluga larvae strongly preferred bright habitat, initially swam far above the bottom (median 50-105 cm), and migrated downstream at night during days 10-16 (7-day migration). Amur sturgeon larvae strongly avoided illumination, had a mixed response to white substrate, swam 20-30 cm above the bottom during most days, and during days 12-34 (most of the larva period) moved downstream mostly at night (23-day migration). The embryo-larva migration style of the two species likely shows convergence of non-related species for a common style in response to environmental selection in the Amur River. The embryo-larva migration style of Amur sturgeon is unique among Acipenser yet studied.

  17. Modeling Jupiter's current disc: Pioneer 10 outbound

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.E.; Melville, J.G. II; Blake, M.L.

    1980-07-01

    The magnetic field of the Jovian current disc has been modeled by using Euler functions and the Biot-Savart law applied to a series of concentric, but not necessarily coplanar, current rings. We find that a best fit to the Pioneer 10 outbound perturbation magnetic field data (B/sub total/-B/sub dipole/) is obtained if the current disc is twisted (outer edges increasingly lag behind inner edges with radial distance) and also bent so as to tend toward parallelism with the Jovigraphic equator. The inner and outer radii of the disc appear to be about 7 R/sub J/ and 150 R/sub J/, respectively, although some indication of a changing magnetopause location is apparent in the data. Because of the observed current disc penetrations, the bent disc also requires a deformation in the form of a bump or wrinkle whose axis tends also to exhibit spiraling. The radial dependence of the azimuthal current in the disc is not described by a simple power law, the outer region showing a smaller power law dependence. Modeling of the azimuthal field shows it to be due to a thin radial current sheet, but there is some evidence that this may, in fact, be due in large part to penetration of a tail current sheet as suggested by the Voyager observations.

  18. Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe Solar Flux Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L. R.; Palmer, J. M.; Holmes, A.; Wolfe, W. L.; Debell, A. G.; Brod, L. G.; Sholes, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Flux Radiometer aboard the Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe operated successfully during its descent through the atmosphere of Venus. The instrument measured atmospheric radiance over the spectral range from 400 to 1800 nm as a function of altitude. Elevation and azimuthal measurements on the radiation field were made with five optical channels. Twelve filtered Si and Ge photovoltaic detectors were maintained near 30 C with a phase-change material. The detector output currents were processed with logarithmic transimpedance converters and digitized with an 11-bit A/D converter. Atmospheric sampling in both elevation and azimuth was done according to a Gaussian integration scheme. The serial output data averaged 20 bits/sec, including housekeeping (sync, spin period, sample timing and mode). The data were used to determine the deposition of solar energy in the atmosphere of Venus between 67 km and the surface along with upward and downward fluxes and radiances with an altitude resolution of several hundred meters. The results allow for more accurate modeling of the radiation balance of the atmosphere than previously possible.

  19. Distribution of Potential Spawning Habitat for Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, 2003-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laustrup, Mark S.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Simpkins, Darin G.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota, to St. Louis, Missouri, during low water conditions in 2003-06 to identify and map coarse substrate deposits and bedrock exposures that might serve as spawning areas for sturgeon and other fishes. More than 330 deposits were identified, including tributary fans, bars, and habitat-enhancement projects. The location and extent of riverside bedrock exposures immediately adjacent to the channel also were mapped. Field surveys identified 48 bedrock exposures whereas the analysis of aerial orthophotographs identified an additional 65 exposures for a total of 113. Maps illustrating the distribution of deposits and their density were developed to aid researchers studying reproductive ecology of sturgeon and other lithophilic fishes.

  20. Population Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Bycaught in U.S. Atlantic Coast Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, I.; Maceda, L.; Grunwald, C.; King, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analyses were used to determine the population and Distinct Population Segment (DPS) origin of 173 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus encountered from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Observer Program. It was found that the Hudson River was by far the greatest contributor to this coastal bycatch, with 42.2-46.3% of specimens originating there. Generally, specimens respected the geographic province of the river in which they were spawned, but some specimens, particularly those originating in the South Atlantic DPS, moved great distances. Genetic mixed stock analyses provides an accurate approach to determine the DPS and population origin of Atlantic sturgeon bycaught in coastal waters but most informative management requires that these results be partitioned by locale, season, target fishery, and gear type. PMID:25727098

  1. Pioneer Research on Strong, Healthy Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth A.

    Interest in the family is pervasive throughout American culture today. The problematic relationship between the family and modern society is recognized by those of diverse political persuasions. Contemporary interest in the family is not entirely problem-oriented, however. Within the past 2 decades a quiet undercurrent of research focusing on…

  2. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) passage at the Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Peery, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ???95 cm TL were monitored using acoustic and radio telemetry at a large hydroelectric dam (the Dalles Dam) on the Columbia River, during March 2004 through November 2005 to determine timing and routes of passage and to characterize general movements. Transmitters were surgically implanted into 148 fish during the study; 90 were released into the tailrace and 58 into the forebay. We documented 26 passage events by 19 tagged fish: eight upstream via fish ladders and 18 downstream, mostly through open spill gates. During the study 17 fish entered the two ladders one or more times; 11 entered only the east ladder, three entered only the north ladder, and three entered both ladders at sometime. Residence time within the ladders by individual fish was variable, ranging from about 1 min to nearly 6 months (median = 7.7 h). Only six fish successfully ascended the east ladder, one fish twice. We could not unequivocally determine which fish ladder one fish used to pass upstream. Differences in construction between the north and east fish ladders may account for the greater success of the east fish ladder in passing sturgeon upstream. Changes to operations at hydroelectric dams to benefit migrating anadromous salmonids may influence upstream or downstream passage by white sturgeon. Altering patterns and timing of spill discharge, altering fish ladder entrance attraction flows, and the use of lights, sound, and partial barriers to direct other species of fish to preferred passage routes have unknown effects on sturgeon passage. A better understanding of the consequences to the metapopulation of increasing or precluding upstream or downstream passage is needed. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  3. Transcriptome analysis and de novo annotation of the critically endangered Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X J; Jiang, H Y; Li, L M; Yuan, L H; Chen, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive insights into the genetic background of sturgeon by transcriptome study. We performed a de novo assembly of the Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii transcriptome using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 148,817 non-redundant unigenes with base length of approximately 121,698,536 bp and ranges from 201 to 26,789 bp were obtained. All the unigenes were classified into 3368 distinct categories and 145,449 singletons by homologous transcript cluster analysis. In all, 46,865 (31.49%) unigenes showed homologous matches with Nr database and 32,214 (21.65%) unigenes were matched to Nt database. In total, 24,862 unigenes were categorized into significantly enriched 52 function groups by GO analysis, and 38,436 unigenes were classified into 25 groups by KOG prediction, as well as 128 enriched KEGG pathways were identified by 45,598 unigenes (P < 0.05). Subsequently, a total of 19,860 SSRs markers were identified with the abundant di-nucleotide type (10,658; 53.67%) and the most AT/TA motif repeats (2689; 13.54%). A total of 1341 conserved lncRNAs were identified by a customized pipeline. Our study provides new sequence and function information for A. schrenckii, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on sturgeon species. The huge number of potential SSRs and putatively conserved lncRNAs isolated by the transcriptome also shed light on research in many fields, including the evolution, conservation management, and biological processes in sturgeon. PMID:27420941

  4. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  5. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  6. Genetic comparison of lake sturgeon populations: Differentiation based on allelic frequencies at seven microsatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McQuown, E.; Krueger, C.C.; Kincaid, H.L.; Gall, G.A.E.; May, B.

    2003-01-01

    The lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) has recently become a high priority for restoration management because of the near extinction of the species from many areas of North America. The identification of the level of population differentiation that naturally exists among lake sturgeon populations will be useful in the development of management plans to conserve and restore diversity, and in the choice of donor populations to use for re-introduction. Genetic variation among and within 210 lake sturgeon collected from seven locations (St. Lawrence River, Des Prairies River (tributary to the St. Lawrence River), Mattagami River (Hudson Bay drainage), Menominee River (Lake Michigan drainage), Wolf River (Lake Michigan drainage), Niagara River, and Lake Erie) was examined based on allelic variation at seven microsatellite loci (four disomic and three putative tetrasomic). High levels of variability were detected at these loci. Analyses revealed an average of 8.6 alleles per locus (range 5 to 12 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity values at the four disomic loci ranging from 0.46 to 0.66. Multivariate factor analysis of Nei's genetic distance values produced three distinct population groups that were organized by geography: 1) Mattagami (northern Quebec), 2) Menominee/ Wolf (Lake Michigan - Wisconsin), and 3) St. Lawrence/ Des Prairies/ Niagara/ Erie (lower Great Lakes). Differences based on G-tests summed over all loci occurred between all possible paired comparisons of the collections (P < 0.01). These analyses indicated that lake sturgeon populations are differentiated within the Great Lakes basin. Managers of this species will need to identify individual populations in their jurisdictions and provide separate consideration for their conservation and rehabilitation.

  7. Histopathological effects of silver and copper nanoparticles on the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska, Teresa; Chojnacki, Maciej; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Sawosz-Chwalibóg, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of nanoparticles (NPs) on aquatic environments is still poorly documented. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of silver (AgNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles on larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) after 21 days of exposure. Acute toxicity of AgNPs on Siberian sturgeon was investigated in a 96-h static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of CuNPs. The AgNPs and CuNPs 96 h mean lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) were 15.03 ± 2.91 and 1.41 ± 0.24 mg L(-1), respectively. Toxicity tests were done in triplicates for each concentration of AgNPs 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 mg L(-1) and CuNPs 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 mg L(-1). The control group was exposed in freshwater. The results indicate that AgNPs and CuNPs exposure negatively influenced survival; body length and mass; and morphology and physiology of the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon larvae. Fish exposed to AgNPs and CuNPs showed similar pathological changes: irregular structure and pyknotic nuclei of epidermis, aplasia and/or fusion of lamellae, telangiectasis, epithelial necrosis and lifting of the gills, dilation of sinusoidal space, overfilled blood vessels, and pyknotic nuclei of the liver. Fish exposed to CuNPs only demonstrated hyaline degeneration in the gills epithelium and liver. The study shows that CuNPs were more toxic to Siberian sturgeon larvae than AgNPs. PMID:26381783

  8. Assessing the potential of the European Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio to control bivalve invasions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Rodriguez, N; Gessner, J; Pardo, I

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study explored the potential of juvenile European Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio to feed on two invasive bivalve species, the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea and the Eurasian zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Preliminary results indicate that native A. sturio were feeding on D. polymorpha at a very limited rate and their potential to prevent the establishment of invasive bivalve species, in new and previously invaded areas, is considered limited. PMID:27238016

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Sturgeon Lake, Goodhue County, Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Montz, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Prairie Island Indian Community and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study of Sturgeon Lake (a backwater lake in Navigation Pool 3 of the Mississippi River) during 2003-04 to describe the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. Riparian and shoreline areas surrounding Sturgeon Lake consist primarily of deciduous tree and shrub cover with minimal amounts of commercial or residential land use. Woody debris and aquatic vegetation are the major types of physical habitat suitable for fish and invertebrates. Among 10 bottom-sediment sampling sites, 24 organic wastewater compounds, 1 organochlorine pesticide metabolite (p,p’DDE), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the bottom sediments of Sturgeon Lake. The most prevalent class of compounds detected were polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Other classes of compounds detected include sterols, disinfectants, plastic components, alkylphenols, and fragrances. Three compounds detected (bisphenol A, benzo[a]pyrene, and triclosan) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. Twenty-one and 49 invertebrate taxa were identified from 10 bottom-sediment and 6 woody-debris/vegetation samples, respectively. Most of the taxa were Diptera in the family Chironomidae. The most common invertebrate in terms of density in bottom-sediment samples was the burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia sp.). Trichoptera in the families Hydropsychidae or Polycentropodidae were common in most of the woody-debris samples. The presence of the Hexagenia larvae in samples indicates that the bottom sediments are stable and that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake do not drop to acute or sub-lethal anoxic conditions. Backwater lakes such as Sturgeon Lake are important areas of habitat for aquatic organisms along the Mississippi River, and this report provides baseline physical, chemical, and biological information that resource managers can

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Shortnose Sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop habitat suitability index models and instream flow suitability curves for the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Pioneer transcription factors, chromatin dynamics, and cell fate control.

