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Sample records for americanum ticks tennessee

  1. Molecular identification of Ehrlichia species and host bloodmeal source in Amblyomma americanum L. from two locations in Tennessee, United States.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jessica R; Scott, M Cathy; Baker, Ellen M; Jones, Carl J; Hickling, Graham J

    2015-04-01

    The current status of tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States is challenging to define due to emerging pathogens, uncertain tick/host relationships, and changing disease case definitions. A golf-oriented retirement community on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee experienced an ehrlichiosis outbreak in 1993, prompting efforts to reduce the local tick population using '4-Poster' acaricide devices targeting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In 2009, the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in questing ticks was surveyed in the area and compared to a Tennessee state park where acaricide had not been applied. The range of wildlife hosts that immature Amblyomma americanum fed upon and the role that these hosts may play in pathogen dynamics were investigated using a reverse line blot (RLB) bloodmeal analysis technique. Amblyomma americanum was by far the most common tick species in both study areas (>99% of ticks collected). Of 303 adult and nymphal A. americanum tested at the retirement community, six were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis (2.0%), 16 were positive for E. ewingii (5.3%), and six were positive for Panola Mountain Ehrlichia (2.0%). This is the first confirmation of Panola Mountain Ehrlichia in A. americanum from the state of Tennessee. The 9.3% prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in ticks from the retirement community was similar to that detected at the state park site (5.5%), suggesting that the 4-Poster treatment had not been sufficient to reduce Ehrlichia spp. cycling in the tick population. At both study sites, A. americanum fed on a wide range of mammal and bird species, with a minority of detectable bloodmeals coming from deer. Of the Ehrlichia-infected nymphs with positive bloodmeal identification, none fed on deer, indicating that multiple vertebrate species are contributing to sylvatic maintenance of Ehrlichia spp. at these sites. This highlights the difficulty of attempting to reduce the risk of tick-borne disease through host

  2. Absence of Rickettsia rickettsii and Occurrence of Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks from Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Cohen, Sara B.; Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Eileen; Yabsley, Michael J.; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett G.; Huang, Junjun; Mead, Daniel G.; Jones, Timothy F.; Dunn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most common tick-borne illness in Tennessee. Little is known about the occurrence of R. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in Tennessee. To better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. Additionally, we tested 231 Amblyomma americanum larvae. Ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel drags. Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 32% of adult and nymphal ticks. A total minimum infection rate of 85.63 was found in larval pools tested. Three rickettsial species, Rickettsia montana, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia cooleyi were identified by molecular analysis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected. This study suggests that some RMSF cases reported in Tennessee may be caused by cross-reactivity with other SFGR antigenically related to R. rickettsii. PMID:20810834

  3. Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C23-X7/9-C33-X23/24-C58-C8-C67X7-X75-X23-C99-X15-C115-X10-C126X24/25/33-C150C151-X7-C159-X8-X168-X23/24-C192-X9/10-C202 predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24 h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 h and 48 h tick saliva proteins (TSPs). Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ~160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ~16% and caused ~24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (~44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24 h Ixodes scapularis TSPs specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. PMID:23428900

  4. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    PubMed

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies. PMID:26348980

  5. Bioinformatic analyses of male and female Amblyomma americanum tick expressed serine protease inhibitors (serpins)

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Lindsay; Radulovic, Zeljko; Kim, Tae; Braz, Gloria R. C.; Da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a diverse family of proteins that is conserved across taxa. The diversity of Amblyomma americanum serpins (AAS) is far more complex than previously thought as revealed by discovery of 57 and 33 AAS transcripts that are respectively expressed in male and female A. americanum ticks, with 30 found in both. While distinct reproductively, both male and female metastriate ticks, such as A. americanum, require a blood meal. Thus, 30 AAS sequences found in both male and female ticks could play important role(s) in regulating tick feeding and thus represent attractive candidates for anti-tick vaccine development. Of significant interest, 19 AAS sequences expressed in male and female ticks are also part of the 48 AAS sequences expressed in fed female tick salivary glands or midguts; two organs through which the tick interacts with host blood and immune response factors. Considered the most important domain for serpin function, the reactive center loop (RCL) is further characterized by a single ‘P1’ site amino acid residue, which is central to determining the protease regulated by the serpin. In this study, a diversity of 17 different P1 site amino acid residues were predicted, suggesting that A. americanum serpins potentially regulate a large number of proteolytic pathways. Our data also indicate that some serpins in this study could regulate target protease common to all tick species, in that more than 40% of AAS show 58–97% inter-species amino acid conservation. Of significance, 24% of AAS showed 62–100% inter-species conservation within the functional RCL domain, with 10 RCLs showing ≥90–100% conservation. In vertebrates, serpins with basic residues at the P1 site regulate key host defense pathways, which the tick must evade to feed successfully. Interestingly, we found that AAS sequences with basic or polar uncharged residues at the putative P1 site are more likely to be conserved across tick species. Another notable

  6. In vitro membrane feeding of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and its use in evaluation of acaricidal compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is one of important Ixodid tick species that are known ectoparasites and disease vectors affecting animal and human health in the United States. New pesticides or repellents with novel mode of action would help control resistant ticks and protect humans from...

  7. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  8. Susceptibility of Four Tick Species Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) to Nootkatone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil nootkatone has shown acaricidal activity on ticks. The toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays using a vial coating technique against unfed nymphs of four Ixodid ticks: Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicepha...

  9. Characterization of the Bacterial Communities of Life Stages of Free Living Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Rowe, Lori A.; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R.; Dasch, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central USA and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. However, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. Knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the ticks and to design effective public health and veterinary interventions. We performed a metagenomic survey of the bacterial communities of questing A. americanum and tested 131 individuals (66 nymphs, 24 males, and 41 females) from five sites in three states. Pyrosequencing was performed with barcoded eubacterial primers targeting variable 16S rRNA gene regions 5–3. The bacterial communities were dominated by Rickettsia (likely R. amblyommii) and an obligate Coxiella symbiont, together accounting for 6.7–100% of sequences per tick. DNAs from Midichloria, Borrelia, Wolbachia, Ehrlichia, Pseudomonas, or unidentified Bacillales, Enterobacteriaceae, or Rhizobiales groups were also detected frequently. Wolbachia and Midichloria significantly co-occurred in Georgia (p<0.00001), but not in other states. The significance of the Midichloria-Wolbachia co-occurrence is unknown. Among ticks collected in Georgia, nymphs differed from adults in both the composition (p = 0.002) and structure (p = 0.002) of their bacterial communities. Adults differed only in their community structure (p = 0.002) with males containing more Rickettsia and females containing more Coxiella. Comparisons among adult ticks collected in New York and North Carolina supported the findings from the Georgia collection despite differences in geography, collection date, and sample handling, implying that the differences detected are consistent attributes. The data also suggest that some members of the

  10. Characterization of the bacterial communities of life stages of free living lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Rowe, Lori A; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central USA and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. However, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. Knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the ticks and to design effective public health and veterinary interventions. We performed a metagenomic survey of the bacterial communities of questing A. americanum and tested 131 individuals (66 nymphs, 24 males, and 41 females) from five sites in three states. Pyrosequencing was performed with barcoded eubacterial primers targeting variable 16S rRNA gene regions 5-3. The bacterial communities were dominated by Rickettsia (likely R. amblyommii) and an obligate Coxiella symbiont, together accounting for 6.7-100% of sequences per tick. DNAs from Midichloria, Borrelia, Wolbachia, Ehrlichia, Pseudomonas, or unidentified Bacillales, Enterobacteriaceae, or Rhizobiales groups were also detected frequently. Wolbachia and Midichloria significantly co-occurred in Georgia (p<0.00001), but not in other states. The significance of the Midichloria-Wolbachia co-occurrence is unknown. Among ticks collected in Georgia, nymphs differed from adults in both the composition (p = 0.002) and structure (p = 0.002) of their bacterial communities. Adults differed only in their community structure (p = 0.002) with males containing more Rickettsia and females containing more Coxiella. Comparisons among adult ticks collected in New York and North Carolina supported the findings from the Georgia collection despite differences in geography, collection date, and sample handling, implying that the differences detected are consistent attributes. The data also suggest that some members of the

  11. The Microbiome of Ehrlichia-Infected and Uninfected Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Trout Fryxell, R T; DeBruyn, J M

    2016-01-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. Recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. Our objective was to compare bacterial communities associated with A. americanum, comparing Anaplasma/Ehrlichia -infected and uninfected ticks. Field-collected questing specimens (n = 50) were used in the analyses, of which 17 were identified as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infected based on PCR amplification and sequencing of groEL genes. Bacterial communities from each specimen were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. There was a broad range in diversity between samples, with inverse Simpson's Diversity indices ranging from 1.28-89.5. There were no statistical differences in the overall microbial community structure between PCR diagnosed Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-positive and negative ticks, but there were differences based on collection method (P < 0.05), collection site (P < 0.05), and sex (P < 0.1) suggesting that environmental factors may structure A. americanum microbiomes. Interestingly, there was not always agreement between Illumina sequencing and PCR diagnostics: Ehrlichia was identified in 16S rRNA gene libraries from three PCR-negative specimens; conversely, Ehrlichia was not found in libraries of six PCR-positive ticks. Illumina sequencing also helped identify co-infections, for example, one specimen had both Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Other taxa of interest in these specimens included Coxiella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Identification of bacterial community differences between specimens of a single tick species from a single geographical site indicates that intra

  12. The Microbiome of Ehrlichia-Infected and Uninfected Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum)

    PubMed Central

    Trout Fryxell, R. T.; DeBruyn, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. Recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. Our objective was to compare bacterial communities associated with A. americanum, comparing Anaplasma/Ehrlichia -infected and uninfected ticks. Field-collected questing specimens (n = 50) were used in the analyses, of which 17 were identified as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infected based on PCR amplification and sequencing of groEL genes. Bacterial communities from each specimen were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. There was a broad range in diversity between samples, with inverse Simpson’s Diversity indices ranging from 1.28–89.5. There were no statistical differences in the overall microbial community structure between PCR diagnosed Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-positive and negative ticks, but there were differences based on collection method (P < 0.05), collection site (P < 0.05), and sex (P < 0.1) suggesting that environmental factors may structure A. americanum microbiomes. Interestingly, there was not always agreement between Illumina sequencing and PCR diagnostics: Ehrlichia was identified in 16S rRNA gene libraries from three PCR-negative specimens; conversely, Ehrlichia was not found in libraries of six PCR-positive ticks. Illumina sequencing also helped identify co-infections, for example, one specimen had both Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Other taxa of interest in these specimens included Coxiella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Identification of bacterial community differences between specimens of a single tick species from a single geographical site indicates that intra

  13. Comparison of flagging, walking, trapping, and collecting from hosts as sampling methods for northern deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, and lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, H S; Ewing, C P

    1989-09-01

    Ticks were sampled by flagging, collecting from the investigator's clothing (walking samples), trapping with dry-ice bait, and collecting from mammal hosts on Fire Island, NY, U.S.A. The habitat distribution of adult deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, was the same in simultaneous collections from the investigator's clothing and from muslin flags. Walking and flagging samples can both be biased by differences between investigators, so the same person should do comparative samples whenever possible. Walking samples probably give a more accurate estimate than flagging samples of the human risk of encountering ticks. However, ticks (such as immature I. dammini) that seek hosts in leaf litter and ground-level vegetation are poorly sampled by walking collections. These ticks can be sampled by flagging at ground level. Dry-ice-baited tick-traps caught far more lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, than deer ticks, even in areas where deer ticks predominated in flagging samples. In comparisons of tick mobility in the lab, nymphal A. americanum were more mobile than nymphal I. dammini in 84% of the trials. Therefore, the trapping bias may result from increased trap encounter due to more rapid movement by A. americanum, although greater attraction to carbon dioxide may also play a role. Tick traps are useful for intraspecific between-habitat comparisons. Early in their seasonal activity period, larval I. dammini were better represented in collections from mouse hosts than in flagging samples. Apparently, sampling from favored hosts can detect ticks at low population levels, but often cannot be used to get accurate estimates of pathogen prevalence in questing ticks. PMID:2806016

  14. Isolation of Tacaribe Virus, a Caribbean Arenavirus, from Host-Seeking Amblyomma americanum Ticks in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, Katherine A.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Chamberlain, Casey; Clapp, William L.; Alleman, Rick; Loeb, Julia C.; Lednicky, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks) collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573), with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2%) of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection. PMID:25536075

  15. Conserved Amblyomma americanum tick Serpin19, an inhibitor of blood clotting factors Xa and XIa, trypsin and plasmin, has anti-haemostatic functions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Radulovic, Zeljko; Lewis, Lauren; Bakshi, Mariam; Hill, Creston; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; Termignoni, Carlos; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-08-01

    Tick saliva serine protease inhibitors (serpins) facilitate tick blood meal feeding through inhibition of protease mediators of host defense pathways. We previously identified a highly conserved Amblyomma americanum serpin 19 that is characterised by its reactive center loop being 100% conserved in ixodid ticks. In this study, biochemical characterisation reveals that the ubiquitously transcribed A. americanum serpin 19 is an anti-coagulant protein, inhibiting the activity of five of the eight serine protease blood clotting factors. Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant (r) A. americanum serpin 19 inhibits the enzyme activity of trypsin, plasmin and blood clotting factors (f) Xa and XIa, with stoichiometry of inhibition estimated at 5.1, 9.4, 23.8 and 28, respectively. Similar to typical inhibitory serpins, recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 forms irreversible complexes with trypsin, fXa and fXIa. At a higher molar excess of recombinant A. americanum serpin 19, fXIIa is inhibited by 82.5%, and thrombin (fIIa), fIXa, chymotrypsin and tryptase are inhibited moderately by 14-29%. In anti-hemostatic functional assays, recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 inhibits thrombin but not ADP and cathepsin G activated platelet aggregation, delays clotting in recalcification and thrombin time assays by up to 250s, and up to 40s in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. Given A. americanum serpin 19 high cross-tick species conservation, and specific reactivity of recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 with antibodies to A. americanum tick saliva proteins, we conclude that recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 is a potential candidate for development of a universal tick vaccine. PMID:25957161

  16. Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in adult and nymphal stage lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.; Sumner, J.W.; Paddock, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), has increased in abundance in several regions of the northeastern United States, including areas of Long Island, NY. Adult and nymphal stage A. americanum collected from several sites on Long Island were evaluated for infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), by using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty-nine (12.5%) of ,17.3 adults and eight of 11.3 pools of five nymphs each (estimated minimum prevalence of infection 1.4%) contained DNA of E. chaffeensis. These data, coupled with the documented expansion of lone star tick populations in the northeastern United States, confirm that E. chaffeensis is endemic to many areas of Long Island and that HME should be considered among the differential diagnoses of the many distinct tick-borne diseases that occur in this region.

  17. Amblyomma americanum: specific uptake of immunoglobulins into tick hemolymph during feeding.

    PubMed

    Jasinskas, A; Jaworski, D C; Barbour, A G

    2000-12-01

    The passage of immunoglobulins in the blood meal into hemolymph prompts development of vaccines against internal antigens of ticks, but little is known about kinetics and specificity of the immunoglobulin uptake. We used capillary feeding of adult Amblyomma americanum hard ticks to introduce compounds into the midgut and then examined the hemolymph after various times for their presence and concentration. Immunoglobulins of different sources, albumin, choramphenicol acetyltransferase, inulin, and mannitol were labeled with (125)I, (14)C, or biotin. With the exception of the carbohydrate inulin, all the compounds entered the hemolymph of tick during capillary feeding. The small molecule mannitol had the highest rate of entry at 9% after 6 h. Among proteins, the entry of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of different species into the hemolymph was greater at 6% after 6 h than for the smaller proteins albumin or choramphenicol acetyltransferase at 1 and 3%, respectively. The entry of denatured IgG was equal to that of nondenatured protein. There was no evidence of degradation of the IgG or of its binding to cells once it entered the hemolymph. A monoclonal IgG antibody labeled with biotin entered the hemolymph and retained its ability to bind to its specific antigen in an immunoassay. Although different proteins entered the hemolymph after capillary feeding, there was evidence of a specific mechanism for immunoglobulin uptake. PMID:11162374

  18. Virome Analysis of Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis Ticks Reveals Novel Highly Divergent Vertebrate and Invertebrate Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon Hedley; Sameroff, Stephen; Sanchez Leon, Maria; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wide range of bacterial pathogens have been identified in ticks, yet the diversity of viruses in ticks is largely unexplored. In the United States, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis are among the principal tick species associated with pathogen transmission. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the viromes of these tick species and identified the presence of Powassan virus and eight novel viruses. These included the most divergent nairovirus described to date, two new clades of tick-borne phleboviruses, a mononegavirus, and viruses with similarity to plant and insect viruses. Our analysis revealed that ticks are reservoirs for a wide range of viruses and suggests that discovery and characterization of tick-borne viruses will have implications for viral taxonomy and may provide insight into tick-transmitted diseases. IMPORTANCE Ticks are implicated as vectors of a wide array of human and animal pathogens. To better understand the extent of tick-borne diseases, it is crucial to uncover the full range of microbial agents associated with ticks. Our current knowledge of the diversity of tick-associated viruses is limited, in part due to the lack of investigation of tick viromes. In this study, we examined the viromes of three tick species from the United States. We found that ticks are hosts to highly divergent viruses across several taxa, including ones previously associated with human disease. Our data underscore the diversity of tick-associated viruses and provide the foundation for further studies into viral etiology of tick-borne diseases. PMID:25056893

  19. Expression of bovine genes associated with a local and systemic immune response to infestation by the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, causes considerable production losses to the Southern U.S. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wounds, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. Chemical resid...

  20. Dual silencing of long and short Amblyomma americanum acidic chitinase forms weakens the tick cement cone stability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae K.; Curran, Janet; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that Amblyomma americanum (Aam) constitutively and ubiquitously expresses the long (L) and short (S) putative acidic chitinases (Ach) that are distinguished by a 210 base pair (bp) deletion in AamAch-S. Full-length AamAch-L and AamAch-S cDNA are 1959 and 1718 bp long, containing 1332 and 1104 bp open reading frames that code for 443 and 367 amino acid residues proteins with the former predicted to be extracellular and the latter intracellular. Both AamAch-L and AamAch-S mRNA are expressed in multiple organs as revealed by qualitative RT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that AamAch-L mRNA was downregulated in the mid-gut, but was unchanged in the salivary gland and in other organs in response to feeding. Of significant interest, AamAch-L and/or AamAch-S functions are probably associated with formation and/or maintenance of stability of A. americanum tick cement cone. Dual RNA interference silencing of AamAch-L and/or AamAch-S mRNA caused ticks to loosely attach onto host skin as suggested by bleeding around tick mouthparts and ticks detaching off host skin with a light touch. AamAch-L may apparently encode an inactive chitinase as indicated by Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant AamAch-L failing to hydrolyse chitinase substrates. Unpublished related work in our laboratory, and published work by others that found AamAch-L in tick saliva, suggest that native AamAch-L is a non-specific immunoglobulin binding tick saliva protein in that rAamAch-L non-specifically bound rabbit, bovine and chicken non-immune sera. We discuss findings in this study with reference to advancing knowledge on tick feeding physiology. PMID:25189365

  1. Amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds C1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we characterized Amblyomma americanum (Aam) tick calreticulin (CRT) homolog in tick feeding physiology. In nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. This suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. From this perspective it’s plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as CRT to regulate and facilitate feeding. CRT is a multi-functional protein found in most taxa that is injected into the vertebrate host during tick feeding. Apart from it’s current use as a biomarker for human tick bites, role(s) of this protein in tick feeding physiology have not been elucidated. Here we show that annotated functional CRT amino acid motifs are well conserved in tick CRT. However our data show that despite high amino acid identity levels to functionally characterized CRT homologs in other organisms, AamCRT is apparently functionally different. Pichia pastoris expressed recombinant (r) AamCRT bound C1q, the first component of the classical complement system, but it did not inhibit activation of this pathway. This contrast with reports of other parasite CRT that inhibited activation of the classical complement pathway through sequestration of C1q. Furthermore rAamCRT did not bind factor Xa in contrast to reports of parasite CRT binding factor Xa, an important protease in the blood clotting system. Consistent with this observation, rAamCRT did not affect plasma clotting or platelet aggregation aggregation. We discuss our findings in the context of tick feeding physiology. PMID:25454607

  2. Why so many unknown genes? Partitioning orphans from a representative transcriptome of the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources within the phylum Arthropoda are largely limited to the true insects but are beginning to include unexplored subphyla, such as the Crustacea and Chelicerata. Investigations of these understudied taxa uncover high frequencies of orphan genes, which lack detectable sequence homology to genes in pre-existing databases. The ticks (Acari: Chelicerata) are one such understudied taxon for which genomic resources are urgently needed. Ticks are obligate blood-feeders that vector major diseases of humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. In analyzing a transcriptome of the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum, one of the most abundant disease vectors in the United States, we find a high representation of unannotated sequences. We apply a general framework for quantifying the origin and true representation of unannotated sequences in a dataset and for evaluating the biological significance of orphan genes. Results Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were derived from different life stages and populations of A. americanum and combined with ESTs available from GenBank to produce 14,310 ESTs, over twice the number previously available. The vast majority (71%) has no sequence homology to proteins archived in UniProtKB. We show that poor sequence or assembly quality is not a major contributor to this high representation by orphan genes. Moreover, most unannotated sequences are functional: a microarray experiment demonstrates that 59% of functional ESTs are unannotated. Lastly, we attempt to further annotate our EST dataset using genomic datasets from other members of the Acari, including Ixodes scapularis, four other tick species and the mite Tetranychus urticae. We find low homology with these species, consistent with significant divergence within this subclass. Conclusions We conclude that the abundance of orphan genes in A. americanum likely results from 1) taxonomic isolation stemming from divergence within the tick lineage and limited genomic

  3. Nymphal survival and habitat distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution and survival of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum were studied in deciduous and coniferous wooded habitats and in open habitats on Fire Island, New York, USA. The survival of nymphal I. scapularis in field enclosures was greater in forests than in open habitats, suggesting that greater survival contributes to the higher tick population in the woods. The nymphs of each species were more common in deciduous thickets (predominantly Aronia arbutifolia and Vaccinium corynbosum) than in coniferous woods (mostly Pinus rigida) in most but not all years. Larval I. scapularis were more common in coniferous sites in 1994, while the same ticks, as nymphs, were more common in deciduous sites in 1995. The survival of the nymphs was not consistently greater in either the deciduous or coniferous woods. Therefore, factors other than nymphal survival (e.g. larval overwintering survival and tick movement on hosts) probably influenced the relative nymph abundance in different forest types. Overall, the survival of A. americanum was far higher than that of I. scapularis.

  4. Structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Bullard, Rebekah; Allen, Paige; Chao, Chien-Chung; Douglas, Jessica; Das, Pradipta; Morgan, Sarah E; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain β sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences. PMID:27118479

  5. Efficacy of amitraz collars on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) against free-living populations of Lone Star Ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collars containing the acaricide amitraz were fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) confined in a 38.8 ha deer-fenced, densely vegetated plot in south Texas to determine efficacy in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (...

  6. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y; Costa Junior, Livio M; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze

    2016-02-01

    DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50% of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC50s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents. PMID:26590930

  7. The genome sequence of Lone Star virus, a highly divergent bunyavirus found in the Amblyomma americanum tick.

    PubMed

    Swei, Andrea; Russell, Brandy J; Naccache, Samia N; Kabre, Beniwende; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Pilgard, Mark A; Johnson, Barbara J B; Chiu, Charles Y

    2013-01-01

    Viruses in the family Bunyaviridae infect a wide range of plant, insect, and animal hosts. Tick-borne bunyaviruses in the Phlebovirus genus, including Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome virus (SFTSV) in China, Heartland virus (HRTV) in the United States, and Bhanja virus in Eurasia and Africa have been associated with acute febrile illness in humans. Here we sought to characterize the growth characteristics and genome of Lone Star virus (LSV), an unclassified bunyavirus originally isolated from the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum. LSV was able to infect both human (HeLa) and monkey (Vero) cells. Cytopathic effects were seen within 72 h in both cell lines; vacuolization was observed in infected Vero, but not HeLa, cells. Viral culture supernatants were examined by unbiased deep sequencing and analysis using an in-house developed rapid computational pipeline for viral discovery, which definitively identified LSV as a phlebovirus. De novo assembly of the full genome revealed that LSV is highly divergent, sharing <61% overall amino acid identity with any other bunyavirus. Despite this sequence diversity, LSV was found by phylogenetic analysis to be part of a well-supported clade that includes members of the Bhanja group viruses, which are most closely related to SFSTV/HRTV. The genome sequencing of LSV is a critical first step in developing diagnostic tools to determine the risk of arbovirus transmission by A. americanum, a tick of growing importance given its expanding geographic range and competence as a disease vector. This study also underscores the power of deep sequencing analysis in rapidly identifying and sequencing the genomes of viruses of potential clinical and public health significance. PMID:23637969

  8. The Genome Sequence of Lone Star Virus, a Highly Divergent Bunyavirus Found in the Amblyomma americanum Tick

    PubMed Central

    Swei, Andrea; Russell, Brandy J.; Naccache, Samia N.; Kabre, Beniwende; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Pilgard, Mark A.; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses in the family Bunyaviridae infect a wide range of plant, insect, and animal hosts. Tick-borne bunyaviruses in the Phlebovirus genus, including Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome virus (SFTSV) in China, Heartland virus (HRTV) in the United States, and Bhanja virus in Eurasia and Africa have been associated with acute febrile illness in humans. Here we sought to characterize the growth characteristics and genome of Lone Star virus (LSV), an unclassified bunyavirus originally isolated from the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum. LSV was able to infect both human (HeLa) and monkey (Vero) cells. Cytopathic effects were seen within 72 h in both cell lines; vacuolization was observed in infected Vero, but not HeLa, cells. Viral culture supernatants were examined by unbiased deep sequencing and analysis using an in-house developed rapid computational pipeline for viral discovery, which definitively identified LSV as a phlebovirus. De novo assembly of the full genome revealed that LSV is highly divergent, sharing <61% overall amino acid identity with any other bunyavirus. Despite this sequence diversity, LSV was found by phylogenetic analysis to be part of a well-supported clade that includes members of the Bhanja group viruses, which are most closely related to SFSTV/HRTV. The genome sequencing of LSV is a critical first step in developing diagnostic tools to determine the risk of arbovirus transmission by A. americanum, a tick of growing importance given its expanding geographic range and competence as a disease vector. This study also underscores the power of deep sequencing analysis in rapidly identifying and sequencing the genomes of viruses of potential clinical and public health significance. PMID:23637969

  9. Distribution and infection frequency of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Maryland populations of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and culture in an Anopheles gambiae mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Ren, Xiaoxia; Norris, Douglas E; Rasgon, Jason L

    2012-02-01

    Amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) is a broadly distributed tick that transmits multiple pathogens of humans and domestic animals. 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted-fever group rickettsial species that is potentially associated with human disease. In 2008 and 2009, we assayed over 500 unfed adult ticks from 19 Maryland populations for the presence of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. Infection frequencies ranged from 33% to 100%, with an average infection rate of 60% in 2008 and 69% in 2009. Infection frequencies did not differ statistically between sexes. To develop a system in which to study 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in the laboratory, we used a cell line developed from Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Sua5B) to isolate and culture 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' from field-collected A. americanum ticks from 2 localities in Maryland. After infection, Sua5B cells were infected for more than 40 passages. Infection was confirmed by Rickettsia-specific PCR, gene sequencing, and Rickettsia-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show that 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' is widespread in Maryland A. americanum populations and that Sua5B cells are a useful tool for culturing Rickettsia infections from wild ticks. PMID:22309857

  10. Susceptibility of four tick species, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.

    PubMed

    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Behle, Robert W; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. We determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. Nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with LC50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and LC90 values of 1.001, 0.644, 0.549, and 0.485 microg/cm2 for A. americanum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis, and R. sanguineus, respectively. The LC50 value for R. sanquineus was not significantly different from D. variabilis or I. scapularis. Other LC50 comparisons were significantly different. The LC90 for A. americanum was higher when compared with the three other tick species, which were not significantly different. Because nootkatone is volatile, we measured the amount of nootkatone recovered from duplicate-treated vials before tick exposure and from vials after tick exposure. Nootkatone recovered from vials before exposure ranged from 82 to 112% of the expected amounts. The nootkatone recovered after the 24-h exposure period ranged from 89% from vials coated with higher concentrations of nootkatone, down to 29% from vials coated with low nootkatone concentrations. Determination of the nootkatone residue after vial coating demonstrated loss of the active compound while verifying the levels of tick exposure. Toxicity of low concentrations of nootkatone to the active questing stage of ticks reported in this study provides a reference point for future formulation research to exploit nootkatone as a safe and environment-friendly tick control. PMID:21485368

  11. Comparative efficacy of BioUD to other commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis on cotton cloth.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, Brooke W; Zhu, Jiwei; Apperson, Charles S; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Watson, D Wesley; Roe, R Michael

    2009-10-01

    BioUD is an arthropod repellent that contains the active ingredient 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato plants. Repellency of BioUD was compared with five commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks Amblyomma americanum (L.) and Dermacentor variabilis Say in two-choice bioassays on treated versus untreated cotton cheesecloth. Overall mean percentage repellency against both species was greatest for and did not differ significantly between BioUD (7.75% 2-undecanone) and products containing 98.1% DEET, 19.6% IR3535, and 30% oil of lemon eucalyptus. Products containing 5% and 15% Picaridin and 0.5% permethrin were also repellent compared with untreated controls but to a lesser degree than BioUD. The four most active repellents at the same concentrations used before were directly compared in head-to-head bioassays on cotton cheesecloth. BioUD provided significantly greater overall mean percentage repellency than IR3535 for A. americanum and D. variabilis. BioUD was significantly more repellent than oil of lemon eucalyptus for A. americanum but did not differ significantly in repellency against D. variabilis. No statistically significant difference in overall mean percentage repellency was found between BioUD and DEET for A. americanum or D. variabilis. In a 7-week time course bioassay, BioUD applied to cotton cheesecloth and held at room temperature provided 5 weeks of > 90% repellency against A. americanum. PMID:19815887

  12. Ixodid ticks: physiological and behavioral responses to gamma radiation, light and humidity. [Amblyomma americanum; Haemaphysalis leporispalustris; Dermacentor variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    In Part I, Effects of ''Gamma Radiation on Cytogenetics and Reproduction of Male Amblyomma americanum,'' male lone star ticks were exposed to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krads prior to feeding. Testicular squashes were made, and chromosomal aberrations were described. Timing of spermatogenesis was not affected; however, frequency of abnormal spermatocytes and rounded and elongated spermatids increased as radiation dosage increased. Untreated females mated to irradiated males remained attached to their hosts longer than control females did. Few of the females paired with treated males oviposited. Length of preoviposition period and numbers of eggs produced by individual females were not influenced by dosage levels of males. Percent hatch of eggs was decreased by irradiation of male parent. No hatch occurred at 2 krads or above. Weights of individual larvae appeared to increase with increasing dosage of male parents. Most eggs weighed 60-80 ..mu..g; larvae weighed 40-60..mu..g. Irradiation of ticks as a potential biological control measure was discussed. Part II, ''Orientation to Light and Humidity in Haemaphysalis leporispalustris and Dermacentor variabilis,'' compared behavioral preferences of a host-specific and a broad-host-species.

  13. A dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate and climate-independent factors on the lifecycle of the tick Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Ginsberg, Howard; Hickling, Graham J.; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern United States. To model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. In this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasonal activity patterns using models with site-specific temperature and day-length-dependent processes. We first modeled the transitions from engorged larvae to feeding nymphs, engorged nymphs to feeding adults, and engorged adult females to feeding larvae. The simulated seasonal patterns were compared against field observations at three locations in United States. Simulations suggested that 1) during the larva-to-nymph transition, some larvae undergo no diapause while others undergo morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae; 2) molted adults undergo behavioral diapause during the transition from nymph-to-adult; and 3) there is no diapause during the adult-to-larva transition. A model constructed to simulate the full lifecycle of A. americanum successfully predicted observed tick activity at the three U.S. study locations. Some differences between observed and simulated seasonality patterns were observed, however, identifying the need for research to refine some model parameters. In simulations run using temperature data for Montreal, deterministic die-out of A. americanum populations did not occur, suggesting the possibility that current climate in parts of southern Canada is suitable for survival and reproduction of this tick.

  14. Modeling the Present and Future Geographic Distribution of the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae), in the Continental United States.

    PubMed

    Springer, Yuri P; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Barnett, David T; Monaghan, Andrew J; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    The Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum L.) is the primary vector for pathogens of significant public health importance in North America, yet relatively little is known about its current and potential future distribution. Building on a published summary of tick collection records, we used an ensemble modeling approach to predict the present-day and future distribution of climatically suitable habitat for establishment of the Lone star tick within the continental United States. Of the nine climatic predictor variables included in our five present-day models, average vapor pressure in July was by far the most important determinant of suitable habitat. The present-day ensemble model predicted an essentially contiguous distribution of suitable habitat extending to the Atlantic coast east of the 100th western meridian and south of the 40th northern parallel, but excluding a high elevation region associated with the Appalachian Mountains. Future ensemble predictions for 2061-2080 forecasted a stable western range limit, northward expansion of suitable habitat into the Upper Midwest and western Pennsylvania, and range contraction along portions of the Gulf coast and the lower Mississippi river valley. These findings are informative for raising awareness of A. americanum-transmitted pathogens in areas where the Lone Star tick has recently or may become established. PMID:26217042

  15. Modeling the present and future geographic distribution of the Lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae), in the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, Yuri P; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Barnett, David T.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    The Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum L.) is the primary vector for pathogens of significant public health importance in North America, yet relatively little is known about its current and potential future distribution. Building on a published summary of tick collection records, we used an ensemble modeling approach to predict the present-day and future distribution of climatically suitable habitat for establishment of the Lone star tick within the continental United States. Of the nine climatic predictor variables included in our five present-day models, average vapor pressure in July was by far the most important determinant of suitable habitat. The present-day ensemble model predicted an essentially contiguous distribution of suitable habitat extending to the Atlantic coast east of the 100th western meridian and south of the 40th northern parallel, but excluding a high elevation region associated with the Appalachian Mountains. Future ensemble predictions for 2061–2080 forecasted a stable western range limit, northward expansion of suitable habitat into the Upper Midwest and western Pennsylvania, and range contraction along portions of the Gulf coast and the lower Mississippi river valley. These findings are informative for raising awareness of A. americanum-transmitted pathogens in areas where the Lone Star tick has recently or may become established.

