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Sample records for americas energy environment

  1. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  2. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-08-12

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  5. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-07-31

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  6. America's Children and the Environment, Third Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    America's Children and the Environment is the U.S. EPA's report of children's environmental health indicators. Two editions of the report have been published, in 2000 and 2003, and a website is maintained with updated values for the indicators. The new Third Edition of America'...

  7. America's Children and the Environment

    MedlinePlus

    ... drinking water contaminants, chemicals in food, land contaminants, climate change) . View the Environments and Contaminants Indicators Biomonitoring ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land ...

  8. Projecting America's Energy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses elements to be considered in planning for the future of American energy policy: new ways of applying energy, availability, sources, population growth, effects on agriculture, synthetic fuel, possibility of new technology, government involvement, worldwide events (political and natural), and capital investment. (CT)

  9. Energy market integration in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-08-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change.

  10. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With...

  11. America's energy famine: its cause and cure

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this book Ruth Sheldon Knowles, an internationally recognized petroleum specialist, clarifies the domestic and foreign issues which underlie the current oil famine and spells out the hard choices the American public faces on energy priorities in the near future. She explains how we came to be so dependent on foreign, including Arab, oil and discusses the corporate, national, and international policies that lie behind our current energy crisis. Although the decisions are not simple, Ms. Knowles firmly believes that self-sufficiency is not a dim hope but a clear possibility, as alternate sources of energy are developed and discovered. But she makes equally clear that, until the end of this century, the economy of the US requires an adequate supply of oil and gas and that such a supply cannot be achieved unless further oil discovery is encouraged. Geologists estimate that, with present technology, as much oil and gas remains to be discovered in the US both on- and offshore, as has been found in the last hundred years. Its discovery depends upon economic incentive and access to these resources, since half of our energy potential lies under federal and state lands. The immediate development of coal reserves, nuclear technology, and synthetic fuels involves controversial public policy. This book details the way new technology can reconcile essential energy resource development with the maintenance and improvement of the quality of our environment. It examines the roles of conservation and of solar energy, the timetable for America's energy self-sufficiency, and the politics and economics of today's energy problems.

  12. Energy for America's Third Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Six articles concerned with energy use, energy research and sources of energy are included in this issue. Articles are titled (1) Energy Systems; (2) Energy-Related Research; (3) Solar Energy; (4) Geothermal Energy; (5) Coal; and (6) Utilization of Energy. (RH)

  13. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  14. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  15. Energy-Environment Opinionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This questionnaire is designed to assess the opinions of students and teachers of educational institutions and citizens about energy and the environment. It is composed of 85 energy and environment oriented statements about which the examinee gives an opinion. Choices provided on the answer sheet given are strongly agree, mildly agree, not sure or…

  16. Energy Efficient America Act of 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A draft of the Energy Efficient America Act of 1984 was prepared by the Energy Conservation Coalition as a way to promote energy conservation and eliminate waste. The Act is divided into four titles dealing with low-income weatherization, a solar and conservation bank, applicance efficiency, and automobile fuel economy. The sponsors of this initiative describe specific provisions, the background, and the program they would include under the Act. The report includes a form for comment and an opportunity to contribute financial support to the effort.

  17. Thermodynamic Environments Supporting Extreme Convection in Subtropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Trier, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. In recent years, studies on the nature of convection in subtropical South America using spaceborne radar data have elucidated key processes responsible for their extreme characteristics, including a strong relationship between the Andes topography and convective initiation. Building on previous work, an investigation of the thermodynamic environment supporting some of the deepest convection in the world will be presented. In particular, an analysis of the thermodynamic destabilization in subtropical South America, which considers the parcel buoyancy minimum for conditionally unstable air parcels, will be presented. Additional comparisons between the nocturnal nature and related diurnal cycle of MCSs in subtropical South America the U.S. Great Plains will provide insights into the processes controlling MCS initiation and upscale growth.

  18. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  19. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, G. M.; Haynes, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    Provides the description and evaluation of a college-level undergraduate course dealing with energy and the environment. The intent of the course is to survey the social, political, economic, and moral considerations of the topic. The use of guest speakers is strongly advocated. (Author/CP)

  1. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment Building America Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies.

  2. 78 FR 8682 - Americas Energy Company-AECo; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Americas Energy Company--AECo; Order of Suspension of Trading February 4, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Americas Energy Company-AECo (``Americas'') because Americas has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30, 2011. Americas is a Nevada corporation based in...

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: ENERGY STAR for Homes Support

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America’s technical support to ENERGY STAR for Homes, which has labeled more than 1.3 million ENERGY STAR homes that have delivered $23 billion in energy cost savings and avoided 210 million tons of green-house emissions.

  4. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  5. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  6. Financing Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Rebuild America Guides Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelinski, Richard W.; Gatlin, Douglas R.

    The Rebuild America Program, a network of community partnerships of local businesses and governments organized to save money by saving energy through improvements in building energy efficiencies, provides technical and business manuals designed to meet the real-life needs of these partnerships. This document, written for organizations considering…

  7. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  8. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  9. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  10. Energy Independence for North America - Transition to the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J.

    2003-08-24

    The U.S. transportation sector is almost totally dependent on liquid hydrocarbon fuels, primarily gasoline and diesel fuel from conventional oil. In 2002, the transportation sector accounted for 69 percent of the U.S. oil use; highway vehicles accounted for 54 percent of the U.S. oil use. Of the total energy consumed in the U.S., more than 40 percent came from oil. More significantly, more than half of this oil is imported and is projected by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) to increase to 68 percent by 2025 [1]. The supply and price of oil have been dictated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 2002, OPEC accounted for 39 percent of world oil production and this is projected by the EIA to increase to 50 percent in 2025. Of the world's oil reserves, about 80 percent is owned by OPEC members. Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets four times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-1991, and 1999- 2000) and with each came either a recession or slowdown in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the United States. In addition, these market upheavals have cost the U.S. approximately $7 trillion (in 1998 dollars) in total economic costs [2]. Finally, it is estimated that military expenditures for defending oil supplies in the Middle East range from $6 billion to $60 billion per year [3] and do not take into account the costs of recent military operations in Iraq (i.e., Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003). At the outset of his administration in 2001, President George W. Bush established the National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group to develop a national energy policy to promote dependable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for the future in order to avert potential energy crises. In the National Energy Policy report [4], the NEPD Group urges action by the President to meet five specific national goals that America must meet--''modernize conservation, modernize our energy infrastructure, increase energy

  11. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  12. The Economics of America's Energy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Henry

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) pamphlet which reviews economic and technical considerations for the future development of energy sources. Included are sections on petroleum, synthetic fuels, oil shale, nuclear power, geothermal power, and solar energy. Also presented are data pertaining to U.S. energy production…

  13. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  14. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures. PMID:17613739

  15. Energy, vulnerability, and war: alternatives for America

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.; Page, J.