    PubMed

    Zaret, Kenneth S; Mango, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Among the diverse transcription factors that are necessary to elicit changes in cell fate, both in embryonic development and in cellular reprogramming, a subset of factors are capable of binding to their target sequences on nucleosomal DNA and initiating regulatory events in silent chromatin. Such 'pioneer transcription factors' initiate cooperative interactions with other regulatory proteins to elicit changes in local chromatin structure. As a consequence of pioneer factor binding, the local chromatin can either become open and competent for activation, closed and repressed, or transcriptionally active. Understanding how pioneer factors initiate chromatin dynamics and how such can be blocked at heterochromatic sites provides insights into controlling cell fate transitions at will. PMID:26826681

  12. Spawning related movement of shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Ryan R.; Guy, Christopher S.; Webb, Molly A.; Gardner, William M.; Jensen, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The hypotheses of this study were (i) that shovelnose sturgeon would make upstream movements to spawn, (ii) movement of spawning fish would be greater in a year with higher discharge, and (iii) that spawning fish would have greater movements than reproductively inactive fish. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in five reproductive categories (e.g. males, confirmed spawning females, potentially spawning females, atretic females, and reproductively inactive females) were tracked in 2008 and 2009. All reproductive categories, except reproductively inactive females, exhibited large-scale movements and had omnidirectional movements. No differences in movement rates were observed in confirmed spawning females between years despite a 45% higher peak discharge in 2008 (839 m3 s−1) than in 2009 (578 m3 s−1). A peak discharge was obtained at a faster rate in 2008 (165 m3 s−1 day−1) than in 2009 (39 m3 s−1 day−1), and high discharge was of greater duration in 2008. Reproductively inactive females did not exhibit large-scale movements and their movement rate differed from other reproductive categories. Shovelnose sturgeon spawned in both years, despite highly varying hydrographs between years.

  13. Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, S. Shaun; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Divers, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The visual and microscopic tissue reactions to the absorbable monofilament Monocryl, absorbable monofilament triclosan-coated Monocryl-Plus, absorbable multifilament Vicryl, and nonabsorbable monofilament Prolene were evaluated for their use of surgical closure in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, and 26 and 55 weeks to visually evaluate the surgical incision for suture retention, incision healing, erythema, and swelling. Incisions were also assessed microscopically at 1, 2, and 8 weeks for necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, and fibroplasia. The results indicated that incisions closed with either Vicryl or Prolene suture materials were more likely to exhibit more erythema or incomplete healing compared with those closed with Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus. The surgical implantation of a transmitter in the coelomic cavity did not significantly affect the response variables among the four suture materials. Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus were equally effective and superior to other suture materials used for closing surgical incisions in Siberian Sturgeon or closely related species of sturgeon. Furthermore, Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus may decrease the risk of transmitter expulsion through the incision, as surgical wounds appear to heal faster and exhibit less erythema compared with those closed with Vicryl.

  14. Efficacy of iodine for disinfection of Lake Sturgeon eggs from the St. Lawrence River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Optimal fish husbandry to reduce the risk of disease is particularly important when using wild fish as the source for gametes. The propagation and reestablishment of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in New York waters to become a viable self-sustaining population is considered a high priority by managers. While standard hatchery egg disinfection practices have been used to prevent the transmission of diseases, data on the bacterial loads present on egg surfaces following iodine disinfection is lacking. Our study investigated the bacteria present on the outer surface of Lake Sturgeon eggs and the effectiveness of an iodine disinfection treatment in eliminating bacteria that could pose a threat to egg survival and cause hatchery disease outbreaks. During the springs of 2011–2013, 12 to 41 different species of bacteria were recovered from the outer egg surfaces prior to an iodine treatment; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Chryseobacterium were the most common genera identified. Cohort eggs treated using the standard protocol of a single treatment of 50 mg/L iodine for 30 min resulted in an average of 57.8% reduction in bacterial CFU/g. While this is a significant reduction, bacteria were not completely eliminated and hatchery managers should be aware that pathogens could remain on Lake Sturgeon eggs following the standard iodine disinfection treatment.

  15. Potential for restoration of the Roanoke River population of Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, J.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) was historically abundant within Albemarie Sound and the Roanoke River in North Carolina, but declined dramatically in the late 1800s in response to intensive fishing. Recent evidence suggests that the population may be recovering, following a statewide prohibition on harvest in 1991. A recruitment index generally increased from 1992 through 2001. Estuarine habitat for juveniles appears to be suitable, resulting in mean growth rates for age 1 fish ranging from 0.59 to 0.81 mm day-1. A restoration goal of 7000-21 000 subadult and adult Atlantic sturgeon was developed for the Roanoke River, based on historical landings records. Bycatch mortality because of commercial gill-netting in Albermarle Sound could affect recovery. Telemetry and netting data indicate that juvenile Atlantic sturgeon in the sound are most abundant in shallow nearshore areas where commercial gill-netting is concentrated. However, immediate mortality rates from survey and commercial gill-netting in Albemarle Sound were only 0-2%. Additional field studies are needed to refine estimates of immediate- and longer-term mortality associated with gill-net bycatch.

  16. Molecular analysis of phylogeographic subspecies in three Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Dudu, Andreea; Georgescu, Sergiu Emil; Costache, Marieta

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons (Order Acipenseriformes) represent an extremely valuable natural resource that is now facing depletion. In the current study we evaluate if the traditional classification in subspecies of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Acipenser stellatus and Huso huso, endemic to Ponto-Caspian region is sustained by molecular analysis and if these represent Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) that should be managed separately in conservation programs. To examine the classification of taxonomic entities we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial control region in case of three sturgeon species that inhabit the North-western of Black Sea and migrate for reproduction in the Lower Danube. Beside these sequences, we used previously published sequences from sturgeon individuals sampled in the Black Sea, Azov Sea and Caspian Sea. We determined the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, conducted a Population Aggregation Analysis (PAA) and inferred an intraspecific molecular phylogeny and haplotype network. The results indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between the geographically designated subspecies and did not support a significant divergence or reciprocal monophyly between them. Our results confirm previous genetic studies with smaller samples sizes, but additional analyses including nuclear markers should be conducted for proper recommendations aiming at the development of conservation programs. PMID:25249783

  17. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  18. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  19. Accelerometer-derived activity correlates with volitional swimming speed in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiem, J.D.; Dawson, J.W.; Gleiss, A.C.; Martins, E.G.; Haro, Alexander J.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Danylchuk, A.J.; Wilson, R.P.; Cooke, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying fine-scale locomotor behaviours associated with different activities is challenging for free-swimming fish.Biologging and biotelemetry tools can help address this problem. An open channel flume was used to generate volitionalswimming speed (Us) estimates of cultured lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) and these were paired withsimultaneously recorded accelerometer-derived metrics of activity obtained from three types of data-storage tags. This studyexamined whether a predictive relationship could be established between four different activity metrics (tail-beat frequency(TBF), tail-beat acceleration amplitude (TBAA), overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), and vectorial dynamic body acceleration(VeDBA)) and the swimming speed of A. fulvescens. Volitional Us of sturgeon ranged from 0.48 to 2.70 m·s−1 (0.51–3.18 bodylengths (BL) · s−1). Swimming speed increased linearly with all accelerometer-derived metrics, and when all tag types werecombined, Us increased 0.46 BL·s−1 for every 1 Hz increase in TBF, and 0.94, 0.61, and 0.94 BL·s−1 for every 1g increase in TBAA,ODBA, and VeDBA, respectively. Predictive relationships varied among tag types and tag-specific parameter estimates of Us arepresented for all metrics. This use of acceleration data-storage tags demonstrated their applicability for the field quantificationof sturgeon swimming speed.

  20. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  1. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  2. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  3. Assessment of Lower Missouri River Physical Aquatic Habitat and Its Use by Adult Sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus), 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an exploratory analysis of habitat availability and use by adult Scaphirhynchus sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota, to the junction with the Mississippi River. The analysis is based on two main data sources collected from 2005 to 2007: (1) a compilation of 153 reach-scale habitat maps (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) derived from boat-collected hydroacoustic data and (2) a sturgeon location dataset from which 378 sturgeon telemetry locations are associated with the maps (within 7 days of the mapping and within 10 percent of the discharge). The report focuses on: (1) longitudinal patterns of geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics revealed by the collection of reach maps; (2) assessment of environmental characteristics at sturgeon locations in the context of the mapped reaches; and (3) consideration of spatial distribution of habitat conditions that sturgeon appear to select. Longitudinal patterns of geomorphology, hydraulics, and associated habitats relate strongly to the engineered state of the river. Reaches within each of the following river sections tended to share similar geomorphic, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics: the Minimally Engineered section (Gavins Point Dam to Sioux City, Iowa), the Upstream Channelized section (Sioux City, Iowa, to the junction with the Kansas River), and the Downstream Channelized section (Kansas River to the junction with the Mississippi River). Adult sturgeon occupy nearly the full range of available values for each continuous variable assessed: depth, depth slope, depth-averaged velocity, velocity gradient, and Froude number (a dimensionless number relating velocity to depth). However, in the context of habitat available in a reach, sturgeon tend to select some areas over others. Reproductive female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), in particular, were often found in parts of the reach with one or more of the following characteristics: high

  4. Denver's Pioneer Astronomer: Herbert Alonso Howe (1858-1926)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, H. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Fisher, S.

    1999-05-01

    Herbert A. Howe arrived at Denver University (DU) to teach autumn 1880 classes, in math, astronomy and surveying. Howe established himself with clever solutions to the Kepler problem for orbit determinations in thesis work at Cincinnati Observatory. Riding the economic expansion of Colorado gold and silver mining in 1888, the University accepted a proposed gift of a major observatory, offered by Denver real estate baron, Humphrey Chamberlin. The result features a 20 inch aperture Alvan Clark refractor, which still ranks among the largest telescopes of the era. With the observatory building ready, the Silver Panic of 1893 -- when the US Congress dropped silver reserves from the currency basis -- burst the Denver economic bubble. Chamberlin was unable to complete payments on the balances due. Clark and G.N.Saegmuller (Fauth and Co.) at personal expense, delivered on the optics and telescope assemblies in 1894, but would wait for repayment. Sadly, this fiscal crisis affected DU for over a decade. Professor Howe, while observatory director, found himself consumed as Dean and Acting Chancellor for a young, struggling university, at the expense of the astronomy future that had looked so bright in 1892. Absent the Silver Panic, Howe would have probably been given an endowed chair in astronomy, as promised by Chamberlin. The complexion of American astronomy at the time of the birth of the American Astronomical Society in 1899 might have been different, in terms of US observing sites, etc. We are fortunate to have extensive Prof.Howe's daily diaries now in the University archives. These describe Howe's view of progress on the observatory, meetings with astronomy notables, plus vignettes of the life and times of Denver and the nation. Grandson, Herbert Julian Howe rediscovered their existence and is summarizing them in the form of a biography entitled: The Pioneer Astronomer. DU archival records contain numerous original letters from late 19th century astronomy luminaries

  5. [Theodor Emil Kocher, modern surgery pioneer].