  16. Amblyomma americanum tick saliva insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 binds insulin but not insulin-like growth factors.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Ž M; Porter, L M; Kim, T K; Bakshi, M; Mulenga, A

    2015-10-01

    Silencing Amblyomma americanum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (AamIGFBP-rP1) mRNA prevented ticks from feeding to repletion. In this study, we used recombinant (r)AamIGFBP-rP1 in a series of assays to obtain further insight into the role(s) of this protein in tick feeding regulation. Our results suggest that AamIGFBP-1 is an antigenic protein that is apparently exclusively expressed in salivary glands. We found that both males and females secrete AamIGFBP-rP1 into the host during feeding and confirmed that female ticks secrete this protein from within 24-48 h after attachment. Our data suggest that native AamIGFBP-rP1 is a functional insulin binding protein in that both yeast- and insect cell-expressed rAamIGFBP-rP1 bound insulin, but not insulin-like growth factors. When subjected to anti-blood clotting and platelet aggregation assays, rAamIGFBP-rP1 did not have any effect. Unlike human IGFBP-rP1, which is controlled by trypsinization, rAamIGFBP-rP1 is resistant to digestion, suggesting that the tick protein may not be under mammalian host control at the tick feeding site. The majority of tick-borne pathogens are transmitted 48 h after the tick has attached. Thus, the demonstrated antigenicity and secretion into the host within 24-48 h of the tick starting to feed makes AamIGFBP-rP1 an attractive target for antitick vaccine development. PMID:26108887

  17. Temporal Gene Expression Analysis and RNA Silencing of Single and Multiple Members of Gene Family in the Lone Star Tick Amblyomma americanum

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. Therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. Here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time PCR. The information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. We analyzed the temporal expression of seven housekeeping genes and 44 differentially expressed salivary molecules selected from a previously published Amblyomma americanum sialotranscriptome. Separate reference genes were selected for the salivary glands and midgut from among the seven housekeeping genes, to normalize the transcriptional expression of differentially expressed genes. The salivary gland reference gene, ubiquitin, was used to normalize the expression of 44 salivary genes. Unsurprisingly, each gene family was expressed throughout the blood meal, but the expression of specific genes differed at each time point. To further clarify the complex nature of the many proteins found in the saliva, we disrupted the translation of several members of the metalloprotease family. Intriguingly, the nucleotide sequence similarity of the reprolysin metalloprotease gene family is so homologous that a single synthesized dsRNA sequence knocked down multiple members of the family. The use of multigene knockdown yielded a more significant picture of the role of metalloproteases in tick feeding success, and changes were observed in the female engorgement weight and larval hatching success. Interestingly, the depletion of metalloprotease transcripts also reduced the total number of bacteria present in the salivary glands. These data provide insight into the expression and functions of tick salivary proteins expressed while feeding on its host. PMID:26872360

  18. Repellency of two terpenoid compounds isolated from Callicarpa americana (Lamiaceae) against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blacklegged (deer) ticks and lone star ticks are of medical importance in many areas of the U.S. Repellents are a last line of personal protection against tick bites. In Mississippi, as a traditional practice to protect draft animals from against biting insects, leaves of American beautyberry, Calli...

  19. Experimental use of two standard tick collection methods to evaluate the relative effectiveness of several plant-derived and synthetic repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C

    2011-12-01

    We used two standard tick collection methods to test the relative effectiveness of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol, classified as an eremophilene sesquiterpene and a monoterpene, respectively, that are derived from botanical sources) with commercially-available plant-derived (EcoSMART Organic Insect Repellent, comprised of plant essential oils) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.). Cloth drags were equally effective in sampling both species of host-seeking nymphs, whereas CO, traps attracted primarily A. americanum. All four repellents performed well on drags, with nootkatone and Permanone Repel (100% repelled through 14 d) slightly more effective than carvacrol and EcoSMART (90.7% and 97.7% repelled at 14 d, respectively) at repelling I. scapularis nymphs. Although the same trend in percent repellency was noted in the CO2 trap trial against both A. americanum nymphs and adults, EcoSMART outperformed Permanone in repelling A. Americanum nymphs after 14 d in the drag trial. Generally, the effectiveness of all repellents tested declined over time. The use of tick drags and CO2 traps was rapid, inexpensive, and easy to use in determining the relative effectiveness of repellents in the field. PMID:22299371

  20. Using lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in in vitro laboratory bioassays of repellents: dimensions, duration, and variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vitro bioassay is an important tool in repellent discovery and development, with a variety of bioassays used in recent years. Several factors, such as the dimensions and configuration of test surfaces and duration of tick exposure, can influence the outcome of bioassays. We tested two tick re...

  1. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ≤ 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  2. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atlas. Download this map [PDF - 1 page] Lone star tick ( Amblyomma americanum ) Where found: Widely distributed in ... is distinguished by a white dot or “lone star” on her back. Lone star tick saliva can ...

  3. Elemol and Amyris Oil Repel the Ticks Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes sc...

  4. Amblyomma americanum tick saliva serine protease inhibitor 6 is a cross-class inhibitor of serine proteases and papain-like cysteine proteases that delays plasma clotting and inhibits platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, A.; Kim, T.; Ibelli, A. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor 6 (AamS6) was secreted into the host during tick feeding and that both its mRNA and protein were ubiquitously and highly expressed during the first 3 days of tick feeding. This study demonstrates that AamS6 is a cross-class inhibitor of both serine- and papain-like cysteine proteases that has apparent antihaemostatic functions. Consistent with the typical inhibitory serpin characteristics, enzyme kinetics analyses revealed that Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant (r) AamS6 reduced initial velocities of substrate hydrolysis (V0) and/or maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax) of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, chymase, and papain in a dose–response manner. We speculate that rAamS6 inhibited plasmin in a temporary fashion in that while rAamS6 reduced V0 of plasmin by up to ~53%, it had no effect on Vmax. Our data also suggest that rAmS6 has minimal or no apparent effect on V0 or Vmax of thrombin, factor Xa, and kallikrein. We speculate that AamS6 is apparently involved in facilitating blood meal feeding in that various amounts of rAamS6 reduced platelet aggregation by up to ~47% and delayed plasma clotting time in the recalcification time assay by up to ~210 s. AamS6 is most likely not involved with the tick’s evasion of the host’s complement defense mechanism, in that rAamS6 did not interfere with the complement activation pathway. Findings in this study are discussed in the context of expanding our understanding of tick proteins that control bloodmeal feeding and hence tick-borne disease transmission by ticks. PMID:23521000

  5. Diversity of piroplasms detected in blood-fed and questing ticks from several states in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shock, Barbara C; Moncayo, Abelardo; Cohen, Sara; Mitchell, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Phillip C; Lopez, Gaylord; Garrison, Laurel E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Piroplasms in the genera Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon are tick-borne parasites that may be animal and human pathogens. Most piroplasms with known life cycles are transmitted by ixodid ticks; however, for many species, the vector is unknown. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and diversity of piroplasms in ticks from several US states. Piroplasm-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to test 1631 ticks from Georgia (n=486), Kentucky (n=103), Pennsylvania (n=1), Tennessee (n=626), and Texas (n=414). Ticks were either questing (n=42) or collected from animals (n=627) or humans (n=962). The 2 primary species tested were Dermacentor variabilis (n=702) and Amblyomma americanum (n=743), but Amblyomma cajennense (n=99), Amblyomma maculatum (n=16), Ixodes scapularis (n=4), I. woodi (n=1), and unidentified Amblyomma spp. nymphs (n=64) were also tested. A low prevalence of piroplasms was detected with 37 (2.3%), 35 (2.1%), and 9 (0.6%) ticks positive for Theileria spp., Babesia spp., or Cytauxzoon felis, respectively. Based on sequence analysis, at least 6 Babesia spp. were detected and 15 of the 35 (41%) Babesia-positive ticks were A. americanum, 19 (56%) were D. variabilis, and one (3%) was an I. scapularis. Nine Babesia-positive ticks were removed from humans from Kentucky (n=1), Georgia (n=2), Texas (n=5), and Pennsylvania (n=1). Three Babesia-positive ticks were questing A. americanum which represents the first report of Babesia-infected questing Amblyomma in the US. Theileria infections were only detected in A. americanum, and all sequences were similar to white-tailed deer associated Theileria spp. C. felis was only detected in D. variabilis. These data suggest that A. americanum may be a vector of Babesia spp., although experimental studies are needed to confirm vector competence. Finally, these data demonstrate a high diversity of piroplasms in both questing and partially fed ticks in the US; although, host-blood meals can

  6. Ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Faulde, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The most common vector-borne diseases in both Europe and North America are transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne bacterial zoonosis, is the most highly prevalent. Other important tick-borne diseases include TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Europe, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North America, and numerous less common tick-borne bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases on both continents. The major etiological agent of LB is Borrelia burgdorferi in North America, while in Europe several related species of Borrelia can also cause human illness. These Borrelia genospecies differ in clinical manifestations, ecology (for example, some have primarily avian and others primarily mammalian reservoirs), and transmission cycles, so the epizootiology of LB is more complex in Europe than in North America. Ticks dwell predominantly in woodlands and meadows, and in association with animal hosts, with only limited colonization of human dwellings by a few species. Therefore, suburbanization has contributed substantially to the increase in tick-borne disease transmission in North America by fostering increased exposure of humans to tick habitat. The current trend toward suburbanization in Europe could potentially result in similar increases in transmission of tick-borne diseases. Incidence of tick-borne diseases can be lowered by active public education campaigns, targeted at the times and places of greatest potential for encounter between humans and infected ticks. Similarly, vaccines (e.g., against TBE) are most effective when made available to people at greatest risk, and for high-prevalence diseases such as LB. Consultation with vector-borne disease experts during the planning stages of new human developments can minimize the potential for residents to encounter infected ticks (e.g., by appropriate dwelling and landscape design). Furthermore, research on tick vectors, pathogens, transmission ecology, and on

  7. Association of the bovine leukocyte antigen major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3*4401 allele with host resistance to the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MHC of cattle, known as the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) complex, plays an integral role in disease and parasite susceptibility, and immune responsiveness of the host. While susceptibility to tick infestation in cattle is believed to be heritable, genes that may be responsible for the manife...

  8. Discovery of filarial nematode DNA in Amblyomma americanum in Northern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Tyler C; Orr, John M; Smith, Joshua D; Arias, Jorge R; Rasgon, Jason L; Norris, Douglas E

    2016-03-01

    Ticks collected in 2011 were screened for the presence of filarial nematode genetic material, and positive samples were sequenced for analysis. Monanema-like filarial nematode DNA was recently discovered in Amblyomma americanum in northern Virginia, marking the first time genetic material from this parasite has been discovered in ticks in the state. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this material was directly related to a previously discovered filarial nematode in A. americanum populations in Maryland as well as recently identified parasites in Ixodes scapularis from southern Connecticut. Further study is warranted to visually confirm the presence of these nematodes, characterize their distribution, and determine if these ticks are intermediate hosts. PMID:26707835

  9. Discovery of filarial nematode DNA in Amblyomma americanum in Northern Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Tyler C.; Orr, John M.; Smith, Joshua D.; Arias, Jorge R.; Rasgon, Jason L.; Norris, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks collected in 2011 were screened for the presence of filarial nematode genetic material, and positive samples were sequenced for analysis. Monanema-like filarial nematode DNA was recently discovered in Amblyomma americanum in northern Virginia, marking the first time genetic material from this parasite has been discovered in ticks in the state. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this material was directly related to a previously discovered filarial nematode in A. americanum populations in Maryland as well as recently identified parasites in Ixodes scapularis from southern Connecticut. Further study is warranted to visually confirm the presence of these nematodes, characterize their distribution, and determine if these ticks are intermediate hosts. PMID:26707835

  10. Relationship between habitat type, fire frequency, and Amblyomma americanum populations in east-central Alabama.

    PubMed

    Willis, Damien; Carter, Robert; Murdock, Chris; Blair, Benjie

    2012-12-01

    Ticks were collected from 20 sites in the Calhoun, Cherokee, and Cleburne Counties in east-central Alabama areas to determine the relationship between plant physiognomy, environmental variables, and tick populations. Sites investigated included various burning regimes, wildland-urban-interface (WUI), a college campus, and an unmanaged area. Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) dominated the tick population while Ixodes scapularis Say was not encountered. There were complex differences in tick populations among site conditions. After prescribed burning, the tick population size was small but was larger in subsequent 2- and 5-year post-burn sites. An increase in Odocoileus virginianus foraging in recently burned sites is likely responsible for this phenomenon. WUI areas had the largest tick populations likely due to Odocoileus virginianus activity in an area that provides cover, forage, and a connection to a wildlife refuge. It is possible that the likelihood of humans coming in contact with ticks and tick-borne diseases is greater in WUI areas than in unbroken contiguous forest. A. americanum showed a positive correlation with percent cover of grass and leaf litter mass and a negative relationship with pine sapling density. Variables expected to be strongly correlated with A. americanum populations such as soil moisture, canopy closure, and tree density were found to have weak correlations. PMID:23181862

  11. The chemosensory appendage proteome of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) reveals putative odorant-binding and other chemoreception-related proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analyses were done on 2 chemosensory appendages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Proteins in the fore tarsi, which contain the olfactory Haller's organ, and in the palps, that include gustatory sensilla, were compared with proteins in the third tarsi. Also, male and female tick...

  12. CONTROL OF IXODES SCAPULARIS AND AMBLYOMMA AMERICANUM USING THE '4-POSTER' TREATMENT DEVICE ON DEER IN MARYLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deer self-treatment devices (`4-posters¿) were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing populations of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, and lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum. At each of 3 locations in Maryland, 25 `4-posters¿ were operated in approximately 518 ha study areas. Populations ...

  13. Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B. H., (compiler); Carney, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), established in 1879, is an agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior. For more than a century, the USGS has provided reports, maps, data, and other information to aid in the development, management, and portection of the Nation's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. This brochure outlines the USGS in Tennessee and highlights hydrologic investigations.

  14. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  15. Prevalence of parasitism by Amblyomma americanum on wild turkey poults as influenced by prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, H A; Hurst, G A

    1979-01-01

    Captive-raised eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) poults were allowed to forage on either recently burned plots or on plots that had not been burned during the previous 3 years. Following a two hour exposure on the study plots, external parasites were recovered from all poults. The louse (Menacanthus stramineus) and the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) were the only parasites recovered. Fifty-nine poults exposed to the burned plots had a significantly (P less than 0.001) lower prevalence of A. americanum infestation than did 57 poults exposed to the unbured plots. Thirty-five percent of the poults exposed to the unburned plots were infested by A. americanum. A single A. americanum was recovered from one poult exposed to burned plots. PMID:459047

  16. Biases associated with several sampling methods used to estimate abundance of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W

    1997-11-01

    Several tick sampling methods were evaluated for ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (I.) in oak-dominated mixed hard-wood, pitch pine-dominated, and mixed hardwood and pine forests in coastal New Jersey. Walking surveys were more efficient for collecting I. scapularis adults than dragging by a factor of > 2:1. In contrast, drag sampling yielded nearly twice as many A. americanum adults compared with walking surveys. I. scapularis subadults were rarely collected during walking surveys. A. americanum nymphs were collected from drags approximately 3:1 over walking surveys. Twice as many A. americanum larvae were obtained from drags compared with walking surveys. All developmental stages of A. americanum responded positively to carbon dioxide. Pitfall traps and leaf litter samples collected very few ticks. Tick distribution among habitats varied significantly with the sampling method chosen, and the relative ranking of sites with respect to tick abundance varied depending on the stage of tick sampled. Failure to recognize the biases in these commonly used sampling techniques can potentially lead to incorrect conclusions that can have significant adverse public health consequences. PMID:9439115

  17. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Butler, M.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pre-treatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  18. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Butler, M.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  19. Neuronal projections from the Haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of Amblyomma americanum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an Ixodidae tick species. The tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed Amblyomma americanum males and...

  20. Responses of Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis to odorants that attract haematophagous insects.

    PubMed

    Carr, A L; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Sonenshine, D E; Schal, C; Apperson, C S

    2013-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2) ), 1-octen-3-ol, acetone, ammonium hydroxide, L-lactic-acid, dimethyl trisulphide and isobutyric acid were tested as attractants for two tick species, Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), in dose-response bioassays using Y-tube olfactometers. Only CO(2) , acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and ammonium hydroxide elicited significant preferences from adult A. americanum, and only CO(2) was attractive to adult D. variabilis. Acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and ammonium hydroxide were separately evaluated at three doses against CO(2) (from dry ice) at a field site supporting a natural population of A. americanum nymphs and adults. Carbon dioxide consistently attracted the highest number of host-seeking ticks. However, for the first time, acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and ammonium hydroxide were shown to attract high numbers of A. americanum. Further research is needed to determine the utility of these semiochemicals as attractants in tick surveillance and area-wide management programmes. PMID:22681499

  1. A conceptual model of the Amblyomma americanum life cycle in northeast Missouri.

    PubMed

    Bouzek, D C; Foré, S A; Bevell, J G; Kim, H-J

    2013-06-01

    The geographic distribution of Amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) has increased as has its role as a pathogen vector. The objectives of this study were to determine seasonal activity patterns of each life stage of A. americanum in the northwestern part of the species range and the relationship of these activity patterns among life stages and degree days. Tick activity was monitored over four years since 2007 in a forest and old field habitat located in northeast Missouri. Every other week from February to December, ticks were collected using bait and drag methods. Autocorrelations demonstrated yearly seasonal patterns in each life stage and cross-correlations between life stages depicted a relationship between activity at a life stage and the previous stage's activity. Cross-correlations indicated that degree days were related to activity. These data indicated that A. americanum generally complete their life cycle in a minimum of two years in northeast Missouri, with overwintering occurring predominantly in the nymphal and adult stages. These data provide a baseline to compare the life cycle of A. americanum in northeast Missouri to populations in different parts of the species range or at different times in the region. PMID:23701610

  2. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Jennifer E; Thomasson, J Alex; Marsella, Rosanna; Greiner, Ellis C; Allan, Sandra A

    2016-05-01

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida, USA, were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Most ticks were collected from dogs (98.4 %) with the most predominant species being R. sanguineus (94.3 %). Of the ticks collected from cats (1.6 %), A. americanum were the most common (74 %). Only R. sanguineus were collected throughout the state, with the other species collected only in central and north Florida. The tick species collected from dogs and cats represent a risk to these domestic species as well as associated humans for a range of tick-borne diseases in Florida. PMID:26888081

  3. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of two Ixodid tick species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the presence of serotonin-like immunoreactive (5HT-IR) neurons and neuronal processes in the central nervous system (CNS), the synganglion, of two Ixodid tick species; the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Seroto...

  4. An Acarologic Survey and Amblyomma americanum Distribution Map with Implications for Tularemia Risk in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Heidi E.; Yates, Karen F.; Dietrich, Gabrielle; MacMillan, Katherine; Graham, Christine B.; Reese, Sara M.; Helterbrand, Wm. Steve; Nicholson, William L.; Blount, Keith; Mead, Paul S.; Patrick, Sarah L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, tickborne diseases occur focally. Missouri represents a major focus of several tickborne diseases that includes spotted fever rickettsiosis, tularemia, and ehrlichiosis. Our study sought to determine the potential risk of human exposure to human-biting vector ticks in this area. We collected ticks in 79 sites in southern Missouri during June 7–10, 2009, which yielded 1,047 adult and 3,585 nymphal Amblyomma americanum, 5 adult Amblyomma maculatum, 19 adult Dermacentor variabilis, and 5 nymphal Ixodes brunneus. Logistic regression analysis showed that areas posing an elevated risk of exposure to A. americanum nymphs or adults were more likely to be classified as forested than grassland, and the probability of being classified as elevated risk increased with increasing relative humidity during the month of June (30-year average). Overall accuracy of each of the two models was greater than 70% and showed that 20% and 30% of the state were classified as elevated risk for human exposure to nymphs and adults, respectively. We also found a significant positive association between heightened acarologic risk and counties reporting tularemia cases. Our study provides an updated distribution map for A. americanum in Missouri and suggests a wide-spread risk of human exposure to A. americanum and their associated pathogens in this region. PMID:21363979

  5. An acarologic survey and Amblyomma americanum distribution map with implications for tularemia risk in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, H.E.; Yates, K.F.; Dietrich, G.; MacMillan, K.; Graham, C.B.; Reese, S.M.; Helterbrand, Wm. S.; Nicholson, W.L.; Blount, K.; Mead, P.S.; Patrick, S.L.; Eisen, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, tickborne diseases occur focally. Missouri represents a major focus of several tickborne diseases that includes spotted fever rickettsiosis, tularemia, and ehrlichiosis. Our study sought to determine the potential risk of human exposure to human-biting vector ticks in this area. We collected ticks in 79 sites in southern Missouri during June 7-10, 2009, which yielded 1,047 adult and 3,585 nymphal Amblyomma americanum, 5 adult Amblyomma maculatum, 19 adult Dermacentor variabilis, and 5 nymphal Ixodes brunneus. Logistic regression analysis showed that areas posing an elevated risk of exposure to A. americanum nymphs or adults were more likely to be classified as forested than grassland, and the probability of being classified as elevated risk increased with increasing relative humidity during the month of June (30-year average). Overall accuracy of each of the two models was greater than 70% and showed that 20% and 30% of the state were classified as elevated risk for human exposure to nymphs and adults, respectively. We also found a significant positive association between heightened acarologic risk and counties reporting tularemia cases. Our study provides an updated distribution map for A. americanum in Missouri and suggests a wide-spread risk of human exposure to A. americanum and their associated pathogens in this region. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Ehrlichia and Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Surveillance in Amblyomma americanum in Virginia Through Use of a Novel Six-Plex Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Operario, Darwin J.; Stroup, Suzanne; Stromdahl, Ellen; Wright, Chelsea; Gaff, Holly; Broyhill, James; Smith, Joshua; Norris, Douglas E.; Henning, Tyler; Lucas, Agape; Houpt, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The population of the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum has expanded in North America over the last several decades. It is known to be an aggressive and nondiscriminatory biter and is by far the most common human-biting tick encountered in Virginia. Few studies of human pathogen prevalence in ticks have been conducted in our state since the mid-twentieth century. We developed a six-plex real-time PCR assay to detect three Ehrlichia species (E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia) and three spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR; R. amblyommii, R. parkeri, and R. rickettsii) and used it to test A. americanum from around the state. Our studies revealed a presence of all three Ehrlichia species (0–24.5%) and a high prevalence (50–80%) of R. amblyommii, a presumptively nonpathogenic SFGR, in all regions surveyed. R. parkeri, previously only detected in Virginia's Amblyomma maculatum ticks, was found in A. americanum in several surveyed areas within two regions having established A. maculatum populations. R. rickettsii was not found in any sample tested. Our study provides the first state-wide screening of A. americanum ticks in recent history and indicates that human exposure to R. amblyommii and to Ehrlichiae may be common. The high prevalence of R. amblyommii, serological cross-reactivity of all SFGR members, and the apparent rarity of R. rickettsii in human biting ticks across the eastern United States suggest that clinical cases of tick-borne disease, including ehrlichiosis, may be commonly misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and that suspicion of other SFGR as well as Ehrlichia should be increased. These data may be of relevance to other regions where A. americanum is prevalent. PMID:24746145

  7. Population and Evolutionary Genomics of Amblyomma americanum, an Expanding Arthropod Disease Vector

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Javier D.; Atkinson, Elizabeth G.; Henn, Brenna M.; Benach, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is an important disease vector and the most frequent tick found attached to humans in the eastern United States. The lone star tick has recently experienced a rapid range expansion into the Northeast and Midwest, but despite this emerging infectious threat to wildlife, livestock, and human health, little is known about the genetic causes and consequences of the geographic expansion. In the first population genomic analysis of any tick species, we characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of A. americanum across its current geographic range, which has recently expanded. Using a high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we discovered more than 8,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 90 ticks from five locations. Surprisingly, newly established populations in New York (NY) and Oklahoma (OK) are as diverse as historic range populations in North and South Carolina. However, substantial population structure occurs among regions, such that new populations in NY and OK are genetically distinct from historic range populations and from one another. Ticks from a laboratory colony are genetically distinct from wild populations, underscoring the need to account for natural variation when conducting transmission or immunological studies, many of which utilize laboratory-reared ticks. An FST-outlier analysis comparing a recently established population to a long-standing population detected numerous outlier sites, compatible with positive and balancing selection, highlighting the potential for adaptation during the range expansion. This study provides a framework for applying high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies for future investigations of ticks, which are common vectors of diseases. PMID:27190204

  8. Population and Evolutionary Genomics of Amblyomma americanum, an Expanding Arthropod Disease Vector.

    PubMed

    Monzón, Javier D; Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Henn, Brenna M; Benach, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is an important disease vector and the most frequent tick found attached to humans in the eastern United States. The lone star tick has recently experienced a rapid range expansion into the Northeast and Midwest, but despite this emerging infectious threat to wildlife, livestock, and human health, little is known about the genetic causes and consequences of the geographic expansion. In the first population genomic analysis of any tick species, we characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of A. americanum across its current geographic range, which has recently expanded. Using a high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we discovered more than 8,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 90 ticks from five locations. Surprisingly, newly established populations in New York (NY) and Oklahoma (OK) are as diverse as historic range populations in North and South Carolina. However, substantial population structure occurs among regions, such that new populations in NY and OK are genetically distinct from historic range populations and from one another. Ticks from a laboratory colony are genetically distinct from wild populations, underscoring the need to account for natural variation when conducting transmission or immunological studies, many of which utilize laboratory-reared ticks. An FST-outlier analysis comparing a recently established population to a long-standing population detected numerous outlier sites, compatible with positive and balancing selection, highlighting the potential for adaptation during the range expansion. This study provides a framework for applying high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies for future investigations of ticks, which are common vectors of diseases. PMID:27190204

  9. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  10. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  11. Avoiding Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic ... ticks on your pets Preventing ticks in the yard File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  12. Tick Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Borrelia myamotoi Infections Colorado Tick Fever Ehrlichiosis Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness (STARI) ... Infections Colorado Tick Fever Ehrlichiosis Lyme Disease Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness (STARI) ...

  13. The phenology of ticks and the effects of long-term prescribed burning on tick population dynamics in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida.

    PubMed

    Gleim, Elizabeth R; Conner, L Mike; Berghaus, Roy D; Levin, Michael L; Zemtsova, Galina E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. Management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. One promising management strategy is prescribed burning. However, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a failure of some studies to simulate operational management scenarios and/or account for other predictors of tick abundance. Therefore, our study was conducted to increase knowledge of tick population dynamics relative to long-term prescribed fire management. Furthermore, we targeted a region, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida (USA), in which little is known regarding tick dynamics so that basic phenology could be determined. Twenty-one plots with varying burn regimes (burned surrounded by burned [BB], burned surrounded by unburned [BUB], unburned surrounded by burned [UBB], and unburned surrounded by unburned [UBUB]) were sampled monthly for two years while simultaneously collecting data on variables that can affect tick abundance (e.g., host abundance, vegetation structure, and micro- and macro-climatic conditions). In total, 47,185 ticks were collected, of which, 99% were Amblyomma americanum, 0.7% were Ixodes scapularis, and fewer numbers of Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes brunneus, and Dermacentor variabilis. Monthly seasonality trends were similar between 2010 and 2011. Long-term prescribed burning consistently and significantly reduced tick counts (overall and specifically for A. americanum and I. scapularis) regardless of the burn regimes and variables evaluated. Tick species composition varied according to burn regime with A. americanum dominating at UBUB, A. maculatum at BB, I. scapularis at UBB, and a more even composition at BUB. These data indicate that

  14. The Phenology of Ticks and the Effects of Long-Term Prescribed Burning on Tick Population Dynamics in Southwestern Georgia and Northwestern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Gleim, Elizabeth R.; Conner, L. Mike; Berghaus, Roy D.; Levin, Michael L.; Zemtsova, Galina E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. Management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. One promising management strategy is prescribed burning. However, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a failure of some studies to simulate operational management scenarios and/or account for other predictors of tick abundance. Therefore, our study was conducted to increase knowledge of tick population dynamics relative to long-term prescribed fire management. Furthermore, we targeted a region, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida (USA), in which little is known regarding tick dynamics so that basic phenology could be determined. Twenty-one plots with varying burn regimes (burned surrounded by burned [BB], burned surrounded by unburned [BUB], unburned surrounded by burned [UBB], and unburned surrounded by unburned [UBUB]) were sampled monthly for two years while simultaneously collecting data on variables that can affect tick abundance (e.g., host abundance, vegetation structure, and micro- and macro-climatic conditions). In total, 47,185 ticks were collected, of which, 99% were Amblyomma americanum, 0.7% were Ixodes scapularis, and fewer numbers of Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes brunneus, and Dermacentor variabilis. Monthly seasonality trends were similar between 2010 and 2011. Long-term prescribed burning consistently and significantly reduced tick counts (overall and specifically for A. americanum and I. scapularis) regardless of the burn regimes and variables evaluated. Tick species composition varied according to burn regime with A. americanum dominating at UBUB, A. maculatum at BB, I. scapularis at UBB, and a more even composition at BUB. These data indicate that

  15. TickBot: a novel robotic device for controlling tick populations in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Gaff, Holly D; White, Alexis; Leas, Kyle; Kelman, Pamela; Squire, James C; Livingston, David L; Sullivan, Gerald A; Baker, Elizabeth W; Sonenshine, Daniel E

    2015-03-01

    A semi-autonomous 4-wheeled robot (TickBot) was fitted with a denim cloth treated with an acaricide (permethrin™) and tested for its ability to control ticks in a tick-infested natural environment in Portsmouth, Virginia. The robot's sensors detect a magnetic field signal from a guide wire encased in 80m polyethylene tubing, enabling the robot to follow the trails, open areas and other terrain where the tubing was located. To attract ticks to the treated area, CO2 was distributed through the same tubing, fitted with evenly spaced pores and flow control valves, which permitted uniform CO2 distribution. Tests were done to determine the optimum frequency for TickBot to traverse the wire-guided treatment site as well as the duration of operation that could be accomplished on a single battery charge. Prior to treatment, dragging was done to determine the natural abundance of ticks in the test site. Controls were done without CO2 and without permethrin. TickBot proved highly effective in reducing the overall tick densities to nearly zero with the treatment that included both carbon dioxide pretreatment and the permethrin treated cloth. Following a 60min traverse of the treatment areas, adult tick numbers, almost entirely Amblyomma americanum, was reduced to zero within 1h and remained at or near zero for 24h. Treatments without CO2 also showed reduction of ticks to near zero within 1h, but the populations were no different than the control sections at 4h. This study demonstrates the efficacy of TickBot as a tick control device to significantly reduce the risk of tick bites and disease transmission to humans and companion animals visiting a previously tick-infested natural environment. Continued deployment of TickBot for additional days or weeks can assure a relatively tick-safe environment for enjoyment by the public. PMID:25499615

  16. Solvent, drying time, and the responses of lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae) to the repellents deet and picaridin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of repellents. Tick repellent bioassays tend to be rather uncomplicated, but several factors can influence their outcomes. Using lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), nymphs in climbing bioassays, we tes...

  17. Tick removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases, some ticks can cause: Colorado tick fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Tularemia First Aid If ... the next week or two for indications of Lyme disease. If all parts of the tick cannot be ...

  18. Tick removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases, some ticks can cause: Colorado tick fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Tularemia ... the next week or two for indications of Lyme disease. If all parts of the tick cannot be ...

  19. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around the neck of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). St...

  20. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study...