    1981-01-01

    With an analysis of energy problems in relation to defense-related problems, this book presents a blueprint for an orderly restructuring of energy and resource programs needed to make the nation safe in an increasingly perilous era. Based on a report commissioned by the Defense Department, it explains how moving to a decentralized energy base will lessen our inflationary and dangerous dependence on unreliable countries, but will also provide a new approach to civil defense. The technology already exists, and the economic incentives beckon. This book evaluates and details the national and local policies required to put them to work. 120 references, 19 figures.

  16. Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

  17. America's Energy Crisis: Reality or Hysteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Bernard I.

    1971-01-01

    The American energy crisis is real in that our supplies of fuel which can meet standards imposed on utility emissions are short, and their price is high. It is artificial in that many of the standards could be partially relaxed, and cheaper fuel used by utilities without significant public insult. ...Nuclear power from fission is our best bet."…

  18. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  19. Economics and the Environment - EcoDetectives. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Morton, John S.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    This book helps middle school and high school students address environmental issues in an intelligent and productive manner. The lessons introduce economic reasoning and show students how to apply it to environmental problems. The 18 lessons are divided into four units addressing: the environment and the economy; incentives; use of market forces…

  20. Resettling America: energy, ecology and community

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Practical, people-oriented solutions to complex community problems of food, energy, and shelter are presented in the context of soft-path concepts. Stressing interdependencies rather than self-sufficiency, the 22 articles present ideas on how people can live harmoniously with nature and with each other. The emphasis is on the possibilities for positive social change demonstrated by successful strategies already used by several communities. The theoretical articles describe the politics of scarcity, urban decentralization, neighborhood revitalization, and other problems of planning for basic necessities by integrating the collective efforts of inhabitants with natural systems. 264 references, 135 figures, 20 tables.

  1. Energy and Minerals for America's Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on energy and minerals and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  2. 2008 Wind Energy Projects, Wind Powering America (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Wind Powering America program produces a poster at the end of every calendar year that depicts new U.S. wind energy projects. The 2008 poster includes the following projects: Stetson Wind Farm in Maine; Dutch Hill Wind Farm in New York; Grand Ridge Wind Energy Center in Illinois; Hooper Bay, Alaska; Forestburg, South Dakota; Elbow Creek Wind Project in Texas; Glacier Wind Farm in Montana; Wray, Colorado; Smoky Hills Wind Farm in Kansas; Forbes Park Wind Project in Massachusetts; Spanish Fork, Utah; Goodland Wind Farm in Indiana; and the Tatanka Wind Energy Project on the border of North Dakota and South Dakota.

  3. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Shell Energy North...

  4. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Shell Energy North...

  5. 77 FR 65543 - Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 16, 2012, Energy Corporation...

  6. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research supporting Thermal Bypass Air Barrier requirements. Since these were adopted in the 2009 IECC, close to one million homes have been mandated to include this vitally important energy efficiency measure.

  8. Proceedings of the Americas Nuclear Energy Symposium (ANES 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-03

    These are the proceedings of the Americas Nuclear Energy Symposium (ANES 2004) held October 3 through 6, 2004 in Miami Beach, Florida. Over 200 participants from the public, private, and academic research sectors, represented by 15 different countries, attended this conference. ANES 2004 consisted of 26 sessions highlighting advances in environmental sciences and alternative energies, the nuclear fuel cycle, information and knowledge transfer, power generation, research reactor operation and utilization, nuclear safety, and plant financing. ANES 2004 featured more than 100 papers and presentations on these topics as well as 15 international exhibitors.

  9. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  10. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  11. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ``clean coal utilization.`` For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. 77 FR 2954 - Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... into clean energy; and creating and saving jobs. In recognition of current budget conditions and as we... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program... Rural Energy for America Program implemented under the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008...

  13. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  14. America's Energy Future: Technology and Transformation-Summary Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Committee On America's Energy Future,

    2009-12-31

    The National Academy of Sciences' America's Energy Future study began in 2007. The security and sustainability of the nation's energy system have been perennial concerns since World War II. The concerns have focused on energy-supply, especially a growing dependence on imported petroleum, and the environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion--particularly direct effects of pollutant emissions on human health, greenhouse gasses and the carbon dioxide impact on climate change. The United States needs to lower its dependence on fragile supply chains for some energy sources, particularly petroleum at present and possibly natural gas in the future, to avoid the impacts of dependence on the nation's economy and national security. The nation must fundamentally transform the ways in which it produces, distributes, and consumes useful energy. The size and complexity of the U.S. energy system with its reach into all aspects of American life, necessitates a transformation of tremendous undertaking to protect the nation's energy transmission and distribution systems with fundamental changes both structural and behavioral among producers and consumers alike. The challenge is great and cannot be met overnight. A meaningful and timely transformation to a more sustainable and secure energy system will likely entail a generation or more of sustained efforts by both the public and private sectors. Additionally, it is clear that the country’s economic, security, and environmental goals as pertains to energy consumption and sustainability cannot be achieved without collective international action. U.S. prosperity and security is tied to global prosperity and security. U.S. environmental goals depend on environmental protection actions taken globally. The full realization of goals of the United States for transforming its energy sector requires effectively working with other nations, many facing similar challenges. The key to U.S. success in protecting, sustaining, and achieving

  15. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: EDF Trading North America,...

  16. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: EDF Trading North America,...

  17. Overcoming the challenges of conducting physical activity and built environment research in Latin America: IPEN Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Pratt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence linking the built environment (BE) with physical activity (PA), but few studies have been conducted in Latin America (LA). State-of-the-art methods and protocols have been designed in and applied in high-income countries (HIC). In this paper we identify key challenges and potential solutions to conducting high quality PA and BE research in LA. Methods The experience of implementing the IPEN data collection protocol (IPEN: International Physical Activity Environment Network) in Curitiba, Brazil; Bogotá, Colombia; and Cuernavaca, Mexico (2010-2011); is described to identify challenges for conducting PA and BE research in LA. Results Five challenges were identified: Lack of academic capacity (implemented solutions (IS): building a strong international collaborative network); limited data availability, access and quality (IS: partnering with influential local institutions, and crafting creative solutions to use the best-available data); socio-political, socio-cultural and socio-economic context (IS: in-person recruitment and data collection, alternative incentives); safety (IS: strict rules for data collection procedures, and specific measures to increase trust); appropriateness of instruments and measures (IS: survey adaptation, use of standardized additional survey components, and employing a context-based approach to understanding the relationship between PA and the BE). Advantages of conducting PA and BE research in LA were also identified. Conclusions Conducting high quality PA and BE research in LA is challenging but feasible. Networks of institutions and researchers from both HIC and LMIC play a key role. The lessons learnt from the IPEN LA study may be applicable to other LMIC. PMID:25456800

  18. Building America Solution Center Shows Builders How to Save Materials Costs While Saving Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-06-15