    PubMed

    Chigot, J P

    2000-11-01

    Theodore Kocher was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland. He was the first Swiss citizen and the first surgeon to ever receive such a distinction. He was a pioneer and a world leader in the surgical revolution of the end of the nineteenth century. After graduation in 1865, he traveled in Germany, England, France and Austria to observe the work of Langenbeck, Paget, Wells, Nelaton, Billroth.... In 1866, he returned to Bern and was appointed assistant in the surgical clinic of Lücke. In 1872 he applied for the succession of Lücke. After a lively debate, he was appointed by the Board of Regents against the recommendation of the faculty who wished to nominate a German surgeon, König. It proved to be a good choice, as, over a period of 45 years, Kocher developed a considerable activity in various fields of surgery leading to world-wide acclaim and renown. Kocher's most significant contribution to medicine concerned the thyroid gland. He considerably improved thyroid surgery. His anatomical knowledge, precise operating technic and respect of the aseptic principles defined by Lister, whom he had met in Glasgow, contributed to a reduction of mortality from 13% to 0.18%. He described postoperative hypothyroidism, which he called cachexia strumipriva and concluded that total thyroidectomy was not indicated in benign diseases. When he died, more than 7,000 thyroidectomies had been performed in his clinic. Kocher was also interested in orthopedics, abdominal and genitourinary surgery, surgical oncology, neurosurgery (Cushing conducted experimental research with him). He developed or modified many surgical instruments. He conducted a large number of experimental studies and published 249 articles and books. PMID:11244599

  6. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  7. 95. Pioneer Plaza, 125 (movie theater), entrance to theater and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. Pioneer Plaza, 125 (movie theater), entrance to theater and building to left of theater - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. Does Increased Spending on Pharmaceutical Marketing Inhibit Pioneering Innovation?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided. PMID:26732315

  9. Flow and sediment-transport modeling of Kootenai River White Sturgeon Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J.; Barton, G.; Paragamian, V.

    2004-12-01

    The population of White Sturgeon in the Kootenai River downstream of Libby Dam in Montana and Idaho has declined since the construction of the dam in 1972. The White Sturgeon was listed as endangered in 1994 and an 11.2 mile reach of the river, downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was designated as Critical Habitat in 2001. It is hypothesized that hydro-electric and flood control operations have contributed to poor spawning habitat and recruitment of juvenile fish. The successful incubation of eggs requires a stable and coarse bed material. Currently the sturgeon are spawning in a reach of poor substrate consisting of dunes up to 2 meters in amplitude and composed of fine sand while a short distance upstream there is suitable substrate of coarse gravel. We present here the preliminary results of a flow and sediment-transport modeling effort to aid in an understanding of both the current spawning habitat of the White Sturgeon and the potential to artificially enhance the current spawning habitat or to influence the sturgeon to move upstream to more suitable habitat. A 2.5 dimensional flow model was constructed for an 8-kilometer reach of the designated Critical Habitat. The modeled reach consists of several broad meanders and a mid channel island. The substrate is composed of fine sand with a median grain size of 0.22mm and has large dunes up to 2m in amplitude at relatively lows flows of 200 cms that wash out to a plane bed at around 600 cms. The model has been calibrated to a range of historical flow conditions from 170 cms to 1709 cms and verified against 16 ADCP velocity cross-section profiles collected during a period of steady flow at 554 cms. The model predicts well most of the salient features of the velocity field including the magnitude and location of the secondary flow, using a simple constant value for roughness. However for a few reaches of the river the bed forms and their spatial variability in size are shown to significantly affect the flow and the

  10. Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?

    SciTech Connect

    Tangen, Kjell

    2007-08-15

    If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance.

  11. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish

  12. Lessons From the Pioneer Venus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    We began the Pioneer Venus contract in late 1974 with a planned launch of the Orbiter in May 1978 and the Multiprobe in August 1978. Because we had four years, we thought there was plenty of time. As it turned out, we barely made the launch dates. The Orbiter was relatively straightforward, compared to the Multiprobe Bus and Probes that had to survive descent through the harsh Venusian atmosphere. To help overcome our many Multiprobe problems we formed a strong global team. The GE reentry team in Philadelphia, experienced in designing vehicles to enter the earth s atmosphere, was assigned the responsibility for the Probe entry system, including protective heat shielding and parachute design to extract the scienceladen Large Probe pressure vessel and control its descent through the Venusian clouds. Since the Probes had to remain stable as they descended through the Venus atmosphere, we used the aerodynamic expertise at the Hughes Missile Division, NASA s Ames Research Center and the Langley Research Center. Since the pressure at the surface of Venus was equivalent to an ocean depth of 3300 feet, we went to the Navy s David Taylor Research Center for their deepsea expertise. To test the pressure vessel at the high pressure and temperatures anticipated at Venus we went to the only facility capable of simulating the Venus surface environment, the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. We had dozens of subcontractors all over the world. As we developed our design, we began an extensive program to validate the ability of our Probe hardware to withstand the Venus environment. During this testing, we encountered numerous problems, mostly associated with adapting earth-based hardware to operate in the anticipated Venus environment. For example, the Large Probe pressure vessel imploded with a very loud bang the first time we tested its ability to withstand the high pressure and temperature on the Venusian surface. We had to go back and redesign, increasing the

  13. Pioneer 10 and 11 Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, Walker

    1997-01-01

    This report finishes the work of NASA Grant NAS2-153, which supported data analysis for the UCSD instruments on Pioneers 10 and 11. The data analyzed under this grant span 22 years of interplanetary measurements in the inner and outer heliosphere. The UCSD instruments made their mark in cosmic ray research based upon their high energy thresholds, directional responses, and reliable data streams. one of their primary scientific objectives concerns the size, configuration, and time behavior of the heliosphere. The size scale is inferred from the radial intensity gradient, which is measured between the two spacecraft and extrapolated to interstellar intensity levels at the cosmic ray modulation boundary. This boundary still eludes us, and its position, motion, and the best method of extrapolation are ongoing problems. Current projections place the boundary beyond 100 AU, which may be beyond the termination shock, and raises the question of possible modulation in the heliosheath. Probably our only hope of seeing this region in the immediate future rides on the possibility that the boundary will move inward. Our instruments have recorded many Forbush, or transient, decreases in the outer heliosphere. These observations led us to a model that attributes many of the decreases to solar wind stream-stream interactions, and relates the cosmic ray variations to the locally observed magnetic field magnitude. As the cosmic ray variations in this model result only from topological changes in the modulation integral, the model is a tool for studying the possibility that the 11 year cosmic ray modulation cycle can be accounted for by a superposition of Forbush decreases. The cosmic ray angular distribution function is measurable, given a good telemetry rate, by the UCSD Cerenkov detector which counts particles of energy greater than 500 MeV/n. We obtained statistically significant samples from 1 to 9 AU, at 13 AU, and at 34 AU. The anisotropy tends to be a few tenths of a per cent

  14. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile lake and shortnose sturgeons for handling and the effects on their behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, E.; Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.

    2002-01-01

    Low voltage constant direct current was used to immobilize juvenile lake (Acipenser fulvescens) and shortnose sturgeons (A. brevirostrum). There was no significant difference in time/ the lake or shortnose sturgeons required to exhibit positive rheotaxis between fish immobilized with electricity and control fish (two-way ANOVA, P = 0.11). Fish immobilized with 80 mg L-1 tricaine took a significantly longer time to orient than control fish or fish immobilized with electricity for 5 or 30 min (one-way ANOVA, P = 0.003). Electronarcosis, which produces effects like a chemical anesthetic, is a useful technique for immobilizing juvenile sturgeons for handling. Fish can swim upright as soon as the electricity is turned off, recovery time is shorter than with chemical anesthetics, and the cost of equipment is < 400 USD.

  15. Detections of Acoustic-Tagged Green Sturgeon in Baker Bay on the Lower Columbia River during September - November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic transmitters implanted in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) captured in rivers in California were detected by acoustic receivers deployed within and around Baker Bay. The receivers were deployed at eight locations in the Bay and adjacent navigation channels of the Lower Columbia River during a period of anticipated channel dredging. Three of the transmitters detected were confirmed to have been implanted into green sturgeon in previous years; two were from the Sacramento River and one was from the Klamath River. The transmitters (fish) were within detection range of the receivers for only a short period, which is consistent with findings of earlier studies that green sturgeon make rapid and extensive intra-estuary movements.

  16. Habitat used by juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the North Channel of the St. Clair River (Michigan, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boase, James C.; Manny, Bruce A.; Donald, Katherine A.L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Diana, James S.; Thomas, Michael V.; Chiotti, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occupy the St. Clair River, part of a channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the North Channel of the St. Clair River, juvenile lake sturgeon (3–7 years old and 582–793 mm in length) were studied to determine movement patterns and habitat usage. Fourteen juveniles were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked June–August of 2004, 2005 and 2006. Telemetry data, Geographic Information System software, side-scan sonar, video images of the river bottom, scuba diving, and benthic substrate samples were used to determine the extent and composition of habitats they occupied. Juvenile lake sturgeon habitat selection was strongly related to water depth. No fish were found in 700 mm in length selected sand and gravel areas mixed with zebra mussels and areas dominated by zebra mussels, while fish < 700 mm used these habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  17. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  18. A new species of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) associated with mortalities in Manitoba lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; Vanwalleghem, Elissa; Copeland, Shelagh; Klassen, Cheryl; Hobbs, Gary; Nielsen, Ole; Anderson, Eric D

    2013-02-28

    A newly discovered virus, Namao virus, associated with morbidity and mortality, was detected among juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens being propagated by a conservation stocking program for this endangered species in Manitoba, Canada. The outbreaks resulted in cumulative mortalities of 62 to 99.6% among progeny of wild Winnipeg River or Nelson River lake sturgeon and occurred at 2 geographically separate facilities. Namao virus was detected in almost 94% of the moribund or dead lake sturgeon according to a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) test that is based upon amplification of a 219 bp fragment of the virus major capsid protein (MCP). The virus itself was large (242 to 282 nm) and icosahedral-shaped with 2 capsids and a condensed bar-shaped core. It was found in virus factories within the host cell cytoplasm and displayed a tropism for the integument. Namao virus caused cellular changes characterized by enlarged eosinophilic epithelial cells in the gills and skin. Samples suspected of containing Namao virus did not have cytopathic effects on primary lake sturgeon or established white sturgeon cell lines. However, viral nucleic acid was detected in the former after prolonged incubation periods. Using primers designed from conserved regions of the MCP from NCLDVs, an estimated 95 to 96% of the Namao virus MCP open reading frame was captured. Phylogenetic analysis using the MCP of Namao virus and 27 other NCLDVs suggested that Namao virus and white sturgeon iridovirus share a common evolutionary past and might be members of the family Mimiviridae or a new, as yet unrecognized, virus family. PMID:23446969

  19. Isolation of Yersinia ruckeri strain H01 from farm-raised Amur Sturgeon Acipenser schrencki in China.

    PubMed

    Shaowu, Li; Di, Wang; Hongbai, Liu; Tongyan, Lu

    2013-03-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease or yersiniosis, which affects salmonids and several other species of fish. However, there are no reports on the characteristics and pathogenicity of Y. ruckeri isolated from farm-raised Amur Sturgeon Acipenser schrencki. Here, we isolated and characterized Y. ruckeri strain H01 from the diseased Amur Sturgeon in China. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Y. ruckeri were observed, and its virulence was tested by examining experimentally infected sturgeons. Examination of the flagellar morphology of Y. ruckeri by transmission electron microscopy showed five to eight peritrichous flagella located on the cell body. Actively dividing cells with an obvious cell membrane were approximately 0.64 μm in diameter and between 1.7 and 2.5 μm in length. The dose that was lethal to 50% of the test fish after intraperitoneal injection was determined to be 7.2×10(6) CFU, and Y. ruckeri could be reisolated from the liver and kidneys of infected sturgeon. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that H01 was susceptible to 10 antimicrobial agents. Part of the 16S rRNA sequences (563 base pair) was amplified and sequenced to study the genotypic characterization in Y. ruckeri (GenBank accession number JQ657818). The phylogenetic tree revealed H01 was clustered together with Y. ruckeri strains. Together, this study describes the isolation, characterization, and phenotypic-genotypic analysis of a Y. ruckeri strain isolated from farm-raised Amur Sturgeon. The results discovered may provide some theoretical basis for the prevention and control of yersiniosis in Amur Sturgeon. PMID:23241058

  20. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  2. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  3. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  4. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  5. The incunabula of American optometry.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States. PMID:23057222

  6. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  7. An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

  8. Notes from the Great American Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.; LaCost, Barbara Y.

    2005-01-01

    In the good old days, the state that is Nebraska was identified as part of the Great American Desert. In many ways, in climate and terrain, it still bears a resemblance to a desert. As a frontier or a land of pioneers, it deserves recognition. Invisibility may be one of the greatest challenges women face. One of the great flaws in the writing of…