  1. The effects of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and burned habitat on the survival of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gleim, Elizabeth R; Conner, L Mike; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Identifying ways in which humans can reduce tick populations is important for preventing the spread and emergence of diseases. During a recent study on effects of long-term prescribed burning on ticks, differences in species composition were observed with lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.), preferring unburned habitats and Gulf Coast ticks, Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), preferring burned habitats. Interestingly, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is found predominantly in disturbed habitats, such as burned habitats, and studies have reported that red imported fire ants prey on lone star ticks. To better understand drivers of tick population differences in burned habitats, the current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of red imported fire ant and habitat on survival of lone star and Gulf Coast ticks. Within treatments (burned habitat with red imported fire ants, burned habitat without red imported fire ants, and unburned habitat without red imported fire ants), 10 tick enclosures were installed and seeded with engorged lone star or Gulf Coast tick nymphs. After molting, ticks within enclosures were collected. Survival of lone star ticks in burned habitats (regardless of red imported fire ant presence) was significantly lower compared with unburned habitat. Gulf Coast ticks had significantly greater survival in burned habitats (regardless of red imported fire ant presence) compared with lone star ticks. In this study, burning status was more important for survival of ticks than presence of red imported fire ants, with Gulf Coast ticks surviving better in burned habitat that typically experiences higher temperatures and lower humidity. PMID:23540113

  2. Emerging Tick-borne Rickettsia and Ehrlichia at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Fort Eustis, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa K; Jiang, Ju; Truong, Melissa; Yarina, Tamasin; Evans, Holly; Christensen, Timothy P; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Four species of ticks known to parasitize humans (Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick), Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick), Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick), and Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick)) were collected at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Fort Eustis, Virginia during 2009. These ticks were tested individually (adults and nymphs) and in pools of 15 (larvae) for pathogens of public health importance within the genera: Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and, where appropriate, multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Of the 340 A americanum ticks tested, a minimum of 65 (19%), 4 (1%), 4 (1%), and one (<1%) were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, B lonestari, E ewingii and E chaffeensis, respectively. One of 2 (50%) A maculatum ticks collected was found to be positive for R parkeri by MLST and qPCR analyses. All 33 D variabilis ticks were negative for evidence of rickettsial infections. Likewise, no pathogenic organisms were detected from the single Ixodes scapularis tick collected. Pathogenic rickettsiae and ehrlichiae are likely emerging and cause under-recognized diseases, which threaten people who live, work, train, or otherwise engage in outdoor activities at, or in the vicinity of, Fort Eustis, Virginia. PMID:27613206

  3. Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the Ehrlichia sp. from Panola Mountain in Amblyomma americanum

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Amanda D; Mixson, Tonya R; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Yabsley, Michael J; Garrison, Laurel E; Williamson, Phillip C; Fitak, Robert R; Fuerst, Paul A; Kelly, Daryl J; Blount, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    Background A novel Ehrlichia, closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium, was recently discovered from Panola Mountain State Park, GA, USA. We conducted a study to determine if this agent was recently introduced into the United States. Methods We developed a sensitive PCR assay based on the conserved gltA (citrate synthase) gene and tested DNA samples extracted from 1964 field-collected and 1835 human-biting Amblyomma americanum from 23 eastern states of the USA. Results The novel agent was detected in 36 ticks collected from 10 states between 1998 and 2006. Infected ticks were collected both from vegetation (n = 14, 0.7%) and from humans (n = 22, 1.2%). Fragments of the conserved gltA gene and the variable map1 gene were sequenced from positive samples. Two distinct clades, with 10.5% nucleic acid divergence over the 730 bp map1 sequence, were identified. Conclusion These data suggest that the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia was not recently introduced to the United States; this agent has an extensive distribution throughout the range of its tick vector, has been present in some locations for several years, and displays genetic variability. Furthermore, people in several states were exposed to this agent through the bite of infected ticks, underscoring the potential public health risk of this emerging ehrlichiosis. PMID:18433500

  4. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases. PMID:25171252

  5. Population-Based Passive Tick Surveillance and Detection of Expanding Foci of Blacklegged Ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N.; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0–9 years old) and older adults (55–74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases. PMID:25171252

  6. Development of a mitochondrial 12S rDNA analysis for distinguishing Sciuridae species with potential to transmit Ehrlichia and Borrelia species to feeding Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Goessling, Lisa S; Allan, Brian F; Mandelbaum, Rachel S; Thach, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    Unique oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to distinguish among closely related vertebrate mitochondrial rDNA sequences present in residual bloodmeals in emergent Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) nymph life-stage ticks. Use of these probes enabled the identification of the Eastern gray squirrel as an important bloodmeal source in nymphs harboring Ehrlichia and Borrelia species. These results were confirmed by identifying these same bacterial genera in Eastern gray squirrel tissues. PMID:22679888

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a Georgia Barrier Island.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Oliver, J H; Kinsey, A A

    2001-03-01

    From September 1997 through July 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on St. Catherine's Island, Liberty County, GA. Seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. Seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature stages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), during this season. Eight species ofticks were recovered from 14 species of birds during this study: A. americanum (74 nymphs, 168 larvae); the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (11 nymphs, 28 larvae), the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch (two nymphs, 29 larvae); Ixodes minor Neumann (16 larvae); the rabbit tick. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) (one nymph, 14 larvae); the bird tick Ixodes brunneus Koch (two larvae); the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (one nymph); and Ixodes affinis Neumann (one larva). The Carolina wren was parasitized by more species of ticks (seven) than any other bird species, followed by the northern cardinal (five), white-throated sparrow (four) and painted bunting (three). Spirochetes were isolated in BSK II medium from one tick (a nymphal A. americanum) and from skin biopsies of 12 (4%) of the individual birds (three downy woodpeckers, three northern waterthrushes, two Carolina wrens, one American redstart, one pine warbler, one Swainson's thrush, and one white-eyed vireo) all in fall 1997. This concentrated phenology of spirochete isolations might reflect periodic amplification or recrudescence of spirochetes in reservoir avian hosts. PMID:11296828

  8. Field evaluation of arthropod repellent netting as a ground cloth against ticks.

    PubMed

    Grothaus, R H; Reed, J T; Passingham, L H

    1976-09-01

    Tick repellent, wide-mesh net ground cloths were tested against Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus) by the CO2 bait technique. Two repellents, N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (deet) and 3 acetyl-2-(dimethyl-5-heptenyl)-oxazoladine, and two netting fabrics were compared. All combinations tested provided over 90% protection. The effectiveness of repellent ground cloths against chiggers is discussed. PMID:961999

  9. Repellency to ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of extracts of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) and the anti-inflammatory DogsBestFriend™.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J F; Babish, J G; Pacioretty, L M; Kramer, M

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by observations that the canine anti-inflammatory cream DogsBestFriend™ (DBF) appeared to deter flies, mosquitoes, and ticks from treated animals, repellent efficacy bioassays using four species of ticks were conducted with three extracts of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), a constituent of DBF. The DBF cream was tested against nymphs of lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). In vertical filter paper assays, the three extracts applied at 0.413 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper repelled 96.7-100 % of brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) nymphs, whereas, at the same rate, only one extract repelled >90 % A. americanum nymphs. Adult (mixed sexes) American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), required a higher concentration to be repelled effectively; two extracts, applied at 0.827 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper, repelled ≥90 % of the D. variabilis. In contrast, all extracts applied at much lower concentration (0.206 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper) repelled 100 % adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (only females tested). Of the two more repellent extracts, one lost most of its activity against A. americanum nymphs in <4 h when applied at 0.827 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper, whereas the other repelled 66.7 % of the nymphs at 192 h after application. At 0.206 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper, one extract was as repellent as deet against A. americanum nymphs. In a vertical bioassay in which nylon organdy was substituted for filter paper, DBF, at the rates of 1.67 and 0.835 mg cream/cm(2), repelled 76.7 and 30.0 % A. americanum nymphs, respectively. These findings indicate that when applied appropriately DBF should afford some protection to canines against tick bites. PMID:27394440

  10. Tick Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases to animals and people. Some of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia. Some ...

  11. Ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Marc C; Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Schulze, Christopher J; Manning, Mark Cornell; Ruffolo, Daniel; Schmidt, Jason P; Piesman, Joseph; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Aqueous formulations of 1 and 5% nootkatone applied by backpack sprayer to the forest litter layer completely suppressed I. scapularis nymphs through 2 d. Thereafter, the level of reduction gradually declined to < or =50% at 28 d postapplication. Against A. americanum nymphs, 1% nootkatone was less effective, but at a 5% concentration, the level of control was similar or greater to that observed with I. scapularis through 21 d postapplication. Initial applications of 0.05% carvacrol were ineffective, but a 5% carvacrol formulation completely suppressed nymphs of both species through 2 d and resulted in significant reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 28 and 14 d postapplication, respectively. Backpack sprayer applications of 5% nootkatone to the shrub and litter layers resulted in 100% control of I. scapularis adults through 6 d, but the level of reduction declined to 71.5% at 28 d postapplication. By contrast, high-pressure applications of 2% nootkatone to the litter layer resulted in 96.2-100% suppression of both I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 42 d, whereas much lower control was obtained from the same formulation applied by backpack sprayer. Backpack sprayer application of a 3.1% nootkatone nanoemulsion resulted in 97.5-98.9 and 99.3-100% reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs, respectively, at 1 d postapplication. Between 7 d and 35 d postapplication, the level of control varied between 57.1% and 92.5% for I. scapularis and between 78.5 and 97.1% for A. americanum nymphs. The ability of natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. PMID:20069863

  12. A Dynamic Population Model to Investigate Effects of Climate and Climate-Independent Factors on the Lifecycle of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Ginsberg, Howard S; Hickling, Graham J; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2016-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern United States. To model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. In this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasonal activity patterns using models with site-specific temperature and day-length-dependent processes. We first modeled the transitions from engorged larvae to feeding nymphs, engorged nymphs to feeding adults, and engorged adult females to feeding larvae. The simulated seasonal patterns were compared against field observations at three locations in United States. Simulations suggested that 1) during the larva-to-nymph transition, some larvae undergo no diapause while others undergo morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae; 2) molted adults undergo behavioral diapause during the transition from nymph-to-adult; and 3) there is no diapause during the adult-to-larva transition. A model constructed to simulate the full lifecycle of A. americanum successfully predicted observed tick activity at the three U.S. study locations. Some differences between observed and simulated seasonality patterns were observed, however, identifying the need for research to refine some model parameters. In simulations run using temperature data for Montreal, deterministic die-out of A. americanum populations did not occur, suggesting the possibility that current climate in parts of southern Canada is suitable for survival and reproduction of this tick. PMID:26502753

  13. A Coxiella-Like Endosymbiont Is a Potential Vitamin Source for the Lone Star Tick

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Todd A; Driscoll, Timothy; Gillespie, Joseph J; Raghavan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Amblyomma americanum (Lone star tick) is an important disease vector in the United States. It transmits several human pathogens, including the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, and southern tick-associated rash illness. Blood-feeding insects (Class Insecta) depend on bacterial endosymbionts to provide vitamins and cofactors that are scarce in blood. It is unclear how this deficiency is compensated in ticks (Class Arachnida) that feed exclusively on mammalian blood. A bacterium related to Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has been observed previously within cells of A. americanum. Eliminating this bacterium (CLEAA, Coxiella-like endosymbiont of A. americanum) with antibiotics reduced tick fecundity, indicating that it is an essential endosymbiont. In an effort to determine its role within this symbiosis, we sequenced the CLEAA genome. While highly reduced (656,901 bp) compared with C. burnetii (1,995,281 bp), the CLEAA genome encodes most major vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis pathways, implicating CLEAA as a vitamin provisioning endosymbiont. In contrast, CLEAA lacks any recognizable virulence genes, indicating that it is not a pathogen despite its presence in tick salivary glands. As both C. burnetii and numerous “Coxiella-like bacteria” have been reported from several species of ticks, we determined the evolutionary relationship between the two bacteria. Phylogeny estimation revealed that CLEAA is a close relative of C. burnetii, but was not derived from it. Our results are important for strategies geared toward controlling A. americanum and the pathogens it vectors, and also contribute novel information regarding the metabolic interdependencies of ticks and their nutrient-provisioning endosymbionts. PMID:25618142

  14. Tick community composition in Midwestern US habitats in relation to sampling method and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Clay, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The ranges of many tick species are changing due to climate change and human alteration of the landscape. Understanding tick responses to environmental conditions and how sampling method influences measurement of tick communities will improve our assessment of human disease risk. We compared tick sampling by three collection methods (dragging, CO2 trapping and rodent surveys) in adjacent forested and grassland habitats in the lower Midwest, USA, and analyzed the relationship between tick abundance and microclimate conditions. The study areas were within the overlapping ranges of three tick species, which may provide conditions for pathogen exchange and spread into new vectors. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) was found using all methods, Amblyomma americanum (lonestar tick) was found by dragging and CO2 trapping and Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged deer tick) was found only on rodents. Proportion of each species differed significantly among sampling methods. More ticks were found in forests compared to open habitats. Further, more ticks were collected by dragging and from rodents in hotter, drier conditions. Our results demonstrate that multiple sampling methodologies better measure the tick community and that microclimate conditions strongly influence the abundance and activity of individual tick species. PMID:24705853

  15. The role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ticks, as obligate hematophagous ectoparasites, impact greatly on animal and human health because they transmit various pathogens worldwide. Over the last decade, several cystatins from different hard and soft ticks were identified and biochemically analyzed for their role in the physiology and blood feeding lifestyle of ticks. All these cystatins are potent inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases, but not of legumain. Tick cystatins were either detected in the salivary glands and/or the midgut, key tick organs responsible for blood digestion and the expression of pharmacologically potent salivary proteins for blood feeding. For example, the transcription of two cystatins named HlSC-1 and Sialostatin L2 was highly upregulated in these tick tissues during feeding. Vaccinating hosts against Sialostatin L2 and Om-cystatin 2 as well as silencing of a cystatin gene from Amblyomma americanum significantly inhibited the feeding ability of ticks. Additionally, Om-cystatin 2 and Sialostatin L possessed strong host immunosuppressive properties by inhibiting dendritic cell maturation due to their interaction with cathepsin S. These two cystatins, together with Sialostatin L2 are the first tick cystatins with resolved three-dimensional structure. Sialostatin L, furthermore, showed preventive properties against autoimmune diseases. In the case of the cystatin Hlcyst-2, experimental evidence showed its role in tick innate immunity, since increased Hlcyst-2 transcript levels were detected in Babesia gibsoni-infected larval ticks and the protein inhibited Babesia growth. Other cystatins, such as Hlcyst-1 or Om-cystatin 2 are assumed to be involved in regulating blood digestion. Only for Bmcystatin was a role in tick embryogenesis suggested. Finally, all the biochemically analyzed tick cystatins are powerful protease inhibitors, and some may be novel antigens for developing anti-tick vaccines and drugs of medical importance due to their stringent target specificity

  16. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  17. Heterogeneous Associations of Ecological Attributes with Tick-Borne Rickettsial Pathogens in a Periurban Landscape.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ram K; Goodin, Douglas G; Dryden, Michael W; Hroobi, Ali; Gordon, David M; Cheng, Chuanmin; Nair, Arathy D; Jakkula, Laxmi U M R; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Anderson, Gary A; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-09-01

    The variations in prevalence levels of two tick-borne rickettsial pathogens, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia Ewingii, in a periurban environment were evaluated along with their ecological determinants. Tick life stage and sex, month of tick collection, landscape fragmentation, and ecological covariates specific to pasture and woodland sites were considered as explanatory covariates. Questing lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) were collected by flagging for an hour once every week during mid-April through mid-August in years 2013 and 2014. A total of 4357 adult and nymphal ticks (woodland = 2720 and pasture = 1637) were collected and assessed for pathogen prevalence by molecular methods. Female A. americanum ticks were more infected with E. chaffeensis than males or nymphs in woodland areas [♂ = 6.05%; ♀ = 12.0%; nymphs = 2.09%] and pastures [♂ = 8.05%; ♀ = 12.03%; nymphs = 3.33%], and the prevalence was influenced by edge density in the landscape. Higher E. ewingii infection was noted among female A. americanum ticks within woodland areas [♂ = 1.89%; ♀ = 2.14%; nymphs = 1.57%], but no such difference was evident in pastures [♂ = 1.03%; ♀ = 1.33%; nymphs = 1.12%]. Prevalence of E. ewingii was influenced by edge contrast index, and the percentage of pasture perimeter that was less than 20 meters from woodland areas. This study elucidates the complexity of tick-borne pathogen ecology and points to the need for further studies on the role of reservoir hosts, particularly that played by small vertebrates, which is not fully understood in the region. PMID:27454144

  18. Transmission of Nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Brown, D J; Halbrendt, J M; Robbins, R T; Vrain, T C

    1993-09-01

    The transmission of North American nepoviruses by putative species belonging to the Xiphinema americanum-group is reviewed. Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto, X. californicum, and X. rivesi each transmit cherry rasp leaf (CRLV), tobacco ringspot (TobRSV), and tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV), and X. bricolensis is a vector of TomRSV. The apparent lack of specificity in the transmission of North American nepoviruses by X. americanum-group species markedly contrasts with the specific associations between European nepoviruses and their vector nematode species. Two complementary projects are described examining the taxonomic identity of putative species in the X. americanum-group, their morphological and genetic relationships, their ontogeny, and their ability to transmit viruses. PMID:19279778

  19. Transmission of Nepoviruses by Xiphinema americanum-group Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. J. F.; Halbrendt, J. M.; Robbins, R. T.; Vrain, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    The transmission of North American nepoviruses by putative species belonging to the Xiphinema americanum-group is reviewed. Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto, X. californicum, and X. rivesi each transmit cherry rasp leaf (CRLV), tobacco ringspot (TobRSV), and tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV), and X. bricolensis is a vector of TomRSV. The apparent lack of specificity in the transmission of North American nepoviruses by X. americanum-group species markedly contrasts with the specific associations between European nepoviruses and their vector nematode species. Two complementary projects are described examining the taxonomic identity of putative species in the X. americanum-group, their morphological and genetic relationships, their ontogeny, and their ability to transmit viruses. PMID:19279778

  20. Ixodid ticks associated with feral swine in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David M; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, P Wesley; Strey, Otto F; Blankenship, Terry L; Teel, Pete D

    2013-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from feral swine in eight Texas ecoregions from 2008-2011. Sixty-two percent of 806 feral swine were infested with one or more of the following species: Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, Dermacentor albipictus, D. halli, D. variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Juvenile and adult feral swine of both sexes were found to serve as host to ixodid ticks. Longitudinal surveys of feral swine at four geographic locations show persistent year-round tick infestations of all gender-age classes for tick species common to their respective geographic locations and ecoregions. Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum and D. variabilis were collected from 66% of feral swine harvested through an abatement program in seven ecoregions from March to October in 2009. These results indicate westward geographic expansion of D. variabilis. Summary results show feral swine are competent hosts for ixodid species responsible for the transmission of pathogens and diminished well-being in livestock, wildlife, and humans. PMID:24581367

  1. A ten-year study of tick biting in Mississippi: implications for human disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    To determine exactly which tick species bit people in Mississippi, information was gathered on ticks involved in human biting cases for the ten-year period, January 1, 1990-December 31, 1999. Specimens were identified by the author and, in most cases, confirmed by personnel at the Institute of Arthropodology and Parasitology, Georgia Southern University. A total of 119 ticks were recovered from 73 humans during the study period. Seven tick species were represented; most common included the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, the gulf coast tick, A. maculatum, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the black-legged deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Interestingly, no immature Ixodes scapularis were collected. there were several unusual records. Twelve larvae of Amblyomma tuberculatum, a species associated with the gopher tortoise, were removed from a patient. Two Dermacentor albipictus larvae were collected from an elderly woman with no travel history except her backyard. One Dermacentor sp. nymph, removed from a man in central MS, was not even a North American species. One adult female Dermacentor variabilis was involved in a clinical case of tick paralysis. These findings indicate that, although we know which tick species are common human biters, unusual/unreported tick-human interactions may be more common than we think. PMID:12853269

  2. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    PubMed

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed. PMID:26443685

  3. Suppression of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Schulze, Terry L

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. An aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of I. scapularis through 7 d. Control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. Nootkatone provided >90% control of A. americanum through 35 d postapplication. Applications of 2% carvacrol and EcoTrol T&O resulted in rapid knockdown of both tick species, but control declined significantly to 76.7 and 73.7%, respectively, after 14 d when a second application was made that extended control of both tick species to between 86.2 and 94.8% at 21 d. Subsequently, control declined steadily in all plots by 42 d postapplication except for I. scapularis in carvacrol-treated plots, where levels of control >90% were observed through 35 d. Of the three compounds tested, 2% nootkatone provided the most consistent results, with 96.5 and 91.9% control of I. scapularis and A. americanum through 42 and 35 d, respectively. The ability of plant-derived natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. In addition, the demonstrated efficacy of properly-timed backpack sprayer application may enable homeowner access to these minimal-risk acaricides. PMID:21510219

  4. Habitat and Vegetation Variables Are Not Enough When Predicting Tick Populations in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Moore, J E; Collins, M D; Kwon, Y; Jean-Philippe, S R; Schaeffer, S M; Odoi, A; Kennedy, M; Houston, A E

    2015-01-01

    Two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by Amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis). There is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. Consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. Vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were used to test the hypothesis that habitat and vegetation variables can predict tick abundances. No variables were significant predictors of A. americanum adult and nymph tick abundance, and no clustering was evident because this species was found throughout the study area. For A. maculatum adult tick abundance was predicted by NDVI and by the interaction between habitat type and plant diversity; two significant population clusters were identified in a heterogeneous area suitable for quail habitat. For D. variabilis no environmental variables were significant predictors of adult abundance; however, D. variabilis collections clustered in three significant areas best described as agriculture areas with defined edges. This study identified few landscape and vegetation variables associated with tick presence. While some variables were significantly associated with tick populations, the amount of explained variation was not useful for predicting reliably where ticks occur; consequently, additional research that includes multiple sampling seasons and locations throughout the southeast are warranted. This low amount of explained variation may also be due to the use of hosts for dispersal, and potentially to other abiotic and biotic variables. Host species play a large role in the establishment, maintenance, and dispersal of a tick species, as well as the maintenance of disease cycles, dispersal to new areas, and identification of risk areas. PMID:26656122

  5. Habitat and Vegetation Variables Are Not Enough When Predicting Tick Populations in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Trout Fryxell, R. T.; Moore, J. E.; Collins, M. D.; Kwon, Y.; Jean-Philippe, S. R.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Odoi, A.; Kennedy, M.; Houston, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by Amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis). There is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. Consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. Vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were used to test the hypothesis that habitat and vegetation variables can predict tick abundances. No variables were significant predictors of A. americanum adult and nymph tick abundance, and no clustering was evident because this species was found throughout the study area. For A. maculatum adult tick abundance was predicted by NDVI and by the interaction between habitat type and plant diversity; two significant population clusters were identified in a heterogeneous area suitable for quail habitat. For D. variabilis no environmental variables were significant predictors of adult abundance; however, D. variabilis collections clustered in three significant areas best described as agriculture areas with defined edges. This study identified few landscape and vegetation variables associated with tick presence. While some variables were significantly associated with tick populations, the amount of explained variation was not useful for predicting reliably where ticks occur; consequently, additional research that includes multiple sampling seasons and locations throughout the southeast are warranted. This low amount of explained variation may also be due to the use of hosts for dispersal, and potentially to other abiotic and biotic variables. Host species play a large role in the establishment, maintenance, and dispersal of a tick species, as well as the maintenance of disease cycles, dispersal to new areas, and identification of risk areas. PMID:26656122

  6. Tick bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry bacteria that can cause: Colorado tick fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Tularemia These and ... given to people who live in areas where Lyme disease is common. The person may receive: Blood ...

  7. Tick bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry bacteria that can cause: Colorado tick fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Tularemia These and other ... given to people who live in areas where Lyme disease is common. The person may receive: Blood and ...

  8. Ixodid ticks on white-tailed deer and feral swine in Florida.

    PubMed

    Allan, S A; Simmons, L A; Burridge, M J

    2001-06-01

    A state-wide survey was conducted in Florida during the 1997-99 hunting seasons to examine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (Sus scrofa) for potential indigenous vectors of the rickettsial agent of heartwater, Cowdria ruminantium. A total of 504 white-tailed deer and 166 feral swine was examined from 30 wildlife management areas across the state. Amblyomma maculatum, an experimental vector of C. ruminantium, was common on both deer and feral swine throughout the state. Of the collection of 3,169 ticks, 34.5% were Ixodes scapularis Say, 34.0% Amblyomma americanum (L.), 25.5% Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 5.8% Dermacentor variabilis (Say), 0.4% Ixodes affinis Neumann, 0.03% Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) and 0.01% Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). The only exotic tick collected was A. auricularium, which is found on armadillos in Central and South America and is not known to be associated with any disease. Overall, the most prevalent species on deer were I. scapularis (51.1%) and A. maculatum (35.8%), with A. americanum less prevalent (16.0%) and D. variabilis (3.0%) and I. affinis (1.9%) rare. On feral swine, the most prevalent species were I. scapularis (69.7%) and D. variabilis (56.9%), with A. maculatum (16.2%) and A. americanum (4.6%) less common. The geographic distribution of ticks differed significantly throughout the state. Both A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis were more prevalent on deer from southern Florida compared to northern and central Florida. In contrast, A. americanum were more prevalent in northern and central Florida but rare in southern Florida, and I. scapularis were more common in southern compared to northern Florida. These geographic differences may reflect differences in the risk of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, wildlife and humans within Florida. PMID:11469190

  9. Neuronal projections from the Haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of Amblyomma americanum§.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Li, Andrew Yongsheng; Olafson, Pia Untalan; Renthal, Robert; Bauchan, Gary Roy; Lohmeyer, Kimberly Hutchison; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de

    2016-06-14

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an Ixodidae tick species. The tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed Amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. A neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. The synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. Neuronal arborizations from the Haller's organ were confined to the olfactory lobes and the first pedal ganglion. The estimated number of olfactory glomeruli ranged from 16 to 22 per olfactory lobe in the females. The number of glomeruli was not counted in males because they were densely packed. Sensory neurons associated with sensilla at the distal end of the palpal organ projected into the palpal ganglion in the synganglion through the palpal nerve. Gustatory sensory neurons associated with palpal sensilla projected into a commissure with several bulges, which are confined in the palpal ganglion. The findings of distinct projection patterns of sensory neurons associated with the Haller's organ and palpal organ in the lone star tick from this study advanced our knowledge on mechanisms of sensory information processing in ticks. PMID:27304521

  10. Neuronal projections from the Haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of Amblyomma americanum§.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Li, Andrew Yongsheng; Olafson, Pia Untalan; Renthal, Robert; Bauchan, Gary Roy; Lohmeyer, Kimberly Hutchison; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de

    2016-06-14

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an Ixodidae tick species. The tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed Amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. A neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. The synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. Neuronal arborizations from the Haller's organ were confined to the olfactory lobes and the first pedal ganglion. The estimated number of olfactory glomeruli ranged from 16 to 22 per olfactory lobe in the females. The number of glomeruli was not counted in males because they were densely packed. Sensory neurons associated with sensilla at the distal end of the palpal organ projected into the palpal ganglion in the synganglion through the palpal nerve. Gustatory sensory neurons associated with palpal sensilla projected into a commissure with several bulges, which are confined in the palpal ganglion. The findings of distinct projection patterns of sensory neurons associated with the Haller's organ and palpal organ in the lone star tick from this study advanced our knowledge on mechanisms of sensory information processing in ticks. PMID:27334823

  11. The United States Department of Agriculture's Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project: summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Pound, Joe Mathews; Miller, John Allen; George, John E; Fish, Durland; Carroll, John F; Schulze, Terry L; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Stafford, Kirby C; Mather, Thomas N

    2009-08-01

    From 1997 to 2002, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project used acaricide-treated 4-Poster Deer Treatment Bait Stations in five eastern states to control ticks feeding on white-tailed deer. The objectives of this host-targeted technology were to reduce free-living blacklegged (Ixodes scapularis Say) and lone star (Amblyomma americanum [L.]) tick populations and thereby to reduce the risk of tick-borne disease. During 2002 to 2004, treatments were suspended, and tick population recovery rates were assayed. Subsequently, the major factors that influenced variations in efficacy were extrapolated to better understand and improve this technology. Treatments resulted in significant reductions in free-living populations of nymphal blacklegged ticks at six of the seven sites, and lone star ticks were significantly reduced at all three sites where they were present. During the study, maximal significant (p < or = 0.05) efficacies against nymphal blacklegged and lone star ticks at individual sites ranged from 60.0 to 81.7 and 90.9 to 99.5%, respectively. The major environmental factor that reduced efficacy was the occurrence of heavy acorn masts, which provided an alternative food resource for deer. Although the 4-Poster technology requires 1 or more years to show efficacy, this host-targeted intervention was demonstrated to be an efficacious, economical, safe, and environment-friendly alternative to area-wide spraying of acaricide to control free-living populations of these tick species. PMID:19650739

  12. Tick paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. Breathing difficulties require emergency care. Prevention Use insect repellents and protective clothing when in tick-infested areas. ... chap 298. Read More Botulism Guillain-Barré syndrome Insect bites and stings Movement - uncoordinated Muscle function loss Poisoning - fish and ...

  13. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  14. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  15. A comparison of the performance of regression models of Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Ixodidae) using life cycle or landscape data from administrative divisions.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The distribution of Amblyomma americanum (L.) in the continental United States has been modelled using the reported distribution in counties as "established" (six or more ticks or two or more life stages were recorded during a specified time period), "reported" (fewer than six ticks of a single life stage were recorded), or "absent" (neither of the above categories were met) and a set of environmental and biotic explanatory variables. Categorical (vegetation, climate, and habitat suitability for the main host of the tick) or continuous variables (raw data on temperature, vegetation, and habitat fragmentation), as well as the processes of the tick's life cycle, were tested to build models using multiple logistic regression. The best results were obtained when the life cycle processes were used as descriptors of regressions. Better models derived from life cycle processes were obtained after inclusion of habitat suitability for the white tailed deer (the main host of the tick) and landscape fragmentation. Using this approach, 86% of "absent" and 83% of "established" counties were classified correctly, but all "reported" counties were erroneously classified. Modelling life cycle processes with descriptions of host abundance and habitat fragmentation produced the best outcome when coordinates were missing. When only standard categorical descriptors of climate or vegetation were included in models, results produced poor outcomes. Models were improved with remotely sensed information on temperature and vegetation but produced high rates of misclassification for 14% of "absent", 37% of "established", and 100% of "reported" counties. Modelling produced poor results in the absence of point distributions (coordinates). Therefore, "reported" counties cannot be handled adequately by modelling procedures, probably because this category does not reflect the true status of the tick distribution. We conclude that standard categorical classifications of the distribution of an

  16. Distribution of Xiphinema americanum and Related Species in North America

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    All species of the Xiphinema americanum-group and their synonyms are listed. The North American species reported are listed by state or province. Among these species, X. rivesi has the most widely reported distribution. Six species (X. diffusum, X. floridae, X. laevistriatum, X. luci, X. shell, and X. tarjanense) have been reported from only Florida. The reports of X. pachtaicum, X. sheri, and X. luci did not include morphometrics and need to be confirmed; X. brevicolle from California was identified before Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo described 15 new species in 1979 and similarly needs to be confirmed. Because of the proliferation of species in this group, reports of X. americanum (sensu stricto) before 1979 are questionable. Extraction techniques for longidorids are discussed. PMID:19279777

  17. DEET, Showers, and Tick Checks Can Stop Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... and bringing ticks with them. Prevent Ticks on Animals Use tick control products to prevent family pets ... medications should be used regularly to protect your animals and your family from ticks. Consult your veterinarian ...

  18. Comparison of DNA and Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope-based Techniques for Identification of Prior Vertebrate Hosts of Ticks.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Sarah A; Weghorst, Alex C; Auckland, Lisa D; Roark, E Brendan; Strey, Otto F; Teel, Pete D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-09-01

    Identification of the vertebrate hosts upon which hematophagous arthropods feed provides key information for understanding the ecology and transmission of vector-borne diseases. Bloodmeal analysis of ticks presents unique challenges relative to other vectors, given the long interval between bloodmeal acquisition and host-seeking, during which DNA degradation occurs. This study evaluates DNA-based and stable isotope-based bloodmeal analysis methodologies for the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Linneaus, 1758), in an experimental study with chicken as the known host. We subjected ticks of different ages and environmental rearing conditions to three DNA-based approaches and a stable isotopic analysis, which relies on the natural variation of nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) and carbon ((13)C/(12)C) isotopes. While all three DNA-based approaches were successful in identifying the bloodmeal host of the engorged nymphs, only the probe-based RT-PCR was able to detect host DNA in aged ticks, the success of which was low and inconsistent across age and rearing treatments. In contrast, the stable isotope analysis showed utility in determining the host across all ages of ticks when isotopic values of ticks were compared with a panel of candidate vertebrate species. There was a positive shift in both δ(13)C and δ(15)N in adult A. americanum until 34 wk postnymphal bloodmeal. Through analyzing the isotopic signatures of eight potential vertebrate host species, we determined that the magnitude of this isotopic shift that occurred with tick age was minor compared with the heterogeneity in the δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures among species. These results suggest that stable isotopes are a useful tool for understanding tick-host interactions. PMID:26336205

  19. Are ticks venomous animals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many Ixodida genera can induce paralysis and other types of toxicoses. Tick saliva was previously proposed as a special kind of venom since tick venom is used for blood feeding that counteracts host defense mechanisms. As a result, the present study provides evidence to reconsider the venomous properties of tick saliva. Results Based on our extensive literature mining and in silico research, we demonstrate that ticks share several similarities with other venomous taxa. Many tick salivary protein families and their previously described functions are homologous to proteins found in scorpion, spider, snake, platypus and bee venoms. This infers that there is a structural and functional convergence between several molecular components in tick saliva and the venoms from other recognized venomous taxa. We also highlight the fact that the immune response against tick saliva and venoms (from recognized venomous taxa) are both dominated by an allergic immunity background. Furthermore, by comparing the major molecular components of human saliva, as an example of a non-venomous animal, with that of ticks we find evidence that ticks resemble more venomous than non-venomous animals. Finally, we introduce our considerations regarding the evolution of venoms in Arachnida. Conclusions Taking into account the composition of tick saliva, the venomous functions that ticks have while interacting with their hosts, and the distinguishable differences between human (non-venomous) and tick salivary

  20. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. PMID:26336308

  1. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand. PMID:25736475

  2. Tick-borne protozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  3. Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in Gettysburg National Military Park, South-Central Pennsylvania, 2009.

    PubMed

    Han, George S; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Wong, David; Weltman, Andre C

    2014-04-01

    Since 1998, Lyme disease cases have increased in south-central Pennsylvania, which includes Gettysburg National Military Park (NMP). Limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among Gettysburg NMP employees are available. To address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within Gettysburg NMP during April-September, 2009, among eight nonremoval samplings. On two additional occasions during May and June, 2009, ticks were collected and removed from the two original sites plus 10 additional sites and tested for tick-borne pathogens by using PCR. A self-administered anonymous survey of Gettysburg NMP employees was conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tick-borne diseases. Peak Ixodes scapularis nymph populations were observed during May-July. Of 115 I. scapularis ticks tested, 21% were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, including 18% of 74 nymphs and 27% of 41 adults; no other pathogen was identified. The entomologic risk index was calculated at 1.3 infected nymphs/hour. An adult and nymph Amblyomma americanum were also found, representing the first confirmed field collection of this tick in Pennsylvania, but no pathogens were detected. The survey revealed that most park employees believed Lyme disease was a problem at Gettysburg NMP and that they frequently found ticks on their skin and clothing. However, use of personal preventive measures was inconsistent, and 6% of respondents reported contracting Lyme disease while employed at Gettysburg NMP. These findings indicate a need to improve surveillance for tick bites among employees and enhance prevention programs for park staff and visitors. PMID:24689815

  4. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. PMID:26935819

  5. Biological control of ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  6. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease When warm weather arrives, you might get the ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...

  7. Tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest Alabama and implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Joseph C; Burgdorfer, Willy; Painter, Martin K; Russell, Cynthia L

    2005-12-01

    Studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest Alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with Dermacentor variabilis, the eastern United States vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each in the disease transmission cycle. These epidemiologic surveys were conducted in response to reported fatal cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in two counties of the study area. From 202 eastern cottontail rabbits, 3,956 ticks were collected. Of this total, 79.87% were Haemphysalis leporispalustris, 9.15% Amblyomma americanum, 8.22% Ixodes dentatus, and 2.76% D. variabilis. Only immature stages of D. variabilis were collected from cottontail rabbits. Ticks were collected on rabbits in all months except November, and only one specimen was taken in January. Based on the average number of ticks per host collected in each month, April was the peak month for D. variabilis and I. dentatus. High values for H. leporispalustris also occurred at this time, but even higher values occurred in October and December. The heaviest infestation of A. americanum occurred during the month ofAugust and coincides with the activity period for the larvae of this species. Two hundred sixty-nine of the smaller Rodentia, comprising 13 species, yielded 264 ticks, all D. variabilis, and all but two were immature stages. Five rodent species, Microtus ochragaster Orozomys palustris, Peromyscus gossypinus, Peromyscus leucopus, and Sigmodon hispidus accounted for 95.83% of the ticks collected, and appeared to be preferred hosts for D. variabilis; all five had higher infestation levels per host than did the eastern cottontail rabbit. Data on host relationships in association with seasonal activity are presented. PMID:16599149

  8. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... their instructions to help prevent bites. Use an insect repellent containing 20% to 30% DEET. Tick repellents that ... I won’t get sick? What tick or insect repellent should I use for my child? Which tick ...