    This short article was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Update newsletter. The article identifies energy and cost-saving benefits of using advanced framing techniques in new construction identified by research teams working with the DOE's Building America program. The article also provides links to guides in the Building America Solution Center that give how-to instructions for builders who want to implement advanced framing construction. The newsletter is issued monthly and can be accessed at http://energy.gov/eere/buildings/building-america-update-newsletter

  19. Evaluation of water and energy budgets over Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan; Hoyos-Rincón, Isabel; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The study presents a dataset intercomparison of reanalyses, data from other authors, and one regional climate model applied over South America with special focus on the hydrological cycle and the surface energy budget. The model simulated the 41 years from 1960 to 2000 by using quasi-observed boundary conditions derived from ECMWF re-analysis (ERA). The intercomparison focuses on one large catchment covering an area of major research interest within Colombia. The variables used are monthly mean surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge. From the modelling perspective, the potential advantages of such comparative analyses are to provide information about model performance, enhance the understanding of hydrological behavior in a systematic dataset comparison framework, characterize consistencies and differences in datasets, and identify the requirements for catchment-scale hydrological models to reliably simulate future behavior.

  20. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  1. The 1992 conference on Latin America`s Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year`s Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America`s energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America`s need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important ``pull`` factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico`s plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  2. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Building homes that are zero energy-ready is a goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program and one embodied in Building America’s premier home certification program, the Challenge Home program. This case study describes several examples of successful zero energy-ready home projects completed by Building America teams and partner builders.

  3. Food, energy, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Pardue, S L

    2010-04-01

    During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. In many ways, a subtitle for the symposium could have been "Agriculture-Why What We Do Matters." It matters because of the fiscal and physical realities the planet will face in the coming decades relative to human population growth and the increasing demands to feed a hungry world. The challenges are daunting and the technologies to address them will require us to reevaluate the structure and policies we have established relative to agricultural research. In this case, change is all the more difficult because the traditional model of agricultural research has been so successful. One only needs to note the remarkable increases in productivity of the past half century of commodities such as corn and soybeans or feed efficiencies among broilers, laying hens, and turkeys to recognize the significant advancements that have been achieved. However, these historic gains have frequently required increased inputs, most notably fossil fuels. Food production in the future will likely be confronted with concerns involving energy, water, climate change, and the threat of agroterrorism. For example, we will need to develop crops that are more drought-resistant and more tolerant to a wider range of salinities as access to fresh water becomes more problematic. Animal agriculture will also need to adapt to diets composed of atypical feedstuffs. Whether future generations will inherit a world described by Paul Roberts in his books The End of Oil and The End of Food will be in part determined by the research model we adopt in the near term. PMID:20308413

  4. Environment assisted energy transfer in dimer system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Salman; Ibrahim, M.; Khan, M.K.

    2014-02-15

    The influence of collective and multilocal environments on the energy transfer between the levels of a dimer is studied. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated by considering coupling of collective environment with the levels of the dimer in the presence of both two individuals and mutually correlated multilocal environments. It is shown that every way of coupling we consider assists, though differently, the probability of transition between the levels of dimer. The probability of transition is strongly enhanced when the two local environments are mutually correlated. -- Highlights: • The dynamics of energy transfer between the levels of a dimer are studied. • Coupling of collective as well as individual environments are considered. • The environments are in spin star configurations. • The environment assists the energy transfer between the levels. • For correlated multilocal environments, the transition probability is almost 100%.

  5. Energy and the environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    Work on the `Energy and the Environment` project has been focused on completion of two interrelated efforts: (1) development, production, and installation of energy related exhibits in the Ecology and Environment gallery, and (2) creation and implementation of the `Energy Backpack` program. The Energy exhibits have been available to over 1.5 million visitors since the opening of the new St. Louis Science Center. The `Energy Backpack` program will be implemented with students, teachers, and family groups this fall.

  6. Annual review of energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    This book contains information on energy and the environment. Topics covered include: Resources and technologies; Policy; Risks and impacts; Behavioral aspects; Economics; International and regional issues; and Energy and use and conservation.

  7. Technology, energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Glenn Terry

    This dissertation consists of three distinct papers concerned with technology, energy and the environment. The first paper is an empirical analysis of production under uncertainty, using agricultural production data from the central United States. Unlike previous work, this analysis identifies the effect of actual realizations of weather as well as farmers' expectations about weather. The results indicate that both of these are significant factors explaining short run profits in agriculture. Expectations about weather, called climate, affect production choices, and actual weather affects realized output. These results provide better understanding of the effect of climate change in agriculture. The second paper examines how emissions taxes induce innovation that reduces pollution. A polluting firm chooses technical improvement to minimize cost over an infinite horizon, given an emission tax set by a planner. This leads to a solution path for technical change. Changes in the tax rate affect the path for innovation. Setting the tax at equal to the marginal damage (which is optimal in a static setting with no technical change) is not optimal in the presence of technical change. When abatement is also available as an alternative to technical change, changes in the tax can have mixed effects, due to substitution effects. The third paper extends the theoretical framework for exploring the diffusion of new technologies. Information about new technologies spreads through the economy by means of a network. The pattern of diffusion will depend on the structure of this network. Observed networks are the result of an evolutionary process. This paper identifies how these evolutionary outcomes compare with optimal solutions. The conditions guaranteeing convergence to an optimal outcome are quite stringent. It is useful to determine the set of initial population states that do converge to an optimal outcome. The distribution of costs and benefits among the agents within an

  8. Association between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults in Latin America: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activity friendly environments have been identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity levels in the population. Associations between perceived environmental attributes and physical activity in Latin America may vary from those observed in high income countries. The objective of this systematic review is to identify which perceived environmental attributes are associated with physical activity in Latin America. Methods Systematic literature search of articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in four databases was conducted (PubMed, Virtual Health Library, EBSCO, and Web of Science). Associations with environmental attributes were analyzed separately for physical activity domains. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. Results All studies had cross-sectional designs. The majority of associations were statistically non-significant, and only four associations were found in the unexpected direction. Leisure-time and transport-related physical activity were the domains most frequently included in the studies and had higher number of associations in the expected direction. Leisure-time physical activity showed a convincing association in the expected direction with safety during the day. Transport-related physical activity had a convincing association with presence of street lighting. Conclusions This study shows that perceived environmental attributes and their relationship with physical activity appears to be domain, and context specific. In addition, findings from this study show inconsistencies with the information gathered from high-income countries. PMID:24171897