  9. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  10. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey L.C. Durette, Photographer CHINKING MATERIALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey L.C. Durette, Photographer CHINKING MATERIALS (HOMESPUN WOOL, NEWSPAPER, (twisted swamp grass) STRAW, COTTON CLOTH & CLAY) - Pioneer Cabin, Campton Station, Grafton County, NH

  11. Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands

    PubMed Central

    Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. PMID:24383765

  12. James Parkinson (1755-1824): a pioneer of child care.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Gardner-Thorpe, C

    2001-02-01

    James Parkinson (1755-1824) of Parkinson's disease, is well recognized as a pioneer of clinical neurology; and is even more famous as a founder of modern palaeontology. We have reviewed from primary sources his extensive contributions to clinical child care and his pioneering advocacy for child welfare, protection and safety. His writings, outreach and advocacy for children's health characterizes him as one whose influence was an important springboard from which evolved the modern specialty of paediatrics. Parkinson was one of the first to write on child-rearing practices and in this context antedated Benjamin Spock by 150 years. Parkinson was a pioneer of child safety and the prevention of childhood trauma. He wrote of the resuscitation of near-drowned children and of first aid for injured children. This critical analysis reviews his pioneering description of child abuse and the development of post-abuse hydrocephalus. He wrote the datum description (in English) of the pathophysiology and pathology of appendicitis in children, of fatal rabies in children and highlighted the risk of death even when the biting dog was not clinically rabid. His advocacy for social reform for children's welfare was courageous and pioneering. James Parkinson, hitherto unacknowledged, was a significant founder of the evolving discipline of paediatrics and child health. PMID:11168861

  13. Effect of nutritional status on the osmoregulation of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris).

    PubMed

    Haller, Liran Y; Hung, Silas S O; Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Lee, Jun-Ho; McEnroe, Maryann; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is linked to food web and salinity fluctuations in estuarine environments. Both decreased nutritional status and environmental salinity influence the physiological tolerance and health of fish populations; however, limited information on the interaction of these two factors and their physiological consequences is available. The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is a species of special concern in California, and the southern distinct population segment is listed as threatened. To test the hypothesis that poor nutrition negatively affects osmoregulation, juvenile green sturgeon (222 d posthatch) were randomly assigned to four feed restriction groups (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the optimal feeding rate for 4 wk). Fish were then acutely exposed to 0-, 8-, 16-, or 32-ppt salinities and sampled at three time points (12, 72, or 120 h). Feed restriction significantly (P < 0.05) decreased specific growth rate, feed efficiency, condition factor, whole-body lipids, and protein content as well as plasma glucose, triglycerides, and proteins. Furthermore, feed restriction, salinity concentration, and salinity exposure time had significant effects on hematological indexes (hematocrit, hemoglobin), plasma values (osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), glucose, lactate, cortisol), enzymatic activity (gill and pyloric ceca Na(+)/K(+) ATPase), and morphology of gill mitochondria-rich cells. The largest disturbances were observed at the highest salinity treatments across all feeding regimes. In addition, the interaction between feed restriction and acute salinity exposure at the highest salinity treatment resulted in high mortality rates during the first 72 h of salinity exposure. Evaluating the interactions of these environmental stressors and their implications on green sturgeon physiological tolerance will inform restoration and management efforts in rapidly changing estuarine environments. PMID:25590591

  14. Coding of sound direction in the auditory periphery of the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Arthur N.; Fay, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    The lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, belongs to one of the few extant nonteleost ray-finned fishes and diverged from the main vertebrate lineage about 250 million years ago. The aim of this study was to use this species to explore the peripheral neural coding strategies for sound direction and compare these results to modern bony fishes (teleosts). Extracellular recordings were made from afferent neurons innervating the saccule and lagena of the inner ear while the fish was stimulated using a shaker system. Afferents were highly directional and strongly phase locked to the stimulus. Directional response profiles resembled cosine functions, and directional preferences occurred at a wide range of stimulus intensities (spanning at least 60 dB re 1 nm displacement). Seventy-six percent of afferents were directionally selective for stimuli in the vertical plane near 90° (up down) and did not respond to horizontal stimulation. Sixty-two percent of afferents responsive to horizontal stimulation had their best axis in azimuths near 0° (front back). These findings suggest that in the lake sturgeon, in contrast to teleosts, the saccule and lagena may convey more limited information about the direction of a sound source, raising the possibility that this species uses a different mechanism for localizing sound. For azimuth, a mechanism could involve the utricle or perhaps the computation of arrival time differences. For elevation, behavioral strategies such as directing the head to maximize input to the area of best sensitivity may be used. Alternatively, the lake sturgeon may have a more limited ability for sound source localization compared with teleosts. PMID:22031776

  15. Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Kennedy, Gregory; Crawford, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey; French, John, III; Black, Glen; Blouin, Marc; Hickey, James P.; Chernyak, Sergei; Haas, Robert; Thomas, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most threatened remaining populations of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes is found in the connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Only two spawning grounds are presently known to be active in this region, and both are in the St. Clair River. The spawning reef in the St. Clair River delta has been recently colonized by round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in densities up to 25/m2, raising concerns regarding predation on the benthic-oriented eggs and larvae of the sturgeon. Investigations in 1998–1999 showed that while round goby predation does occur, a number of other factors may be equally affecting sturgeon spawning success, including few spawning adults (< 60), suspected poaching pressure, low retention rate of eggs on the reef, low hatch rate (~0.5%), the presence of organic contaminants, and predation from native and exotic invertebrates and fish. Overall, we estimate that less than 1% of the eggs deposited during a spawning run survive to hatch. We were able to increase the egg hatch rate to 16% by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers on the reef. The fate of the larvae is uncertain. Two weeks after hatching, no larvae were found on the reef. We were unable to find them anywhere else in the river, nor was predation on larvae noted in either year. There were factors other than predation affecting larval survival in 1999. There was a higher silt load on the reef than in 1998 and large numbers of dead larvae were found. Recruitment success from this site could be improved by utilizing techniques to increase the number of eggs on the reef, such as reducing the illegal take of adult fish and by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers to increase hatch rate.

  16. Swimming activity and energetic costs of adult lake sturgeon during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Jason D; Dawson, Jeff W; Hatin, Daniel; Danylchuk, Andy J; Dumont, Pierre; Gleiss, Adrian C; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-08-15

    Fish migrations through riverine systems can be energetically demanding, and the presence of fishways to facilitate upstream passage can add an additional energetic cost that may directly affect fitness. Successful fishway passage is a function of the ability of fish to select appropriate paths and swimming strategies that do not exceed their swimming capacity. Triaxial accelerometers were used to estimate the energetic expenditure of adult lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) swimming through a vertical slot fishway, to determine whether individual behaviour or path selection, resulting in differences in cumulative energy use, explain fishway passage success. Most individuals attempted to pass the fishway (n=30/44; 68%), although successful passage only occurred for a subset of those attempting (n=7/30; 23%). High-speed swimming was rarely observed during upstream passage through fishway basins, and was of short duration. Two turning basins delayed passage, subsequently resulting in a higher energetic cost. The rate at which energy was expended did not differ among successful and unsuccessful individuals, although successful sturgeon exhibited higher costs of transport (42.75 versus 25.85 J kg(-1) m(-1)). Energy expenditure metrics were not predictive of successful fishway passage, leading us to conclude that other endogenous or exogenous factors influence passage success. In a practical application of field measurements of energy expenditure, we demonstrate that fishway passage through a structure designed to facilitate migration does result in an energetic loss for lake sturgeon (3249-16,331 J kg(-1)), equivalent to individuals travelling 5.8-28.2 km in a lentic system. PMID:27535988

  17. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefs, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is

  19. Electrical excitability of the heart in a Chondrostei fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Haworth, Thomas Eliot; Haverinen, Jaakko; Shiels, Holly A; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-11-01

    Sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) are regarded as living fossils due to their ancient origin and exceptionally slow evolution. To extend our knowledge of fish cardiac excitability to a Chondrostei fish, we examined electrophysiological phenotype of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) heart with recordings of epicardial ECG, intracellular action potentials (APs), and sarcolemmal ion currents. Epicardial ECG of A. baerii had the typical waveform of the vertebrate ECG with Q-T interval (average duration of ventricular AP) of 650±30 ms and an intrinsic heart rate of 45.5±5 beats min(-1) at 20°C. Similar to other fish species, atrial AP was shorter in duration (402±33 ms) than ventricular AP (585±40) (P<0.05) at 20°C. Densities of atrial and ventricular Na+ currents were similar (-47.6±4.5 and -53.2±5.1 pA/pF, respectively) and close to the typical values of teleost hearts. Two major K+ currents, the inward rectifier K+ current (IK1), and the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) were found under basal conditions in sturgeon cardiomyocytes. The atrial IKr (3.3±0.2 pA/pF) was about twice as large as the ventricular IKr (1.3±0.4 pA/pF) (P<0.05) conforming to the typical pattern of teleost cardiac IKr. Divergent from other fishes, the ventricular IK1 was remarkably small (-2.5±0.07 pA/pF) and not different from that of the atrial myocytes (-1.9±0.06 pA/pF) (P>0.05). Two ligand-gated K+ currents were also found: ACh-activated inward rectifier (IKACh) was present only in atrial cells, while ATP-sensitive K+ current (IKATP) was activated by a mitochondrial blocker, CCCP, in both atrial and ventricular cells. The most striking difference to other fishes appeared in Ca2+ currents (ICa). In atrial myocytes, ICa was predominated by nickel-sensitive and nifedipine-resistant T-type ICa, while ventricular myocytes had mainly nifedipine-sensitive and nickel-resistant L-type ICa. ICaT/ICaL ratio of the sturgeon atrial myocytes (2.42) is the highest value ever measured for

  20. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects for 1990/1991.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation.

  1. Multi-scale Hydroacoustic Remote Sensing of Sturgeon and Their Habitats in A Large, Turbid River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.; Vishy, C.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.; Chojnacki, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Restoration and management of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR) to support recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) requires quantifying habitats used during all life stages in order to isolate specific habitats (if any) that present bottlenecks to reproduction and survival. All life stages of the pallid sturgeon take place in deep, turbid rivers where direct observation of habitat selection, movement, and behavior are impossible. Female pallid sturgeon reproduce only once every 3-5 years, but during a reproductive season they may migrate 10’s to 100’s of kilometers to spawn in patches of only several 100’s of square meters over a period of several hours. The broad ranges of spatial and temporal scales involved in understanding how particular life stages relate to their environment, as well as the technical challenges of working in a large river, dictate application of a multi-scale, remote-sensing approach. At the scale of the entire LMOR (1300 km), extensive hydroacoustic mapping using single-beam bathymetry, acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP), and substrate classification has been used to quantify the fundamental biophysical capacity of river segments in terms of frequency distributions of hydraulic variables. Coordinated telemetric tracking of reproductive fish provides an understanding of home range and habitat selection at reach to segment scales, over timeframes commensurate with 3-5 year reproductive cycles. Intensive reach-scale hydroacoustic mapping using multibeam bathymetry, ADCP, and high-resolution sidescan sonar, combined with intensive telemetric tracking, provide coincident measures of habitat availability and selection for upstream-migrating and spawning fish during reproductive seasons. These assessments measure habitat variables at sub-meter to bedform scales, commensurate with the scale at which fish occupy their habitat. For example, dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) imagery indicates that during

  2. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  3. Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2009-02-15

    Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

  4. PIONEER VENUS 1 SPACECRAFT BEING VIEWED BY NEWS MEDIA REPRESENTATIVES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Numerous representatives of local, regional and national news media turned out today to view the Pioneer Venus-A spacecraft, now undergoing checkout for launch aboard an Atlas Centaur rocket in May. The spacecraft is to enter orbit around the planet in December and be on station to monitor data from probes being hurled into the Venusian atmosphere by the Pioneer Venus-B spacecraft, which is scheduled for launch in August. Briefing the press on the project were Don Sheppard, Chief of Spacecraft Operations at KSC; Ralph W. Holtzclaw, Spacecraft Manager, and Dave Sinnott, Test Integration Manager for Experiments, the latter two both from the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.