  9. Bioactivity-guided investigation of geranium essential oils as natural tick repellents.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wang, Mei; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Parcher, Jon F; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-01

    The evaluation of 10 essential oils of geranium, Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae), were all shown to have repellent activity against nymphs of the medically important lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). The biological tests were carried out using a vertical filter paper bioassay, where ticks must cross an area of the paper treated with repellent to approach host stimuli. One of the essential oil samples that repelled >90% of the ticks at 0.103 mg/cm(2) was selected for further fractionation studies. The sesquiterpene alcohol, (-)-10-epi-γ-eudesmol, was isolated and identified by spectral methods. (-)-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol at 0.103 and 0.052 mg of compound/cm(2) of filter paper repelled 90 and 73.3% of the ticks, respectively. (-)-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol exhibited similar repellency to the reference standard N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at concentrations of ≥0.052 mg of compound/cm(2) of filter paper, with (-)-10-epi-γ-eudesmol losing much of its repellency at 0.026 mg of compound/cm(2) and DEET at 0.013 mg of compound/cm(2). Isomenthone and linalool did not repel ticks at the concentrations tested. Most repellents are marketed with much higher concentrations of active ingredient than the concentrations of the natural repellents tested herein; therefore, effective compounds, such as (-)-10-epi-γ-eudesmol, found in geranium oil, have the potential for commercial development. PMID:23528036

  10. Lone star tick abundance, fire, and bison grazing in tall-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum L.) were collected by drag samples of 1 km transects on 12 watersheds at Konza Prairie Research Natural Area near Manhattan, Kans., during summer 1995-1996. Watersheds were treated to 2 experimental treatments: 3 burn intervals (1-year, 4-year, and 20-year) and 2 grazing treatments (grazed by bison (Bos bison L.) or ungrazed). The objectives were to determine whether fire interval, time since most recent burn, and the presence of large ungulate grazers would cause changes in lone star tick abundance in tallgrass prairie in central Kansas. Watersheds burned at 1-year intervals had fewer larvae and adults than watersheds burned at 4-year or 20-year intervals. Watersheds burned during the year of sampling had fewer ticks than watersheds burned one or more years in the past. For watersheds burned 1 or more years in the past there was no effect from time since burn. The presence of bison did not affect tick abundance. Spring burning is an effective method to reduce tick populations in tallgrass prairie during the year of the burn.

  11. Seasonal Population Fluctuation of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi in New York and Pennsylvania Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Jaffee, B. A.; Harrison, M. B.; Shaffer, R. L.; Strang, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    The population fluctuation and composition of Xiphinema americanum (sensu stricto) and X. rivesi were studied in a New York apple orchard (only X. americanum present), a Pennsylvania apple orchard (both X. americanum and X. rivesi present), and a Pennsylvania peach orchard (X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum present). Few clear trends in population fluctuation or composition were observed. The adult female was the predominant stage in most sample periods, and the reproductive period was limited to late spring and early summer. Only a few of the females at any sample period were gravid. All stages were present throughout the year, and all stages overwintered. Eggs in soil were not monitored. In the Pennsylvania apple orchard, X. americanum and X. rivesi were easily separated by morphological characteristics; however, the two species did not display differences in population structure or composition. The predominance of adults, the relatively low reproductive rates, and the association of these species with stable habitats suggest that the life strategies of X. americanum and X. rivesi are K-selected as opposed to r-selected. PMID:19290157

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  13. 'Tennessee' Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows the area within 'Endurance Crater,' currently being investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover is inspecting a hole it drilled into a flat rock (center) dubbed 'Tennessee,' which scientists believe may be made up of the same evaporite-rich materials as those found in 'Eagle Crater.'

    The overall geography inside Endurance is more complex than scientists anticipated, with at least three distinct bands of rock visible in front of the rover. Scientists hope to investigate the second and third layers of rock for more clues to Mars' history. This image was taken on sol 133 (June 8, 2004) with the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  14. Tick vaccines and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Blouin, E F

    2007-08-01

    Ticks transmit pathogens that cause diseases which greatly impact both human and animal health. Vaccines developed against Boophilus spp. using Bm86 and Bm95 tick gut antigens demonstrated the feasibility of using vaccines for control of tick infestations. These vaccines also reduced transmission of tick-borne pathogens by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts to ticks. The recently discovered tick antigens, 64P putative cement protein and subolesin involved in the regulation of tick feeding and reproduction, were also shown to reduce tick infestations. These antigens, together with the TROSPA receptor for Burrelia burgdorferi OspA were effective against tick-borne pathogens by reducing the infection levels in ticks and/or the transmission of the pathogen. Development of a vaccine targeted at both the tick vector and pathogen would contribute greatly to the control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases. These results have demonstrated that tick vaccines can be developed for control tick infestations and show promise for the prevention of the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:17682852

  15. Tick microbiome: the force within

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are obligate blood-feeders and serve as vectors of human and livestock pathogens worldwide. Defining the tick microbiome and deciphering the interactions between the tick and its symbiotic bacteria in the context of tick development and pathogen transmission, will likely reveal new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. Descriptive observations on the tick microbiome that began almost a century ago serve as forerunners to the gathering momentum to define the tick microbiome in greater detail. This review will focus on the current efforts to address the microbiomes of diverse ticks, and the evolving understanding of tick microbiomes. There is hope that these efforts will bring a holistic understanding of pathogen transmission by ticks. PMID:25936226

  16. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2012-12-01

    Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer. PMID:23356088

  17. Soil Property Influences on Xiphinema americanum Populations as Related to Maturity of Loess-Derived Soils

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Field populations of Xiphinerna americanum around roots of Syringa vulgaris 'President Lincoln' were larger in Marshall silty clay loam, a medially developed loess soil, than in Monona silt loam, a minimally developed loess soil. Most X. amerieanum occurred in the top 15 cm of soil, with few below 30 cm. Maximum numbers occurred in August of both years in the Marshall soil, and in August 1969 and June 1970 in the Monona soil. Population fluctuations during the growing season were coincident with changes in soil moisture content. Although the population fluctuation pattern was the same at each depth tested, the adult-to-juvenile ratio increased in one soil while it decreased in the other. Numbers of X. americanum decreased as root weights decreased within a soil profile, but they were not correlated with root weights over all soils and depths. More X. americanum were recovered from the Marshall than from the Monona soil, but fibrous root weights were greater in the Monona soil. Survival of X. americanum in soil columns in growth chamber experiments was better in the Marshall than in the Monona soil. Movement and survival were different in identically textured Monona A and B horizon soils. Factors related to the ion exchange sites may affect X. americanum. PMID:19319342

  18. Soil Property Influences on Xiphinema americanum Populations as Related to Maturity of Loess-Derived Soils.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P

    1973-10-01

    Field populations of Xiphinerna americanum around roots of Syringa vulgaris 'President Lincoln' were larger in Marshall silty clay loam, a medially developed loess soil, than in Monona silt loam, a minimally developed loess soil. Most X. amerieanum occurred in the top 15 cm of soil, with few below 30 cm. Maximum numbers occurred in August of both years in the Marshall soil, and in August 1969 and June 1970 in the Monona soil. Population fluctuations during the growing season were coincident with changes in soil moisture content. Although the population fluctuation pattern was the same at each depth tested, the adult-to-juvenile ratio increased in one soil while it decreased in the other. Numbers of X. americanum decreased as root weights decreased within a soil profile, but they were not correlated with root weights over all soils and depths. More X. americanum were recovered from the Marshall than from the Monona soil, but fibrous root weights were greater in the Monona soil. Survival of X. americanum in soil columns in growth chamber experiments was better in the Marshall than in the Monona soil. Movement and survival were different in identically textured Monona A and B horizon soils. Factors related to the ion exchange sites may affect X. americanum. PMID:19319342

  19. Using mitogenomic and nuclear ribosomal sequence data to investigate the phylogeny of the Xiphinema americanum species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes within the Xiphinema americanum species complex are economically important because they vector nepoviruses which cause considerable damage to a variety of agricultural crops. The taxonomy of X. americanum is controversial, with the number of putative species being the subject of debate. Ac...

  20. Sustained efficacy of the novel topical repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes and ticks.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, B W; Kennedy, M K; Carroll, S P

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes and ticks are blood-feeding pests of humans and animals that can vector many important aetiological agents of disease. Previous research demonstrated that TT-4302 (Guardian(®) Wilderness) containing 5% geraniol applied to human subjects gave 5-6 h of repellency against mosquitoes (depending on species) and was repellent to ticks in vitro. This study was conducted to obtain an independent third-party evaluation of TT-4302 against Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and to test the efficacy of the product in the field against ticks. TT-4302 provided an average of 6.5 h of repellency of ≥ 95% [Weibull mean protection time: 7.4 h, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.8-11.3 h] for St. aegypti, whereas a 15% DEET formulation provided 4.7 h of repellency (Weibull mean protection time: 5.2 h, 95% CI 3.7-6.9 h). In tick field trials, the efficacy of TT-4302 did not differ significantly from that of a 25% DEET formulation against Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae). TT-4302 was 81.3% repellent at 2.5 h after application, whereas DEET was 77.2% repellent at the same time-point. Results at 3.5 h after application were 71.4% for TT-4302 and 72.9% for DEET. PMID:26614394

  1. Tick-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases. PMID:15999870

  2. Management of ticks and tick-borne diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Stafford, K.C., III

    2005-01-01

    The mainstays of tick management and protection from tick-borne diseases have traditionally been personal precautions and the application of acaricides. These techniques maintain their value, and current innovations hold considerable promise for future improvement in effective targeting of materials for tick control. Furthermore, an explosion of research in the past few decades has resulted in the development and expansion of several novel and potentially valuable approaches to tick control, including vaccination against tick-borne pathogen transmission and against tick attachment, host management, use of natural enemies (especially entomopathogenic fungi), and pheromone-based techniques. The situations that require tick management are diverse, and occur under varied ecological conditions. Therefore, the likelihood of finding a single ?magic bullet? for tick management is low. In practical terms, the approach to tick management or to management of tick-borne disease must be tailored to the specific conditions at hand. One area that needs increased attention is the decision-making process in applying IPM to tick control. Further development of novel tick control measures, and increased efficiency in their integration and application to achieve desired goals, holds great promise for effective future management of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  3. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of ... to Remove a Tick / Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Spring / Summer 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number ...

  4. Detection of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast Missouri.

    PubMed

    Hudman, D A; Sargentini, N J

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) in northeast Missouri for the presence of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria. We collected actively questing ticks from four sites within Adair County, Missouri. A total of 15,162 ticks were collected, of which 13,980 were grouped in 308 pools (lone star ticks, 288 pools; American dog ticks, 20 pools) and tested for presence/absence of bacteria using polymerase chain reaction. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 308 pools tested, 229 (74.4%) were infected with bacteria and the overall MLE of the infection rate per 100 ticks was calculated as 2.9% (CI 2.61-3.21). Infection rates varied among life stages, 28.6% (CI 23.89-33.97) in adults, 7.0% (CI 5.10-9.86) in nymphs, and 1.0% (CI 0.75-1.20) in larvae. In the 116 adult lone star pools, infection rates were calculated for Borrelia lonestari (1.4%), Borrelia spp. (2.7%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (6.1%), Ehrlichia ewingii (3.3%), Rickettsia amblyommii (18.3%), and Rickettsia montanensis (0.4%). Infection rates for the 52 nymphal lone star pools were calculated as B. lonestari (1.03%), Borrelia spp. (0.40%), E. chaffeensis (2.02%), E. ewingii (0.24%), and R. amblyommii (2.70%). In the 20 adult American dog tick pools, infection rates were determined as E. chaffeensis (9.47%), E. ewingii (5.47%), and R. montanensis (8.06%). Eight Borrelia samples were sequenced with five 99-100% identical to B. burgdorferi (s.l.) and three 99% identical to B. lonestari. Eight samples were sequenced for E. chaffeensis (all 99-100% identical) and one sample was sequenced for E. ewingii (99% identical). Seven samples were sequenced for Rickettsia and three were 99% identical to R. montanensis and four were 100% identical to R. amblyommii. This study demonstrates B. lonestari, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, R. amblyommii, and R. montanensis in northeast

  5. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Separates Species of the Xiphinema americanum Group

    PubMed Central

    Vrain, Thierry C.

    1993-01-01

    The Xiphinema americanum group of species is responsible for vectoring several important virus diseases to perennial crops. Variability of transmission of viruses by different species, and difficulties in separating species by morphometric measurements alone, make it essential to reassess the taxonomic position of several species in the group. The measurement of DNA sequence variability is a sensitive assay that can re-evaluate the separation of species and populations from each other. This study describes how an RFLP approach, in which the restriction sites in transcribed spacers of ribosomal repeats were detected, confirmed the separation of 16 populations of these species into X. americanum, X. rivesi, X. pacificum, and X. bricolensis. PMID:19279780

  6. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Separates Species of the Xiphinema americanum Group.

    PubMed

    Vrain, T C

    1993-09-01

    The Xiphinema americanum group of species is responsible for vectoring several important virus diseases to perennial crops. Variability of transmission of viruses by different species, and difficulties in separating species by morphometric measurements alone, make it essential to reassess the taxonomic position of several species in the group. The measurement of DNA sequence variability is a sensitive assay that can re-evaluate the separation of species and populations from each other. This study describes how an RFLP approach, in which the restriction sites in transcribed spacers of ribosomal repeats were detected, confirmed the separation of 16 populations of these species into X. americanum, X. rivesi, X. pacificum, and X. bricolensis. PMID:19279780

  7. Colorado tick fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediately by using tweezers, pulling carefully and steadily. Insect repellent may be helpful. Alternative Names Mountain tick fever; ... chap 51. Read More Acute Encephalitis Fever Incidence Insect bites and stings Update Date 12/7/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  8. Tick Bites (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry harmful germs and cause diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease . The deer tick ... red dots on the ankles and wrists (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) flu -like symptoms such as fever , ...

  9. [Protection against tick bites].

    PubMed

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing. PMID:25624140

  10. RNA Interference in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Kocan, Katherine M.; Blouin, Edmour; de la Fuente, José

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals and humans, and are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases1 and the most important vectors affecting cattle industry worldwide2. Ticks are classified in the subclass Acari, order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida and are distributed worldwide from Arctic to tropical regions3. Despite efforts to control tick infestations, these ectoparasites remain a serious problem for human and animal health4,5. RNA interference (RNAi)6 is a nucleic acid-based reverse genetic approach that involves disruption of gene expression in order to determine gene function or its effect on a metabolic pathway. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the effector molecules of the RNAi pathway that is initiated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and results in a potent sequence-specific degradation of cytoplasmic mRNAs containing the same sequence as the dsRNA trigger7-9. Post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms initiated by dsRNA have been discovered in all eukaryotes studied thus far, and RNAi has been rapidly developed in a variety of organisms as a tool for functional genomics studies and other applications10. RNAi has become the most widely used gene-silencing technique in ticks and other organisms where alternative approaches for genetic manipulation are not available or are unreliable5,11. The genetic characterization of ticks has been limited until the recent application of RNAi12,13. In the short time that RNAi has been available, it has proved to be a valuable tool for studying tick gene function, the characterization of the tick-pathogen interface and the screening and characterization of tick protective antigens14. Herein, a method for RNAi through injection of dsRNA into unfed ticks is described. It is likely that the knowledge gained from this experimental approach will contribute markedly to the understanding of basic biological systems and the development of vaccines

  11. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed. PMID:27076303

  12. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Ana; Antunes, Sandra; Borges, Lara; Rosário, Virgílio Estólio do

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the fi rst commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry. PMID:23559344

  13. [Ticks and the pediatrician].

    PubMed

    Occorsio, P; Orso, G; di Martino, L

    2004-06-01

    The match between ticks and pediatricians in Italy is usually a seasonal event related to the spring and summer trips and to the increasing of outdoor activity that sun and warm weather allow, both for children and ticks. So cared parents reach emergencies asking for tick removal but more often after the tick has yet been removed by empirical manoeuvres and after the killing and the destruction of the "enemy". We have scheduled, in the years 2002-2003, the 167 children that reached our unit for a tick bite; they where 92 males (mean age four years) and 75 females (mean age five years). Two of them had only a questionable tick bite but one had erythema on the lateral side of the left ankle, fever of obscure origin and weakness with generalised malaise. She was six years old and she lived with a dog on which, in more instances, ticks where found, but she never noticed ticks on her body. The dog had positive levels of anti rickettsial and anti borrelia antibodies but no evidence of conclamate illness. In this girl we found high titers of anti borrelia antibodies that WB testing confirmed to be anti B. burgdoferi. We diagnosed Lyme disease and treated the girl with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/day) for three weeks achieving the complete relief of symptomatology till today. Three children with conclamate tick bite had positive levels of anti Rickettsia conorii antibodies with increasing levels at a twenty days control; two (aged four and five years) of them had a full symptomatology (tache noire, satellite lymphadenopathy, fever, and maculopapular erythema) for Meditarranean spotted fever; the latter (three years old) had an atypical form with the complete absence of maculopapular erythema. The therapy was clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day) for three weeks. In Campania, in the years 2002/2003 on 167 children with tick bite that reached our unit, we found only four pathological correlable events; so are our ticks not infected? But we don't know how many children where tick bited and

  14. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals. Do not apply any insect acaricides or repellents to your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! ... permethrin, etc.) Amitraz Repel Ticks on Dogs A repellent product may prevent the tick from coming into ...

  15. Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanum) at the livestock/wildlife interface: A susceptible species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) were first introduced into the East Humboldt and Ruby Mountains of Elko County, Nevada in the 1960’s. These contiguous mountain ranges are also home to introduced Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and native mule deer and are surrounded by both public and private rang...

  16. Epidemiology of Xiphinema americanum and Tomato ringspot virus on Red Raspberry, Rubus idaeus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The population dynamics and the ability of Xiphinema americanum to transmit Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are poorly understood in the raspberry pathosystem. Soil samples were collected monthly from 1999 through 2002 in a ToRSV infected 'Willamette' red raspberry field in Clark County, WA, USA. Pop...

  17. Nucler Polyhedrosis Virus as a Biological Control Agent for Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to damaging trees, the eastern tent caterpillar, (Malacosoma americanum (F.)) is implicated in early fetal loss and late-term abortion in horses. In a field study, we evaluated the potential biological control of eastern tent caterpillar using eastern tent caterpillar nuclear polyhedros...

  18. Risk of Lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a Lone Star tick-infested community.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, P. M.; Brunet, L. R.; Spielman, A.; Telford, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) have been suggested as a vector of the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in the USA, based on associations with an infection manifesting mainly as erythema migrans. In laboratory experiments, however, they failed to transmit B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. METHODS: In this study, carried out from 1994 to 1996, we determined the seroprevalences of B. burgdorferi (1.2%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (7%), E. phagocytophila (0%), Rickettsia rickettsii (0%), R. typhi (0%), Coxiella burneti (0%), Francisella tularensis (0%), and Babesia microti (0%) by standard serological methods for 325 residents (97% of the total population) of Gibson Island, coastal Maryland, USA, where 15% of the residents reported having had Lyme disease within a recent 5-year span. FINDINGS: Of the 167 seronegative individuals who were followed up prospectively for 235 person-years of observation, only 2 (0.85%) seroconverted for B. burgdorferi. Of 1556 ticks submitted from residents, 95% were identified as Lone Star ticks; only 3% were deer ticks (Ixodes dammini), the main American vector of Lyme disease. B. burgdorferi s.s. infected 20% of host-seeking immature deer ticks, and borreliae ("B. lonestari") were detected in 1-2% of Lone Star ticks. Erythema migrans was noted in 65% of self-reports of Lyme disease, but many such reports indicated that the rash was present while the tick was still attached, suggesting a reaction to the bite itself rather than true Lyme disease. Sera from individuals reporting Lyme disease generally failed to react to B. burgdorferi or any other pathogen antigens. CONCLUSION: The residents of Gibson Island had an exaggerated perception of the risk of Lyme disease because they were intensely infested with an aggressively human-biting and irritating nonvector tick. In addition, a Lyme disease mimic of undescribed etiology (named Masters' disease) seems to be associated with Lone Star ticks, and may confound

  19. Reducing Tick-Borne Disease in Alabama: Linking Health Risk Perception with Spatial Analysis Using the NASA Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmings, S.; Renneboog, N.; Firsing, S.; Capilouto, E.; Harden, J.; Hyden, R.; Tipre, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) accounts for most vector-borne disease reports in the U.S., and although its existence in Alabama remains controversial, other tick-borne illnesses (TBI) such as Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI) pose a health concern in the state. Phase One of the Marshall Space Flight Center-UAB DEVELOP study of TBI identified the presence of the chain of infection for LD (Ixodes scapularis ticks carrying Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria) and STARI (Amblyomma americanum ticks and an as-yet-unconfirmed agent) in Alabama. Both LD and STARI are associated with the development of erythema migrans rashes around an infected tick bite, and while treatable with oral antibiotics, a review of educational resources available to state residents revealed low levels of prevention information. To improve prevention, recognition, and treatment of TBI in Alabama, Phase Two builds a health communication campaign based on vector habitat mapping and risk perception assessment. NASA Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery identified likely tick habitats using remotely sensed measurements of vegetation vigor (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and soil moisture. Likely tick habitats, identified as those containing both high vegetation density and soil moisture, included Oak Mountain State Park, Bankhead National Forest, and Talladega National Forest. To target a high-risk group -- outdoor recreation program participants at Alabama universities -- the study developed a behavior survey instrument based on existing studies of LD risk factors and theoretical constructs from the Social Ecological Model and Health Belief Model. The survey instrument was amended to include geographic variables in the assessment of TBI knowledge, attitudes, and prevention behaviors, and the vector habitat model will be expanded to incorporate additional environmental variables and in situ data. Remotely sensed environmental data combined with

  20. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; James, Hayley R.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Workman, Lisa J.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Fahy, John V.; Nganga, Lucy W.; Ronmark, Eva; Cooper, Philip J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, which is related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. The implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these IgE antibodies. Objectives To investigate possible causes of this IgE antibody response, focusing on evidence related to tick bites, which are common in the region where these reactions occur. Methods Serum assays were carried out using biotinylated proteins and extracts bound to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP. Results Prospective studies on IgE antibodies in three subjects following tick bites showed an increase in IgE to alpha-gal of twenty-fold or greater. Other evidence included i) a strong correlation between histories of tick bites and IgE to alpha-gal (χ2=26.8, p<0.001), ii) evidence that these IgE antibodies are common in areas where the tick Amblyomma americanum is common, and iii) a significant correlation between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and IgE antibodies to proteins derived from A. americanum (rs=0.75, p<0.001). Conclusion The results presented here provide evidence that tick bites are a cause, or possibly the only cause, of IgE specific for alpha-gal in this area of the United States. Both the number of subjects becoming sensitized and the titer of IgE antibodies to alpha-gal are striking. Here we report the first example of a response to an ectoparasite giving rise to an important form of food allergy. PMID:21453959

  1. [Ticks bite in foresters].

    PubMed

    Livio, M; Mobilia, A; Abbate, S; Saffioti, G; Nicolosi, L; Isaia, S; Calabrese, C; Graceffa, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is evalutation of the risk for ticks strings on foresters. The sample constituted by 325 foresters belong to Messina province as been submitted to medical examination venous tests. Whole sample had to answer to a questionnaire to consider. The prevalence of systemic and skin reactions and we have dose Immunoglobulines versus Brucella Melitensis, Rickettsie Conorii e Borrelia Burgdorferi. The results showed that the 19% has declared past stings of tick, and 4.9% reported symptoms probably deriving to a past infections determined by inquired microorganisms. The serum tests showed that 70% was positive for all microorganisms, instead only 31%. Was never infected by inquired microorganisms. In conclusion our study shows that zoonos is risk linked to stings of tick is relatively high in foresters. PMID:18409975

  2. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brandalyn; Ashley, Mandi; Salter, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  3. The Tennessee Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the leadership role Tennessee has assumed in aerospace education with its extensive workshop programs for teachers and the Bachelor of Science Degree and Masters in aerospace education which have been developed at Middle Tennessee State University. Also described are the National Aerospace Education Symposiums conducted in Tennessee…

  4. Human Infections by Multiple Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Josie; Mendell, Nicole L; Stull-Lane, Annica; Bloch, Karen C; Bouyer, Donald H; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2016-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most common tick-borne disease in Tennessee. However, Rickettsia rickettsii has rarely been isolated from endemic ticks, suggesting rickettsioses may be caused by other species. A total of 56 human serum samples that were serologically positive for exposure to Rickettsia were obtained from commercial laboratories in 2010 and 2011. In addition, 20 paired sera from patients with encephalitis and positive Rickettsia serology were obtained from the Tennessee Unexplained Encephalitis Surveillance (TUES) study. Using an immunofluorescence assay, reactivity of the sera to R. rickettsii, Rickettsia montanensis, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia amblyommii was tested, and a comparison of endpoint titers was used to determine the probable antigen that stimulated the antibody response. Cross-absorption was conducted for 94.8% (N = 91) of the samples due to serologic cross-reactivity. Of the commercial laboratory samples, 55.4% (N = 31) had specific reactivity to R. amblyommii and 44.6% (N = 25) were indeterminate. Of the paired TUES samples, 20% (N = 4) had specific reactivity to R. amblyommii, 5% (N = 1) to R. montanensis, and 5% (N = 1) to R. parkeri Patients with specific reactivity to R. amblyommii experienced fever (75%), headache (68%) and myalgia (58%). Rash (36%) and thrombocytopenia (40%) were less common. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. amblyommii has been reported as a possible causative agent of rickettsioses in Tennessee. PMID:27022147

  5. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens. PMID:22957116

  6. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:23847771

  7. Environmental investigation following the first human case of babesiosis in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Fritzen, Charissa; Mosites, Emily; Applegate, Roger D; Telford, Sam R; Huang, Junjun; Yabsley, Michael J; Carpenter, L Rand; Dunn, John R; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2014-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease in the United States caused by Babesia parasites. In 2009, the first case of babesiosis was documented in Tennessee. Environmental investigation at the reported site of tick exposure included collection of ticks and specimens from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) that were tested for piroplasms by molecular and serologic methods. One hundred and sixty-six Ixodes scapularis ticks and biological samples from 8 rabbits and 5 deer were collected. Ixodes scapularis were PCR positive for Babesia odocoilei (n = 7, 4%) and Theileria cervi (n = 24, 14%). Deer were seropositive for B. odocoilei and PCR positive for T. cervi. Rabbits were seropositive for B. odocoilei and Babesia sp. MO1, and 1 rabbit was PCR positive for Babesia sp. MO1. In summary, zoonotic Babesia sp. MO1 infection in rabbits is reported here for the first time in Tennessee as well as infection of deer and I. scapularis ticks with 2 other piroplasms of veterinary importance. PMID:23971411

  8. [Tick-borne encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R

    2016-06-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most important viral infections of the human central nervous system. Approximately 10,000 cases of TBE are referred to hospitals in Europe and Asia each year. The TBE virus (TBEV) is mainly transmitted by tick bites but also occasionally by unpasteurized goat's milk. As in endemic areas on average only 1-3 % of ticks are infected with the TBEV and the clinical manifestation rate is approximately 33 %, only approximately 1 in every 100-300 tick bites leads to disease. The incubation period varies from 5-28 days and typically has a biphasic course of fever. The TBE manifests as meningitis in approximately 50 % of patients, as meningoencephalitis in 40 % and as encephalomyelitis in 10 %. The suspected diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of TBEV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and the presence of elevated cell counts in cerebrospinal fluid. No specific treatment for TBE is known but it can be successfully prevented by active immunization. PMID:27225401

  9. Tick imbedded in the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a close-up photograph of a tick embedded in the skin. Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others.

  10. Diversity of Xiphinema americanum-group Species and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Franco; Ciancio, Aurelio

    1993-01-01

    Of the 39 species composing the Xiphinema americanum group, 14 were described originally from North America and two others have been reported from this region. Many species are very similar morphologically and can be distinguished only by a difficult comparison of various combinations of some morphometric characters. Study of morphometrics of 49 populations, including the type populations of the 39 species attributed to this group, by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis placed the populations into five subgroups, proposed here as the X. brevicolle subgroup (seven species), the X. americanum subgroup (17 species), the X. taylori subgroup (two species), the X. pachtaicum subgroup (eight species), and the X. lambertii subgroup (five species). PMID:19279776

  11. 76 FR 39261 - Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 18 CFR Part 1301 Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Tennessee Valley Authority is amending its regulations which...

  12. Tick-borne dermatologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Modly, C E; Burnett, J W

    1988-04-01

    Inquiries regarding tick exposure can be important in dermatologic diagnosis and treatment since ticks can be vectors of a diversity of infectious diseases. The classic teaching is that ticks are best removed with nail polish, solvents, petrolatum, mineral oil, or a hot match. However, a recent evaluation of tick removal revealed that mechanical removal with forceps preceded and followed by disinfection is the most effective method. In most cases, should the characteristic dermatologic lesion or systemic symptoms appear, appropriate treatment should be initiated for presumptive diseases. PMID:3366010

  13. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually. Related viruses within the same group, Louping ill virus (LIV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV), also cause human encephalitis but rarely on an epidemic scale. Three other viruses within the same group, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV), are closely related to the TBEV complex viruses and tend to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis. This review describes the clinical manifestations associated with TBEV infections, the main molecular-biological properties of these viruses, and the different factors that define the incidence and severity of disease. The role of ticks and their local hosts in the emergence of new virus variants with different pathogenic characteristics is also discussed. This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains. PMID:12615309

  15. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  16. [Ticks and transmission of some important diseases by ticks].

    PubMed

    Gazyağci, Aycan Nuriye; Aydenızöz, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Ticks which are commonly found all around the world are ectoparasites which are obliged to suck blood from vertebrates such as mammals and birds during all of their periods of develeopment. They may cause toxicities and paralyses in the course of blood sucking through saliva injection and the attachment sites may become ports of entry for secondary agents. Healthy animals that are severely infested by ticks can show a decreased yield and anemia. Young and sick animals can even die. Besides this, ticks are both biological and mechanical vectors for viruses, bacteria, rickettsias, spirochaetas, protozoons and helminths. Ten percent of the ticks identified in the world are associated with 200 diseases. In this review the taxonomy and morphology of ticks, some of the important diseases they carry and the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are mentioned. PMID:20597060

  17. Hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to Ehrlichiae and detection of DNA of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by PCR.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Stafford, K C; Mather, T N; Yeh, M T; Horn, K D; Dumler, J S

    1995-10-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and British Columbia (Canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. Hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi, or Rickettsia rickettsii. Of the 693 nymphal and adult Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes pacificus ticks tested with dog anti-E. canis antiserum, 209 (32.5%) contained hemocytic bacteria. The prevalence of infected ticks varied greatly with species and locale. In parallel tests of duplicate hemolymph preparations from adult I. scapularis ticks, the hemocytic organisms reacted positively with E. canis and/or E. equi antisera, including sera from persons who had granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In separate PCR analyses, DNA of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis was detected in 59 (50.0%) of 118 adult and in 1 of 2 nymphal I. scapularis ticks tested from Connecticut. There was no evidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA in these ticks. In indirect FA tests of hemolymph for spotted fever group rickettsiae, the overall prevalence of infection was less than 4%. Specificity tests of antigens and antisera used in these studies revealed no cross-reactivity between E. canis and E. equi or between any of the ehrlichial reagents and those of R. rickettsii. The geographic distribution of hemocytic microorganisms with shared antigens to Ehrlichia species or spotted fever group rickettsiae is widespread. PMID:8567911

  18. TICK PHEROMONES AND USES THEREOF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subject invention provides materials and methods for tick control. The tick control methods of the subject invention are particularly advantageous because they utilize natural chemical signals (pheromones) in combination with an acaricide. The use of environmentally friendly pheromones makes i...

  19. Benchmarking East Tennessee`s economic capacity

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-20

    This presentation is comprised of viewgraphs delineating major economic factors operating in 15 counties in East Tennessee. The purpose of the information presented is to provide a benchmark analysis of economic conditions for use in guiding economic growth in the region. The emphasis of the presentation is economic infrastructure, which is classified into six categories: human resources, technology, financial resources, physical infrastructure, quality of life, and tax and regulation. Data for analysis of key indicators in each of the categories are presented. Preliminary analyses, in the form of strengths and weaknesses and comparison to reference groups, are given.