  9. Smokefree environments in Latin America: on the road to real change?

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Schoj, Verónica; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries are experiencing an increasing burden of tobacco-related diseases. Smoke free policies are cost-effective interventions to control both exposure of nonsmokers to the toxic chemicals in secondhand tobacco smoke and to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its consequent morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has created momentum in Latin America to implement meaningful tobacco control policies. As of August 2007, Uruguay, two provinces and three cities in Argentina, and one state in Venezuela, had passed, regulated, and enforced 100% smokefree legislation. The tobacco industry, working through local subsidiaries, has been the strongest obstacle in achieving this goal and has prevented progress elsewhere in the region. During the 1990s, transnational tobacco companies Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco developed voluntary initiatives (“Courtesy of Choice” and “Environmental Tobacco Smoke Consultancy” programs) to prevent effective smokefree policies. Another important barrier in the region has often been a weak and fragmented local civil society. Opportunities in the region that should be taken into account are a high public support for smokefree environments and increasing capacity building available from international collaboration on tobacco control. Policymakers and tobacco control advocates should prioritize the implementation of smokefree policies in Latin America to protect nonsmokers, reduce smoking prevalence with its economic and disease burden in the region. PMID:19578527

  10. Smokefree environments in Latin America: on the road to real change?

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Schoj, Verónica; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-01-01

    Latin American countries are experiencing an increasing burden of tobacco-related diseases. Smoke free policies are cost-effective interventions to control both exposure of nonsmokers to the toxic chemicals in secondhand tobacco smoke and to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its consequent morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has created momentum in Latin America to implement meaningful tobacco control policies. As of August 2007, Uruguay, two provinces and three cities in Argentina, and one state in Venezuela, had passed, regulated, and enforced 100% smokefree legislation. The tobacco industry, working through local subsidiaries, has been the strongest obstacle in achieving this goal and has prevented progress elsewhere in the region. During the 1990s, transnational tobacco companies Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco developed voluntary initiatives ("Courtesy of Choice" and "Environmental Tobacco Smoke Consultancy" programs) to prevent effective smokefree policies. Another important barrier in the region has often been a weak and fragmented local civil society. Opportunities in the region that should be taken into account are a high public support for smokefree environments and increasing capacity building available from international collaboration on tobacco control. Policymakers and tobacco control advocates should prioritize the implementation of smokefree policies in Latin America to protect nonsmokers, reduce smoking prevalence with its economic and disease burden in the region. PMID:19578527

  11. Powering Up: Assessing the growing municipal energy resilience building efforts in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelfing, Kara

    Energy related shortages and price volatilities can impact all levels of society. With coming fossil fuel depletion related to peak oil, it is expected these shortages and volatilities will increase in frequency, duration, and intensity. Resilience building is a strategy to minimize the effects of these events by modifying systems so they are less impacted and/or recover more quickly from disruptive events. Resilience building is being used, particularly at the municipal scale, to prepare for these coming energy related changes. These municipal efforts have only been in existence for five to ten years, and full implementation is still in progress. Little evaluation has been done of these municipal efforts to date, particularly in North America. Despite this, it is important to begin to assess the effectiveness of these efforts now. As a result, future efforts can be redirected to address weak areas and that lessons learned by vanguard communities can be applied in other communities attempting to build energy resilience in the future. This thesis involved the creation of a hybrid framework to evaluate municipal energy resilience building efforts. The framework drew primarily from planning process and factors identified as important to build resilience in social-ecological systems. It consisted of the following categories to group resilience building efforts: Economy, Resource Systems & Infrastructure, Public Awareness, Social Services, Transportation, Built Environment, and Natural Environment. Within these categories the following process steps should be observed: Context, Goals, Needs, Processes, and Outcomes. This framework was then tested through application to four case-study communities (Bloomington, IN, Hamilton, ON, Oakland, CA, Victoria, BC) currently pursuing energy resilience building efforts in North America. This qualitative research involved document analysis primarily of municipal documents related to energy planning efforts. Supplementary interviews

  12. ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT FACT BOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is divided into three major sections: (1) Standards and Status - Presents those air and water quality and performance standards which apply to energy-related pollutants and sources. Also indicates the status of efforts to control these pollutants. (2) Energy Sources - ...

  13. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  14. 76 FR 22608 - Notice of a Public Meeting on the Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 14, 2011 (76 FR 21110). All prospective registrants will be... interim rule for the Rural Energy for America Program, focusing on the provisions associated with...

  15. 77 FR 2948 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...This NOFA announces the acceptance of applications under the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) for Fiscal Year 2012 for financial assistance as follows: grants, guaranteed loans, and combined grants and guaranteed loans for the development and construction of renewable energy systems and for energy efficiency improvement projects; grants for conducting energy audits; grants for......

  16. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  17. Uncertainties in crustal thickness models for data sparse environments: A review for South America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meijde, M.; Fadel, I.; Ditmar, P.; Hamayun, M.

    2015-03-01

    With the recently available high resolution gravity data from the GOCE satellite a whole range of crustal thickness models have been derived. The added value of GOCE is that it provides data globally, including regions that are poorly covered by seismological studies, like large parts of Africa and South America. Potentially these models can provide new insight in crustal structure for these data poor regions. We compare different models of crustal thickness for South America and Africa and attempt to assess the quality of different modelling techniques and the impact of different data sources. We introduce one new global crustal thickness model based on gravity data, DMM-1, and use seven additional, recently published, continental or global crustal thickness models based on gravity or seismological data. All models use different modelling techniques, and either gravity (four models) or seismological data (four models). We will show that significant differences exist between the models but that these cannot be directly related to the used data. Choices made in the selection and parametrization of the various modelling techniques have more impact than using different data sources including data sources of supposed higher quality. The significant differences, up to 28 km, between models can have a major influence on geodynamical analysis for the two continents. We propose that future work should focus on developing a standard for modelling in data sparse environments, and expanding seismological efforts in those regions that are most different between the shown models to verify the actual crustal thickness. Furthermore, the contribution and inclusion of (satellite) gravity data in crustal thickness models should be further explored.

  18. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  19. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing. PMID:17868820

  1. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: Regional assessment. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  2. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II: Country assessments. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  3. 77 FR 64980 - Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC's application for...

  4. 76 FR 55378 - AmericaWide Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AmericaWide Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AmericaWide Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... intervene or to protest should file with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street,...

  5. 76 FR 71007 - Mercuria Energy America, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mercuria Energy America, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mercuria Energy America, Inc.'s application for market-based rate... desiring to intervene or to protest should file with the Federal ] Energy Regulatory Commission, 888...

  6. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kuss, P.; Kopecky, M. A.; Frost, G. V.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Matyshak, G. V.; Khitun, O. V.; Khomutov, A. V.; Forbes, B. C.; Bhatt, U. S.; Kade, A. N.; Vonlanthen, C. M.; Tichý, L.

    2012-03-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect.