  5. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Effect of freezing rate on motility, adenosine triphosphate content and fertilizability in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Golshahi, Karim; Nazari, Rajab Mohammad; Aramli, Salim

    2015-04-01

    Broodstock selection programs are currently underway for sturgeon species. To complement and further these selection programs we need to develop sperm cryopreservation procedures. In the present study, we describe the effects of freezing rate (-10°C, -15°C, -20°C, -30°C and -40°C/min) on gamete quality characteristics (i.e., duration of motility (s), motility percentage (%), ATP content (nmol/10(8) cells), fertilization rate (%), and hatching rate (%)) in beluga sturgeon, Huso huso. After sampling, beluga sturgeon sperm were diluted in an extender composed of 23.4mM sucrose, 0.25 mM KCl, and 30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0 containing 10% methanol and subsequently frozen in a programmable freezer. Sperm frozen at -40°C/min resulted in means for duration of motility (134 s), motility percentage (69%), ATP concentration (4.8 nmol/10(8) cells), fertilization rate (72%) and hatching rate (65%) that were higher (P<0.05) than those for slower cooling rates. Based on our results, -40°C/min was the best freezing rate (among those tested) for cryopreservation of beluga sturgeon sperm. PMID:25707696

  7. Quality assessment of wild Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) semen under conditions of short-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term storage trials were conducted with Atlantic sturgeon semen collected from a total of nine wild males during the 2008 and 2009 spawning seasons on the Hudson River. Semen samples were kept refrigerated (4 plus or minus 1 degree C) and stored in different gaseous atmospheres and storage ext...

  8. The Wilson Bay Initiative, Riverworks, and the Sturgeon City Partnership: A Case Study for Building Effective Academic-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jay F.; Hargett, Glenn; McCann, J. P.; Potts, Pat Donovan; Pierce, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    This article describes North Carolina State University's Sturgeon City partnership, which has transformed an urban brownfield site into a community civic, recreational, and learning resource. The project was recognized in 2010 with the C. Peter Magrath Community Engagement Award and the Outreach Scholarship W. K. Kellogg Foundation Engagement…

  9. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting sturgeon research in the Gulf of Mexico, over the course of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of USFWS's request for the......

  10. Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) and the reliability of catch rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Hann, D. A.; Schramm, H.L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P < 0.01) and depth (D; P = 0.03) had significant effects on capture probability (Y = −1.75 − 0.06T + 0.10D). Habitat type, surface current velocity, river stage, stage change and non-sturgeon bycatch were not significant predictors (P = 0.26–0.63). Although pallid sturgeon were caught throughout the year, the model predicted that sampling should focus on times when the water temperature is less than 12°C and in deeper water to maximize capture probability; these water temperature conditions commonly occur during November to March in the lower Mississippi River. Further, the significant effect of water temperature which varies widely over time, as well as water depth indicate that any efforts to use the catch rate to infer population trends will require the consideration of temperature and depth in standardized sampling efforts or adjustment of estimates.

  11. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca; Amy Welsh; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  12. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads. PMID:27199458

  13. Using a semi-natural stream to produce young sturgeons for conservation stocking: Maintaining natural selection during spawning and rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.; Kieffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Young sturgeons used for conservation stocking are presently produced using the same methods used for commercial culture. To determine if young sturgeons could be produced without relaxing natural selection factors, we developed a semi-natural stream where we annually studied mating of wild shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) observed movement of gametes released freely during spawning, and estimated the number of larvae produced by various densities of spawned eggs. The stream had a bottom area of 18.8m2, a rubble-gravel bottom, and a mean bottom current at 0.6 depth during spawning of 48cms-1 (range, 17-126cms-1). Wild adults successfully spawned in the stream each year for 7years (2002-2008). Some females and males were more successful during spawning than others, suggesting an unequal fitness during spawning among wild individuals, which is different than the controlled spawning fitness of individuals in hatcheries. Male and female gametes spawned naturally must connect quickly in the fast current or fail, a selection factor absent in hatcheries. The number of larvae produced was inversely related to spawned egg densitym-2 (R2=0.65) and the maximum number of larvae produced was 8000-16000 (425-851larvaem-2 of bottom). Artificial spawning streams have the potential to contribute to sturgeon restoration. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  14. Influence of environmental related concentrations of heavy metals on motility parameters and antioxidant responses in sturgeon sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Dzyuba, Borys; Randak, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    The effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Cd+Cr) on the motility parameters and oxidative stress of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) sperm were investigated in vitro. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2h to heavy metals at environmental related concentrations (0.1mgL(-1) Cr, 0.001mgL(-1) Cd, 0.1mgL(-1) Cr+0.001mgL(-1) Cd) and higher concentrations (5.0mgL(-1) Cr, 0.05mgL(-1) Cd, 5.0mgL(-1) Cr+0.05mgL(-1) Cd). Results revealed that environmental concentrations of heavy metals had no significant influence on motility parameters and antioxidant responses indices in sturgeon sperm, except for LPO level and SOD activity. But higher concentrations of these metals induced oxidative tress in sturgeon sperm in vitro, associated with sperm motility parameters inhibition. Our results suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficiently means for evaluating the effects of residual heavy metals in aquatic environment on sturgeon. PMID:20836996

  15. The pioneer 10 and 11 lessons for a mission to test the pioneer anomaly.

    SciTech Connect

    Turyshev, S. G.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between 20-70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate a{sub t} = (2.92 {+-} 0.44) x 10{sup -18} s/s{sup 2}. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a{sub P} = (8.74 {+-} 1.33) x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none has been found. As a result, the nature of this anomaly has become of growing interest. Here we discuss the details of this investigation focusing on the effects both external to and internal to the spacecraft, as well as those due to modeling and computational techniques. We review some of the mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and show their inability to account for the observed behavior of the anomaly. We also present lessons learned from this investigation for a potential deep-space experiment that will reveal the origin of the discovered anomaly and also will characterize its properties with an accuracy of at least two orders of magnitude below the anomaly's size. A number of critical requirements and design considerations for such a mission are outlined and addressed.

  16. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling. PMID:24571660

  17. Jacob Chandy: pioneering neurosurgeon of India.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jacob; Mathai, K V; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Narayan, Raj K

    2010-09-01

    Jacob Chandy, who passed away in 2007 at the age of 97, was born into a deeply religious Christian family in Kerala, South India. After obtaining his medical education at the Madras Medical College, Madras, he serendipitously came to work with Dr Paul Harrison, a renowned medical missionary, in the Gulf state of Bahrain. Harrison urged Chandy to pursue training in the fledgling specialty of neurosurgery in North America. Chandy received his neurosurgical training at the Montreal Neurological Institute with Wilder Penfield and in Chicago with Theodore Rasmussen. At Harrison's urging, Chandy decided to return to India after completing his training to work at the Christian Medical College in Vellore. Thus, it was in 1949 that Chandy established the first neurosurgery department in south Asia in Vellore. He initiated the first neurosurgical training program in India at the Christian Medical College in 1957, with a distinct North American neurosurgical tradition. He went on to train nearly 20 neurosurgeons, many of whom set up new departments of neurosurgery in their home states. Chandy also had several other remarkable achievements to his credit. Despite the pressures of clinical practice, he insisted on fostering both basic and clinical neurosciences within his department, an arrangement that persists to this day in the Department of Neurological Sciences at the Christian Medical College, Vellore. As the Principal (Dean) of the Christian Medical College, Chandy displayed his skills as a medical educator and administrator. In this role, he was instrumental in starting specialty training programs in several other medical and surgical disciplines. His greatest legacies survive in the form of the department that he founded and his trainees and their students who have helped to establish neurosurgery all over the country. PMID:20647965

  18. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  19. Effects of exposure to pile-driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia and hogchoker

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Casper, Brandon M.; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2012-01-01

    Pile-driving and other impulsive sound sources have the potential to injure or kill fishes. One mechanism that produces injuries is the rapid motion of the walls of the swim bladder as it repeatedly contacts nearby tissues. To further understand the involvement of the swim bladder in tissue damage, a specially designed wave tube was used to expose three species to pile-driving sounds. Species included lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)—with an open (physostomous) swim bladder, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)—with a closed (physoclistous) swim bladder and the hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus)—a flatfish without a swim bladder. There were no visible injuries in any of the exposed hogchokers, whereas a variety of injuries were observed in the lake sturgeon and Nile tilapia. At the loudest cumulative and single-strike sound exposure levels (SELcum and SELss respectively), the Nile tilapia had the highest total injuries and the most severe injuries per fish. As exposure levels decreased, the number and severity of injuries were more similar between the two species. These results suggest that the presence and type of swim bladder correlated with injury at higher sound levels, while the extent of injury at lower sound levels was similar for both kinds of swim bladders. PMID:23055066

  20. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    PubMed

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics. PMID:25303307

  1. Chemical and biochemical composition of caviar from different sturgeon species and origins.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M; Kirschbaum, F; Gessner, J; Krüger, A; Patriche, N; Billard, R

    2000-08-01

    The chemical and biochemical composition of caviar in 22 specimens of wild caught and of 2 farmed animals were measured. The results include grain size, protein and fat content, fatty acid composition of triglycerides and phospholipids, as well as the concentrations of relevant heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The average protein content varied between 26.2 and 31.1% (wet weight) and fat from 10.9 to 19.4% (wet weight) with lowest values for caviar from farmed sturgeon. The triglycerides and phospholipids contained more n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid than n-6 fatty acids. The copper and zinc concentrations varied between 1.20 and 1.69 and 10.3 and 12.4 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. These values reflect the elevated requirement of sturgeons for these components. Lead content varied between 0.06 and 0.15 mg/kg (wet weight). The cadmium concentrations were less than 5 micrograms/kg (wet weight) leading to the conclusion that no accumulation took place in the eggs. The concentrations of sigma DDT and sigma PCB were extremely high in caviar from Huso huso compared to the samples of the other species thus reflecting the different food habits leading to increased bio-accumulation. PMID:10996895

  2. Confirmation of ovarian homogeneity in post-vitellogenic cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Mariah J; Servid, Sarah A; Cavinato, Anna G; Van Eenennaam, Joel P; Doroshov, Serge I; Struffenegger, Peter; Webb, Molly A H

    2014-02-01

    Assessing stage of oocyte maturity in female sturgeon by calculating oocyte polarization index (PI) is a necessary tool for both conservation propagation managers and caviar producers to know when to hormonally induce spawning. We tested the assumption that sampling ovarian follicles from one section of one ovary is sufficient for calculating an oocyte PI representative of oocyte maturity for an individual animal. Short-wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy (SW-NIR) scans were performed on three positions per ovary for five fish prior to caviar harvest. Samples of ovarian follicles were subsequently taken from the exact location of the SW-NIR scans for calculation of oocyte PI and follicle diameter. Oocyte PI was statistically different though not biologically relevant within an ovary and between ovaries in four of five fish. Follicle diameter was statistically different but not biologically relevant within an ovary in three of five fish. There were no differences in follicle diameter between ovaries. No statistical differences were observed between SW-NIR spectra collected at different locations within an ovary or between ovaries. These results emphasize the importance of utilizing both oocyte PI measurement and progesterone-induced oocyte maturation assays while deciding when to hormonally induce spawning in sturgeon females. PMID:24174166

  3. Metal content in caviar of wild Persian sturgeon from the southern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Sobhanardakani, S; Navaei, M Batebi; Kariminasab, M; Aghilinejad, S M; Regenstein, J M

    2013-08-01

    Caviar (fish roe of sturgeon) may contain high levels of contaminants. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a direct mercury analyzer were used to assess the contents of four heavy metals (Hg, Se, Sn, and Ba) in caviar of wild Persian sturgeon sea foods. The levels of Hg ranged from 1.39 to 1.50 μg g(-1), Se from 0.90 to 1.10 μg g(-1), Sn from 0.23 to 0.33, and Ba from 0.71 to 1.17 µg g(-1). Evaluation of these levels showed that except for Hg, the average concentrations of other metals are significantly lower than adverse level for the human consumption when compared with Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization permissible limits. Therefore, their contribution to the total body burden of these heavy metals can be considered as negligibly small given that caviar is a luxury product. PMID:23504250

  4. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and risk assessment for wild and farmed beluga sturgeon caviar.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Monsef Rad, Seyede Fatemeh; Mobinifar, Mohammad; Regenstein, Joe M

    2013-12-01

    Because of over-exploitation of sturgeon for caviar production, they have been listed worldwide in annex II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species regulations; so caviar production using aquaculture is increasingly seen as a feasible way to reduce overfishing. The accumulation of the nonessential metals As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn was determined in the caviar of farmed and wild Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). The levels of As in both and Cd in wild samples were less than 0.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight, and the comparison for all of the metals studied did not show large fluctuations in metal concentrations between farmed and wild caviar samples. The average for each toxic metal was below the permissible limits proposed by the UK's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods (2000). The maximum allowable daily consumption rate of caviar was calculated; however, the health risks from caviar consumption are uncertain because the amount of caviar consumed by heavy users is not known. PMID:23793540

  5. Denaturation and intermediates study of two sturgeon hemoglobins by n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Ariaeenejad, Shohreh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Kavousi, Kaveh; Jamili, Shahla; Fatemi, Mohammad Reza; Hong, Jun; Poursasan, Najmeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali. A.