  20. Distinctive Genome Reduction Rates Revealed by Genomic Analyses of Two Coxiella-Like Endosymbionts in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Yuval; Lalzar, Itai; Klasson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome reduction is a hallmark of symbiotic genomes, and the rate and patterns of gene loss associated with this process have been investigated in several different symbiotic systems. However, in long-term host-associated coevolving symbiont clades, the genome size differences between strains are normally quite small and hence patterns of large-scale genome reduction can only be inferred from distant relatives. Here we present the complete genome of a Coxiella-like symbiont from Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks (CRt), and compare it with other genomes from the genus Coxiella in order to investigate the process of genome reduction in a genus consisting of intracellular host-associated bacteria with variable genome sizes. The 1.7-Mb CRt genome is larger than the genomes of most obligate mutualists but has a very low protein-coding content (48.5%) and an extremely high number of identifiable pseudogenes, indicating that it is currently undergoing genome reduction. Analysis of encoded functions suggests that CRt is an obligate tick mutualist, as indicated by the possible provisioning of the tick with biotin (B7), riboflavin (B2) and other cofactors, and by the loss of most genes involved in host cell interactions, such as secretion systems. Comparative analyses between CRt and the 2.5 times smaller genome of Coxiella from the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum (CLEAA) show that many of the same gene functions are lost and suggest that the large size difference might be due to a higher rate of genome evolution in CLEAA generated by the loss of the mismatch repair genes mutSL. Finally, sequence polymorphisms in the CRt population sampled from field collected ticks reveal up to one distinct strain variant per tick, and analyses of mutational patterns within the population suggest that selection might be acting on synonymous sites. The CRt genome is an extreme example of a symbiont genome caught in the act of genome reduction, and the comparison between CLEAA and CRt

  1. The putative role of Rhipicephalus microplus salivary serpins in the tick-host relationship.

    PubMed

    Tirloni, Lucas; Kim, Tae Kwon; Coutinho, Mariana Loner; Ali, Abid; Seixas, Adriana; Termignoni, Carlos; Mulenga, Albert; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation and hemostasis are part of the host's first line of defense to tick feeding. These systems are in part serine protease mediated and are tightly controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, in the serpin superfamily (serine protease inhibitors). From this perspective ticks are thought to use serpins to evade host defenses during feeding. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus encodes at least 24 serpins, of which RmS-3, RmS-6, and RmS-17 were previously identified in saliva of this tick. In this study, we screened inhibitor functions of these three saliva serpins against a panel of 16 proteases across the mammalian defense pathway. Our data confirm that Pichia pastoris-expressed rRmS-3, rRmS-6, and rRmS-17 are likely inhibitors of pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant proteases. We show that rRmS-3 inhibited chymotrypsin and cathepsin G with stoichiometry of inhibition (SI) indices of 1.8 and 2.0, and pancreatic elastase with SI higher than 10. Likewise, rRmS-6 inhibited trypsin with SI of 2.6, chymotrypsin, factor Xa, factor XIa, and plasmin with SI higher than 10, while rRmS-17 inhibited trypsin, cathepsin G, chymotrypsin, plasmin, and factor XIa with SI of 1.6, 2.6, 2.7, 3.4, and 9.0, respectively. Additionally, we observed the formation of irreversible complexes between rRmS-3 and chymotrypsin, rRmS-6/rRmS-17 and trypsin, and rRmS-3/rRmS-17 and cathepsin G, which is consistent with typical mechanism of inhibitory serpins. In blood clotting assays, rRmS-17 delayed plasma clotting by 60 s in recalcification time assay, while rRmS-3 and rRmS-6 did not have any effect. Consistent with inhibitor function profiling data, 2.0 μM rRmS-3 and rRmS-17 inhibited cathepsin G-activated platelet aggregation in a dose-responsive manner by up to 96% and 95% respectively. Of significant interest, polyclonal antibodies blocked inhibitory functions of the three serpins. Also notable, antibodies to Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus

  2. Identification of trail pheromone of larva of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Crump, D; Silverstein, R M; Williams, H J; Fitzgerald, T D

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum F.) mark trails, leading from their tent to feeding sites on host trees, with a pheromone secreted from the posterior tip of the abdominal sternum. 5β-Cholestane-3,24-dione (1) has been identified as an active component of the trail. The larvae have a threshold sensitivity to the pheromone of 10(-11) g/mm of trail. Several related compounds elicit the trail-following response. Two other species of tent caterpillars also responded positively to the pheromone in preliminary laboratory tests. PMID:24301883

  3. Spirochetes in ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from Connecticut, New York State, and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Apperson, C S; Fish, D; Johnson, R C; Chappell, W A

    1986-04-01

    Ticks were screened for spirochetes and serum samples from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were assayed for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi during 1983-1984. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit antibodies produced to B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, spirochetes were detected in Ixodes dammini (10.5% of 1,193) and Dermacentor albipictus (0.6% of 157) adults from Connecticut, I. dammini nymphs (49.1% of 108) and adults (64.7% of 99) from Armonk, New York, and in I. scapularis (0.4% of 531) and Amblyomma americanum (3.5% of 173) adults from North Carolina. Infected ticks were either seeking hosts or feeding on deer during the summer and fall. Direct fluorescent antibody staining also revealed spirochetes in two larvae of I. scapularis that emerged from eggs deposited by separate females in the laboratory. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, antibodies to B. burgdorferi were identified in white-tailed deer living in tick-infested areas of all three states. Aside from minor cross-reactivity, there was no serologic evidence of Treponema or Leptospira infections. Ixodes dammini is a primary vector of B. burgdorferi in northeastern United States, but in North Carolina, other ixodid ticks may transmit this spirochete to humans and wildlife. PMID:3520030

  4. Sialomes and Mialomes: A Systems-Biology View of Tick Tissues and Tick-Host Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Kotál, Jan; Karim, Shahid; Kopacek, Petr; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Pedra, Joao H F; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2016-03-01

    Tick saliva facilitates tick feeding and infection of the host. Gene expression analysis of tick salivary glands and other tissues involved in host-pathogen interactions has revealed a wide range of bioactive tick proteins. Transcriptomic analysis has been a milestone in the field and has recently been enhanced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, the application of quantitative proteomics to ticks with unknown genomes has provided deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tick hematophagy, pathogen transmission, and tick-host-pathogen interactions. We review current knowledge on the transcriptomics and proteomics of tick tissues from a systems-biology perspective and discuss future challenges in the field. PMID:26520005

  5. [Tennessee Kindergarten Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    Provided are Tennessee's state kindergarten curriculum guides in the 6 areas of health, social studies, language arts, science, physical education, and mathematics. The health curriculum guide centers on developing and maintaining good health. The social studies guide aids children in understanding self as an individual and in relation to other…

  6. Tennessee and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Tennessee and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead the…

  7. Hey! A Tick Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tick can carry is called Rocky Mountain spotted fever. What a Bite Looks and Feels ... carry diseases (such as Lyme disease or Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and can pass them to people. ...

  8. Ticks and Diseases: Bite Fright!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of many types of ticks that can transmit Lyme disease to humans. Photo: World Health Organization (WHO) A ... can carry serious diseases. The most common is Lyme disease, with between 20,000 and 30,000 cases ...

  9. Expanding Range of Amblyomma americanum and Simultaneous Changes in the Epidemiology of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, F Scott; Paddock, Christopher D; Springer, Yuri P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2016-01-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species are etiologic agents of a wide range of human infections from asymptomatic or mild infections to severe, life-threatening disease. In the United States, recent passive surveillance for SFG rickettsiosis shows an increased incidence and decreased severity of reported cases. The reasons for this are not well understood; however, we hypothesize that less pathogenic rickettsiae are causing more human infections, while the incidence of disease caused by more pathogenic rickettsiae, particularly Rickettsia rickettsii, is relatively stable. During the same period, the range of Amblyomma americanum has expanded. Amblyomma americanum is frequently infected with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii", a SFG Rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity. We tested our hypothesis by modeling incidence rates from 1993 to 2013, hospitalization rates from 1981 to 2013, and case fatality rates from 1981 to 2013 regressed against the presence of A. americanum, the decade of onset of symptoms, and the county of residence. Our results support the hypothesis, and we show that the expanding range of A. americanum is associated with changes in epidemiology reported through passive surveillance. We believe epidemiological and acarological data collected on individual cases from enhanced surveillance may further elucidate the reasons for the changing epidemiology of SFG rickettsiosis. PMID:26503270

  10. Efficacy of plant-derived and synthetic compounds on clothing as repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Dolan, Marc C

    2012-01-01

    We conducted field trials to compare the relative repellent activity of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol) with commercially available plant-derived (EcoSMART organic insect repellent) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment, nootkatone and carvacrol provided 100% repellency of I. scapularis adults, with nootkatone maintaining complete protection through 3 d, whereas carvacrol showed steadily declining repellency against I. scapularis during the 7-d course of the trials. Nootkatone was at least as effective against host-seeking A. americanum as against I. scapularis through 3 d. Carvacrol provided little protection against A. americanum adults. Both natural compounds performed well initially in comparison with the commercial products. After 7 d, nootkatone was the most effective against both species followed in order of activity by Permanone, EcoSMART, and carvacrol. Nootkatone seems to have offer considerable potential as a clothing repellent against both I. scapularis and A. americanum. PMID:22308777

  11. Coinfections Acquired from Ixodes Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Stephen J.; Neitzel, David; Reed, Kurt D.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    The pathogens that cause Lyme disease (LD), human anaplasmosis, and babesiosis can coexist in Ixodes ticks and cause human coinfections. Although the risk of human coinfection differs by geographic location, the true prevalence of coinfecting pathogens among Ixodes ticks remains largely unknown for the majority of geographic locations. The prevalence of dually infected Ixodes ticks appears highest among ticks from regions of North America and Europe where LD is endemic, with reported prevalences of ≤28%. In North America and Europe, the majority of tick-borne coinfections occur among humans with diagnosed LD. Humans coinfected with LD and babesiosis appear to have more intense, prolonged symptoms than those with LD alone. Coinfected persons can also manifest diverse, influenza-like symptoms, and abnormal laboratory test results are frequently observed. Coinfecting pathogens might alter the efficiency of transmission, cause cooperative or competitive pathogen interactions, and alter disease severity among hosts. No prospective studies to assess the immunologic effects of coinfection among humans have been conducted, but animal models demonstrate that certain coinfections can modulate the immune response. Clinicians should consider the likelihood of coinfection when pursuing laboratory testing or selecting therapy for patients with tick-borne illness. PMID:17041141

  12. Using Mitogenomic and Nuclear Ribosomal Sequence Data to Investigate the Phylogeny of the Xiphinema americanum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, Inga A.; Peetz, Amy; Howe, Dana K.; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Cheam, Daravuth; Denver, Dee R.; Smythe, Ashleigh B.

    2014-01-01

    Nematodes within the Xiphinema americanum species complex are economically important because they vector nepoviruses which cause considerable damage to a variety of agricultural crops. The taxonomy of X. americanum species complex is controversial, with the number of putative species being the subject of debate. Accurate phylogenetic knowledge of this group is highly desirable as it may ultimately reveal genetic differences between species. For this study, nematodes belonging to the X. americanum species complex, including potentially mixed species populations, were collected from 12 geographically disparate locations across the U.S. from different crops and in varying association with nepoviruses. At least four individuals from each population were analyzed. A portion of the 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene was sequenced for all individuals while the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) of rDNA was cloned and 2 to 6 clones per individual were sequenced. Mitochondrial genomes for numerous individuals were sequenced in parallel using high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) technology. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA revealed virtually identical sequences across all populations. Analysis of ITS1 rDNA sequences revealed several well-supported clades, with some degree of congruence with geographic location and viral transmission, but also numerous presumably paralogous sequences that failed to form clades with other sequences from the same population. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicated the presence of three distinct monophyletic clades of X. americanum species complex nematodes. Two clades contained nematodes found in association with nepovirus and the third contained divergent mtDNA sequences from three nematode populations from the western U.S. where nepovirus was absent. The inherent heterogeneity in ITS1 rDNA sequence data and lack of informative sites in 18S rDNA analysis suggests that mtDNA may be more useful in sorting out the

  13. Ancestral reconstruction of tick lineages.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; de Castro, Minique H; Pienaar, Ronel; de Klerk, Daniel; Gaven, Philasande; Genu, Siyamcela; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-06-01

    Ancestral reconstruction in its fullest sense aims to describe the complete evolutionary history of a lineage. This depends on accurate phylogenies and an understanding of the key characters of each parental lineage. An attempt is made to delineate our current knowledge with regard to the ancestral reconstruction of the tick (Ixodida) lineage. Tick characters may be assigned to Core of Life, Lineages of Life or Edges of Life phenomena depending on how far back these characters may be assigned in the evolutionary Tree of Life. These include housekeeping genes, sub-cellular systems, heme processing (Core of Life), development, moulting, appendages, nervous and organ systems, homeostasis, respiration (Lineages of Life), specific adaptations to a blood-feeding lifestyle, including the complexities of salivary gland secretions and tick-host interactions (Edges of Life). The phylogenetic relationships of lineages, their origins and importance in ancestral reconstruction are discussed. Uncertainties with respect to systematic relationships, ancestral reconstruction and the challenges faced in comparative transcriptomics (next-generation sequencing approaches) are highlighted. While almost 150 years of information regarding tick biology have been assembled, progress in recent years indicates that we are in the infancy of understanding tick evolution. Even so, broad reconstructions can be made with relation to biological features associated with various lineages. Conservation of characters shared with sister and parent lineages are evident, but appreciable differences are present in the tick lineage indicating modification with descent, as expected for Darwinian evolutionary theory. Many of these differences can be related to the hematophagous lifestyle of ticks. PMID:26868413

  14. Vaccinomics, the new road to tick vaccines.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Merino, Octavio

    2013-12-01

    Ticks are a threat to human and animal health worldwide. Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, the most important vectors of diseases that affect cattle industry worldwide and important vectors of diseases affecting pets. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. These premises stress the need for developing improved tick vaccines in a more efficient way. In this context, development of improved vaccines for tick-borne diseases will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick–host–pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of new candidate vaccine antigens for the control of tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission requires the development of effective screening platforms and algorithms that allow the analysis and validation of data produced by systems biology approaches to tick research. Tick vaccines that affect both tick infestations and pathogen transmission could be used to vaccinate human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vectorial capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health worldwide. PMID:24396872

  15. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  16. 33 CFR 117.949 - Tennessee River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tennessee River. 117.949 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Tennessee § 117.949 Tennessee River. The draws of the Chief John Ross Bridge over the Tennessee River, mile 464.1, at Chattanooga, and the Southern...

  17. 33 CFR 117.949 - Tennessee River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tennessee River. 117.949 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Tennessee § 117.949 Tennessee River. The draws of the Chief John Ross Bridge over the Tennessee River, mile 464.1, at Chattanooga, and the Southern...

  18. 33 CFR 117.949 - Tennessee River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tennessee River. 117.949 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Tennessee § 117.949 Tennessee River. The draws of the Chief John Ross Bridge over the Tennessee River, mile 464.1, at Chattanooga, and the Southern...

  19. 33 CFR 117.949 - Tennessee River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tennessee River. 117.949 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Tennessee § 117.949 Tennessee River. The draws of the Chief John Ross Bridge over the Tennessee River, mile 464.1, at Chattanooga, and the Southern...

  20. 76 FR 20433 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is a an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee...'s disaster declaration in the State of Tennessee, dated 03/23/2011, is hereby amended to...

  1. A Hole in 'Tennessee'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took the images that make up this mosaic with its microscopic imager on sol 139 (June 14, 2004). The target is a rock called 'Tennessee,' which was drilled into by the rover's rock abrasion tool. This particular grind is the deepest performed so far during the mission. The hole is 8.12 millimeters (0.32 inches) deep and took two hours and four minutes to create. The previous record was a 7.23-millimeter-deep (0.28-inch-deep) hole dug on sol 86 (April 21, 2004) on the feature dubbed 'Pilbara,' located in Meridiani's 'Fram Crater.'

  2. Hard tick factors implicated in pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang Ye; Bonnet, Sarah I

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are the most common arthropod vector, after mosquitoes, and are capable of transmitting the greatest variety of pathogens. For both humans and animals, the worldwide emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne disease is becoming increasingly problematic. Despite being such an important issue, our knowledge of pathogen transmission by ticks is incomplete. Several recent studies, reviewed here, have reported that the expression of some tick factors can be modulated in response to pathogen infection, and that some of these factors can impact on the pathogenic life cycle. Delineating the specific tick factors required for tick-borne pathogen transmission should lead to new strategies in the disruption of pathogen life cycles to combat emerging tick-borne disease. PMID:24498444

  3. The transstadial persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata; Werszko, Joanna; Rychlik, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of reports regarding natural infection of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with TBE virus; however, the transmission mode of TBE virus in this tick population has not been investigated. This study was conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest, east Poland. Forty fully engorged nymphs of D. reticulatus were sampled from root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Ticks were kept until molting. All ticks were screened for the presence of TBE virus by nested RT-PCR. Three adult ticks were positive for infection with TBE virus. The present study for the first time demonstrates the possibility of transstadial mode of TBEV transmission in D. reticulatus ticks. PMID:26751892

  4. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  5. Soft tick sampling and collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in nature, or known to be susceptible to infection. African swine fever (ASF) caused by ASFV is considered one of the most serious transboundary swine diseases because of its high lethality for pigs, ...

  6. Determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    PubMed

    McTier, Tom L; Six, Robert H; Fourie, Josephus J; Pullins, Aleah; Hedges, Laura; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. In the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. Fleas and ticks were counted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation at 24h for fleas and 48h for ticks. The lowest dose of sarolaner (1.25mg/kg) provided 100% efficacy against fleas from treatment through Day 35 and 98.4% at Day 56. This dose of sarolaner resulted in 99.7-100% control of both species of ticks through Day 28. In Study 2, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner suspension formulations at 0.625, 1.25 or 2.5mg/kg and infested with Ixodes scapularis prior to treatment and weekly for 6 weeks, Amblyomma americanum (pretreatment and Day 26), Dermacentor variabilis (Day 33) and A. maculatum (Day 41). Ixodes scapularis was the most susceptible; the lowest dose (0.625mg/kg) providing>95% efficacy through Day 43. Efficacy against D. variabilis on Day 35 was>95% at 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg, whereas the 0.625mg/kg dose gave only 61.4% efficacy. Amblyomma spp. were the least susceptible ticks; efficacy of the 1.25mg/kg dose at Day 28 for A. americanum was markedly lower (88.5%) than achieved for D. reticulatus (100%) at Day 28 and also lower than for D. variabilis at Day 35 (96.2%). In Study 3, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner in the proposed commercial tablet (Simparica™) at 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg, and infested with A. maculatum, one of the ticks determined to be dose limiting, prior to treatment and then weekly for 5 weeks. All doses gave 100% control of the existing infestation. The two highest dosages resulted in >93% control of subsequent challenges

  7. Specifying Pathogen Associations of Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Western Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Mays, S E; Houston, A E; Trout Fryxell, R T

    2016-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) is established in western Tennessee, a region with increased risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis. This tick transmits Rickettsia parkeri to humans, likely contributing to cases of rickettsiosis in the region. The objective was to determine pathogen associations within questing and host-collected A. maculatum, and identify ecological factors associated with pathogen infection that may increase the effectiveness of surveillance methods. Of 265 ticks tested, 60 (22.6%) were infected with R. parkeri, and 15 (5.7%) with Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a Rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity. Two deer-collected ticks tested positive for Ehrlichia ewingii. No ticks were positive for Anaplasma or Borrelia species. None of the ecological factors tested (collection month, collection source, sex, and habitat type) were associated with R. parkeri infection. This project developed baseline prevalence and incidence data for monitoring pathogen prevalence in A. maculatum populations, and identified an inexpensive method for distinguishing R. parkeri from Ca. R. andeanae. PMID:26744464

  8. Meiotic and reproductive behavior of facultative apomictic BC/sub 1/ offspring derived from Pennisetum americanum-P. orientale interspecific hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Dujardin, M.; Hanna, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This study reports on the chromosome numbers, meiotic behavior, method of reproduction and fertility of BC/sub 1/ progenies from Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke, pearl millet X P. orientale L.C. Rich. interspecific hybrids backcrossed to P. americanum. This information would be useful for future studies on transfer of genes controlling apomixis from the tertiary gene pool to P. americanum. Two facultatively apomictic interspecific hybrids between Pennisetum americanum, (A. chromosomes) and P. orientale (O chromosomes), 2n=25, were pollinated with P. americanum. Sixteen backcross progenies were obtained which were of three cytotypes: 32-(14 A + 18 O), 23-(14 A + 9 O), and 27-(7 A + 20 O) chromosomes. They resulted from fertilization of unreduced gametes or partially reduced gametes by a 7 A chromosome gamete, or by development or unreduced aposporic embryo sacs, respectively. In 23 chromosome plants, the 14 A chromosomes paired mainly as bivalents or remained as univalents while the 9 O chromosomes appeared as univalents. Intergenomal pairing between P. americanum and P. orientale also were observed and could make segmental exchange possible. In the 27 chromosome progeny, the 20 O chromosomes paired, while the 7 A chromosomes remained as univalents. Meiotic behavior in 32-chromosome plants was regular with 7 A bivalents plus 9 O bivalents. The backcross progenies were male sterile but partially female fertile and produced a few seeds when pollinated with P. americanum pollen. The 23-chromosome, BC/sub 1/ progeny were reconstituted in BC/sub 2/ progenies of 32-chromosomes plants X pearl millet. All BC/sub 1/ had some degree of apomicitic embryo sac development and the 23-chromosome plants showed apomictic development even though the O chromosomes were in the simplex condition.

  9. Regulatory Facility Guide for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O.; Rymer, A.C.

    1994-02-28

    This guide provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation related regulations applicable to shipments originating at or destined to Tennessee facilities. Information on preferred routes is also given.

  10. Immunology of the tick-host interaction and the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, P; Jongejan, F

    1999-07-01

    The first experimental vaccination against ticks was carried out 60 years ago. Since then, progress has been slow, although the recent commercial release of a recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus is significant. The nature of naturally acquired protective immunity against ticks is poorly understood, particularly in the important, domesticated ruminant hosts. Characterization of the antigens of naturally acquired immunity remains limited, although more has been achieved with 'concealed' antigens. Crucial questions remain about the true impact of tick-induced immunosuppression and the effect of immunity on the transmission of tick-borne diseases, despite some fascinating and important recent results, as discussed here by Peter Willadsen and Frans Jongejan. PMID:10377526

  11. Ticks from a Morelet's crocodile in Belize.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; Robbins, R G; McMurry, S T

    2001-10-01

    Parasitism of crocodilians by ticks has rarely been reported, and to our knowledge only seven published accounts exist. On 3 July 1999, we collected four ticks from a subadult Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) captured in northern Belize. These were identified as Amblyomma dissimile (one female), and Amblyomma sp. (two nymphs, one larva). The crocodile was captured on land approximately 100 m from water, and all four ticks were attached to loose skin on the lateral surface of the tail. Crocodilians are most susceptible to terrestrial ectoparasites, including ticks, during overland movements. However, most such movements occur in response to drought, when tick questing activity is suppressed, which likely accounts for the small numbers of tick specimens recorded from crocodilians and the absence of any noticeable impact of parasitism on host fitness. PMID:11763751

  12. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  13. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Anna J; Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395

  14. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K.; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395

  15. Tick-borne Diseases in Animals and USDA Research on Tick Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne diseases represent a major threat to animal health in the United States. The cattle industry in the United States has benefited greatly from the continued USDA efforts through the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in preventing the re-introduction of cattle ticks and associated pathog...

  16. TICK: Transparent Incremental Checkpointing at Kernel Level

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-25

    TICK is a software package implemented in Linux 2.6 that allows the save and restore of user processes, without any change to the user code or binary. With TICK a process can be suspended by the Linux kernel upon receiving an interrupt and saved in a file. This file can be later thawed in another computer running Linux (potentially the same computer). TICK is implemented as a Linux kernel module, in the Linux version 2.6.5

  17. Vaccinomics Approach to Tick Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; Villar, Margarita; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropod ectoparasites that transmit disease-causing pathogens to humans and animals worldwide. Vaccines using tick antigens have proven to be cost-effective and environmental friendly for the control of vector infestations and pathogen infection and transmission. However, new strategies are needed to identify tick protective antigens for development of improved vaccines. These strategies will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick-host-pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of tick antigens that affect both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission could be used for vaccines targeting human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vector capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health. In this chapter, we describe methods of the vaccinomics platform using transcriptomics and proteomics for the identification of candidate protective antigens in Ixodes scapularis, the vector for human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and Lyme disease. PMID:27076305

  18. "Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum", a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ing-Ming; Bottner, Kristi D; Secor, Gary; Rivera-Varas, Viviana

    2006-07-01

    Potato purple top wilt (PPT) is a devastating disease that occurs in various regions of North America and Mexico. At least three distinct phytoplasma strains belonging to three different phytoplasma groups (16SrI, 16SrII and 16SrVI) have been associated with this disease. A new disease with symptoms similar to PPT was recently observed in Texas and Nebraska, USA. Two distinct phytoplasma strain clusters were identified. One belongs to the 16SrI phytoplasma group, subgroup A, and the other is a novel phytoplasma that is most closely related to, and shares 96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with, a member of group 16SrXII. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel PPT-associated phytoplasma strains, previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' organisms and other distinct unnamed phytoplasmas indicated that the novel phytoplasma, termed American potato purple top wilt (APPTW) phytoplasma, represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with stolbur phytoplasma, "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", "Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum", "Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae", bindweed yellows phytoplasma (IBS), "Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae" and "Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis". On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, it is proposed that the APPTW phytoplasma represents "Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum", with APPTW12-NE as the reference strain. PMID:16825635

  19. The pheromone of the eastern tent caterpillar,Malacosoma americanum (F.) (lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Kochansky, J; Hill, A; Neal, J W; Bentz, J A; Roelofs, W

    1996-12-01

    The pheromone system of the eastern tent caterpillar,M. americanum, has been identified as a mixture of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal and the corresponding alcohol. Field data on the attractiveness of the aldehyde alone were not consistent, but mixtures of aldehyde and alcohol in varying proportions were attractive to males. Addition of small amounts ofE,Z acetate toE,Z aldehyde had no effect on male response, but larger amounts reduced trap catch. Traps baited withZ,E, E,E, orZ,Z aldehydes were not more attractive than blank traps. Pherocon IC traps fortified with extra adhesive and baited with lures consisting of 500 µg (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal with either 250 or 100 µg of the corresponding alcohol trapped as many as 100 males/trap/night with means of 15-20. Lures prepared from purified (94%E,Z) aldehyde and alcohol were more attractive than those prepared from unpurified (58%E,Z) materials. PMID:24227301

  20. Depletion of host-derived cyanide in the gut of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Jeffers, P M; Mantella, D

    2002-02-01

    Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 +/- 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found at the tips of growing branches, which the caterpillars preferred, had a significantly higher HCN-p (3032 +/- 258 ppm) than older leaves found at the middle (1542 +/- 243 ppm) or base of the shoot (1131 +/- 159 ppm). Following a bout of overnight feeding on young leaves, the cyanide content of the foregut and midgut boluses of early sixth-instar caterpillars averaged 631 +/- 161 ppm, and 14 +/- 3 ppm, respectively, indicating that host-derived cyanide is rapidly depleted as the bolus transits the gut. Some cyanide, however, remains. In three studies, the mean cyanide content of fresh fecal pellets ranged from approximately 20 to 38 ppm, while the dried, compacted pellets ranged from 63 to 85 ppm. Food in the foreguts of mature caterpillars dispersing over the ground in search of pupation sites had 417 +/- 99 ppm cyanide. The potential impact of this egested and caterpillar-transported cyanide on the consumer and detritivore communities is discussed. PMID:11925066

  1. Purification and Properties of Flavonol-Ring B Glucosyltransferase from Chrysosplenium americanum1

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, K. L.; de Luca, Vincenzo; Khouri, Henry; Ibrahim, Ragai K.

    1983-01-01

    A novel glucosyltransferase which catalyzed the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to positions 2′ and 5′ of partially methylated flavonols was isolated from the shoots of Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein ex Hooker. It was purified 225-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation and successive chromatography on Sephadex G-100, hydroxyapatite, and polybuffer ion exchanger. This glucosyltransferase appeared to be a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 42,000 daltons, pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.0, and an isoelectric point of 5.1. It had low but similar Km values for the 2′ and 5′ positions of flavonol substrates and the cosubstrate UDP-glucose and was inhibited by both reaction products, the glucosides formed, and UDP. Glucosyltransferase activity was independent of divalent cations, was not inhibited by EDTA, but showed requirement for SH groups. The differential effect on enzyme activity of metal ions, especially cupric ion, and various SH group reagents seemed to indicate the involvement of two active sites in the glucosylation reaction; the site specific for 2′ activity being more susceptible than that of the 5′ activity. The substrate specificity expressed by this glucosyltransferase and the requirement of at least two para-oriented B-ring substituents (at 2′ and 5′) for activity support this view. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16663104

  2. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  3. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens—methodological principles and caveats

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Gray, Jeremy S.; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S.; Nijhof, Ard M.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial capacity of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. This approach should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:23964348

  4. ANTIDotE: anti-tick vaccines to prevent tick-borne diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus transmits bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens, causing disease and forming an increasing health concern in Europe. ANTIDotE is an European Commission funded consortium of seven institutes, which aims to identify and characterize tick proteins involved in feeding and pathogen transmission. The knowledge gained will be used to develop and evaluate anti-tick vaccines that may prevent multiple human tick-borne diseases. Strategies encompassing anti-tick vaccines to prevent transmission of pathogens to humans, animals or wildlife will be developed with relevant stakeholders with the ultimate aim of reducing the incidence of tick-borne diseases in humans. PMID:24559082

  5. Tick iron and heme metabolism - New target for an anti-tick intervention.

    PubMed

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Sima, Radek; Perner, Jan; Loosova, Gabriela; Harcubova, Adela; Kopacek, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding parasites and vectors of serious human and animal diseases. Ixodes ricinus is a common tick in Europe, transmitting tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, or babesiosis. Immunization of hosts with recombinant tick proteins has, in theory, the potential to interfere with tick feeding and block transmission of pathogens from the tick to the host. However, the efficacy of tick antigens has, to date, not been fully sufficient to achieve this. We have focused on 11 in silico identified genes encoding proteins potentially involved in tick iron and heme metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiling was carried out to preferentially target proteins that are up-regulated during the blood meal. RNA interference (RNAi) was then used to score the relative importance of these genes in tick physiology. Finally, we performed vaccination screens to test the suitability of these proteins as vaccine candidates. These newly identified tick antigens have the potential to improve the available anti-tick vaccines. PMID:26810909

  6. [The ecology of ticks, tick-borne diseases and biological tick control in Baden-Württemberg].

    PubMed

    Sebastian, P; Mackenstedt, U; Wassermann, M; Wurst, E; Hartelt, K; Petney, T; Pfäffle, M; Littwin, N; Steidle, J L M; Selzer, P; Norra, S; Böhnke, D; Gebhardt, R; Kahl, O; Dautel, H; Oehme, R

    2014-05-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are of great significance for the health of humans and animals. However, the factors influencing their distribution and dynamics are inadequately known. In a project financed by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Energy Industry, as part of the program BWPLUS, interdisciplinary specialists work together to determine the influence of weather, (micro)climate, habitat, land use, human activities, and the population dynamics of host animals on the distribution and abundance of ticks and the diseases that they transmit in Baden-Württemberg. The project comprises four modules: the large-scale distribution of ticks in Baden-Württemberg (module 1), detailed studies of host-tick-pathogen interaction in relation to the microclimate (module 2), and the spatial occurrence of important tick-borne pathogens (module 3). The fourth module involves the comprehensive analysis and synthesis of all data in order to determine the relative importance of the factors studied and to develop a risk model. Recently, intensive investigations into tick control have been undertaken using various entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes as well as a parasitoid wasp. Our aim was to determine whether these natural enemies could be used to effectively reduce the number of free-living ticks. PMID:24781912

  7. IrSPI, a tick serine protease inhibitor involved in tick feeding and Bartonella henselae infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I

    2014-07-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its

  8. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Tennessee. The 17th largest state, Tennessee is home to 2.01% of the nation's inhabitants. Funding of K-12 education in Tennessee is accomplished via a formula known as the Basic Educational Program (BEP). This plan primarily utilizes school district enrollment numbers to…

  9. The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

    The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

  10. Zero Tolerance in Tennessee Schools: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Kim; Njie, Bintou; Detch, Ethel R.; Walton, Jason

    As required by Tennessee law, this report examines the state's zero-tolerance disciplinary data collected by the Tennessee Department of Education for school years 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02. The first section displays statewide zero-tolerance statistics. The second section focuses on the zero-tolerance statistics of Tennessee's five major…

  11. 40 CFR 81.428 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.428 Section 81.428... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.428 Tennessee. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land... Carolina, and 241,207 acres are in Tennessee. 2 Joyce Kilmer Slickrock Wilderness, 14,033 acres overall,...

  12. 76 FR 52043 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00056 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 08/12...: Tennessee: Campbell, Grainger, Hancock, Union. Kentucky: Bell, Whitley. Virginia: Lee. The Interest...

  13. 78 FR 28938 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00075

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00075 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 05/10... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Stewart. Contiguous Counties: Tennessee: Benton,...

  14. Comparison of novel and conventional methods of trapping ixodid ticks in the southeastern U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Mays, S E; Houston, A E; Trout Fryxell, R T

    2016-06-01

    Tick-borne disease surveillance and research rely on resource-effective methods for tick collection. This study compared the respective performances of several trapping methods in a mixed grassland-forest habitat in western Tennessee. To test for temporal differences in effectiveness, sites were sampled monthly (April-August 2013) using dry ice, dragging, flagging, sweep netting, carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dragging and CO2 flagging methods. To evaluate the effect of habitat on method effectiveness, four methods (dragging, CO2 dragging, CO2 flagging and dry ice) were compared in four habitat types (bottomland deciduous, upland deciduous, coniferous and grassland) in June 2014. In the temporal comparison, ticks were found to be most abundant in April and May, and there was a significant sampling period and method interaction, such that method effectiveness varied across sampling period. Sweep netting was significantly less effective than the other methods. In the habitat comparison, dry ice trap collections represented the most effective method in upland deciduous and coniferous habitats. Flagging using CO2 was significantly less effective than CO2 dragging and dragging in bottomland deciduous habitats. The success of the various collection methods did not differ significantly within grassland habitats. Overall, dry ice trapping and dragging were the most effective methods for tick collection across time and habitat. PMID:26801319

  15. [Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite].

    PubMed

    Patey, O

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks. The transmission depends on several factors, especially on the duration of the tick's presence in the host body (the nymph which is smaller than the adults and thus less visible, is in this case the most frequently involved) and on whether the tick is infected or not. The interpretation of results in the few available studies is made difficult by the lack of information obtained (due to difficulty to collect information and examination costs). The comparison is made even more difficult by the difference between Borrelia ticks species in various regions. Today, the best methods are preventive: protective clothing, tick repellents, checking and removal of ticks after a journey in an endemic zone, and in case of tick bite, regular examination of the bite site during the following weeks in order to initiate an early curative treatment if ECM is diagnosed. The currently available data seems to be insufficient to suggest systematic antimicrobial prophylaxis in case of tick bite. PMID:17399928

  16. Chemical ecology of tick-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks impact the health of livestock and humans world-wide through their roles as pests and vectors of diseases such as heartwater, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease, erhlichiosis, tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic fever. Intrinsic to their capacity to serve ...

  17. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary

  18. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum. PMID:27417228

  19. The ecology of ticks and epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José

    2014-08-01

    A number of tick-borne diseases of humans have increased in incidence and geographic range over the past few decades, and there is concern that they will pose an even greater threat to public health in future. Although global warming is often cited as the underlying mechanism favoring the spread of tick-borne diseases, climate is just one of many factors that determine which tick species are found in a given geographic region, their population density, the likelihood that they will be infected with microbes pathogenic for humans and the frequency of tick-human contact. This article provides basic information needed for microbiologists to understand the many factors that affect the geographic range and population density of ticks and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks. It first briefly summarizes the life cycle and basic ecology of ticks and how ticks and vertebrate hosts interact, then reviews current understanding of the role of climate, sociodemographic factors, agricultural development and changes in human behavior that affect the incidence of tick-borne diseases. These concepts are then illustrated in specific discussions of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. PMID:24925264

  20. SCHOOL PLANNING LABORATORY, THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    DISCUSSES THE SERVICES, PROJECTS, AND PLANNING PROCESS OF THE SCHOOL PLANNING LABORATORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE. SERVICES INCLUDE--(1) ASSISTING SCHOOL SYSTEMS AND COLLEGES IN PLANNING FUNCTIONAL EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, (2) CONDUCTING RESEARCH TO DISCOVER NEW AND BETTER SOLUTIONS TO SCHOOL PLANNING PROBLEMS, AND (3) DISSEMINATING IDEAS FOR…

  1. 21st Century jobs initiative - Tennessee`s Resource Valley. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-23

    Tennessee`s Resource Valley, a regional economic development organization, was asked to facilitate a two-year, $750,000 grant from the Department of Energy. The grant`s purpose was to make the East Tennessee region less dependent on federal funds for its economic well-being and to increase regional awareness of the advantages of proximity to the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge. The mission of Tennessee`s Resource Valley is to market the business location advantages of mid-East Tennessee to corporate decision makers and to facilitate regional initiatives that impact the creation of quality job opportunities. Tennessee`s Resource Valley represents fifteen (15) counties in East Tennessee: Anderson, Blount, Campbell, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Jefferson, Knox, Loudon, Monroe, Morgan, Roane, Scott, Sevier and Union.