  7. Towards a sustainable America: advancing prosperity, opportunity, and a healthy environment for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    Humanity faces an unprecedented challenge as our numbers grow, while Earth and its capacity to support us do not. People across the United States and around the world aspire to better lives for themselves and for their children: food, shelter, a safe and healthy environment, education, jobs, and other material needs and conveniences. Industries strive to produce more goods, farmers to grow more crops; and human demands on forests, fields, rivers, and oceans increase. Our challenge is to create a future in which prosperity and opportunity increase while life flourishes and pressures on oceans, earth, and atmosphere - the biosphere - diminish; to create, as the Council's vision suggests, "a life- sustaining Earth that supports "a dignified, peaceful, and equitable existence." It is a powerful vision, and the two co-chairs of the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD), fervently believe it is achievable - a unifying and necessary goal for the boundless capacity of human ingenuity so manifest in America. This document addresses climate change, environmental management, metropolitan and rural strategies, and international leadership.

  8. 77 FR 13109 - Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver (hereafter, ``petition'') from specified portions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers. In its petition, Samsung provides an alternate test procedure that is the same as the......

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored BEopt software, which ensures a consistent analysis platform and accurate simulations. Many BEopt algorithms have been adopted by private-sector HERS software tools that have helped improve the energy efficiency of tens-of-thousands of ENERGY STAR-certified homes.

  10. Impact and Process Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the impacts and processes of the former Wind Powering America(WPA) initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). WPA has an underlying goal of dramatically increasing the use of wind energy in the U.S.

  11. 77 FR 45596 - Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System... Energy North America (US), L.P. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent... Commission's list of Corporate Officials. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing...

  12. From the lab to the marketplace: Making America`s buildings more energy efficient

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, DOE has invested some $70 million in research and development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for energy-efficiency studies of advanced building technologies. That investment has helped spawn a $2.4-billion US market for key products -- energy-efficient lighting and advanced window coatings -- and efficiency standards for residential equipment and computerized tools for more efficient building design. By 1993 DOE`s initial investment had reduced consumers` energy bills by an estimated $5 billion ($1.3 billion in 1993 alone). By 2015 the authors estimate that the products of that investment will save consumers $16 billion annually. But LBL research partnerships address a host of other building technology issues as well-building technology issues whose economic benefits are less easy to quantify but whose overall worth is equally important. They analyze public policy issues such as the role of efficiency options as a mitigation strategy for global climate change. They develop planning and demand-management methodologies for electric and gas utilities. They identify technologies and analytical methods for improving human comfort and the quality of indoor air. They contribute to the information superhighway. They focus on the special problems and opportunities presented by energy use in the public sector. And they do all these things at the local, national, and international levels. At LBL, they are part of the multi-laboratory, interdisciplinary approach to building technology research supported by DOE`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. They also participate in buildings-related research supported by DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research, other federal agencies, and industry. This document describes LBL`s role within this wider effort.

  13. From the lab to the marketplace: Making America`s buildings more energy efficient

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Since the mid 1970s, DOE has invested some $70 million in research and development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for development of advanced energy-efficient building technologies, software, and standards. That investment has helped spawn a $2.4-billion U.S. market for key products-energy-efficient lighting and advanced window coatings-and efficiency standards for residential equipment and computerized tools for more efficient building design. By 1993 DOE`s initial investment had reduced consumers` energy bills by an estimated $5 billion ($1.3 billion in 1993 alone). By 2015 we estimate that the products of that investment will save consumers $16 billion annually. LBL research partnerships address a host of other building technology issues as well-building technology issues whose economic benefits are less easy to quantify but whose overall worth is equally important. We analyze public policy issues such as the role of efficiency options as a mitigation strategy for global climate change. We develop planning and demand-management methodologies for electric and gas utilities. We identify technologies and analytical methods for improving human comfort and the quality of indoor air. We contribute to the information superhighway. We focus on the special problems and opportunities presented by energy use in the public sector. And we do all these things at the local, national, and international levels. At LBL, we are part of the multi-laboratory, interdisciplinary approach to building technology research supported by DOE`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. We also participate in buildings-related research supported by DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research, other federal agencies, and industry. This document describes LBL`s role within this wider effort.

  14. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II. country assesments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This volume presents a country-by-country energy assessment of six Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. For each country it includes an assessment of geographic, social, and economic aspects of energy development, an assessment of energy resources, current and projected energy use, potential strategies for energy development, and finally recommendations to USAID for the orientation of its energy development programs. Each country assessment is supplemented with a summary of energy R and D activities and a description of each country's energy-related institutions.

  15. Physics literacy, energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2003-03-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how one might teach three such issues: energy use in transportation, global ozone depletion and global warming.

  16. Energy-Environment Mini-Unit Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen M., Ed.; And Others

    This unit is one part of a three-part National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) series on energy-environment. The goal of this NSTA project is to create a collection of mini-units that provide materials for science and social studies teachers in grades K-12. These materials are intended to make teaching more interdisciplinary and to stimulate…

  17. Physics Literacy, Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2003-01-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how…

  18. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  19. Energy, food, environment: Realities, myths, options

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first three chapters are devoted to detailed surveys of the major energy, food, and environmental controversies. The remaining chapters analyse the environmental consequences of obtaining sufficient energy and food by taking a close look at the three key biogeochemical cycles which are most affected by human actions, those of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. The book concludes by weighing the evidence presented by pessimists and optimists about future prospects and brings some common sense to the debate on how civilization can survive with abundant flows of energy, an adequate supply of food, and an environment fit to live in.

  20. Energy Smart Schools: Creating a Sustainable Learning Environment in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Energy Project, Lewis Center.

    In 1999, the Ohio Energy Project (OEP) was awarded a grant through Rebuild America, under the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop an EnergySmart Schools Program for Ohio. Together with its partners, this program serves to empower students to improve the conditions of their school buildings through education, thus increasing scientific literacy…

  1. Cooperative Extension Service & Wind Powering America Collaborate to Provide Wind Energy Information to Rural Stakeholders (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Flower, L.; Hamlen, S.

    2009-05-01

    Cooperative Extension's presence blankets much of the United States and has been a trusted information source to rural Americans. By working together, Cooperative Extension, Wind Powering America, and the wind industry can better educate the public and rural stakeholders about wind energy and maximize the benefits of wind energy to local communities. This poster provides an overview of Cooperative Extension, wind energy issues addressed by the organization, and related activities.

  2. Solar Energy in America's Future, A Preliminary Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. The report documents a Stanford Research Institute study of the potential roles that solar energy technologies could have for meeting U.S. energy needs over the next 45 years. Computer simulations of different energy supply projections were developed by…

  3. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter Selection

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America research on HVAC air filter sizing that prompted a change in the California “Title 24” Energy Code requiring filter manufacturers, HVAC designers, and HERS raters to make changes that will encourage the use of higher MERV filters without degrading HVAC performance.

  5. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 13: Energy Performance Techniques and Technologies: Preserving Historic Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, Michelle L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Makela, Erin KB; Schneider, Elaine C.; Kaufman, Ned

    2011-03-01

    This guide is a resource to help contractors renovate historic houses, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. The guide is available for download from the DOE Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  6. 76 FR 21109 - Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Program under Title IX, Section 9006, the Agency promulgated a rule (70 FR 41264, July 18, 2005... assistance. For the RES feasibility studies, these notices were published on May 26, 2009 (74 FR 24769) and August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47525). For energy audits and renewable energy development assistance,...