    2013-01-01

    Varieties of hemoglobin (Hb) forms exist in fish, which are usually well adapted to the different ecological conditions or various habitats. In the current study, Hbs from two Sturgeon species of the Southern Caspian Sea Basin were purified and studied upon interaction with n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB; as a cationic surfactant) by various methods including UV-visible absorption, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry. The chemometric analysis of Hbs was investigated upon interaction with DTAB under titration, using UV-visible absorption spectra. The chemometric resolution techniques were used to determine the number of the components and mole fraction of the oxidized Hbs. These results provided the evidence for the existence of three different molecular components including native (N), intermediate (I) and denatured (D) in sturgeon Hbs. According to the distribution of intermediates, which were broadened in a range of DTAB concentration, the aggregation states, DLS experiments, and thermal stability (Tm obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), the Acipenser stellatus Hb was more stable compared to Acipenser persicus Hb. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between the stability of fish Hbs and the habitat depth requirements. PMID:23142155

  6. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jackson A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John; Young, John V.; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  7. Changes in growth and osmoregulation during acclimation to saltwater in juvenile Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhuang, Ping; Zhang, Longzhen; Hou, Junli

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the ability of juvenile Amur sturgeon ( Acipenser schrenckii) to osmoregulate and grow in saltwater. Hatchery-reared juveniles (mean weight 106.8 g, 5-month old) were transferred from freshwater to 10, 20, and 25 salinity saltwater over a period of 20 d. We measured the growth, serum osmolality, ion concentrations, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity. In addition, we prepared samples of gill tissue to quantify morphological changes in gill ultrastructure. Rearing in up to 25 saltwater for 30 d had no significant effect on growth. Similarly, serum osmolality and ion concentrations were similar to levels reported in other teleosts following acclimation to saltwater. Serum osmolality and Na+, Cl- concentrations increased significantly with the initial increase in salinity. Afterwards, levels tended to stabilize and then decrease. Serum K+ levels did not change during acclimation to saltwater. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased initially as salinity was increased. However, the activity later decreased and, finally stabilized at 3.7±0.1 μmol Pi/mg·prot·h in 25 saltwater (1.6 times higher than the level in those in freshwater). In fish that were held only in freshwater, the chloride cells were located in the interlamellar regions of the filament and at the base of the lamella. Following acclimation to 25 saltwater for 30 d, the number and size of chloride cells increased significantly. Our results suggest that juvenile Amur sturgeon is able to tolerate, and grow in, relatively high concentrations of saltwater.

  8. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  9. Effects of ration and temperature on growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, J.L.; Arnold, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to gain insight into the optimum temperature and ration for growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in culture. We conducted two trials, each for 8 weeks. Trial 1 started with 60-g fish, trial 2 started with 0 3-g fish. Water temperatures of 15, 17, and 19??C were used separately in each trial. Rations (dry food, wet weight of fish) for 60-g fish were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of biomass per day, for 0.3-g fish, rations were 3, 5, and 7% of biomass per day. We set up three tank replicates, of equal fish biomass, at each combination of temperature and ration. The highest growth rate in trial 1 (for 60-g fish) was 0.014/d at 15??C and the 1.5% ration, although this growth rate was not significantly different from the growth rate at 17??C and 1.5% ration or at 17??C and 1.0% ration. The highest growth rate in trial 2 (for 0.3-g fish) was 0.067/d at 19??C and the 7.0% ration. Instantaneous growth at these conditions was significantly different from all other combinations of temperature and ration. Although these results may not completely define the temperature and ration under which fish could achieve maximum growth rate, they provide a solid starting point for further development of Atlantic sturgeon culture.

  10. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian Markov switching models with application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The timing of spawning in fish is tightly linked to environmental factors; however, these factors are not very well understood for many species. Specifically, little information is available to guide recruitment efforts for endangered species such as the sturgeon. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting the success of spawning of the shovelnose sturgeon which uses both biological and behavioural (longitudinal) data. In particular, we use data that were produced from a tracking study that was conducted in the Lower Missouri River. The data that were produced from this study consist of biological variables associated with readiness to spawn along with longitudinal behavioural data collected by using telemetry and archival data storage tags. These high frequency data are complex both biologically and in the underlying behavioural process. To accommodate such complexity we developed a hierarchical linear regression model that uses an eigenvalue predictor, derived from the transition probability matrix of a two-state Markov switching model with generalized auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic dynamics. Finally, to minimize the computational burden that is associated with estimation of this model, a parallel computing approach is proposed. ?? Journal compilation 2009 Royal Statistical Society.

  12. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A. )

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  13. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A.

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  14. Conservation, sex-biased expression and functional annotation of microRNAs in the gonad of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Yuan, Lihong; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have crucial roles in regulating the expression of gametogenesis-related genes in animals. However, the mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the sturgeon has remained unclear. Identifying miRNAs and characterizing sex-biased miRNA expression is therefore critical for understanding the role of miRNAs during sexual differentiation in sturgeon. In this study, five different tissues from sturgeon before sex differentiation and the gonads were used for miRNA expression profiling. We screened 1037 miRNAs in miRBase 20.0 and an additional 103 sturgeon miRNAs using microarray and real-time PCR. We found that the sequences of 477 miRNAs out of a total of 1140 miRNAs were highly conserved (100%) among different fish species. From a total of 663 non-redundant miRNA probes, 481 miRNAs were detected in the gonads of both sexes. Of the 148 miRNAs that were identified to have sex-biased expression patterns between the testis and the ovary (P<0.01), 21 miRNAs (14.19%) were relatively highly expressed in the testis or the ovary with fold-changes >2. The microarray expression patterns of 13 randomly selected sex-biased miRNAs were validated using real-time PCR. Target gene prediction revealed a significant enrichment of functional groups (88 GO terms) and 18 KEGG pathways (P<0.05) and suggested that there are interactions between sex-biased miRNAs and 25 putative gametogenesis-related targets. Therefore, our miRNA expression analysis in juvenile A. schrenckii establishes a foundation for understanding and further investigating the role of miRNAs in sturgeon sex differentiation. PMID:27089517

  15. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  16. The American Film Heritage; Impressions from the American Film Institute Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shales, Tom; And Others

    The American Film Institute has an archive which presently contains more than 9,000 films, many of them rare. The articles in this volume are based on some of the films in the collection. Among the topics of these essays are: pioneers like D. W. Griffith and Thomas H. Ince, treatment of blacks and Indians in films, development of the techniques…

  17. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1998-10-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude {approximately}8.5{times}10{sup {minus}8} cm/s{sup 2} , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. TQM on Campus: What the Pioneers Are Finding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Daniel T.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports survey findings from a comprehensive, critical assessment of quality management initiatives at 22 pioneering colleges and universities. The 83 respondents identified key benefits of Total Quality Management (TQM) and major frustrations and problems. Key benefits included: increased involvement of people; increased listening by…

  19. Pioneer Venus mechanical roots pump test and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, N. C.; Crosmer, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mechanical pump for use with the Pioneer-Venus probe mass spectrometer inlet system was obtained, and a limited performance testing program, including ultimate/compression ratio tests and throughput tests at three different pump speeds, was performed. Considerable operating experience with the pump was obtained over approximately 200 hours of running. The test results show general agreement with pump specifications.

  20. [Pioneers of medical physics--Theophil Christen (1873-1920)].

    PubMed

    Busch, Uwe; Bautz, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The Swiss mathematician and physician Theophil Christen was one of the first important pioneers in Medical Physics. He structured the previously confused field of physical concepts and definitions for medical applications of X-rays and paved the way for the modern understanding of dosimetry. PMID:15830786

  1. Alexander I. Ignatowski: a pioneer in the study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Igor E; Jankovic, Gradimir M

    2013-01-01

    In 1908, Alexander I. Ignatowski (1875-1955) published his pioneering work that first revealed a relationship between cholesterol-rich food and experimental atherosclerosis. This early experimental work paved a way to the metabolic study of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a brief account of Ignatowski's work and life. PMID:23914012

  2. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  3. The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

  4. A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education…

  5. Ella Flagg Young: Pioneer of Democratic School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, L. Dean; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1998-01-01

    Ella Flagg Young was the first woman superintendent of a large-city school system (Chicago, 1909-15) and the first woman president of the National Education Association (1910). A colleague of Dewey, Young pioneered democratic administrative practices in a scientific management era and organized school councils to give teachers a greater voice in…

  6. Oneida Cockrell: Pioneer in the Field of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author profiles Oneida Cockrell, a pioneer in the field of early childhood education. She was the founder and director of the Garden Apartments Nursery School and Kindergarten, located in the prestigious Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments building (commonly known as the Rosenwald Apartments) in Chicago's West Hyde Park…

  7. Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space between Saturn and its rings.

  8. Pioneer Women in Manitoba: Evidence of Servant-Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Carolyn L.

    2004-01-01

    Leadership was characterized as patriarchal and hierarchical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Pioneer women were often not credited with leadership qualities although many, including school teachers, journalists, suffragettes, healthcare workers, and social activists played an important role in the development of Manitoba communities.…

  9. Pioneering radiation study funded by federal cleanup grant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy has awarded a three-year, $900,000 grant to a team of researchers at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory and Colorado State University to conduct a pioneering study on the ecological effects radiation and other pollutants. This program focuses on long-term, low-level radiation exposure on non-human species.

  10. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1–6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  11. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  12. Stock Structure and Homing Fidelity in Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon (Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi) Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, J.; Waldman, J. R.; Parauka, F.; Wirgin, I.

    1996-01-01

    Efforts have been proposed worldwide to restore sturgeon populations through the use of hatcheries to supplement natural reproduction and to reintroduce sturgeon where they have become extinct. We examined the population structure and inferred the extent of homing in the anadromous Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). Restriction fragment length polymorphism and control region sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used to identify haplotypes of Gulf sturgeon specimens obtained from eight drainages spanning the subspecies' entire distribution from Louisiana to Florida. Significant differences in haplotype frequencies indicated substantial geographic structuring of populations. A minimum of four regional or river-specific populations were identified (from west to east): (1) Pearl River, LA and Pascagoula River, MS, (2) Escambia and Yellow rivers, FL, (3) Choctawhatchee River, FL, and (4) Apalachicola, Ochlockonee, and Suwannee rivers, FL. Estimates of maternally mediated gene flow between any pair of the four regional or river-specific stocks ranged between 0.15 to 1.2. Tandem repeats in the mtDNA control region of Gulf sturgeon were not perfectly conserved. This result, together with an absence of heteroplasmy and length variation in Gulf sturgeon mtDNA, indicates that the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA control region sequence evolution differ among acipenserids. PMID:8889537

  13. Stock structure and homing fidelity in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Stabile, J; Waldman, J R; Parauka, F; Wirgin, I

    1996-10-01

    Efforts have been proposed worldwide to restore sturgeon populations through the use of hatcheries to supplement natural reproduction and to reintroduce sturgeon where they have become extinct. We examined the population structure and inferred the extent of homing in the anadromous Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). Restriction fragment length polymorphism and control region sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used to identify haplotypes of Gulf sturgeon specimens obtained from eight drainages spanning the subspecies' entire distribution from Louisiana to Florida. Significant differences in haplotype frequencies indicated substantial geographic structuring of populations. A minimum of four regional or river-specific populations were identified (from west to east): (1) Pearl River, LA and Pascagoula River, MS, (2) Escambia and Yellow rivers, FI, (3) Choctawbatchee River, FL and (4) Apalachicola Ochlockonee, and Suwannee rivers, FL. Estimates of maternally mediated gene flow between any pair of the four regional or river-specific stocks ranged between 0.15 to 1.2. Tandem repeats in the mtDNA control region of Gulf sturgeon were not perfectly conserved. This result, together with an absence of heteroplasmy and length variation in Gulf sturgeon mtDNA, indicates that the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA control region sequence evolution differ among acipenserids. PMID:8889537

  14. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 4: Pioneer 10, from January 1974 - January 1975 and Pioneer 11, from 1 May 1973 through Jupiter encounter period January 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.; Barton, W. R.; Cloonan, E. A.; Nash, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Systems support of Pioneer 10 from January 1974 through January 1975 is described along with Pioneer 11 support from May 1973 through Jupiter encounter. Topics covered include: operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that led to Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60-day encounter period for Pioneer 11.