  2. 21st Century jobs initiative - Tennessee`s Resource Valley. Progress report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-20

    Tennessee`s Resource Valley, a regional economic development organization, was asked to facilitate a two-year, $750,000 grant from the Department of Energy. The grant`s purpose is to make the East Tennessee region less dependent on federal funds for its economic well-being and to increase regional awareness of the advantages of proximity to the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge. Tennessee`s Resource Valley`s mission is to market the mid-East Tennessee region`s business location advantages to corporate decision makers and to facilitate regional initiatives that impact the creation of quality job opportunities. Tennessee`s Resource Valley represents the following fifteen (15) counties in East Tennessee: Anderson, Blount, Campbell, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Jefferson, Knox, Loudon, Monroe, Morgan, Scott, Sevier, and Union.

  3. Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities in Dogwood, Maple, and Peach Nurseries in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, T. L.; Bernard, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nursery blocks (48 dogwood, 27 red maple, and 17 peach) distributed among 20 Tennessee nurseries were sampled for nematodes in March, July, and October 1981. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil, counted by genera, and identified to species after fixation. A total of 57 species in 24 genera were found, with 1-16 species occurring in a site. The species most commonly detected were Paratylenchus projectus and Xiphinema americanum, which were found in 88% and 78% of the sites, respectively. Relationships existed between distribution and densities of some species present in more than 10% of the sites and certain soil factors (pH, bulk density, texture, and organic matter content). Plant-parasitic nematode community diversity was related to tree age, percentage of weed ground cover, and number of weed species. Site similarities in community ordinations were dependent on the individual nurseries sampled, tree age, and soil type, but clusters of sites of similar tree ages and soil types were not exclusive. PMID:19294071

  4. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated. PMID:26935112

  5. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  6. Corporal Punishment in Tennessee Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnard, Karren Q; Rust, James O.

    1981-01-01

    Responses of 101 Tennessee school superintendents indicate: all allow and use corporal punishment; 57 keep records of corporal punishment usage; corporal punishment is considered effective in many cases; the community is seen as supportive of corporal punishment; and the paddle appears to be the most popular method of corporal punishment. (NEC)

  7. Demography of Disadvantage in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W., Comp.; And Others

    In this report, demography conceptualizes significant characteristics to serve as a basis for more intensive study, planning, and procedures focusing on the target group. A compilation of the latest reports available and primarily tabular in form, identifies and locates Tennessee's disadvantaged people, ranking the 95 counties on each of 8…

  8. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Cozma, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans). Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals. PMID:21554736

  9. Host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Karen D.; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock. PMID:24109592

  10. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed. PMID:27048511

  11. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  12. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Ayllón, Nieves; Jalovecká, Marie; Perner, Jan; de la Fuente, José; Kopáček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes is likely mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia), rickettsiae (Anaplasma), and protozoans (Babesia). Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens. PMID:23875177

  13. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  14. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  15. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird–Tick Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the

  16. Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir A rash similar to the rash of Lyme disease has been described in humans following bites ... cause of STARI is not known. STARI or Lyme? Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Distribution References General Tick ...

  17. 7 Ways to Give Ticks the Slip

    MedlinePlus

    ... and creating barriers between your yard and the woods with wood chips, mulch or gravel can eliminate tall grasses where ticks crawl. Remove wood piles and stones where mice, chipmunks and squirrels ...

  18. Protect Yourself against Tick-Borne Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tick can transmit Lyme disease and a malaria-like disease called babesiosis. When in the larvae ... have no symptoms, mild symptoms or flu or malaria-like symptoms. However, Babesiosis can be severe or ...

  19. Scouts, forests, and ticks: Impact of landscapes on human-tick contacts.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Somassè, Elysée; Kabamba, Benoît; Luyasu, Victor; Robert, Annie

    2015-07-01

    Just as with forest workers or people practicing outdoor recreational activities, scouts are at high risk for tick bites and tick-borne infections. The risk of a tick bite is shaped not only by environmental and climatic factors but also by land management. The aim of this study was to assess which environmental conditions favour scout-tick contacts, and thus to better understand how these factors and their interactions influence the two components of risk: hazard (related to vector and host ecology) and exposure of humans to disease vectors. A survey was conducted in the summer of 2009 on the incidence of tick bites in scout camps taking place in southern Belgium. Joint effects of landscape composition and configuration, weather, climate, forest and wildlife management were examined using a multiple gamma regression with a log link. The landscape was characterized by buffers of varying sizes around the camps using a detailed land use map, and accounting for climate and weather variables. Landscape composition and configuration had a significant influence on scout-tick contacts: the risk was high when the camp was surrounded by a low proportion of arable land and situated in a complex and fragmented landscape. The distance to the nearest forest patch, the composition of the forest ecotone as well as weather and climatic factors were all significantly associated with scout-tick contacts. Both hazard- and exposure-related variables significantly contributed to the frequency of scout-tick contact. Our results show that environmental conditions favour scout-tick contacts. For example, we emphasize the impact of accessibility of environments suitable for ticks on the risk of contact. We also highlight the significant effect of both hazard and exposure. Our results are consistent with current knowledge, but further investigations on the effect of forest management, e.g. through its impact on forest structure, on the tick-host-pathogen system, and on humans exposure, is

  20. Wild Birds and Urban Ecology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Tony L.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Loss, Scott R.; Walker, Edward D.; Hamer, Gabriel L.

    2012-01-01

    Bird-facilitated introduction of ticks and associated pathogens is postulated to promote invasion of tick-borne zoonotic diseases into urban areas. Results of a longitudinal study conducted in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA, during 2005–2010 show that 1.6% of 6,180 wild birds captured in mist nets harbored ticks. Tick species in order of abundance were Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, and I. scapularis, but 2 neotropical tick species of the genus Amblyomma were sampled during the spring migration. I. scapularis ticks were absent at the beginning of the study but constituted the majority of ticks by study end and were found predominantly on birds captured in areas designated as urban green spaces. Of 120 ticks, 5 were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, spanning 3 ribotypes, but none were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results allow inferences about propagule pressure for introduction of tick-borne diseases and emphasize the large sample sizes required to estimate this pressure. PMID:23017244

  1. Wild birds and urban ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Sarah A; Goldberg, Tony L; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Anderson, Tavis K; Loss, Scott R; Walker, Edward D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2012-10-01

    Bird-facilitated introduction of ticks and associated pathogens is postulated to promote invasion of tick-borne zoonotic diseases into urban areas. Results of a longitudinal study conducted in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA, during 2005-2010 show that 1.6% of 6,180 wild birds captured in mist nets harbored ticks. Tick species in order of abundance were Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, and I. scapularis, but 2 neotropical tick species of the genus Amblyomma were sampled during the spring migration. I. scapularis ticks were absent at the beginning of the study but constituted the majority of ticks by study end and were found predominantly on birds captured in areas designated as urban green spaces. Of 120 ticks, 5 were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, spanning 3 ribotypes, but none were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results allow inferences about propagule pressure for introduction of tick-borne diseases and emphasize the large sample sizes required to estimate this pressure. PMID:23017244

  2. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  3. A sustained release gel formulation of doramectin for control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; Klavons, J A

    2009-04-01

    A gel formulation formed by incorporating technical doramectin into a 10% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose aqueous solution was used to subcutaneously inject steers at varying dosages. Doramectin serum concentration of steers receiving 600 microg (AI)/kg body weight declined from 21.9 ppb at 0.5 wk to below detectable at 8 wk postinjection. The 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection resulted in serum concentrations of 29.1 ppb at 0.5 wk and declined to 0.5 ppb at 8 wk postinjection. Both the 600 and 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injections provided 100% inhibition of index of fecundity (IF) in adult lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum L. (Acari: Ixodidae) through week 8, after which inhibition declined to 79.4 and 45.3%, respectively, during the 12th week posttreatment. For steers treated at 600 microg (AI)/kg, mortality of adult horn flies, Hematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), declined from 16.9% during week 2 to 3.1% during week 7 postinjection. The blood from steers treated at 1,200 microg (AI)/kg resulted in a similar decline in mortality of blood fed adult horn flies from 29.4% during week 1 to 4.0% during week 7. The 600 microg (AI)/kg treatment provided complete control of larval horn flies in the manure for 9 wk, whereas the 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection gave complete control for 14 wk posttreatment. The doramectin gel formulation provided long-lasting delivery of doramectin to cattle and extended control of lone star ticks and larval horn flies. Such a simple and inexpensive formulation could be useful in tick eradication programs by reducing the frequency of gathering cattle. PMID:19449664

  4. THE ROLE OF SALIVA IN TICK FEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/tick_review/Sup-Table-1.xls.gz. PMID:19273185

  5. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  6. Tick-borne Encephalitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Axel T; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a disease that is found from western Europe across Asia and into Japan. In recent years the incidence rate has been increasing as has the endemic range of the virus. Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by three genetically distinct sutypes of viruses within a single TBE virus (TBEV) serocomplex. These three subtypes consist of Far-eastern subtype TBEV (TBEV-FE), Siberian subtype (TBEV-Sib) and European subtype (TBEV-Eu). Each of these subtypes cause clinically distinct diseases with varying degrees of severity. Development of the first vaccines for TBEV began in the late 1930s shortly after the first isolation of TBEV-FE in Russia. In the 1970s Austria began large scale vaccine production and a nationalized vaccine campaign that significantly reduced the incidence rate of TBE. Currently there are four licensed TBE vaccines, two in Europe and two in Russia. These vaccines are all quite similar formalin-inactivated virus vaccines but the each use a different virus strain for production. Published studies have shown that European vaccines are cross-protective in rodent studies and elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses in human vaccines. European vaccines have been licensed for a rapid vaccine schedule that could be used in response to a significant outbreak and reasonable neutralizing antibody titers can be achieved after a single dose although a second dose provides nearly complete and long-lasting protection. This review focuses on the current status of licensed TBE vaccines and provides a brief summary of technology currently being developed for new vaccines. PMID:23997980

  7. Examining Tennessee's collateral source rule.

    PubMed

    Regan, Judith; Hadley, Edward; Regan, William M

    2008-11-01

    The common law collateral source rule was established to prevent the defendant from benefiting from their wrongful actions. Despite a trend in the United States to limit the effects of the collateral source rule, the rule remains in force in courts of the State of Tennessee. However, to assist with the malpractice crisis, the legislature prohibited this rule by statute in regards to the Medical Malpractice Act. Although this statutory prohibition of the collateral source rule worked to lessen verdicts in malpractice cases after passage, the availability of consortium damages resulting from Jordan v. Baptist Three Rivers Hospital in 1999 has worked to drive verdicts substantially higher. Regardless the Medical Malpractice Act has been held as constitutional and has been clarified through several recent Tennessee court decisions. PMID:19024250

  8. Endogenous tick viruses and modulation of tick-borne pathogen growth

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2013-01-01

    Ticks transmit a wide range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens, many of which can establish persistent infections of lifelong duration in the vector tick and in some cases are transmitted transovarially to the next generation. In addition many ixodid and argasid tick cell lines and, by inference the parent ticks from which they were derived, harbor endogenous viruses (ETV) of which almost nothing is known. In general, low level persistent infections with viral pathogens (arboviruses) are not known to have a deleterious effect on tick survival and fitness, suggesting that they can strike a balance with the tick innate immune response. This tolerance of arbovirus infection may be modulated by the permanent presence of ETV in the host cell. In mosquito cells, temporary or permanent silencing of the genes of an endogenous virus by RNA interference can result in changes in replication rate of a co-infecting arbovirus. We propose that tick cell lines offer a useful model system for in vitro investigation of the modulatory effect of ETV on superinfecting pathogen survival and replication in ticks, using the molecular manipulation techniques applied to insect cells. PMID:23875176

  9. Effects of tick population dynamics and host densities on the persistence of tick-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Rosà, Roberto; Pugliese, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    The transmission and the persistence of tick-borne infections are strongly influenced by the densities and the structure of host populations. By extending previous models and analysis, in this paper we analyse how the persistence of ticks and pathogens, is affected by the dynamics of tick populations, and by their host densities. The effect of host densities on infection persistence is explored through the analysis and simulation of a series of models that include different assumptions on tick-host dynamics and consider different routes of infection transmission. Ticks are assumed to feed on two types of host species which vary in their reservoir competence. Too low densities of competent hosts (i.e., hosts where transmission can occur) do not sustain the infection cycle, while too high densities of incompetent hosts may dilute the competent hosts so much to make infection persistence impossible. A dilution effect may occur also for competent hosts as a consequence of reduced tick to host ratio; this is possible only if the regulation of tick populations is such that tick density does not increase linearly with host densities. PMID:17125804

  10. Advancing integrated tick management to mitigate burden of tick-borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world’s population is at risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Annually, more than 1 billion people are infected and more than 1 million die from vector-borne diseases, including those caused by pathogens transmitted by ticks. The problem with tick borne diseases (TBD) is...

  11. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus. PMID:26847630

  12. Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links 2016 HHS joint webinar - Trends in Tickborne Diseases New publication – Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Beard CB ... Tickborne Diseases – Agents, Clinical Features, and Surveillance New Handbook – Tickborne Diseases of the United States: A Reference Manual for ...

  13. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs. PMID:26470461

  14. Distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae. PMID:26520053

  15. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2010-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306

  16. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223

  17. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus

    PubMed Central

    Lödige, C.; Alings, M.; Vor, T.; Rühe, F.

    2010-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May–August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed. PMID:20585837

  18. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-01-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1-7.4 ppm lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6-5.3 ppm). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates

  19. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-02-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1 to 7.4 ppM lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6 to 5.3 ppM). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates.

  20. Avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily B; Auckland, Lisa D; Marra, Peter P; Hamer, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome. PMID:26431964

  1. Avian Migrants Facilitate Invasions of Neotropical Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Auckland, Lisa D.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome. PMID:26431964

  2. Managing Eastern tent caterpillars Malacosoma americanum (F) on horse farms to reduce risk of mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Potter, Daniel A; Foss, Leslie; Baumler, Rebecca E; Held, David W

    2005-01-01

    An equine disease now known as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) struck the Ohio Valley in 2001-2002 causing thousands of foal abortions and enormous economic loss. Evidence that pregnant mares' exposure to Eastern tent caterpillars Malacosoma americanum (F) induces MRLS created an urgent call for control measures suitable for use on horse farms. We surveyed egg mass distribution and monitored emergence in wild cherry trees, and evaluated reduced-risk treatment strategies including foliage sprays, trunk injections, winter egg mass treatments and barrier sprays to intercept larvae entering pastures. Egg masses were concentrated in the lower canopy, on exposed sides of trees. Larval emergence began in mid-March. Emergence was prolonged (3-4 weeks) in 2002, a typically cool spring, but more synchronized in warmer 2003. Winter treatment of egg masses with bifenthrin or permethrin in a penetrating solvent prevented emergence, but 3% horticultural oil was ineffective for that purpose. Insecticidal soap or oil sprayed directly on neonates gave relatively poor control. Bifenthrin and spinosad were effective as foliage sprays against all instars, their field-weathered residues active for at least 7 days. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var kurstaki controlled neonates within 3 days but was less active against late instars, with shorter residual action than bifenthrin or spinosad. Larvae did not avoid insecticide-treated leaves. Trunk microinjection of cherry trees with dicrotophos was effective against all instars, whereas microinjection with milbemectin or abamectin gave poor or inconsistent control. Trunk injection with emamectin benzoate also was effective. Dry permethrin residues controlled late instars crawling in pasture grass for at least 7 days. Factors complicating M americanum management on horse farms are discussed. PMID:15593079

  3. Ixodid and Argasid Tick Species and West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Uzcátegui, Nathalie Yumari; Gould, Ernest Andrew; Nuttall, Patricia Anne

    2004-01-01

    Control of West Nile virus (WNV) can only be effective if the vectors and reservoirs of the virus are identified and controlled. Although mosquitoes are the primary vectors, WNV has repeatedly been isolated from ticks. Therefore tick-borne transmission studies were performed with an ixodid (Ixodes ricinus) and an argasid tick species (Ornithodoros moubata). Both species became infected after feeding upon viremic hosts, but I. ricinus ticks were unable to maintain the virus. In contrast, O. moubata ticks were infected for at least 132 days, and the infection was maintained through molting and a second bloodmeal. Infected O. moubata ticks transmitted the virus to rodent hosts, albeit at a low level. Moreover, the virus was nonsystemically transmitted between infected and uninfected O. moubata ticks co-fed upon uninfected hosts. Although ticks are unlikely to play a major role in WNV transmission, our findings suggest that some species have the potential to act as reservoirs for the virus. PMID:15200855

  4. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission. PMID:21529391

  5. Vaccination with an Attenuated Mutant of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Induces Pathogen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Immunity and Protection from Tick-Transmitted Wild-Type Challenge in the Canine Host

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Jodi L.; Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Rusk, Rachel A.; Jaworski, Deborah C.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Transmitted by the Amblyomma americanum tick, E. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. We have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of E. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the Ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in dogs. Here, we extend our previous results, demonstrating that vaccination with the Ech_0660 mutant protects dogs from physiologic, tick-transmitted, secondary challenge with wild-type E. chaffeensis; and describing, for the first time, the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ech_0660 mutant vaccination and wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in the canine host. Both vaccination and infection induced a rise in E. chaffeensis-specific antibody titers and a significant Th1 response in peripheral blood as measured by E. chaffeensis antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production. Further, we describe for the first time significant IL-17 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from both Ech_0660 mutant vaccinated animals and control animals infected with wild-type E. chaffeensis, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and Th17 cells in the immune response to rickettsial pathogens. Our results are a critical first step towards defining the role of the immune system in vaccine-induced protection from E. chaffeensis infection in an incidental host; and confirm the potential of the attenuated mutant clone, Ech_0660, to be used as a vaccine candidate for protection against tick-transmitted E. chaffeensis infection. PMID:26841025

  6. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment.

    PubMed

    Wikel, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg), B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission? PMID:24312085

  7. Tick repellents and acaricides of botanical origin: a green roadmap to control tick-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Arthropods are dangerous vectors of agents of deadly diseases, which may hit as epidemics or pandemics in the increasing world population of humans and animals. Among them, ticks transmit more pathogen species than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide. Thus, the effective and eco-friendly control of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. A number of novel routes have been attempted to prevent and control tick-borne diseases, including the development of (i) vaccines against viruses vectored by ticks; (ii) pheromone-based control tools, with special reference to the "lure and kill" techniques; (iii) biological control programmes relying on ticks' natural enemies and pathogens; and (iv) the integrated pest management practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock. However, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remains the two most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Unfortunately, the first one is limited by the rapid development of resistance in ticks, as well as by serious environmental concerns. On the other hand, the exploitation of plants as sources of effective tick repellents is often promising. Here, we reviewed current knowledge concerning the effectiveness of plant extracts as acaricides or repellents against tick vectors of public health importance, with special reference to Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes persulcatus, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Eighty-three plant species from 35 botanical families were selected. The most frequent botanical families exploited as sources of acaricides and repellents against ticks were Asteraceae (15 % of the selected studies), Fabaceae (9 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Meliaceae (5 %), Solanaceae (6

  8. Genome Sequence of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Rickettsia raoultii

    PubMed Central

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Mediannikov, Oleg; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia raoultii is a tick-associated spotted fever group (SFG) organism, causing scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite (SENLAT) in humans. We report here the genome sequence of R. raoultii strain KhabarovskT (CSUR R3T, ATCC VR-1596T), which was isolated from a Dermacentor silvarum tick collected in Russia. PMID:27103706

  9. 16 CFR 1632.6 - Ticking substitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provides an independent evaluation of the cigarette ignition characteristics of ticking and for the... as barriers against cigarette ignition; Class B represents tickings evaluated as having no effect on cigarette ignition; and Class C represents tickings evaluated as having the potential, in some manner,...

  10. 16 CFR 1632.6 - Ticking substitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provides an independent evaluation of the cigarette ignition characteristics of ticking and for the... as barriers against cigarette ignition; Class B represents tickings evaluated as having no effect on cigarette ignition; and Class C represents tickings evaluated as having the potential, in some manner,...

  11. The bacterial microbiome of dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are of medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Al...

  12. 16 CFR 1632.6 - Ticking substitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provides an independent evaluation of the cigarette ignition characteristics of ticking and for the... as barriers against cigarette ignition; Class B represents tickings evaluated as having no effect on cigarette ignition; and Class C represents tickings evaluated as having the potential, in some manner,...

  13. 16 CFR 1632.6 - Ticking substitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provides an independent evaluation of the cigarette ignition characteristics of ticking and for the... as barriers against cigarette ignition; Class B represents tickings evaluated as having no effect on cigarette ignition; and Class C represents tickings evaluated as having the potential, in some manner,...

  14. Tennessee County Higher Education Profiles, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Tennessee County Higher Education Profiles 2010" provide basic information with respect to higher education for each county in Tennessee. The 2010 "Profiles" represent the fourth year for this report. In the demographic and enrollment sections, a few changes were made to better meet the needs of policymakers. This document explains those…

  15. Tennessee Higher Education Profiles and Trends, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Tennessee Code Annotated (T.C.A.) Section 49-7-202 (c) (7) requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to "submit a biennial report to the governor and the general assembly, commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor…

  16. Evaluation System Weighing down Tennessee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitin, Liana

    2011-01-01

    A state law, which helped Tennessee win Race to the Top money, pushed schools to implement a system that had limited pilot-testing. Education officials in Tennessee are taking flak from teachers and unions for rushing the implementation of the new teacher-evaluation system that will eventually undergird tenure decisions--a move, some worry, that…

  17. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  18. Report of The Tennessee Reading Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Tennessee Reading Panel (TRP) is to promote lifelong literacy for all Tennessee citizens. The TRP provides literacy support through leadership, advocacy, teacher training, professional development, and the establishment of community and family partnerships. Recognizing that literacy is the basis for all learning, this document…

  19. 40 CFR 81.343 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.343 Section 81.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.343 Tennessee. Tennessee—TSP Designated area Does...

  20. 40 CFR 81.343 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.343 Section 81.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.343 Tennessee. Tennessee—TSP Designated area Does...

  1. 76 FR 29284 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes,...

  2. 76 FR 27138 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes,...

  3. 75 FR 26814 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding,...

  4. Tennessee Higher Education County Profiles, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a localized perspective on Tennessee higher education, including: (1) county demographic and economic data; (2) information on public and private colleges and universities located in the county; (3) number of county residents enrolled in Tennessee public institutions; and (4) number of county residents participating in the…

  5. 76 FR 19515 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1965-DR), dated 04/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and...

  6. 76 FR 45309 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 4005-DR), dated 07/20/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight-line...

  7. Teacher Morale in Rural Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Brenda Dishman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the factors that influence the morale levels of teachers in the public school systems of 3 contiguous counties in rural northeast Tennessee. The level of teacher morale was measured using the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Data associated with the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System…

  8. 75 FR 57997 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00043

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1937-DR), dated 09/15/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding....

  9. 75 FR 55833 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 09/07... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Putnam. Contiguous Counties:...

  10. 76 FR 18288 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 03/23... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Knox. Contiguous Counties:...

  11. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Yedidya Ratovonamana, R; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  12. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs.

    PubMed

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  13. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  14. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M.; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99–100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this

  15. Immunological response of tick-naive white-tailed deer to infestation with Dermacentor albipictus, a one host tick

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are competent alternative hosts for cattle fever ticks, and their abundance throughout south Texas is compromising efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP). We artificially infested white-tailed deer with a model one-host tick, Dermacentor albipictus (winter tic...

  16. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-06-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. PMID:23571115

  17. Impact of Climate Trends on Tick-Borne Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ayllón, Nieves; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick–pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick–pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22470348

  18. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States. PMID:25276942

  19. 75 FR 9197 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application February 19, 2010. Take notice that on February 9, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street... application may be directed to Thomas G. Joyce, Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company,...

  20. 30 CFR 942.700 - Tennessee Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tennessee Federal program. 942.700 Section 942... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.700 Tennessee... Tennessee which have been adopted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. (b)...

  1. 75 FR 27332 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application May 6, 2010. Take notice that on April 30, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... this application should be directed to Susan T. Halbach, Senior Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline...

  2. Tennessee Higher Education Fact Book, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Tennessee Higher Education Commission was created in 1967 by the Tennessee General Assembly to achieve coordination and foster unity with regard to higher education. The Commission coordinates two systems of higher education: the University of Tennessee institutions governed by the University of Tennessee Board of Trustees, and the state…

  3. 30 CFR 942.700 - Tennessee Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tennessee Federal program. 942.700 Section 942... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.700 Tennessee... Tennessee which have been adopted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. (b)...

  4. [Did you know this about the diseases spread by ticks?].

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The number of ticks, members of the acarids, is increasing in the Finnish nature, and the risk of tick-borne infections has therefore increased as well. The incidence of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis has also increased over the past few years. Possible recently discovered tick-borne infectious organisms include Borrelia miyamotoi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacteria and the babesia protozoon. Although infections caused by these microorganism are presumed to be rare in Finland, they should be considered in the differential, diagnosis of a febrile patient following a detected or suspected tick bite. PMID:27522835

  5. Tick Passage Results in Enhanced Attenuation of Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, Terry F.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Scoles, Glen A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Lau, Audrey O. T.

    2014-01-01

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, but when retained, attenuated B. bovis can revert to virulence following tick passage. This study provides data showing that tick passage of the partially attenuated B. bovis T2Bo derivative strain further decreased virulence compared with intravenous inoculation of the same strain in infected animals. Ticks that acquired virulent or attenuated parasites by feeding on infected cattle were transmission fed on naive, splenectomized animals. While there was no significant difference between groups in the number of parasites in the midgut, hemolymph, or eggs of replete female ticks after acquisition feeding, animals infected with the attenuated parasites after tick transmission showed no clinical signs of babesiosis, unlike those receiving intravenous challenge with the same attenuated strain prior to tick passage. Additionally, there were significantly fewer parasites in blood and tissues of animals infected with tick-passaged attenuated parasites. Sequencing analysis of select B. bovis genes before and after tick passage showed significant differences in parasite genotypes in both peripheral blood and cerebral samples. These results provide evidence that not only is tick transmissibility retained by the attenuated T2Bo strain, but also it results in enhanced attenuation and is accompanied by expansion of parasite subpopulations during tick passage that may be associated with the change in disease phenotype. PMID:25114111

  6. A Clinical Review of Tick-Borne Diseases in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Beebe, Alexandria; Chaudhury, Arun; Haselow, Dirk; Patil, Sowmya; Weinstein, Sue; Taffner, Richard; Patil, Naveen

    2016-05-01

    Tick-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted by ticks harboring wide variety of pathogens. Arkansas is reported as one of the states with a high incidence of tick-borne diseases. In Arkansas the four most frequently occurring tick-borne diseases are Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, also known as Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis), Ehrlichiosis, Tularemia and Anaplasmosis. Lyme disease, on the other hand, is not acquired in Arkansas and is only acquired by traveling to states where Lyme disease is endemic. The majority of tick-borne diseases are diagnosed based on a history of tick bite or exposure and the individual's clinical presentation. The recognition of specific symptoms requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term sequelae. Hence, knowledge of tick-borne diseases and preventive measures can help reduce the risks associated with the infection. PMID:27263175

  7. Sediment characteristics of Tennessee streams and reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Stanley W.; Carey, William P.

    1984-01-01

    Measured suspended-sediment data and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams. Measured suspended-sediment is mostly silt and clay size material even in the sand-bed channels of western Tennessee. Unmeasured load accounts for less than 10 percent of the total sediment load in western Tennessee. Unmeasured load in middle and eastern Tennessee streams is believed to be only a small percentage of total load because bed material is generally coarse and quite variable. Sediment of total load because bed material is generally coarse and quite variable. Sediment yields for middle and eastern Tennessee basins generally are less than 800 tons per square mile per year ((tons/mi2)/yr), however, highly disturbed basins can have yields from 1,000 to 3,000 (tons/mi2)/yr. Yields for the heavily agricultural and channelized basins of western Tennessee generally range from 700 to 1,000 (tons/mi2)/yr. Yields for the Hatchie River in western Tennessee are less than 200 (tons/mi2)/yr reflecting the lack of floodplain agriculture and channelization. (USGS)

  8. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  9. Ticks of Australia. The species that infest domestic animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen C; Walker, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    The book Australian Ticks by F.H.S. Roberts (1970) is a land-mark in Australian tick biology. But it is time for a new and improved book on the ticks of Australia. The present book has identification guides and accounts of the biology and diseases associated with the 16 species of ticks that may feed on domestic animals and humans in Australia. These comprise five argasid (soft) ticks: Argas persicus (poultry tick), Argas robertsi (Robert's bird tick), Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick), O. gurneyi (kangaroo soft tick), Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick); and 11 ixodid (hard) ticks, Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), Bothriocroton auruginans (wombat tick), B. hydrosauri (southern reptile tick), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), H. longicornis (bush tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick), I. hirsti (Hirst's marsupial tick), I. holocyclus (paralysis tick), I. tasmani (common marsupial tick), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick) and R. sanguineus (brown dog tick).  We use an image-matching system to identify ticks, much like the image-matching systems used in field-guides for birds and flowers. Ticks may be identified by drawings that emphasise unique matrices of uniformly defined morphological characters that, together, allow these 16 ticks to be identified by morphology unequivocally. The species accounts have seven sections: (i) General; (ii)  Differential diagnosis; (iii) Hosts; (iv) Life-cycle and seasonality; (v) Disease; (vi) Habitat and geographic distribution; (vii) Genes and genomes; and (viii) Other information. There are 71 figures and tables, including a glossary character matrices, drawings of life-cycles, drawings of genera, species, and colour photographs of tick biology. PMID:24943801

  10. Exposed and concealed antigens as vaccine targets for controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, P A; Trimnell, A R; Kazimirova, M; Labuda, M

    2006-04-01

    Tick vaccines derived from Bm86, a midgut membrane-bound protein of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are currently the only commercially available ectoparasite vaccines. Despite its introduction to the market in 1994, and the recognized need for alternatives to chemical pesticides, progress in developing effective antitick vaccines (and ectoparasite vaccines in general) is slow. The primary rate-limiting step is the identification of suitable antigenic targets for vaccine development. Two sources of candidate vaccine antigens have been identified: 'exposed' antigens that are secreted in tick saliva during attachment and feeding on a host and 'concealed' antigens that are normally hidden from the host. Recently, a third group of antigens has been distinguished that combines the properties of both exposed and concealed antigens. This latter group offers the prospect of a broad-spectrum vaccine effective against both adults and immature stages of a wide variety of tick species. It also shows transmission-blocking and protective activity against a tick-borne pathogen. With the proliferation of molecular techniques and their application to vaccine development, there are high hopes for new and effective antitick vaccines that also control tick-borne diseases. PMID:16542317

  11. 77 FR 32982 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Tennessee Valley Authority and the University of Tennessee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... by archeologist from the University of Tennessee's Division of Anthropology on Hiwassee Island, site... miles upstream of the TVA's Chickamauga Dam. The archeologists were working under a ``Permit...

  12. Rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Andreadis, T G; Stafford, K C; Holland, C J

    1991-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of hard-bodied ticks were collected in Connecticut and tested by direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining methods for rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi. Of the 609 Ixodes dammini ticks examined, 59 (9.7%) harbored rickettsialike microorganisms in hemocytes (blood cells). These bacteria reacted with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis. Prevalence of infection ranged from 6.8 to 12.7% for males and females, respectively. Although the specific identities of the hemocytic rickettsialike organisms are unknown, they share antigens with ehrlichiae. Electron microscopy revealed rickettsiae in ovarian tissues of I. dammini that also had infected hemocytes. Rickettsialike organisms were also observed in the hemocytes of 5 (6.9%) of 73 Dermacentor variabilis ticks. In analyses for B. burgdorferi, 146 (23.7%) of 617 I. dammini ticks harbored these spirochetes in midguts. Hemocytic rickettsialike microorganisms coexisted with B. burgdorferi in 36 (6.7%) of the 537 nymphs and adults of I. dammini examined. I. dammini, with its broad host range, has the potential to acquire multiple microorganisms. Images PMID:1757551

  13. Ticks Take Cues from Mammalian Interferon.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Aravinda M

    2016-07-13

    Interferons are considered a first line of immune defense restricted to vertebrates. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Smith et al. (2016) demonstrate that mammalian interferon γ activates an antimicrobial response within ticks feeding on blood. The study suggests that arthropods have a parallel interferon-like defense system. PMID:27414493

  14. Subolesin expression in response to pathogen infection in ticks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are vectors of pathogens worldwide that cause diseases in humans and animals. Ticks and pathogens have co-evolved molecular mechanisms that contribute to their mutual development and survival. Subolesin was discovered as a tick protective antigen and was subsequently shown to be similar in structure and function to akirins, an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins in insects and vertebrates that controls NF-kB-dependent and independent expression of innate immune response genes. The objective of this study was to investigate subolesin expression in several tick species infected with a variety of pathogens and to determine the effect of subolesin gene knockdown on pathogen infection. In the first experiment, subolesin expression was characterized in ticks experimentally infected with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. Subolesin expression was then characterized in questing or feeding adult ticks confirmed to be infected with Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Babesia or Theileria spp. Finally, the effect of subolesin knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) on tick infection was analyzed in Dermacentor variabilis males exposed to various pathogens by capillary feeding (CF). Results Subolesin expression increased with pathogen infection in the salivary glands but not in the guts of tick vector species infected with A. marginale. When analyzed in whole ticks, subolesin expression varied between tick species and in response to different pathogens. As reported previously, subolesin knockdown in D. variabilis infected with A. marginale and other tick-borne pathogens resulted in lower infection levels, while infection with Francisella tularensis increased in ticks after RNAi. When non-tick-borne pathogens were fed to ticks by CF, subolesin RNAi did not affect or resulted in lower infection levels in ticks. However, subolesin expression was upregulated in D. variabilis exposed to Escherichia coli, suggesting that although this

  15. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    PubMed Central

    Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer. PMID:20099011

  16. SFTS Virus in Ticks in an Endemic Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2015-01-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) viral RNA was identified in H. longicornis and R. microplus, with a prevalence of 4.75 per 100 ticks (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.87–5.63) for ticks collected from animals and 2.24 per 100 ticks (95% CI = 1.27–3.21) for ticks collected from vegetation. The possibility that SFTSV transmission may occur by both the transstadial and transovarial routes was suggested by the fact that viral RNA was detected in H. longicornis at all developmental stages. Tick-derived sequences shared over 95.6% identity with human- and animal-derived isolates. This study provides evidence that implicates ticks as not only vectors but also, reservoirs of SFTSV. PMID:25711611

  17. Thirty years of tick population genetics: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Araya-Anchetta, Ana; Busch, Joseph D; Scoles, Glen A; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Population genetic studies provide insights into the basic biology of arthropod disease vectors by estimating dispersal patterns and their potential to spread pathogens. In wingless vectors, such as ticks, gene flow will be defined in large part by the mobility of their hosts. However, tick behaviors and life cycle strategies can limit their dispersal even on highly mobile hosts and lead to an increase in genetic structure. In this review we synthesize the published literature from three decades of tick population genetic studies. Based on studies from 22 tick species (including representatives from Amblyomma, Bothriocroton, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus), observed levels of population genetic structure in ticks varied from no structure to very high levels. In about half of the species (including representatives from Amblyomma, Bothriocroton, Dermacentor, and Ornithodoros), tick genetic structure appeared to be determined primarily by the movement capacity of hosts, with low gene flow observed in ticks that use smaller bodied less mobile hosts and high gene flow in ticks using highly mobile hosts. In a number of other species (primarily from Ixodes, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus), behavioral limitations to gene flow appeared to result in greater genetic structure than expected based upon host movement capability alone. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of genetic markers and their applicability to ticks and suggest possible analyses when planning population genetic studies for ticks. PMID:25461844

  18. SFTS virus in ticks in an endemic area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) viral RNA was identified in H. longicornis and R. microplus, with a prevalence of 4.75 per 100 ticks (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.87-5.63) for ticks collected from animals and 2.24 per 100 ticks (95% CI = 1.27-3.21) for ticks collected from vegetation. The possibility that SFTSV transmission may occur by both the transstadial and transovarial routes was suggested by the fact that viral RNA was detected in H. longicornis at all developmental stages. Tick-derived sequences shared over 95.6% identity with human- and animal-derived isolates. This study provides evidence that implicates ticks as not only vectors but also, reservoirs of SFTSV. PMID:25711611

  19. Clinical and neurophysiological features of tick paralysis.

    PubMed

    Grattan-Smith, P J; Morris, J G; Johnston, H M; Yiannikas, C; Malik, R; Russell, R; Ouvrier, R A

    1997-11-01

    The clinical and neurophysiological findings in six Australian children with generalized tick paralysis are described. Paralysis is usually caused by the mature female of the species Ixodes holocyclus. It most frequently occurs in the spring and summer months but can be seen at any time of year. Children aged 1-5 years are most commonly affected. The tick is usually found in the scalp, often behind the ear. The typical presentation is a prodrome followed by the development of an unsteady gait, and then ascending, symmetrical, flaccid paralysis. Early cranial nerve involvement is a feature, particularly the presence of both internal and external ophthalmoplegia. In contrast to the experience with North American ticks, worsening of paralysis in the 24-48 h following tick removal is common and the child must be carefully observed over this period. Death from respiratory failure was relatively common in the first half of the century and tick paralysis remains a potentially fatal condition. Respiratory support may be required for > 1 week but full recovery occurs. This is slow with several weeks passing before the child can walk unaided. Anti-toxin has a role in the treatment of seriously ill children but there is a high incidence of acute allergy and serum sickness. Neurophysiological studies reveal low-amplitude compound muscle action potentials with normal motor conduction velocities, normal sensory studies and normal response to repetitive stimulation. The biochemical structure of the toxin of I. holocyclus has not been fully characterized but there are many clinical, neurophysiological and experimental similarities to botulinum toxin. PMID:9397015

  20. Libraries in Tennessee: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 38163 901-448-5635 http://library.uthsc.edu Mountain Home EAST TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY - MEDICAL LIBRARY Quillen College of Medicine Library 4th Street Mountain Home, TN 37684 423-439-7032 http://www. ...