  7. Energy and the Environment: Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.

    1999-07-01

    The 24 papers in this volume are entitled: The art of energy efficiency--Protecting the environment with better technology; On the road to global ecology; Best practices for renewable energy implementation--Integrating end-user and commercial-sector opportunities and constraints; Biomass conversion to fuels; Changing trends in greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide; Economic growth, liberalization, and the environment--A review of the evidence; Harmful algal blooms--A model for emergence of pathogenic microorganisms under conditions of ecological stress; Enhancing the performance of nuclear power reactors--Issues and opportunities; Environmental issues along the US-Mexico border--Drivers of change and the response of citizens and institutions; Ethics and international business; Fuel cells; High-level nuclear waste--The status of Yucca Mountain; Hydrogen production, transmission, and distribution; It's not easy being green--Innovative environmental technologies enhance hydropower's role in sustainable development; Megacities and the atmosphere; Methods for attributing ambient air pollutants to emission sources; Nuclear energy in the twenty-first century--Examination of a contentious subject; Pollution and human health in the St. Lawrence estuary; Southern perspectives in technology transfer; The post-Kyoto regime on climate change--Southern perspectives; Flexibility in the timing and mechanisms of greenhouse gas controls--A review of economic arguments; How much is energy R and D worth as insurance; A review of technical change in assessments of climate policy; and Energy technology and global change--Modeling techniques developed at NASA.

  8. Special challenges in the conservation of fishes and aquatic environments of South America.

    PubMed

    Costa, M F; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    In South America, the conservation of natural resources, particularly in relation to water and aquatic fauna, is an often-discussed issue. Unfortunately, there is still a large gap between thoughts and action. Scientists from different countries of the continent have however, produced a significant body of literature that should finally become the basis of emerging managerial models. PMID:27225985

  9. The Importance of Advancing Technology to America's Energy Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Greene, David L

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of energy technologies appears to be needed for the United States to meet its energy goals. A method is developed that relates the uncertainty of technological progress in eleven technology areas to the achievement of CO2 mitigation and reduced oil dependence. We conclude that to be confident of meeting both energy goals, each technology area must have a much better than 50/50 probability of success, that carbon capture and sequestration, biomass, battery electric or fuel cell vehicles, advanced fossil liquids, and energy efficiency technologies for buildings appear to be almost essential, and that the success of each one of the 11 technologies is important. These inferences are robust to moderate variations in assumptions.

  10. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  11. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  12. Big coal: the dirty secret behind America's energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Goodell

    2006-06-08

    Veteran journalist Jeff Goodell argues that coal is bad for the economy, bad for public health and especially bad for the environment, yet its future looks quite bright. It is relatively cheap. It is plentiful, and Americans, who get half their electric power from coal-burning generators, are addicted to it. As of 2005, more than 120 new coal-burning plants were either planned or under construction in the United States.

  13. Markets for renewable energy in Central America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P.G.; Sloop, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    For market studies of renewable energy and conservation equipment, Costa Rica was selected as the most favorable Central American country and representative of the rest. The Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, and Antigua were selected as representative of the Caribbean islands, from the largest to one of the smallest. Best markets in Costa Rica are judged to be micro and mini hydroelectric systems, heat pumps for large hot water users, photovoltaic systems for low-power remote devices, small distilleries for producing alcohol from sugar cane, solar dryers for bagasse, and energy conservation equipment. Market prospects for the Caribbean islands are very good, including micro and mini hydroelectric systems for those countries with water resources, solar drying of bagasse, solar water heaters, solar ponds/solar thermal systems for electric power or heat processes, wind-electric systems for utility grids and farms, photovoltaics for small power uses, and energy conservation equipment.

  14. Coal: America' energy future. Volume II. A technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the national Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume II are: Electricity Generation; Coal-to-Liquids; An Overview of the Natural Gas Situation; and Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments. 8 apps.

  15. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  16. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  17. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  18. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at Clipper

  19. INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the key issues and findings of the 17-agency Federal Interagency Energy/Environment Research and Development in a format designed for the lay public. It discusses major energy/environment technical issues.

  20. Perspectives on the land use history of North America: a context for understanding our changing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1998-01-01

    Ecological change is constant and profound, yet it often occurs at temporal and spatial scales that are difficult to measure and interpret. This publication demonstrates how diverse data bases, archived in different formats and at numerous locations, can be brought together to provide an integrated perspective on the relationship between land use and landcover change. The authors provide the historical context for interpreting recent landcover change in several regions of North America and articulate the value of a comprehensive continental land-use history for guiding environmental policy and management decisions during the coming century and beyond.

  1. How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Burton; Savitz, Maxine; Schlachter, Fred; Dawson, James; Crabtree, George; Greene, David L; Levine, Mark; Sperling, Daniel; Scofield, John; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Goldston, David

    2008-01-01

    Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is one of America s great hidden energy reserves. We should begin tapping it now.

  2. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  3. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  4. Annual review of energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, J.M. ); Socolow, R.H. ); Sternlight, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Energy end use and conservation; Energy resources and technologies; Risks and impacts of energy production and use; Energy policy; International and regional topics.

  5. Monitored low-energy houses in North America and Europe: A compilation and economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribot, J. C.; Rosenfeld, A. H.

    1982-08-01

    In a continuing compilation, 128 submetered, energy efficient homes in North America and Europe were analyzed. Only 59 have acceptable data on additional first cost of conservation measures. Of these, the lowest cost of conserved energy is for the superinsulated category, where the cost of conserved energy is well under the average price of electricity, i.e., 6.2 cents per kWh. Only 37 homes have submetering adequate to permit correcting space heating loads for variations in occupant behavior (thermostat setting and internal gains). For these 37, the mean standardized thermal integrity is 50.3 kJ per sq meter DD, compared to US 1979 building practice of 100, or US stock of 180.

  6. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 15: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Noonan, Christine F.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 15th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 16: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Butner, Ryan S.; Ortiz, Sallie J.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 16th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  8. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Osowitt, M.

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  9. The Solar Energy Institute: A long-term investment in America's youth

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Unlike students of a generation ago, today's high school students have had limited personal experience with the energy issues that influence their everyday lives. They have no personal knowledge of the Arab Oil Embargo or the long lines at gas pumps that students in the 1970s encountered. Unlike their counterparts of the 1980s, who demonstrated against nuclear power plant construction projects, today's students have had very little exposure to energy debates of any national or international consequence. What's more, they have only vague memories of the Persian Gulf War and the fight over energy supplies. Fearing that the absence of crucial, real-life experiences has negatively impacted the energy literacy of today's students, numerous entities have implemented programs designed to introduce young people to a cornucopia of diverse energy issues that affect every aspect of daily life. As part of this educational movement, the Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Office recognized the fact that young people face an increasingly uncertain energy picture and, as such, one must provide them an education that will allow them to make informed energy decisions in the future. To this end, the Energy Office founded the Solar Energy Institute. What the author has gathered from his two years of experience operating the Solar Energy Institute is that the energy IQ of America's youth, specifically their solar energy IQ, is deficient. The other conclusion he has been able to draw from the program of study is that this summer camp is having a positive impact on students' energy literacy as measured by test scores and a follow-up survey of participants.