  15. The Power to Detect Trends in Missouri River Fish Populations within the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Gladish, Dan; Holan, Scott; Ellerseick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As with all large rivers in the United States, the Missouri River has been altered, with approximately 32.5 percent of the main stem length impounded and 32.5 percent channelized. These physical alterations to the environment have had effects on the fisheries, but studies examining the effects of alterations have been localized and for short periods of time. In response to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biological opinion, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated monitoring of the fish community of the Missouri River in 2003. The goal of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program is to provide information to detect changes in populations and habitat preferences with time for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and native target species in the Missouri River Basin. To determine statistical power of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program, a power analysis was conducted using a normal linear mixed model with variance component estimates based on the first 3 years of data (2003 to 2005). In cases where 3 years of data were unavailable, estimates were obtained using those data. It was determined that at least 20 years of data, sampling 12 bends with 8 subsamples per bend, would be required to detect a 5 percent annual decline in most of the target fish populations. Power varied between Zones. Zone 1 (upstream from Lake Sakakawea) did not have any species/gear type combinations with adequate power, whereas Zone 3 (downstream from Gavins Point Dam) had 19 species/gear type combinations with adequate power. With a slight increase in the sampling effort to 12 subsamples per bend, the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program has adequate power to detect declines in shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) throughout the entire Missouri River because of large catch rates. The lowest level of non-occurrence (in other words, zero catches) at the bend level for pallid sturgeon was 0.58 using otter trawls in Zone 1. Consequently, the power of the

  16. Performance Differences in Year 1 of Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Chernew, Michael E.; Landon, Bruce E.; Schwartz, Aaron L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2012, a total of 32 organizations entered the Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) program, in which providers can share savings with Medicare if spending falls below a financial benchmark. Performance differences associated with characteristics of Pioneer ACOs have not been well described. METHODS In a difference-in-differences analysis of Medicare fee-for-service claims, we compared Medicare spending for beneficiaries attributed to Pioneer ACOs (ACO group) with other beneficiaries (control group) before (2009 through 2011) and after (2012) the start of Pioneer ACO contracts, with adjustment for geographic area and beneficiaries’ sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. We estimated differential changes in spending for several subgroups of ACOs: those with and those without clear financial integration between hospitals and physician groups, those with higher and those with lower baseline spending, and the 13 ACOs that withdrew from the Pioneer program after 2012 and the 19 that did not. RESULTS Adjusted Medicare spending and spending trends were similar in the ACO group and the control group during the precontract period. In 2012, the total adjusted per-beneficiary spending differentially changed in the ACO group as compared with the control group (−$29.2 per quarter, P = 0.007), consistent with a 1.2% savings. Savings were significantly greater for ACOs with baseline spending above the local average, as compared with those with baseline spending below the local average (P = 0.05 for interaction), and for those serving high-spending areas, as compared with those serving low-spending areas (P = 0.04). Savings were similar in ACOs with financial integration between hospitals and physician groups and those without, as well as in ACOs that withdrew from the program and those that did not. CONCLUSIONS Year 1 of the Pioneer ACO program was associated with modest reductions in Medicare spending. Savings were greater for ACOs with higher

  17. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois...) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) over... Kellar Branch. See STB Docket No. AB-1056X, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance of...

  18. 78 FR 62014 - Pioneer Wind Park I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pioneer Wind Park I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take...'s (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Pioneer Wind Park I, LLC (Pioneer Wind) filed a petition for declaratory order requesting the ] Commission to issue an order...

  19. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care... participate in the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model for a period beginning in 2011 and ending...://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application...

  20. Effects of Temperature on In Vitro Short-Term Storage of Sterlet Sturgeon (Acipenser Ruthenus) Ova.

    PubMed

    Linhart, O; Shelton, W L; Tučková, V; Rodina, M; Siddique, Mam

    2016-02-01

    Artificial propagation of sturgeons is becoming increasingly important for recovery efforts as well as for commercial production. Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is a common Eurasian sturgeon with a small body size and one of the fastest reproductive cycles among the sturgeons. The practical question being addressed in this study was how long fertilization of ovulated eggs can be delayed without substantially reducing the hatching rate, and an ancillary question is under what' temperature conditions do eggs retain good quality. Broodstock were injected with homogenized carp pituitary extract (CPE); ovulated eggs from three females were allocated to various treatment groups for temperature storage (control, 7°C, 11°C, 15°C and 19°C) until fertilized. Storage times at the regulated temperatures prior to fertilization were for 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 h. After the selected storage times in ovarian fluid, eggs were fertilized and transferred to incubation cages and then they were counted. Three replicates were allocated to each storage period and temperature. Hatched larvae were counted at 7-day post-fertilization. We found that sterlet eggs do not need to be fertilized immediately after collection. Reasonably good quality was retained for several hours if temperature conditions are fairly cool and stable. Eggs retained good quality when stored at 7°C and 11°C for up to 10 h with 54.1 ± 2.9 to 69.9 ± 7.9% hatching success, but egg quality was significantly reduced after 5-h storage at 19°C (p < 0.01) and 7.5-h storage at 15°C (p < 0.05) compared to cooler temperatures. Uniform temperatures between 7°C and 11°C can be considered as appropriate for storage of eggs in ovarian fluid for up to 10 h. This information can have practical application to routine hatchery practice for acipenserids, as well as for certain research protocols. PMID:26708725

  1. Early life history stages of Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, K.J.; Clugston, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Egg sampling confirmed that Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, a subspecies of Atlantic sturgeon A. o. oxyrinchus use the same spawning site at river kilometer (rkm) 215 from the month of the river each year. Forty-nine eggs were recorded in 1995, and 368 were recorded in 1996. Spawning began 4-7 d after the March new moon in both years and lasted 10-11 d; in 1996, a second 10-d spawning round began on the April new moon. Developmental synchrony among eggs recovered suggested several discrete spawning events in both years. Total eggs deposited for three 1996 sampling days was estimated as 405,600-711,000/d, approximating the fecundity range of a large female Gulf sturgeon. Eggs were found only in the southern half of the river, an area with surface currents of 0.5-1.5 m/s and numerous eddies producing reverse bottom currents of 0.1-0.5 m/s. Egg substrate consisted of bedrock limestone thinly overlain by fine sand and densely distributed elliptical gravel 2-10 cm in diameter. Eggs were found predominantly in depths of 2-4 m at water temperatures of 17-21??C, conductivities of 50-100 ??S, and dissolved oxygen levels exceeding 5.0 mg/L. The Cody Scarp, 15 rkm above the spawning ground, may mark the upstream limit of spawning areas in the river. Three 2-4-month-old riverine juveniles (82-115 mm total length, TL) collected are the smallest yet captured from any river. Data for 18 riverine age-0 juveniles (to 350 mm TL) suggest that this stage lasts 6-10 months, terminating with migration of fish to the river mouth in January-February. Less than 2% of 461 juveniles captured at the estuarine river mouth (1990-1993) were under 350 mm TL. Riverine age-0 fish were collected over long shallow stretches (typically <4 m deep) of relatively barren sand (rkm 12-238).

  2. Evaluating spawning migration patterns and predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Gladish, D.W.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Sommerhauser, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches using telemetry, precise reproductive assessments, and surgically implanted data storage tags (DSTs) were used in combination with novel applications of analytical techniques for fish movement studies to describe patterns in migratory behavior and predict spawning success of gravid shovelnose sturgeon. From 2004 to 2007, over 300 gravid female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) from the Lower Missouri River, that were expected to spawn in the year they were collected, were surgically implanted with transmitters and archival DSTs. Functional cluster modeling of telemetry data from the spawning season suggested two common migration patterns of gravid female shovelnose sturgeon. Fish implanted from 958 to 1181 river kilometer (rkm) from the mouth of the Missouri River (or northern portion of the Lower Missouri River within 354rkm of the lowest Missouri River dam at rkm 1305) had one migration pattern. Of fish implanted from 209 to 402rkm from the mouth of the Missouri River (or southern portion of the Lower Missouri River), half demonstrated a movement pattern similar to the northern fish while the other half demonstrated a migration pattern that covered more of the river. There was no apparent difference in migration patterns between successful and unsuccessful spawners. Multiple hypotheses exist to explain differences in migratory patterns among fish from different river reaches. Additional work is required to determine if observed differences are due to multiple adapted strategies, environmental alteration, and/or initial tagging date. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of DST data indicated that variation in depth usage patterns was consistently different between successful and unsuccessful spawners, as indicated by differences in likelihood of switching between high and low variability states. Analyses of DST data, and data collected at capture, were sufficient to predict 8 of 10 non-spawners/incomplete spawners and all 30 spawners in the

  3. Evaluating spawning migration patterns and predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Gladish, D.W.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Sommerhauser, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches using telemetry, precise reproductive assessments, and surgically implanted data storage tags (DSTs) were used in combination with novel applications of analytical techniques for fish movement studies to describe patterns in migratory behavior and predict spawning success of gravid shovelnose sturgeon. From 2004 to 2007, over 300 gravid female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) from the Lower Missouri River, that were expected to spawn in the year they were collected, were surgically implanted with transmitters and archival DSTs. Functional cluster modeling of telemetry data from the spawning season suggested two common migration patterns of gravid female shovelnose sturgeon. Fish implanted from 958 to 1181 river kilometer (rkm) from the mouth of the Missouri River (or northern portion of the Lower Missouri River within 354 rkm of the lowest Missouri River dam at rkm 1305) had one migration pattern. Of fish implanted from 209 to 402 rkm from the mouth of the Missouri River (or southern portion of the Lower Missouri River), half demonstrated a movement pattern similar to the northern fish while the other half demonstrated a migration pattern that covered more of the river. There was no apparent difference in migration patterns between successful and unsuccessful spawners. Multiple hypotheses exist to explain differences in migratory patterns among fish from different river reaches. Additional work is required to determine if observed differences are due to multiple adapted strategies, environmental alteration, and/or initial tagging date. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of DST data indicated that variation in depth usage patterns was consistently different between successful and unsuccessful spawners, as indicated by differences in likelihood of switching between high and low variability states. Analyses of DST data, and data collected at capture, were sufficient to predict 8 of 10 non-spawners/incomplete spawners and all 30 spawners in the

  4. Effects of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) on juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) performance, immune responses and gastrointestinal microbial community.