  1. FLINT MILL ROADLESS AREA, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made on the Flint Mill Roadless Area in northeastern Tennessee. Studies of known manganese deposits, most of which are small and mined out, evaluation of iron prospects, and the results of a geochemical survey for other metals in stream sediments indicate there is probable resource potential for the occurrence of small iron-manganese resources in the roadless area. Nonmetallic minerals such as clay, carbonate rock, and other industrial raw material are found in the area but, similar commodites are found outside the area. The remote possibility of deep oil or gas in the southern Appalachians, of which the roadless area is a part, cannot be evaluated with existing data. Further geophysical study and possibly drilling would be necessary to evaluate the resource potential for gas and oil in the roadless area.

  2. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID) meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus) to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity), tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades) and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates). The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current) human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general. PMID:26835253

  3. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2015-12-01

    We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID) meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus) to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity), tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades) and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates). The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current) human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general. PMID:26835253

  4. Presence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas suggests that ticks are carriers of Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Croxatto, Antony; Rieille, Nadia; Kernif, Tahar; Bitam, Idir; Aeby, Sébastien; Péter, Olivier; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-06-01

    The Chlamydiales order includes the Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Waddliaceae, Simkaniaceae, Criblamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Clavichlamydiaceae, and Piscichlamydiaceae families. Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within eukaryotic cells of different origins including humans, animals, and amoebae. Many of these bacteria are pathogens or emerging pathogens of both humans and animals, but their true diversity is largely underestimated, and their ecology remains to be investigated. Considering their potential threat on human health, it is important to expand our knowledge on the diversity of Chlamydiae, but also to define the host range colonized by these bacteria. Thus, using a new pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we analyzed the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas, which are important vectors of several viral and bacterial infectious diseases. To conduct this study, 1340 Ixodes ricinus ticks prepared in 192 pools were collected in Switzerland and 55 other ticks belonging to different tick species and 97 fleas belonging to different flea species were harvested in Algeria. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in the 192 pools was equal to 28.1% (54/192) which represents an estimated prevalence in the 1340 individual ticks of between 4.0% and 28.4%. The pan-Chlamydiales qPCR was positive for 45% (25/55) of tick samples collected in Algeria. The sequencing of the positive qPCR amplicons revealed a high diversity of Chlamydiales species. Most of them belonged to the Rhabdochlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae families. Thus, ticks may carry Chlamydiales and should thus be considered as possible vectors for Chlamydiales propagation to both humans and animals. PMID:24698831

  5. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil. PMID:26467462

  6. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks and tick-borne pathogens in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases comprise a group of maladies that are of substantial medical and veterinary significance. A range of tick-borne pathogens, including diverse species of bacteria and protozoa, can infect both dogs and humans. Hence, the control of tick infestations is pivotal to decrease or prevent tick-borne pathogen transmission. Therefore, different commercial products with insecticidal, repellent or both properties have been developed for use on dogs. Recently, a collar containing a combination of imidacloprid 10% and flumethrin 4.5% has proven effective to prevent tick and flea infestations in dogs under field conditions and the infection by some vector-borne pathogens they transmit under laboratory-controlled conditions. Methods From March 2011 to April 2012, a field study was conducted in a private shelter in southern Italy to assess the efficacy of the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against tick and flea infestations and to determine if this strategy would decrease tick-borne pathogen transmission in young dogs. A total of 122 animals were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to group A (n = 64; collared) or group B (n = 58; untreated controls). Dogs were examined monthly for ticks and fleas and systematically tested for selected tick-borne pathogens. Results Compared to controls, the collar provided overall efficacies of 99.7% and 100% against tick and flea infestation, respectively. The overall efficacy for the prevention of tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli) was 91.6%. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar is efficacious against flea and tick infestation as well as tick-borne pathogen transmission to dogs under field conditions. PMID:23972013

  7. Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks can transmit a number of pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Tick borne diseases (TBDs), which may lead to organ failure and death have been recently reported in China. 98.75% of the total cases (>1000) in Henan provinces have been reported in Xinyang city. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the fauna of ticks and detect the potential pathogens in ticks in Xinyang, the region of central China. Methods Ticks were collected from 10 villages of Xinyang from April to December 2012, from domestic animals including sheep, cattle and dogs. Then identification of ticks and detection of tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, were undertaken by using polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) and sequence analysis. Moreover, the co-infection patterns of various pathogens were compared among locations where ticks were collected. Results A total of 308 ticks were collected. Two species of Ixodidae were found, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis (96.75%) and Rhipicephalus microplus (3.25%). Five genera of pathogens, namely Theileria spp. (3.25%), Anaplasma spp. (2.92%), Babesia spp. (1.95%), Ehrlichia spp. (2.92%) and Rickettsia spp. (0.65%), were detected in 7 villages. Co-infections by two pathogens were diagnosed in 11.11% of all infected ticks. Conclusions Both human and animal pathogens were abundant in ticks in the study areas. Humans and animals in these regions were at a high risk of exposure to piroplasmosis, since piroplasm had the highest rates of infection and co-infection in positive ticks. PMID:24886497

  8. Methods for control of tick vectors of Lyme Borreliosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaenson, T.G.T.; Fish, D.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gray, J.S.; Mather, T.N.; Piesman, J.

    1991-01-01

    During the IVth International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis in Stockholm, 1990, a workshop on control of Lyme disease vectors briefly reviewed: basic ecological principles for tick control; biocontrol of ticks; chemical control, including the use of repellents and use of permethrin-treated rodent nest material; tick control by habitat modification; and reduction of tick host availability. It was concluded that, although much research work remains, Lyme borreliosis is to a large extent a preventable infection. Avoidance of heavily tick-infested areas, personal protection using proper clothing, and prompt removal of attached ticks remain the most effective protective measures. Many other prophylactic measures are available and could be efficiently integrated into schemes to reduce the abundance of vectors. However, since the ecology of the infection varies greatly between different localities it may be necessary to apply different combinations of control methods in different endemic regions.

  9. Rickettsial agents in Egyptian ticks collected from domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    To assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between June 2002 and July 2003. DNA extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using PCR and sequencing, for Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. Ticks included: 29 Argas persicus, 10 Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 Hyalomma dromedarii, 2 Hyalomma impeltatum, 3 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 55 unidentified nymphal Hyalomma, 625 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, 49 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 17 Rhipicephalus turanicus. Ticks were collected predominantly (>80%) from buffalo, cattle, and camels, with smaller numbers from chicken and rabbit sheds, sheep, foxes, a domestic dog, a hedgehog, and a black rat. We detected Anaplasma marginale, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and four novel genotypes similar to: "Anaplasma platys," Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia spp. reported from Asian ticks, and a Rickettsiales endosymbiont of Ixodes ricinus. PMID:17004028

  10. Survey on cattle ticks in Nur, north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Ashkan Ghasemi; Seyed, Mozafar Razavi; Rasouli, Mehrshad; Hosseinzade, Sajad; Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey the prevalence of cattle ticks in Nur County and prepare a list of tick fauna in this district. Methods This investigation was carried out on 150 head of cattle ticks of rural areas of Nur city which is located in Mazandaran province during spring and summer seasons of 2011. The collected ticks were identified using light microscope and available systematic keys. Results A total number of 1 563 ticks were isolated from examined cattle and their genus and numbers including: Ixodes ricinus 51% (111 male and 691 female) and Boophilus annulatus 49% (83 male and 678 female), respectively. Conclusions Results of the current investigation indicate the presence of two species of acarine ectoparasites which have potential health risk Ixodes ricinus and Boophilus annulatus. More studies are required to increase our data concerning ticks and other ectopreasites of ruminants in other areas of Mazandaran province and should be noted to their ability in transmission of infectious agents. PMID:25182439

  11. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  12. Perceptions of Tennessee School Principals about the Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (Team)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carmen Belcher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the perceptions of Tennessee principals about the implementation of the Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (TEAM) and the impact of TEAM on teachers' instructional practice and professional growth. Participants in this study were PK-12 public school principals from 12 districts in the…

  13. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic)--Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hönig, V; Svec, P; Halas, P; Vavruskova, Z; Tykalova, H; Kilian, P; Vetiskova, V; Dornakova, V; Sterbova, J; Simonova, Z; Erhart, J; Sterba, J; Golovchenko, M; Rudenko, N; Grubhoffer, L

    2015-07-01

    Spatial distribution of Ixodes ricinus tick host-seeking activity, as well as prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were studied in the TBE endemic area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic). High variability in tick abundance detected in a network of 30 study sites was most closely associated with characteristics of vegetation cover. Of 11,182 tested tick samples, 12% carried DNA of spirochete from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. B. afzelii and B. garinii prevailed among spirochete species. The presence of B. spielmanii in the region was confirmed. The median number of borrelial genome copies in positive samples reached 6.6 × 10(3) by real-time PCR. The total prevalence of TBEV in pooled samples reached 0.32% (20,057 samples tested), at least one TBEV positive tick was present in 21 out of 30 sampling sites. PMID:25976235

  14. Preventing mosquito and tick bites: A Canadian update

    PubMed Central

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The present practice point provides updated guidance on personal protective measures to safely and effectively prevent mosquito and tick bites in Canada. Means of avoidance as well as physical and chemical barriers are described. Current information regarding insect and tick repellents and recommendations for their use are provided, along with instructions for removing ticks. Guidance on using insecticide for additional chemical protection is offered. PMID:25332663

  15. Interaction between ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and pathogenic nematodes (Nematoda): susceptibility of tick species at various developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I

    1999-11-01

    The virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to tick species under laboratory conditions is reported. The susceptibility of larval, nymphal, and adult stages of the ticks Hyalomma excavatum (Koch), Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanz), and R. sanguineus (Latereille) to 2 strains of Steinernema carpocapsae and 3 strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were compared in laboratory assays. Preimaginal stages of ticks were found to be more resistant to the nematodes than were adult ticks which exhibited 80-100% mortality in a dish containing 5,000 infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora IS-3 or IS-5 strains isolated in Israel. These 2 strains were found to be much more virulent to unfed adult ticks than were the other isolates. No marked difference was found between engorged ticks and unfed adults of R. sanguineus or H. excavatum in terms of mortality, whereas engorged males and unfed females of R. bursa were significantly more susceptible than unfed males or engorged females. PMID:10593074

  16. Tick paralysis in Australia caused by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, S; Craig, S B; Hall, R A; O’Donoghue, P; Atwell, R B; Tulsiani, S M; Graham, G C

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. They are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. Ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, with possible fatal outcomes for the host. This review focuses on tick paralysis, the role of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus, and the role of toxin molecules from this species in causing paralysis in the host. PMID:21396246

  17. Transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to Norway.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar; Edvardsen, Erik; Jakobsen, Christer; Linnehol, Bjørn; Røer, Jan Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Røed, Knut H; Pedersen, Jon; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2009-12-01

    Ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. During the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of Norway were examined for ticks. Altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. The highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (Prunella modularis). The degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localities, and from year to year. Blackbirds (Turdus merula) caught in localities with many ticks had greater infestation than those from localities with few or no ticks, suggesting local tick recruitment. A similar study performed during 1965–1970 involving 2 of the bird observatories in the present study found ticks on 4.2% of birds, while we found infestation of 6.9% at the same localities (P < 0.001). With the exception of 10 nymphs and 1 larva, the predominant tick was Ixodes ricinus. Seven nymphs of Hyalomma rufipes and 1 larva of Dermacentor sp. were also found. No species of Dermacentor had previously been found in Norway. PMID:19658452

  18. VIEW OF TENNESSEE COAL & IRON (TCI) U.S. STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TENNESSEE COAL & IRON (TCI) - U.S. STEEL, ENSLEY RAIL MILL SITE. POWERHOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND, MIXER IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. The climate system as a ticking clock

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-09-14

    Climate researchers are picking up a more or less regular 2-year beat to the global climate system - one that seems to be heard from every quarter. The most recently discovered example of this climatic ticking - and perhaps the most intriguing - comes from the very core of El Nino. Researchers have found that some aspects of this cycle of alternating warm and relatively cold waters along the equatorial Pacific have a tendency to repeat every 2 years. The overlying winds pulsate at the same pace, as do the globe-girdling effects of the El Nino cycle, from winter warmth in Alaska to heavy rains in Peru and drought in Australia. The climatic ticking in the tropical Pacific is hardly as reliable as the changing of the seasons. Sometimes it is muted, and occasionally it skips a beat. But some researchers nevertheless see hope of using it in the prediction of El Nino and its global effects. In any case, climate researchers are eager to determine what makes El Nino tick. The answer could be an underlying pacemaker of this crucial atmospheric cycle.

  20. Changing distributions of ticks: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Léger, Elsa; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vial, Laurence; Chevillon, Christine; McCoy, Karen D

    2013-02-01

    Today, we are witnessing changes in the spatial distribution and abundance of many species, including ticks and their associated pathogens. Evidence that these changes are primarily due to climate change, habitat modifications, and the globalisation of human activities are accumulating. Changes in the distribution of ticks and their invasion into new regions can have numerous consequences including modifications in their ecological characteristics and those of endemic species, impacts on the dynamics of local host populations and the emergence of human and livestock disease. Here, we review the principal causes for distributional shifts in tick populations and their consequences in terms of the ecological attributes of the species in question (i.e. phenotypic and genetic responses), pathogen transmission and disease epidemiology. We also describe different methodological approaches currently used to assess and predict such changes and their consequences. We finish with a discussion of new research avenues to develop in order to improve our understanding of these host-vector-pathogen interactions in the context of a changing world. PMID:23015121

  1. Karst subsidence in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R.H.; Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Waste disposal site selection and facility design in regions dominated by carbonate bedrock must carefully consider karst development and the factors which contribute to subsidence activity. The Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed a three phase study of karst subsidence in East Tennessee to quantify historical subsidence activity. The purpose of the study was to determine the principal factors which cause karst subsidence in the region. Techniques used and results obtained in this study form a basis for more detailed risk assessment at the local scale within the region. As development pressures diminish available land for various uses, risk-based land use decisions must be made to site critical facilities. To fulfill the study objectives a three phase study was designed including, (1) collection of subsidence data and compilation of a database, (2) performance of detailed studies of subsidence in three, two-to-five square-mile areas, and (3) synthesis of data obtained to; quantify the predominant sinkhole collapse dimensions, and identify events prior to subsidence or collapse events which may have caused the event, and estimate the intensity of subsidence as a function of geologic unit within subregional areas of higher and lower subsidence risk. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Uukuniemi Virus as a Tick-Borne Virus Model

    PubMed Central

    Mazelier, Magalie; Rouxel, Ronan Nicolas; Zumstein, Michael; Mancini, Roberta; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, novel tick-borne pathogenic phleboviruses in the family Bunyaviridae, all closely related to Uukuniemi virus (UUKV), have emerged on different continents. To reproduce the tick-mammal switch in vitro, we first established a reverse genetics system to rescue UUKV with a genome close to that of the authentic virus isolated from the Ixodes ricinus tick reservoir. The IRE/CTVM19 and IRE/CTVM20 cell lines, both derived from I. ricinus, were susceptible to the virus rescued from plasmid DNAs and supported production of the virus over many weeks, indicating that infection was persistent. The glycoprotein GC was mainly highly mannosylated on tick cell-derived viral progeny. The second envelope viral protein, GN, carried mostly N-glycans not recognized by the classical glycosidases peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and endoglycosidase H (Endo H). Treatment with β-mercaptoethanol did not impact the apparent molecular weight of GN. On viruses originating from mammalian BHK-21 cells, GN glycosylations were exclusively sensitive to PNGase F, and the electrophoretic mobility of the protein was substantially slower after the reduction of disulfide bonds. Furthermore, the amount of viral nucleoprotein per focus forming unit differed markedly whether viruses were produced in tick or BHK-21 cells, suggesting a higher infectivity for tick cell-derived viruses. Together, our results indicate that UUKV particles derived from vector tick cells have glycosylation and structural specificities that may influence the initial infection in mammalian hosts. This study also highlights the importance of working with viruses originating from arthropod vector cells in investigations of the cell biology of arbovirus transmission and entry into mammalian hosts. IMPORTANCE Tick-borne phleboviruses represent a growing threat to humans globally. Although ticks are important vectors of infectious emerging diseases, previous studies have mainly involved virus stocks

  3. Development of vaccines against Ornithodoros soft ticks: An update.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Obolo-Mvoulouga, Prosper; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are parasites of great medical and veterinary importance since they are vectors of numerous pathogens that affect humans, livestock and pets. Among the argasids, several species of the genus Ornithodoros transmit serious diseases such as tick-borne human relapsing fever (TBRF) and African Swine Fever (ASF). In particular, Ornithodoros erraticus is the main vector of these two diseases in the Mediterranean while O. moubata is the main vector in Africa. The presence of these Ornithodoros ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments may greatly hinder the eradication of TBRF and ASF from endemic areas. In addition, there is a constant threat of reintroduction and spreading of ASF into countries from where it has been eradicated (Spain and Portugal) or where it was never present (the Caucasus, Russia and Eastern Europe). In these countries, the presence of Ornithodoros vectors could have a tremendous impact on ASF transmission and long-term maintenance. Therefore, elimination of these ticks from at least synanthropic environments would contribute heavily to the prevention and control of the diseases they transmit. Tick control is a difficult task and although several methods for such control have been used, none of them has been fully effective against all ticks and the problems they cause. Nevertheless, immunological control using anti-tick vaccines offers an attractive alternative to the traditional use of acaricides. The aim of the present paper is to offer a brief overview of the current status in control measure development for Ornithodoros soft ticks, paying special attention to the development of vaccines against O. erraticus and O. moubata. Thus, our contribution includes an analysis of the chief attributes that the ideal antigens for an anti-tick vaccine should have, an exhaustive compilation and analysis of the scant anti-soft tick vaccine trials carried out to date using both concealed and salivary antigens and, finally, a brief description of the

  4. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287

  5. Tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defences and pathogen transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kazimírová, Mária; Štibrániová, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    Ticks require blood meal to complete development and reproduction. Multifunctional tick salivary glands play a pivotal role in tick feeding and transmission of pathogens. Tick salivary molecules injected into the host modulate host defence responses to the benefit of the feeding ticks. To colonize tick organs, tick-borne microorganisms must overcome several barriers, i.e., tick gut membrane, tick immunity, and moulting. Tick-borne pathogens co-evolved with their vectors and hosts and developed molecular adaptations to avoid adverse effects of tick and host defences. Large gaps exist in the knowledge of survival strategies of tick-borne microorganisms and on the molecular mechanisms of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Prior to transmission to a host, the microorganisms penetrate and multiply in tick salivary glands. As soon as the tick is attached to a host, gene expression and production of salivary molecules is upregulated, primarily to facilitate feeding and avoid tick rejection by the host. Pathogens exploit tick salivary molecules for their survival and multiplication in the vector and transmission to and establishment in the hosts. Promotion of pathogen transmission by bioactive molecules in tick saliva was described as saliva-assisted transmission (SAT). SAT candidates comprise compounds with anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, but the molecular mechanisms by which they mediate pathogen transmission are largely unknown. To date only a few tick salivary molecules associated with specific pathogen transmission have been identified and their functions partially elucidated. Advanced molecular techniques are applied in studying tick-host-pathogen interactions and provide information on expression of vector and pathogen genes during pathogen acquisition, establishment and transmission. Understanding the molecular events on the tick-host-pathogen interface may lead to development of new strategies to control tick-borne diseases. PMID

  6. 75 FR 18190 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application April 2, 2010. Take notice that on March 30, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  7. 75 FR 38801 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application June 24, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  8. 75 FR 53281 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application August 24, 2010. On August 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of...

  9. 76 FR 19338 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 18, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP11-142-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act...

  10. 76 FR 22093 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application On March 31, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas...

  11. 75 FR 74705 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 24, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act for a certificate of public convenience and necessity to construct, and...

  12. 75 FR 74027 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 23, 2010. Take notice that on November 17, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana...) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to construct a new 2,000 horsepower compressor...

  13. 75 FR 80483 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission's regulations, an application for authority to convey...

  14. 75 FR 82378 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 22, 2010. Take notice that on December 15, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission Regulations, for authorization to abandon by sale...

  15. 40 CFR 282.92 - Tennessee State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Tennessee obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... Storage Tanks, 4th Floor, L&C Tower, 401 Church Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37243-1541. (1) State... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tennessee State-Administered...

  16. Broadband Access for Students at East Tennessee State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of Internet access for students attending East Tennessee State University during the fall semester 2013. It has been unknown to what degree broadband access is available in the East Tennessee State University service area that includes counties in East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and…

  17. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... See 49 FR 15496. On May 16, 1984, the State repealed most of the Tennessee Coal Surface Mining Law of.... See 47 FR 34753. Withdrawal of Tennessee's Regulatory Program: As a result of Tennessee's failure to... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  18. 76 FR 18747 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), filed an application in Docket No. CP11-133... transportation services provided to shippers on the interstate pipeline systems owned by National Fuel Gas...

  19. 76 FR 20696 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1965-DR), dated March 31, 2011, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Tennessee resulting from severe...

  20. 75 FR 27846 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  1. 75 FR 30873 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  2. 75 FR 27845 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  3. 75 FR 30870 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  4. 76 FR 32369 - Tennessee; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Tennessee; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of an emergency for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-3321-EM), dated May 4, 2011, and related... emergency conditions in certain areas of the State of Tennessee resulting from flooding beginning on...

  5. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  6. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  7. 76 FR 32387 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  8. 76 FR 35261 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  9. 75 FR 38155 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to extend the deadline for filing...

  10. 76 FR 33773 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1978-DR), dated May 9, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Tennessee resulting from severe storms,...

  11. 76 FR 35260 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and... the State of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  12. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  13. 76 FR 27739 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  14. 76 FR 47220 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-4005-DR), dated July 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Tennessee resulting from severe storms,...

  15. 76 FR 35260 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  16. 76 FR 33775 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated May 9, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Tennessee resulting from severe storms,...

  17. 75 FR 29591 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010,...

  18. 75 FR 30874 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  19. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  20. Wildlife effects of DDT dust used for tick control on a Texas prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, J.L.; Stickel, W.H.

    1949-01-01

    SUMMARY The effect of DDT dust on wildlife was studied at Camp Bullis, Bexar County, Texas, in the summer of 1947. Studies were made on a 206.6 acre plot that was treated with DDT for experimental control of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomrna americanum). A dust consisting of one part of DDT to nine parts of pyrophyllite was applied at an average rate of 4.4 pounds of DDT per acre. The limits of DDT concentration that affected wildlife cannot be stated exactly because of a heavy rain that fell near the end of the dusting, and because of irregularity in DDT deposition. Since absolute uniformity of dusting could not be expected in any large scale DDT application, the effects observed in these trials were probably fairly representative. However, continued dry weather would have permitted longer exposure to DDT, possibly with more severe effects than those found in this study. The vegetation of the experimental area was roughly 70 percent ungrazed tall-grass prairie and 30 percent trees and shrubs. Ground and bush feeding birds were severely affected. Cardinals, lark sparrows, field sparrows, Bewick's wrens, Carolina wrens, Kentucky warblers, yellow-breasted chats, blue grosbeaks, and painted buntings were nearly or entirely eliminated from the treated area. Birds affected, but less drastically reduced in numbers, were yellow-billed cuckoo, black and white warbler, yellow-throated vireo, and white-eyed vireo. Birds found dead in the DDT area were 9 cardinals, 2 painted buntings, 2 lark sparrows, 1 yellow-breasted chat, and 1 white-eyed vireo. Bird mortality had begun by the day after dusting and was largely over by the end of the fifth day. Census of deer in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no reduction in deer numbers and no diminution in use of the DDT area. No deer or fawns were found dead or affected. Box-trapping of raccoons in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no effects that could be attributed to DDT. Limited observations on

  1. Risk of exposure to ticks (Ixodidae) and the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks in Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cuber, Piotr; Andreassen, Åshild; Vainio, Kirsti; Asman, Marek; Dudman, Susanne; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa; Ottesen, Preben; Ånestad, Gabriel; Cieśla-Nobis, Sabina; Solarz, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the results of the first study on seasonal activity of ticks and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in nymphs from the Silesian Province (Southern Poland). Previous studies on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in Poland have been conducted mostly in northern and eastern regions, but none in the Silesian Province itself. The aims of this study were to analyse the seasonal variation in tick populations and compare TBEV prevalence in nymphs from different geographical locations in the Silesia. A total of 5160 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by the flagging method from 23 localities in southern Poland in 2010. Micro-climatic parameters (air temperature and humidity) were measured in order to estimate their influence on tick population. The highest tick activity was recorded in spring and was positively correlated with relative air humidity (RH). TBEV in the Silesian Province was analysed in 1750 nymphs and an overall prevalence was 0.11% (2 pools out of 175 analysed). The results of this study show that TBEV pool prevalence in nymphs is low in accordance with the low number of TBE cases reported within the region. PMID:25838177

  2. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hard-bodied ticks transmit various pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and carry numerous other microorganisms with an unknown pathogenic potential. Among them, tick-borne encephalitis virus has great importance. In Central European conditions all developmental stages of ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of the TBE virus. According to pathogen and tick biology, the roles of larvae, nymphs and adults are different. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents and medium sized mammals; adults transfer the infection to ruminants and to next generations via transovarial transmission. All active developmental stages of I. ricinus can play role of the bridge vector, transmitting the infection to humans apart males which don't feed. The late summer peak of human infectivity is caused by the summer peak of I. ricinus nymphs' activity. The Dermacentor reticulatus tick attacks humans infrequently, but does participate in the circulation of the virus in the zoonotic foci; larvae and nymphs of the D. reticulatus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents, mainly Microtinae, while adults transmit the infection to ruminants. PMID:27262951

  3. Floods of February 1989 in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Gamble, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of over 5 inches the night of February 13 and the morning of February 14, 1989, caused flooding in areas of Middle and West Tennessee. The towns of Lebanon in Middle Tennessee and Obion in West Tennessee were most severely affected. Most of the business district in Lebanon and many residential areas in Obion were flooded. Recurrence intervals for 24-hour rainfall totals were as high as 25 years at some sites but most peak discharges had recurrence intervals of less than 10 years. Rainfall amounts for the period February 13-20, 1989, peak stages and discharges for this flood, the peak of record, and a list of discharge measurements made during the flood are documented. (USGS)

  4. Importation of exotic ticks and tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae into the United States by migrating songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Beati, Lorenza; Sellers, Michael; Burton, Laquita; Adamson, Steven; Robbins, Richard G.; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Birds are capable of carrying ticks and, consequently, tick-transmitted microorganisms over long distances and across geographical barriers such as oceans and deserts. Ticks are hosts for several species of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), which can be transmitted to vertebrates during blood meals. In this study, the prevalence of this group of rickettsiae was examined in ticks infesting migratory songbirds by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During the 2009 and 2010 spring migration season, 2064 northward-migrating passerine songbirds were examined for ticks at Johnson Bayou, Louisiana. A total of 91 ticks was removed from 35 individual songbirds for tick species identification and spotted fever group rickettsia detection. Ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (n=38, 42%), Amblyomma longirostre (n=22, 24%), Amblyomma nodosum (n=17, 19%), Amblyomma calcaratum (n=11, 12%), Amblyomma maculatum (n=2, 2%), and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n=1, 1%) by comparing their 12S rDNA gene sequence to homologous sequences in GenBank. Most of the identified ticks were exotic species originating outside of the United States. The phylogenetic analysis of the 71 ompA gene sequences of the rickettsial strains detected in the ticks revealed the occurrence of 6 distinct rickettsial genotypes. Two genotypes (corresponding to a total of 28 samples) were included in the Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii clade (less than 1% divergence), 2 of them (corresponding to a total of 14 samples) clustered with Rickettsia sp. “Argentina” with less than 0.2% sequence divergence, and 2 of them (corresponding to a total of 27 samples), although closely related to the R. parkeri–R. africae lineage (2.50–3.41% divergence), exhibited sufficient genetic divergence from its members to possibly constitute a new rickettsial genotype. Overall, there does not seem to be a specific relationship between exotic tick species, the rickettsiae they harbor, or the reservoir

  5. 40 CFR 81.72 - Tennessee River Valley (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.72 Section 81.72 Protection of... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Scottsboro (Alabama... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region and revised to consist...

  6. 40 CFR 81.72 - Tennessee River Valley (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.72 Section 81.72 Protection of... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Scottsboro (Alabama... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region and revised to consist...

  7. 40 CFR 81.72 - Tennessee River Valley (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.72 Section 81.72 Protection of... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Scottsboro (Alabama... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region and revised to consist...

  8. 40 CFR 81.72 - Tennessee River Valley (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.72 Section 81.72 Protection of... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Scottsboro (Alabama... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region and revised to consist...

  9. 40 CFR 81.72 - Tennessee River Valley (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.72 Section 81.72 Protection of... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Scottsboro (Alabama... (Alabama)-Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee) Interstate Air Quality Control Region and revised to consist...

  10. Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report an outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in southern Texas, USA. Infection prevalence reached 100% in some areas (292 positive horses). Amblyomma cajennense was the predominant tick and experimentally transmitted Theileria equi to a uninfected horse. We suggest transmission by this tick species...

  11. Transmembrane proteins--Mining the cattle tick transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Richards, Sabine A; Stutzer, Christian; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Managing the spread and load of pathogen-transmitting ticks is an important task worldwide. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, not only impacts the economy through losses in dairy and meat production, but also raises concerns for human health in regards to the potential of certain transmitted pathogens becoming zoonotic. However, novel strategies to control R. microplus are hindered by lack of understanding tick biology and the discovery of suitable vaccine or acaricide targets. The importance of transmembrane proteins as vaccine targets are well known, as is the case in tick vaccines with Bm86 as antigen. In this study, we describe the localization and functional annotation of 878 putative transmembrane proteins. Thirty proteins could be confirmed in the R. microplus gut using LC-MS/MS analysis and their roles in tick biology are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, 19 targets have not been reported before in any proteomics study in various tick species and the possibility of using the identified proteins as targets for tick control are discussed. Although tissue expression of identified putative proteins through expansive proteomics is necessary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using bioinformatics for the identification of targets for further evaluation in tick control strategies. PMID:26096851

  12. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  13. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  14. Genome Sequence of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Rickettsia raoultii.

    PubMed

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Mediannikov, Oleg; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouards

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Rickettsia raoultiiis a tick-associated spotted fever group (SFG) organism, causing scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite (SENLAT) in humans. We report here the genome sequence of ITALIC! R. raoultiistrain Khabarovsk(T)(CSUR R3(T), ATCC VR-1596(T)), which was isolated from a ITALIC! Dermacentor silvarumtick collected in Russia. PMID:27103706

  15. The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Gall, Cory A; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Mason, Kathleen L; Mousel, Michelle; Noh, Susan M; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-08-01

    Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically different susceptibilities to A. marginale was characterized. In this study, the microbiome was disrupted and then ticks were exposed to A. marginale or Francisella novicida to determine whether the microbiome correlated with pathogen susceptibility. Our study showed that an increase in proportion and quantity of Rickettsia bellii in the microbiome was negatively correlated to A. marginale levels in ticks. Furthermore, a decrease in Francisella endosymbionts was associated with lower F. novicida infection levels, demonstrating a positive pathogen-endosymbiont relationship. We demonstrate that endosymbionts and pathogens have varying interactions, and suggest that microbiome manipulation may provide a possible method for biocontrol by decreasing pathogen susceptibility of ticks. PMID:26882265

  16. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  17. On the search for markers of tick resistance in bovines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic differences in susceptibility to ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) are considerable in bovines. Here, mapping, association and gene expression approaches were employed to further advance our understanding of the molecular basis of tick resistance. A B. taurus x B. indicus F2 popul...