  10. 76 FR 48149 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ...This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver and application for interim waiver (hereafter, ``petition'') from specified portions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of clothes washers. Today's notice also grants an interim waiver of the clothes washer test procedure.......

  11. 78 FR 12044 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver (hereafter, ``petition'') from specified portions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers. In its petition, Samsung provides an alternate test procedure that is the same as the......

  12. 78 FR 65625 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...This notice announces receipt of a petition for waiver from Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) regarding specified portions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers. In its petition, Samsung provides an alternate test procedure that is the same as the test procedure DOE published in......

  13. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC, Respondents; Notice of Complaint March 29, 2010. Take notice that on March 26... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2009) and sections 10(f) and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16...

  14. Energy and environment legislative digest 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-15

    This Digest (published every year) is a compilation of energy and environmental legislation enacted by the Southern States Energy Board's 18 member states and territories during the 2008 legislative session.

  15. Texas - Energy Collaborations Working for the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  16. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming.

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.; Goldston, D.; Crabtree, G.; Glicksman, L.; Goldstein, D.; Greene, D.; Kammen, D.; Levin, M.; Lubell, M.; Savitz, M.; Sperling, D.; Schlachter, F.; Scofield, J.; Dawson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is one of America's great hidden energy reserves. We should begin tapping it now. Whether you want the United States to achieve greater energy security by weaning itself off foreign oil, sustain strong economic growth in the face of worldwide competition or reduce global warming by decreasing carbon emissions, energy efficiency is where you need to start. Thirty-five years ago the U.S. adopted national strategies, implemented policies and developed technologies that significantly improved energy efficiency. More than three decades have passed since then, and science and technology have progressed considerably, but U.S. energy policy has not. It is time to revisit the issue. In this report we examine the scientific and technological opportunities and policy actions that can make the United States more energy efficient, increase its security and reduce its impact on global warming. We believe the findings and recommendations will help Congress and the next administration to realize these goals. Our focus is on the transportation and buildings sectors of the economy. The opportunities are huge and the costs are small.

  17. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, J.; Osowitt, M.

    1980-10-01

    Research progress for 1979 is summarized in short reports in the following areas: Energy Analysis Program; Energy Efficient Buildings Program; Solar Energy Program; Chemical Process Research and Development Program; Environmental Research Program; conbustion research; effects of pollutants on biological systems; atmospheric aerosol research; and applied research in laser spectroscopy and analytical techniques. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered individually. (ACR)

  18. NASA's Meteoroid Environments Office's Response to Three Significant Bolide Events Over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon C.; Cooke, William J.; Kingery, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Being the only U.S. Government entity charged with monitoring the meteor environment, the Meteoroid Environment Office has deployed a network of all sky and wide field meteor cameras, along with the appropriate software tools to quickly analyze data from these systems. However, the coverage of this network is still quite limited, forcing the incorporation of data from other cameras posted to the internet in analyzing many of the fireballs reported by the public and media. A procedure has been developed that determines the analysis process for a given fireball event based on the types and amount of data available. The differences between these analysis process will be explained and outlined by looking at three bolide events, all of which were large enough to produce meteorites. The first example is an ideal event - a bright meteor that occurred over NASA's All Sky Camera Network on August 2, 2014. With clear video of the event from various angles, a high-accuracy trajectory, beginning and end heights, orbit and approximate brightness/size of the event are able to be found very quickly using custom software. The bolide had the potential to have dropped meteorites, so dark flight analysis and modeling was performed, allowing potential fall locations to be mapped as a function of meteorite mass. The second case study was a bright bolide that occurred November 3, 2014 over West Virginia. This was just north of the NASA southeastern all-sky network, and just south of the Ohio-Pennsylvania network. This case study showcases the MEO's ability to use social media and various internet sources to locate videos of the event from obscure sources (including the Washington Monument) for anything that will permit a determination of a basic trajectory and fireball light curve The third case study will highlight the ability to use doppler weather radar in helping locate meteorites, which enable a definitive classification of the impactor. The input data and analysis steps differ for

  19. The Energy-Environment Simulator as a Classroom Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.; Van Koevering, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use, availability, and flexibility of the Energy-Environment Simulator, a specially designed analog computer which simulates the real-world energy situation and which is programed with estimated United States and world supplies of energy sources and estimated United States energy demands. (MP)

  20. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  2. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  3. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  4. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  5. Energy and the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.

    This 17-chapter book (which may also be used as a textbook) provides a thorough insight into the basic facts about energy as well as new and transitional technologies such as synthetic fuels. The book also helps examine the economic, societal, and political aspects of the energy situation in detail, consistently providing technical data to support…

  6. Energy/Environment Fact Book. Decision Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This collection of data and graphics were prepared in response to a request from the White House Energy Policy and Planning Staff. The focus of this document is on those environmental issues which will, in the near and midterm future, prove important to the rapid development of domestic energy resources. This report emphasizes coal because of its…

  7. Induced innovation, energy prices, and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, David Clifford

    The process of developing new technologies is a central question for economic theory as well as for public policy in many areas. For example, the development of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies will play an important role in reducing the threat of global warming. To study how technology evolves over time, this dissertation uses patent data on energy innovations from 1970 to 1991 to examine the impact of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. Before this can be done, however, information on supply-side factors which influence innovation is also needed. In the case of innovation, supply-side factors are the usefulness of the existing base of scientific knowledge. Patent citations are used for this purpose. Subsequent citations to patents granted each year since 1970 are used to show that the returns to research and development (R&D) fall over time for most of the technologies studied. These estimates are then combined with data on demand-side factors, such as energy prices, to estimate a model of induced innovation in energy technologies. Both energy prices and the supply of knowledge are found to have strongly significant positive effects on innovation. Next, the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC), which maps patents to the industries in which they are used, is employed to construct a stock of energy-related knowledge for 14 energy intensive industries. The effect of changes in this stock on energy consumption in these industries is estimated. On average, the present value of energy savings resulting from a new patent is eight million dollars, with the maximum savings coming about five years after the initial patent application. Finally, the results of each regression are combined to simulate the impact of a ten percent energy tax. Initially, simple factor substitution due to the price change has the largest effect. However, because of the cumulative nature of R&D, induced innovation has a much larger effect than factor substitution in the long run

  8. Energy & Man's Environment Impact Study. Summary of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, J. Stuart

    An evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of Energy and Man's Environment (EME), a nonprofit energy organization which conducts energy programs in 15 states around the United States. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who is the consumer of EME workshops and the user of EME materials? (2) How do participants view EME workshops.…

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  10. WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geothermal energy--from subsurface heat sources created by the underlying geologic configuration of the earth--is addressed, from an environmental research and development perspective. The report covers various geothermal energy systems, which serve as present or potential energy...