    PubMed

    Geraylou, Zahra; Souffreau, Caroline; Rurangwa, Eugene; D'Hondt, Sofie; Callewaert, Lien; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Buyse, Johan; Ollevier, Frans

    2012-10-01

    Arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are a newly discovered class of candidate prebiotics that exert different properties depending on their structure. In this study the effects of two different structures of AXOS, namely AXOS-32-0.30 (average degree of polymerization: 32, average degree of substitution: 0.30) and AXOS-3-0.25, were investigated on growth performance, immune responses, gut microbial fermentation and gut bacterial composition of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). After a two weeks acclimation, fish (25.9 ± 0.9 g) were distributed over 24 aquariums (8 replicates per treatment) and fed a control diet or a diet containing 2% AXOS-32-0.30 or AXOS-3-0.25 for 12 weeks. Growth performance and feed utilization tend to improve in sturgeon fed on diets supplemented with AXOS-32-0.30, however not significant. Survival was high in all groups. Both AXOS preparations significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of fish macrophages compared to the control group, while the alternative haemolytic complement activity and total serum peroxidase content improved only in the group fed AXOS-32-0.30 (P < 0.05). The lysozyme activity was not affected by AXOS addition. Simultaneously, the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was highest in the hind gut of sturgeon fed AXOS-32-0.30. The concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total SCFAs in fish fed AXOS-32-0.30 was significantly higher than in the groups fed the control diet or AXOS-3-0.25. Study of the bacterial community in the sturgeon hindgut using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that both preparations of AXOS induced changes in the bacterial composition. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), hindgut microbiota of each treatment group clustered apart from one another (P = 0.001). DNA sequencing of the dominant DGGE bands recovered from the different treatments showed that AXOS mainly stimulated the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp., with more

  5. The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Godel Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas; Blome, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of approx. 8x10(exp -10) m/sq s was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating Godel Universe, will be introduced and examined.

  6. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  7. Solar wind stream structure at large heliocentric distances Pioneer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Time profiles and histograms of plasma data from Pioneers 10 and 11 are examined for the period between 1975 and 1983. During this time, Pioneer 10 traveled between a heliocentric distance of 8.7 and 30.4 AU. The velocity structure of the solar wind at these heliocentric distances is found to have one of two distinct forms: approximately 70 percent of the time the solar wind has a nearly flat velocity profile. Occasionally, this flat velocity profile is accompanied by quasi-periodic variations in density and in thermal speed consistent with the concept that the 'corotating interaction regions' which are produced by the interaction of high- and low-speed streams at intermediate heliocentric distances are replaced by 'pressure regions' in the outer heliosphere. The remaining 30 percent of the time the solar wind is marked by large (50-200 km/s) long-term (30-120 days) shifts in the average solar wind velocity.

  8. Hermann Lebert (1813-1878): a pioneer of diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pickel, Hellmuth; Reich, Olaf; Winter, Raimund; Young, Robert H

    2009-09-01

    Hermann Lebert (1813-1879) was a pioneer of diagnostic pathology and medical iconography. He was born in Breslau, then Prussia, and died in Nice (France). He lived in Switzerland as a general physician, in France as a pathologist, and eventually became the chairman for internal medicine in Zurich and Breslau, respectively. The significance of Hermann Lebert for medical posterity has three aspects: firstly, scientific linking of the French (Parisian) school and its distinctive clinical/practical orientation to the later clinical/pathological German school of Johann Lukas Schönlein, Johannes Müller, and Rudolf Virchow; secondly, his pioneering of the diagnostic use of the microscope in pathological anatomy; and finally, his remarkable book, Traité d'anatomie pathologique générale et spéciale, which has almost fallen into oblivion, being unknown to most contemporary workers. PMID:19688221

  9. Gamma-ray burst observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. D.; Glore, J. P.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Tech, E. R.; Spalding, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter gamma burst detector is an astrophysics experiment for monitoring cosmic gamma-ray bursts. It is included in this planetary mission to provide a long baseline for accurately locating the sources of these bursts in order to identify them with specific astronomical objects. Responses to 14 gamma-ray burst events were examined; these events were verified from data acquired by other systems. Preliminary locations are proposed for three events, based on data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, ISEE C, and Vela spacecraft. These locations will be improved, and additional locations will be determined by including in the analyses data from Helios B and the Russian Venera 11, Venera 12, and Prognoz 7 spacecraft.

  10. Impact of saturn ring particles on pioneer 11.

    PubMed

    Humes, D H; O'neal, R L; Kinard, W H; Alvarez, J M

    1980-01-25

    The particle flux measured by the meteoroid detectors on Pioneer 11 increased greatly while the spacecraft was near the rings of Saturn. The data suggest that the particles were associated with the rings and were not interplanetary meteoroids concentrated near the planet by gravitational focusing. The data also suggest that the E ring may be 1800 kilometers thick with an optical thickness greater than 10(-8). PMID:17833557

  11. Planetary magnetism. [Mariner, Venera and Pioneer probe results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    Recent data on planetary magnetism are reviewed, with attention given to information obtained by Mariner 10 at Mercury, from Venera 9 and 10 orbiting Venus, and Pioneer spacecraft flying past Jupiter. In addition, less recent magnetic measurements of Mars are reconsidered. Doubts about whether Mars has an active dynamo at present are mentioned, and further planetary magnetic assessments are suggested. In particular, the need to refine knowledge of multipole moments is stressed.

  12. The Pioneer Initiative: A New Era in Chinese Research.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunli

    2016-04-01

    A brief description of the background, rational and goals of the Pioneer Initiative (PI), a reform program at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), is provided. The harmonizing nature and shared missions between this initiative and the CAS 135 Strategy that is concurrently occuring are also discussed. Both initiatives aim to address fundamental challenges and bring CAS to a new high in science excellence and innovation. PMID:26938662

  13. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acheson, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

  14. Pioneer Venus data analysis for the retarding potential analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, William C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the data analysis and archiving activities, analysis results, and instrument performance of the orbiter retarding potential analyzer (ORPA) flown on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft during the period, Aug. 1, 1988 to Sept. 30, 1993. During this period, the periapsis altitude of the Orbiter spacecraft descended slowly from 1900 km altitude, at which altitude the spacecraft was outside the Venus ionosphere, to approximately 130 km altitude in Oct. 1992 at which time communication with the spacecraft ceased as a result of entry of the spacecraft into the Venus atmosphere. The quantity of ORPA data returned during this reporting period was greatly reduced over that recovered in the previous years of the mission because of the reduced power capability of the spacecraft, loss of half of the onboard data storage, and partial failure of the ORPA. Despite the reduction in available data, especially ionospheric data, important scientific discoveries resulted from this extended period of the Pioneer Venus mission. The most significant discovery was that of a strong solar cycle change in the size of the dayside ionosphere and the resulting shutoff of flow of dayside ions into the nightside hemisphere. The large, topside O+ F2 ionospheric layer observed during the first three years of the Pioneer Venus mission, a period of solar cycle maximum activity, is absent during the solar cycle minimum activity period.

  15. George Feher: a pioneer in reaction center research.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Melvin

    2014-05-01

    Our understanding of photosynthesis has been greatly advanced by the elucidation of the structure and function of the reaction center (RC), the membrane protein responsible for the initial light-induced charge separation in photosynthetic bacteria and green plants. Although today we know a great deal about the details of the primary processes in photosynthesis, little was known in the early days. George Feher made pioneering contributions to photosynthesis research in characterizing RCs from photosynthetic bacteria following the ground-breaking work of Lou Duysens and Rod Clayton (see articles in this issue by van Gorkom and Wraight). The work in his laboratory at the University of California, San Diego, started in the late 1960s and continued for over 30 years. He isolated a pure RC protein and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the primary reactants. Following this pioneering work, Feher studied the detailed structure of the RC and the basic electron and proton transfer functions that it performs using a wide variety of biophysical and biochemical techniques. These studies, together with work from many other researchers, have led to our present detailed understanding of these proteins and their function in photosynthesis. The present article is a brief historical account of his pioneering contributions to photosynthesis research. A more detailed description of his work can be found in an earlier biographical paper (Feher in Photosynth Res 55:1-40, 1998a). PMID:24104959

  16. Preliminary Results from the Space Probe Pioneer V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Meyer, P.; Simpson, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The space probe Pioneer V was launched March 11, 1960, into an orbit around the sun and inside the orbit of earth. The scientific apparatus included instruments identical with the University of Chicago apparatus used on Explorer VI [Fan, Meyer, and Simpson, 1960b], namely, energetic particle detectors which measure fluxes of protons with energies greater than 75 Mev, electrons with energies greater than 15 Mev, and the bremsstrahlung from electrons and y rays of lower energy. Simultaneously with the measurements in Pioneer V a series of four neutron monitor piles were recording the changes in cosmic radiation intensity at the earth. We report here on some preliminary results obtained from the Chicago experiments during the time within which Pioneer V traveled to a distance of approximately 8 x 10 km from earth. Beginning on March 20, solar activity rapidly increased with many solar flares, radio noise bursts, etc., over a period of 10 days. Most of our results relate to this period. The preliminary data are given in Figures 1 and 2.

  17. Pioneering Objectives and Activities on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mars missions have been a topic of sustained interest within NASA, which continues to use its resources to examine many different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies, the combinations of which are often referred to as reference missions or architectures. The current investigative effort, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), is examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. These alternatives involve combinations of all the factors just mentioned. This paper is focused on the subset of these factors involved with objectives and activities that take place on the surface of Mars. "Pioneering" is a useful phrase to encapsulate the current approach being used to address this situation - one of its primary definitions is "a person or group that originates or helps open up a new line of thought or activity or a new method or technical development". Thus, in this scenario, NASA would be embarking on a path to "pioneer" a suite of technologies and operations that will result in an Earth independent, extended stay capability for humans on Mars. This paper will describe (a) the concept of operation determined to be best suited for the initial emplacement, (b) the functional capabilities determined to be necessary for this emplacement, with representative examples of systems that could carry out these functional capabilities and one implementation example (i.e., delivery sequence) at a representative landing site, and will (c) discuss possible capabilities and operations during subsequent surface missions.

  18. Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetic field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Magnet field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) during the encounters of Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11) was analyzed and interpreted. The puzzling characteristics of the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheric magnetic fields were studied. An apparent substorm (including thinning of the dayside tail current sheet) was observed at Jupiter, as well as evidence suggesting that at the magnetopause the cusp is at an abnormally low latitude. The characteristics of Saturn's ring current as observed by Pioneer 11 were dramatically different from those suggested by the Voyager observations. Most importantly, very strong perturbations in the azimuthal ring current magnetic field suggest that the plane of the ring was not in the dipole equatorial plane, being tilted 5 to 10 deg. relative to the dipole and undergoing significant changes during the encounter. When these changing currents were corrected for, an improved planetary field determination was obtained. In addition, the ring and azimuthal currents at Saturn displayed significantly different time dependences.

  19. Independent Confirmation of the Pioneer 10 Anomalous Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, Craig B.

    2002-01-01

    I perform an independent analysis of radio Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft for the time period 1987-1994. All of the tracking data were taken from public archive sources, and the analysis tools were developed independently by myself. I confirm that an apparent anomalous acceleration is acting on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is not accounted for by present physical models of spacecraft navigation. My best fit value for the acceleration, including corrections for systematic biases and uncertainties, is (8.60 plus or minus 1.34) x 10(exp -8) centimeters per second, directed towards the Sun. This value compares favorably to previous results. I examine the robustness of my result to various perturbations of the analysis method, and find agreement to within plus or minus 5%. The anomalous acceleration is reasonably constant with time, with a characteristic variation time scale of greater than 70 yr. Such a variation timescale is still too short to rule out on-board thermal radiation effects, based on this particular Pioneer 10 data set.

  20. Gravity results from Pioneer 10 Doppler data. [during Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Wong, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    Two-way Doppler data received from Pioneer 10 during its encounter with Jupiter have been analyzed, and preliminary results have been obtained on the mass and the gravity field of Jupiter and on the masses of the four Galilean satellites. The ratios of the masses of the satellites to the mass of Jupiter are approximately 0.00004696 for Io, 0.00002565 for Europa, 0.00007845 for Ganymede, and 0.00005603 for Callisto (all error estimates presented in this paper are standard errors; those for Pioneer 10 represent our evaluation of the real errors as distinguished from formal errors). The ratio of the mass of the sun to the mass of the Jupiter system is about 1047.342, which is in good agreement with recent determinations from the motions of asteroids. The second- and fourth-degree zonal harmonic coefficients in the gravity field of Jupiter are 0.014720 and -0.00065, respectively, based on an equatorial planetary radius of 71,400 km, and the derived dynamical oblateness is 0.0647 at the same radius. The Pioneer 10 data are consistent with the assumption that Jupiter is in hydrostatic equilibrium at all levels.