  18. Early Immunologic Events at the Tick-Host Interface

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Dar M.; Carmical, J. Russ; Aronson, Judith F.; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Ixodes species ticks are competent vectors of tick-borne viruses including tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan encephalitis. Tick saliva has been shown to facilitate and enhance viral infection. This likely occurs by saliva-mediated modulation of host responses into patterns favorable for viral infection and dissemination. Because of the rapid kinetics of tick-borne viral transmission, this modulation must occur as early as tick attachment and initiation of feeding. In this study, cutaneous bite-site lesions were analyzed using Affymetrix mouse genome 430A 2.0 arrays and histopathology at 1, 3, 6, and 12 hours after uninfected Ixodes scapularis nymphal tick attachment. At 1 and 3 hrs after attachment, the gene expression profile is markedly different than at later time points. Upregulated gene ontology term clusters enriched at 1 and 3 hrs were related to post-translational modification. At 6 and 12 hrs, cytoskeletal rearrangements, DNA replication/cell division, inflammation, and chemotaxis were prominent clusters. At 6 and 12 hrs, extracellular matrix, signaling, and DNA binding clusters were downregulated. Histopathological analysis shows minimal inflammation at 1 and 3 hrs but an appreciable neutrophil infiltrate at 6 and 12 hrs. In addition, putative hyperemia, localized necrosis, and increased ECM deposition were identified. Putting the gene expression and histopathology analysis together suggests early tick feeding is characterized by modulation of host responses in resident cells that merges into a nascent, neutrophil-driven immune response by 12 hrs post-attachment. PMID:23077588

  19. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  20. Tick Genomics: The Ixodes genome project and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks and mites (subphylum Chelicerata; subclass Acari) are important pests of animals and plants worldwide. The Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) genome sequencing project marks the beginning of the genomics era for the field of acarology. This project is the first to sequence the genome of a...

  1. Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

  2. Acaricides for controlling ticks on cattle and the problem of acaricide resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toward the end of the nineteenth century a complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle. The discovery and use of arsenical solutions in dipping vats for treating cattle to protect them against ticks ...

  3. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation shall... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement...

  4. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation shall... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement...

  5. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation shall... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement...

  6. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) acquired in Southwestern Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was first described in 1997 in a patient in France. The causative agent, Rickettsia slovaca, is transmitted by Dermacentor ticks. Case presentation In southwestern Germany we encountered a patient with a tick bite at the dorsal scalp that resulted in an eschar and nuchal lymphadenopathy. Additionally, fever, malaise as well as elevated inflammatory markers and transaminases occurred. The characteristic clinical picture along with positive antibody testing for rickettsiae of the tick-borne spotted fever group strongly suggest the diagnosis TIBOLA. Conclusion Human rickettsioses are emerging infections. Clinicians should be aware of TIBOLA as a newly described rickettsial disease. As in our case, TIBOLA may be encountered in regions/countries where R. slovaca and Dermacentor ticks are prevalent but autochthonous acquisition was not described before. PMID:21663601

  7. IMPORTANCE OF TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES IN GREYHOUND KENNELS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both canine babesiosis, caused by Babesia canis, and canine ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis have been reported repeatedly from greyhounds in Florida with one study reporting that 46% of greyhounds were seropositive for Babesia canis. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, a vector of...

  8. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L

    2013-12-22

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  9. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  10. The antidepressants venlafaxine ("Effexor") and fluoxetine ("Prozac") produce different effects on locomotion in two species of marine snail, the oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea) and the starsnail (Lithopoma americanum).

    PubMed

    Fong, Peter P; Bury, Taylor B; Dworkin-Brodsky, Abigail D; Jasion, Christina M; Kell, Rose C

    2015-02-01

    Human antidepressants have been previously shown to induce foot detachment from the substrate in aquatic snails. Prior to foot detachment, antidepressants also affect snail crawling speed. We tested two commonly prescribed antidepressants, venlafaxine ("Effexor") and fluoxetine ("Prozac") on crawling speed and time to reach the air-water interface in two species of marine snail, the oyster drill Urosalpinx cinerea and the American starsnail Lithopoma americanum. Exposure to venlafaxine increased crawling speed in both species, while fluoxetine slowed them down. Our lowest LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) was 31.3 μg/L venlafaxine in Urosalpinx. Similarly, snails (L. americanum) exposed to venlafaxine tended to move faster and more often to the air-water interface, but exposure to fluoxetine slowed them down. Our lowest LOEC was 345 μg/L fluoxetine in Lithopoma. These results indicate that venlafaxine boosts locomotion, while fluoxetine reduces it, and both behaviors are preludes to foot detachment. The different effects of these two antidepressants on snail locomotion suggest differing physiological mechanisms of action in marine snails as well as possible ecological consequences. PMID:25481651

  11. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  12. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    MTSHALI, Khethiwe; KHUMALO, Zamantungwa T. H.; NAKAO, Ryo; GRAB, Dennis J.; SUGIMOTO, Chihiro; THEKISOE, Oriel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected. PMID:26227797

  13. Research Strategies to Reduce Tick Densities and the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission through Host-Targeted Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While white-tailed deer are not reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, they are the keystone host animal on which adult female blacklegged ticks engorge on blood that is essential to production of tick eggs and completion of the life cycle. This session explores current re...

  14. Quantification of brown dog tick repellent, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, release from tick-resistant Beagle dogs, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  15. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected. PMID:26227797

  16. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  17. Conjunctival Attachment of a Live Paralysis Tick, Ixodes holocyclus, in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Teong, Joanne M.Y.; Adler, Paul A.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Daneshvar, Dariush; Shields, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare clinical finding of conjunctival tick attachment in a child. A 10-year-old boy presented to the clinic with right-eye itch. He was found to have a live tick firmly attached to his right temporal conjunctiva. The tick was identified as the larval stage of the paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. The tick was removed completely by conjunctival excision. Although various methods of removing a tick have been described in the literature, the goal of treatment is the safe and complete removal of the tick to prevent further transmission of pathogens, allergens, and toxins to the patient. PMID:25969685

  18. Studies abound on how far north Ixodes scapularis ticks are transported by birds.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D

    2016-03-01

    Several studies report migratory songbirds transporting ticks northward during spring migration in Canada. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, has been documented on Neotropical songbirds as far as Slave Lake, Alberta during northbound spring migration. In addition, Ixodes ticks have been collected from passerine migrants as far north as Watson Lake, Yukon (north of 60th latitude). The presence of Amblyomma ticks parasitizing long-distance migrants, which are moving from wintering grounds in the Neotropics to breeding grounds in Canada, confirms Neotropical songbirds transport ixodid ticks into Canada. Our avian, tick-host studies document 22 species of ticks on wild birds in Canada, and the majority of these species are not indigenous in Canada. Some of these songbird-transported ticks originate from as far south as Brazil. Clearly, passerine migrants transport ticks long distances into Canada during northward spring migration. The importation of ticks into Canada by migratory songbirds is no longer a "hypothesis," it is a fact. PMID:26739029

  19. New observations on philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) in marine fishes from the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the Indian River Lagoon of Florida (Usa), with first description of the male of Caranginema americanum.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2012-04-01

    The following 3 species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) were recorded from marine fishes off Florida: Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae); Philometra charlestonensis Moravec, de Buron, Baker and González-Solís, 2008 from the gonads (ovaries) of the scamp Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and Swain (Serranidae); and Philometra sp. (only subgravid females) from the gonads (ovaries) of the Atlantic needlefish Strongylura marina (Walbaum) (Belonidae). The male of C. americanum , the type species of Caranginema Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza, and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 , is described for the first time. Its general morphology is similar to that of males of Philometra and Philometroides species. The males of C. americanum are mainly characterized by an elongate body, 3.13-3.28 mm long, a markedly elongate esophagus, and spicules and a gubernaculum 69-75 µm and 48-51 µm long, respectively. The present findings of C. americanum and P. charlestonensis represent new geographical records. The gonad-infecting Philometra sp. from S. marina probably belongs to an undescribed species. PMID:22017549

  20. First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joris A; Reimerink, Johan H J; Voorn, G Paul; Bij de Vaate, Elisabeth A; de Vries, Ankje; Rockx, Barry; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hira, Vishal

    2016-08-18

    In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID:27562931

  1. Artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks with anti calreticulin serum do not influence tick and Babesia bigemina acquisition.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sandra; Merino, Octávio; Lérias, Joana; Domingues, Nuno; Mosqueda, Juan; de la Fuente, José; Domingos, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites considered the principal vectors of disease among animals. Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus ticks are the most important vectors for Babesia bigemina and B. bovis, two of the most important intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites species in cattle, responsible for babesiosis which together with anaplasmosis account for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Anti-tick vaccines are a proved alternative to traditional tick and tick borne diseases control methods but are still limited primarily due to the lack of effective antigens. Subsequently to the identification of antigens the validation is a laborious work often expensive. Tick artificial feeding, is a low cost alternative to test antigens allowing achieving critical data. Herein, R. microplus females were successfully artificially fed using capillary tubes. Calreticulin (CRT) protein, which in a previous study has been identified as being involved in B. bigemina infection in R. annulatus ticks, was expressed as recombinant protein (rCRT) in an E. coli expression system and antibodies raised against rCRT. Anti-rCRT serum was supplemented to a blood meal, offered to partially engorged R. microplus females and their effect in feeding process as well as infection by B. bigemina was analyzed. No significant reductions in tick and egg weight were observed when ticks fed with anti-rCRT serum. Furthermore, B. bigemina infection levels did not show a statistically significant decrease when ticks fed with anti-rCRT antibodies. Results suggest that CRT is not a suitable candidate for cattle vaccination trials. PMID:25262467

  2. [Tick borne encephalitis and enviromental changes].

    PubMed

    Zajkowska, Joanna; Malzahn, Elzbieta; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Pancewicz, Sławomir S; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Czupryna, Piotr; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Currently observed markedly increased incidence of various tick borne diseases in many parts of Europe is due to documented climatic changes as well anthropogenic influence on habitat structure. One of the analyzed factors is tendency to increase of the spring temperatures, especially in the third decade of the April. Such conditions (spring temperatures above 7-10 degrees C) let the nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus to feed simultaneously on rodents. This increases the risk of infection of Ixodes ricinus with TBE virus, so dangerous for humans. PMID:16909800

  3. TN State Profile. Tennessee: Gateway Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Tennessee's Gateway Examinations. The purpose of the test is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Encourage districts and schools to identify and serve students at risk of academic failure;…

  4. Teenage Drinking in Rural Middle Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which alcoholic beverages are consumed by high school teenagers (N=622) in rural communities of middle Tennessee. Results showed that about 63 percent of the subjects do drink alcoholic beverages, and that most of the drinking is done in the company of friends. (LLL)

  5. Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2002-01-01

    Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

  6. 40 CFR 81.428 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.428 Section 81.428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF...-FS 1 Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 514,758 acres overall, of which 273,551 acres are in...

  7. 40 CFR 81.428 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.428 Section 81.428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF...-FS 1 Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 514,758 acres overall, of which 273,551 acres are in...

  8. 40 CFR 81.428 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.428 Section 81.428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF...-FS 1 Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 514,758 acres overall, of which 273,551 acres are in...

  9. 40 CFR 81.428 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tennessee. 81.428 Section 81.428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF...-FS 1 Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 514,758 acres overall, of which 273,551 acres are in...

  10. 78 FR 12806 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00074

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00074 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: 11/14/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  11. International Trade: Tennessee's Window on the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Miriam; And Others

    The activities and discussion questions in this unit can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach students about world trade and its role in their personal lives. Although designed for Tennessee classrooms, the unit can be easily adapted for use elsewhere. Many of the activities are self-contained. However, some require the use of…

  12. Effective Teacher Retention Bonuses: Evidence From Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Swain, Walker A.; Rodriguez, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    We report findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of the recently implemented US$5,000 retention bonus program for effective teachers in Tennessee's Priority Schools. We estimate the impact of the program on teacher retention using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design by exploiting a discontinuity in the probability of treatment…

  13. Professional Development Policy for Tennessee's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, Nashville.

    Professional development is an essential part of effective organizations, challenging policymakers and educators to create conditions conducive to student and teacher learning in each school. Tennessee's State Board of Education adopted a policy, consistent with the Education Improvement Act, pertaining to professional development which provides a…

  14. Curriculum Outline for Tennessee Transition Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, B. J.

    This curriculum outline for the Sevier County, Tennessee, transition program for special needs students provides goals and objectives for the following domains: domestic, vocational, community functioning, and recreation/leisure. The domestic domain covers personal hygiene/grooming, first aid, home nursing, birth control/pregnancy, parenting, drug…

  15. Followup Studies at Tennessee Technological University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Jerry B.

    An explanation is presented of the efforts performed by the Tennessee Technological University in conducting follow-up studies of its teacher education program graduates. A history of follow-up studies dating from 1964 is given, and a list is provided of special studies undertaken to assist in program development and redesign and to meet the…

  16. Education and Manpower in Tennessee Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James E.

    All of the libraries in Tennessee were surveyed in an effort to determine both the manpower needs and the classification of all library personnel on the basis of the newly-adopted categories in the American Library Association (ALA) policy on library education and manpower. The purpose of the study was to reveal information pertinent to library…

  17. Florida and Tennessee: Accountability in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delander, Brady

    2014-01-01

    While most states require testing in social studies or civic education, two states attach consequences for students and schools based on required statewide civics exams. Lawmakers in Florida, in 2010, and in Tennessee, in 2012, approved legislation that holds students accountable for their civics knowledge. Students are taking the tests for the…

  18. Co-composting serves Tennessee county

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article describes how Sevier County, Tennessee cut its municipal waste stream by nearly 75 percent, far exceeding the current state waste diversion mandate of 25 percent. In the completely enclosed system, municipal waste is combined with sewage and septic sludge under conditions perfect to support rapid microbial activity. The result is humus, the organic component of soil.

  19. 40 CFR 81.343 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.343, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.343 Tennessee... of Hamilton County within approximately the city limits of Chattanooga X Rest of Hamilton County...

  20. 40 CFR 81.343 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.343, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.343 Tennessee... of Hamilton County within approximately the city limits of Chattanooga X Rest of Hamilton County...

  1. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  2. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  3. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  4. 76 FR 28840 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12572 and 12573 Tennessee Disaster TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...-line, Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 04/19/2011 and continuing. Effective Date:...

  5. 77 FR 17560 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00063 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...-DR), dated 03/16/2012. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and...

  6. 76 FR 27137 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY...-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and...

  7. 75 FR 26815 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and...

  8. 76 FR 29286 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/04/2011. Effective Date: 05/09/2011. Physical Loan...

  9. Tennessee Higher Education County Profiles, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a localized perspective on Tennessee higher education for the year 2009, including: (1) county demographic and economic data; (2) information on public and private colleges and universities located in the county; and (4) number of county residents participating in the state's primary need-based and merit-based financial aid…

  10. Flying ticks: anciently evolved associations that constitute a risk of infectious disease spread.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Brey, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases affecting human and animal health worldwide. Ticks are often found on wild birds, which have been long recognized as a potential risk factor for dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP), thus raising societal concerns and prompting research into their biology and ecology. To fully understand the role of birds in disseminating some ticks species and TBP, it is important to consider the evolutionary relationships between birds, ticks and transmitted pathogens. In this paper we reviewed the possible role of birds in the dissemination of TBP as a result of the evolution of host-tick-pathogen associations. Birds are central elements in the ecological networks of ticks, hosts and TBP. The study of host-tick-pathogen associations reveals a prominent role for birds in the dissemination of Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, with little contribution to the possible dissemination of other TBP. Birds have played a major role during tick evolution, which explains why they are by far the most important hosts supporting the ecological networks of ticks and several TBP. The immune response of birds to ticks and TBP has been largely overlooked. To implement effective measures for the control of tick-borne diseases, it is necessary to study bird-tick and bird-pathogen molecular interactions including the immune response of birds to tick infestation and pathogen infection. PMID:26467109

  11. Adaptation of ticks to a blood-feeding environment: evolution from a functional perspective.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; Neitz, Albert W H

    2004-01-01

    Ticks had to adapt to an existing and complex vertebrate hemostatic system from being free-living scavengers. A large array of anti-hemostatic mechanisms evolved during this process and includes blood coagulation as well as platelet aggregation inhibitors. Several questions regarding tick evolution exist. What was the nature of the ancestral tick? When did ticks evolve blood-feeding capabilities? How did these capabilities evolve? Did host specificity influence the adaptation of ticks to a blood-feeding environment? What are the implications of tick evolution for future research into tick biology and vaccine development? We investigate these questions in the light of recent research into protein superfamilies from tick saliva. Our conclusions are that the main tick families adapted independently to a blood-feeding environment. This is supported by major differences observed in all processes involved with blood-feeding for hard and soft ticks. Gene duplication events played a major role in the evolution of novel protein functions involved in tick-host interactions. This occurred during the late Cretaceous and was stimulated by the radiation of birds and placental mammals, which provided numerous new niches for ticks to adapt to a new lifestyle. Independent adaptation of the main tick families to a blood-feeding environment has several implications for future tick research in terms of tick genome projects and vaccine development. PMID:14723893

  12. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD) play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle. PMID:24364032

  13. Experimental Transmission of Karshi (Mammalian Tick-Borne Flavivirus Group) Virus by Ornithodoros Ticks >2,900 Days after Initial Virus Exposure Supports the Role of Soft Ticks as a Long-Term Maintenance Mechanism for Certain Flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group, including tick-borne encephalitis virus, are responsible for at least 10,000 clinical cases of tick-borne encephalitis each year. To attempt to explain the long-term maintenance of members of this group, we followed Ornithodoros parkeri, O. sonrai, and O. tartakovskyi for >2,900 days after they had been exposed to Karshi virus, a member of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group. Methodology/Principal Findings Ticks were exposed to Karshi virus either by allowing them to feed on viremic suckling mice or by intracoelomic inoculation. The ticks were then allowed to feed individually on suckling mice after various periods of extrinsic incubation to determine their ability to transmit virus by bite and to determine how long the ticks would remain infectious. The ticks remained efficient vectors of Karshi virus, even when tested >2,900 d after their initial exposure to virus, including those ticks exposed to Karshi virus either orally or by inoculation. Conclusions/Significance Ornithodoros spp. ticks were able to transmit Karshi virus for >2,900 days (nearly 8 years) after a single exposure to a viremic mouse. Therefore, these ticks may serve as a long-term maintenance mechanism for Karshi virus and potentially other members of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group. PMID:26285211

  14. An Immunosuppressant Peptide from the Hard Tick Amblyomma variegatum.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yufeng; Chen, Wenlin; Mo, Guoxiang; Chen, Ran; Fang, Mingqian; Yedid, Gabriel; Yan, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1-2 weeks to obtain blood meals. Thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts' immune system. In the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of HLHMHGNGATQVFKPRLVLKCPNAAQLIQPGKLQRQLLLQ. A cDNA of the precursor peptide was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, USA). In rat splenocytes, amregulin exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors in vitro, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In rat splenocytes, treated with amregulin, compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone, the inhibition of the above inflammatory factors was significant at all tested concentrations (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL). Amregulin shows strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) in vitro. Amregulin also significantly inhibits adjuvant-induced paw inflammation in mouse models in vivo. This peptide may facilitate the ticks' successful blood feeding and may lead to host immunotolerance of the tick. These findings have important implications for the understanding of tick-host interactions and the co-evolution between ticks and the viruses that they bear. PMID:27153086

  15. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well. PMID:24861806

  16. High risk of tick bites in Dutch gardens.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Sara; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Gassner, Fedor; Takken, Willem

    2013-12-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Because the disease has large socioeconomic consequences, there is an urgent need to further educate the public to stimulate preventive behavior. Unfortunately, risk factors for tick bites are poorly known. In this study, we determined the habitats and activities at risk for tick bites for people of different age categories using reports of Dutch citizens. Most people, 43%, were bitten in the forest, and an unexpected large number of people reported tick bites from their gardens (31%). Hiking, hobby gardening, and playing were the most-mentioned activities during which tick bites were received; people aged from 50 to 69 and children below 10 were bitten most. Different age categories were bitten in different habitats and during different activities. People aged from 0 to 60 reported most tick bites related to visiting a forest and hiking, whereas people older than 60 were mainly bitten in gardens. The percentage of garden and hobby gardening tick bites increased with age, but was also high for children less than 10 years of age. We suggest that these findings should be taken into account for the development of prevention strategies aiming to decrease the number of Lyme borreliosis cases. PMID:24107214

  17. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics.

    PubMed

    Chmelar, Jindrich; Calvo, Eric; Pedra, Joao H F; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2012-07-16

    Ticks are mostly obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites that have an impact on human and animal health. In addition to direct damage due to feeding, some tick species serve as the vectors for the causative agents of several diseases, such as the spirochetes of the genus Borrelia causing Lyme disease, the virus of tick-borne encephalitis, various Rickettsial pathogens or even protozoan parasites like Babesia spp. Hard ticks are unique among bloodfeeders because of their prolonged feeding period that may last up to two weeks. During such a long period of blood uptake, the host develops a wide range of mechanisms to prevent blood loss. The arthropod ectoparasite, in turn, secretes saliva in the sites of bite that assists blood feeding. Indeed, tick saliva represents a rich source of proteins with potent pharmacologic action that target different mechanisms of coagulation, platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Tick adaptation to their vertebrate hosts led to the inclusion of a powerful protein armamentarium in their salivary secretion that has been investigated by high-throughput methods. The resulting knowledge can be exploited for the isolation of novel antihemostatic agents. Here we review the tick salivary antihemostatics and their characterized functions at the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:22564820

  18. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics

    PubMed Central

    Chmelar, Jindrich; Calvo, Eric; Pedra, Joao H.F.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are mostly obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites that have an impact on human and animal health. In addition to direct damage due to feeding, some tick species serve as the vectors for the causative agents of several diseases, such as the spirochetes of the genus Borrelia causing Lyme disease, the virus of tick-borne encephalitis, various Rickettsial pathogens or even protozoan parasites like Babesia spp. Hard ticks are unique among bloodfeeders because of their prolonged feeding period that may last up to two weeks. During such a long period of blood uptake, the host develops a wide range of mechanisms to prevent blood loss. The arthropod ectoparasite, in turn, secretes saliva in the sites of bite that assists blood feeding. Indeed, tick saliva represents a rich source of proteins with potent pharmacologic action that target different mechanisms of coagulation, platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Tick adaptation to their vertebrate hosts led to the inclusion of a powerful protein armamentarium in their salivary secretion that has been investigated by high throughput methods. The resulting knowledge can be exploited for the isolation of novel antihemostatic agents. Here we review the tick salivary antihemostatics and their characterized functions at the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:22564820

  19. Candidatus Rickettsia hoogstraalii in Ethiopian Argas persicus ticks.

    PubMed

    Pader, Vera; Nikitorowicz Buniak, Joanna; Abdissa, Alemseged; Adamu, Haileeysus; Tolosa, Tadele; Gashaw, Abebaw; Cutler, Ronald R; Cutler, Sally J

    2012-12-01

    Ethiopian soft ticks Argas persicus, hard ticks including both Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., and fleas were collected from livestock, traditional human dwellings, and cracks and crevices of trees. They were assessed in pools for the presence of Rickettsia using PCR-based methods. The extracted tick DNA was subjected to molecular screening for Rickettsia, which revealed 50.5% of the pooled samples to be positive for Rickettsia spp. These were then subjected to multi-gene analysis using both outer surface proteins and housekeeping genes with proven discriminatory potential. Sequencing of the citrate synthase and outer membrane genes clearly led to the identification of three distinct rickettsial species, Candidatus Rickettsia hoogstraalii in Argas persicus ticks; R. africae in hard tick pools, and R. felis in fleas. Furthermore, we demonstrated the presence of the plasmid-borne small heat-shock protein gene hsp2 in DNA from A. persicus ticks suggesting that Candidatus R. hoogstraalii carried by these ticks possess a plasmid. Unlike chromosomal gene sequences, the hsp2 gene failed to cluster with Candidatus R. hoogstraalii, instead falling into an isolated separate clade, suggesting a different origin for the plasmid. PMID:23140898

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi visualized in Ixodes scapularis tick excrement by immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Brandt, Kevin S; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-11-01

    The enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, involves Ixodes spp. ticks and vertebrates. Resident tick Borrelia, harbored inside the midgut, are eventually expelled with the tick's saliva into the vertebrate host when a tick consumes a blood meal. During this 4- to 5-day feeding period I. scapularis will defecate onto the host's skin. Previously we detected borrelial DNA in tick feces throughout engorgement. In this study we report the microscopic examination for B. burgdorferi in nymphal excrement. Using immunofluorescence assays, we observed Borrelia in all mouse skin and capsule fecal swabs tested, although we could not culture the spirochetes. These results update our previous analysis by revealing that spirochetes can also be visualized in tick excrement. Furthermore, the results emphasize that borrelial contamination by defecation is a possibility, and that caution should be exercised by researchers investigating pathogen/host/vector interactions. The biological significance of the presence of non-culturable Borrelia in tick feces during engorgement is unclear. PMID:22651382

  1. Exploring the mialome of ticks: an annotated catalogue of midgut transcripts from the hard tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jennifer M; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks are obligate blood feeders. The midgut is the first major region of the body where blood and microbes ingested with the blood meal come in contact with the tick's internal tissues. Little is known about protein expression in the digestive tract of ticks. In this study, for analysis of global gene expression during tick attachment and feeding, we generated and sequenced 1,679 random transcripts (ESTs) from cDNA libraries from the midguts of female ticks at varying stages of feeding. Results Sequence analysis of the 1,679 ESTs resulted in the identification of 835 distinct transcripts, from these, a total of 82 transcripts were identified as proteins putatively directly involved in blood meal digestion, including enzymes involved in oxidative stress reduction/antimicrobial activity/detoxification, peptidase inhibitors, protein digestion (cysteine-, aspartic-, serine-, and metallo-peptidases), cell, protein and lipid binding including mucins and iron/heme metabolism and transport. A lectin-like protein with a high match to lectins in other tick species, allergen-like proteins and surface antigens important in pathogen recognition and/or antimicrobial activity were also found. Furthermore, midguts collected from the 6-day-fed ticks expressed twice as many transcripts involved in bloodmeal processing as midguts from unfed/2-day-fed ticks. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides an opportunity to examine the global expression of transcripts in the tick midgut and to compare the gut response to host attachment versus blood feeding and digestion. In contrast to those in salivary glands of other Ixodid ticks, most proteins in the D. variabilis midgut cDNA library were intracellular. Of the total ESTs associated with a function, an unusually large number of transcripts were associated with peptidases, cell, lipid and protein binding, and oxidative stress or detoxification. Presumably, this is consistent with their role in

  2. Borrelia hermsii Acquisition Order in Superinfected Ticks Determines Transmission Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2013-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing of Borrelia hermsii isolates reveals its divergence into two major genomic groups (GG), but no differences in transmission efficiency or host pathogenicity are associated with these genotypes. To compare GGI and GGII in the tick-host infection cycle, we first determined if spirochetes from the two groups could superinfect the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. We infected mice with isolates from each group and fed ticks sequentially on these mice. We then fed the infected ticks on naive mice and measured GGI and GGII spirochete densities in vector and host, using quantitative PCR of genotype-specific chromosomal DNA sequences. Sequential feedings resulted in dual tick infections, showing that GGI or GGII primary acquisition did not block superinfection by a secondary agent. On transmission to naive mice at short intervals after acquisition, ticks with primary GGI and secondary GGII spirochete infections caused mixed GGI and GGII infections in mice. However, ticks with primary GGII and secondary GGI spirochete infections caused only GGII infections with all isolate pairs examined. At longer intervals after acquisition, the exclusion of GGI by GGII spirochetes declined and cotransmission predominated. We then examined GGI and GGII spirochetemia in mice following single inoculation and coinoculation by needle and found that GGI spirochete densities were reduced on multiple days when coinoculated with GGII. These findings indicate that dual GGI-GGII spirochete infections can persist in ticks and that transmission to a vertebrate host is dependent on the order of tick acquisition and the interval between acquisition and transmission events. PMID:23716615

  3. Molecular Characterization of Tick Salivary Gland Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C.; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood-feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc-binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the blood-meal of adult female ticks prior to fast feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with blood meal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC-transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  4. Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Borreliosis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2%) of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6%) of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. Conclusions/Significance Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco. PMID:23029574

  5. Effect of prescribed fire for tick control in California chaparral.

    PubMed

    Padgett, K A; Casher, L E; Stephens, S L; Lane, R S

    2009-09-01

    Prescribed fire was investigated as a method for controlling ixodid and argasid ticks in chaparral habitats in northern California. Two experimental and two adjacent control plots within a wildlife preserve were monitored for 1 yr postburn. Ticks were collected by flagging vegetation, by CO2-baited pitfall trap, and by live-trapping rodents. Twice as many rodents were caught at control sites compared with burn sites and no dusky-footed woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes Baird, were found in the treatment sites postburn. This species is known to be a reservoir of the agents of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa, Rurangirwa. Six ixodid tick species were removed from rodents (Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, Ixodes jellisoni Cooley & Kohls, Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall, Ixodes woodi Bishopp, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, and Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann), two of which transmit bacterial zoonotic agents to people in the far-western United States. There was no decrease in number of ticks per animal trapped at either burn site compared with controls; in fact, the mean number of immature I. pacificus per rodent was significantly higher at one burn site than its control site. Soil refugia may protect ticks from fire-induced mortality; the argasid tick Ornithodoros coriaceus Koch, which lives in soil, was unaffected by the prescribed fire as were I. pacificus and D. occidentalis buried in packets 2.5 cm below ground. We conclude that although prescribed fires in chaparral habitats may diminish local rodent abundance, it does not decrease tick loads on rodents. Furthermore, burning chaparral does not result in a decreased abundance of adult ixodid ticks on vegetation and apparently does not affect argasid or ixodid ticks that are sheltered within soil refugia. PMID:19769046

  6. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived

  7. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  8. Vasoconstriction induced by salivary gland extracts from ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Pekáriková, Danica; Rajská, Petra; Kazimírová, Mária; Pecháňová, Olga; Takáč, Peter; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    In their quest for blood, most haematophagous parasites secrete vasodilators in their saliva to counter the host haemostatic response of vasoconstriction. Surprisingly, salivary gland extracts from adult female Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks induced constriction in a rat femoral artery model; males induced vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on the time of feeding. Based on comparative HPLC fractionation, the active compounds inducing vasoconstriction do not appear to be prostaglandins (which ticks normally use as vasodilators). Vasoconstriction may be unique to ixodid ticks, helping them control blood flow during their prolonged blood-feeding of up to 10 days or more. PMID:26432295

  9. Phthriasis palpebrarum can resemble tick larva infestation in an eyelid.

    PubMed

    Dağdelen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay

    2013-08-01

    The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722

  10. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given. PMID:19265581

  11. Ixodes ticks: serum species sensitivity of anticomplement activity.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, C H; Randolph, S E; Nuttall, P A

    1999-12-01

    Ixodid ticks feed for extended periods of up to 2 weeks or more. To complete engorgement, they must overcome their host's innate immune mechanisms of which the complement system is a major component. Using in vitro assays, salivary gland extracts of the ixodid ticks, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus, and I. uriae, were shown to inhibit activity of the alternative pathway of complement. The ability of the different Ixodes species to inhibit complement activity varied with the animal species used as a complement serum source. Serum species sensitivity correlates to the reported host range of the tick species tested. PMID:10600446

  12. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  13. Burden of tick-borne infections on American companion animals

    PubMed Central

    Berrada, Zenda L.; Telford, Sam R.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines the dynamics of tick biology and tick-borne infections in the United States. Clinical tick-borne diseases in dogs and cats are discussed. We demonstrate that there is much interest in tickborne infections at the level of the lay public (pet owners), describe trends in the distribution and prevalence of tickborne infections in the U.S., summarize some issues in understanding the degree of ill health due to tickborne infections, and suggest some avenues for research that would clarify these issues. PMID:19945085

  14. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species☆

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  15. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2013-12-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  16. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  17. Ticks and tick-borne novel bunyavirus collected from the natural environment and domestic animals in Jinan city, East China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Yongming; Yang, Guoliang; Liu, Huiyuan; Xin, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Since 2011, 73 cases of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, a novel tick-borne disease, have been reported in Jinan city through information system for disease control and prevention. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the species, distribution, host animals of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. A total of 722 ticks were collected from two types of natural environment and six kinds of domestic animal in Jinan city. All the sampled ticks belonged to the same species, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis, and 94.7% of them were adult. The density of free-living ticks in grassland was nearly six times that in shrub. The prevalence of the goat (53.3%) was highest among the domestic animals. The host body region most frequently parasitized by H. longicornis was the head (77.8%), especially ears and periocular region. Novel bunyavirus was detected on the free-ranging goats in Jinan city. Acaricide treatment with a higher concentration on the ears, periocular region and the groin of domestic animals should be recommended to control the ticks effectively. PMID:26589806

  18. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Pérez de la Lastra, José Manuel; Kocan, Katherine M; Willadsen, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in Australia, Cuba, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Commercial tick vaccines for cattle based on the Boophilus microplus Bm86 gut antigen have proven to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of acaricides. Commercial tick vaccines reduced tick infestations on cattle and the intensity of acaricide usage, as well as increasing animal production and reducing transmission of some tick-borne pathogens. Although commercialization of tick vaccines has been difficult owing to previous constraints of antigen discovery, the expense of testing vaccines in cattle, and company restructuring, the success of these vaccines over the past decade has clearly demonstrated their potential as an improved method of tick control for cattle. Development of improved vaccines in the future will be greatly enhanced by new and efficient molecular technologies for antigen discovery and the urgent need for a tick control method to reduce or replace the use of acaricides, especially in regions where extensive tick resistance has occurred. PMID:17692140

  19. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  20. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, N; Berggoetz, M; Rühle, C; Pretorius, A M; Gern, L

    2009-04-01

    Eight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the Free State Province, South Africa. Four of the study areas were nature reserves (Willem Pretorius, Sandveld, Tussen-die-Riviere, and Soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in Senekal district. The collection was performed from March 2006 until June 2006. Ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, reverse line blot, and sequencing for various tick-borne pathogens belonging to the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the known vector of Babesia bovis responsible for Asiatic redwater in South Africa, was found for the first time in the Free State Province. Rhipicephalus warburtoni [corrected] also was collected in areas in the Free State where it has not been previously described. Anaplasma marginale was detected for the first time in a gemsbok (Oryx gazella gazella). Gene sequences recovered in this study were 98-100% homologous with GenBank sequences for Anaplasma bovis, Theileria separata, and Theileria sp. Malelane sable antelope. PMID:19395753