  11. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  12. The Future of Energy and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frois, Bernard

    2011-05-01

    This brief review is a tribute to Professor Akito Arima on the occasion of his 80th birthday, celebrated at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. Professor Akito Arima has played a major role in nuclear physics and the development of international collaborations. He has strongly encouraged the science community to bridge university research and industry, and to connect science to the needs of the world population. This paper describes the present challenges of producing enough energy for the world population in a context of diminishing fossil fuels and climate change. Coal, gas and nuclear energy dominate the scene at short and medium term, while new energy technologies are very promising in the long term. In contrast with the situation ten years ago, a significant expansion of nuclear power is planned all over the world.

  13. Energy and environment. A Sandia technology bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, L.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-03-01

    This bulletin discusses the following: decontamination of polluted water by using a photocatalyst to convert ultraviolet energy into electrochemical energy capable of destroying organic waste and removing toxic metals; monitoring oil spills with SAR by collecting data in digital form, processing the data, and creating digital images that are recorded for post-mission viewing and processing; revitalization of a solar industrial process heat system which uses parabolic troughs to heat water for foil production of integrated circuits; and an electronic information system, EnviroTRADE (Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange) for worldwide exchange of environmental restoration and waste management information.

  14. Transportation: Environment, energy and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Petrakis, L.

    1993-01-11

    In the US, the transportation sector consumes over one quarter of the entire energy used, almost in its entirety as petroleum products, and in quantities greater than the total US domestic oil production. The transportation sector is responsible for a significant fraction of all emissions that either prevent US cities from achieving compliance with EPA air quality standards or have serious global change implications. Finally, the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and employment due to the sector are low and incommensurate with the high fraction of energy that the transportation sector consumes. We examine below this situation in some detail and make recommendations for improvements.

  15. The Energy and Environment Glossary, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Dalton, Edward

    This is a glossary of words that commonly appear in energy education and environmental education materials. With over 750 words ranging from "abatement" to "zooplankton" this publication includes some uncommon terms such as "anadromous,""film badge,""putrescible," and "tritium." Space is provided after each alphabetical section for the addition of…

  16. The Use of Remote Sensing Data for Advancing America's Energy Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valinia, Azita; Seery, Bernard D.

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing America's Energy Policy laid out by the Obama Administration, we outline how a Global Carbon Observing System designed to monitor Carbon from space can provide the necessary data and tools to equip decision makers with the knowledge necessary to formulate effective energy use and practices policy. To stabilize greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere in a manner that it does not interfere with the Earth's climate system (which is one of the goals of United Nations Framework for Convention on Climate Change) requires vastly improved prediction of the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. This in torn requires a robust understanding of the carbon exchange mechanisms between atmosphere, land, and oceans and a clear understanding of the sources and sinks (i.e. uptake and storage) of CO2. We discuss how the Carbon Observing System from space aids in better understanding of the connection between the carbon cycle and climate change and provides more accurate predictions of atmospheric CO2 concentration. It also enables implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies such as cap and trade programs, international climate treaties, as well as formulation of effective energy use policies.

  17. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  18. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-12-31

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  19. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  20. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The Surface Energy Budget in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. This difference in temperature is proportional to the size of the city and can be in excess of 2-5°C during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. UHIs can exacerbate the warming during heat waves and play a role in additional heat-related mortality, an increase in tropospheric ozone, and economic losses that total in the billions of dollars from excess energy consumption. Many cities are experimenting with strategies to reduce urban warming. A number of mitigation strategies involve manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. Methods include analysis of global remotely sensed datasets, the development of a reduced-complexity urban model, and evaluation of measurements made in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA). The TCMA is a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Mitigation of the UHI in northern latitude cities, such as the TCMA, is a challenge because (1) residents in more northerly cities are more likely to suffer heat-related illness

  2. America's Energy Potential: A Summary and Explanation; Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. [Committee Print].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udall, Morris K.

    This report reviews America's current energy position. The energy sources studied include oil and gas, coal, nuclear energy, solar energy, and geothermal energy. Each source is analyzed in terms of current use, technology for extracting and developing the energy, research and development funding, and projections for future consumption and…

  3. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised. PMID:23516895

  4. High Performance Homes That Use 50% Less Energy Than the DOE Building America Benchmark Building

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes lessons learned from designing, building, and monitoring five affordable, energy-efficient test houses in a single development in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) service area. This work was done through a collaboration of Habitat for Humanity Loudon County, the US Department of Energy (DOE), TVA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The houses were designed by a team led by ORNL and were constructed by Habitat's volunteers in Lenoir City, Tennessee. ZEH5, a two-story house and the last of the five test houses to be built, provided an excellent model for conducting research on affordable high-performance houses. The impressively low energy bills for this house have generated considerable interest from builders and homeowners around the country who wanted a similar home design that could be adapted to different climates. Because a design developed without the project constraints of ZEH5 would have more appeal for the mass market, plans for two houses were developed from ZEH5: a one-story design (ZEH6) and a two-story design (ZEH7). This report focuses on ZEH6, identical to ZEH5 except that the geothermal heat pump is replaced with a SEER 16 air source unit (like that used in ZEH4). The report also contains plans for the ZEH6 house. ZEH5 and ZEH6 both use 50% less energy than the DOE Building America protocol for energyefficient buildings. ZEH5 is a 4 bedroom, 2.5 bath, 2632 ft2 house with a home energy rating system (HERS) index of 43, which qualifies it for federal energy-efficiency incentives (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, and a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100). This report is intended to help builders and homeowners build similar high-performance houses. Detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 are compared with the Building America Benchmark building, and detailed drawings, specifications, and lessons learned in the construction and analysis of data gleaned from 94

  5. Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, Washington, DC.

    Presented are the findings of a national panel which investigated the present situation and future policy options regarding energy and the environment. Three sections comprise the report: (1) a chapter dealing with energy supply, consumption, pricing and policy; (2) an analysis of environmental issues such as land use, toxic substances,…

  6. Shale Gas and Tight Oil: A Panacea for the Energy Woes of America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has been heralded as a "game changer" in the struggle to meet America's demand for energy. The "Pickens Plan" of Texas oil and gas pioneer T.Boone Pickens suggests that gas can replace coal for much of U.S. electricity generation, and oil for, at least, truck transportation1. Industry lobby groups such as ANGA declare "that the dream of clean, abundant, home grown energy is now reality"2. In Canada, politicians in British Columbia are racing to export the virtual bounty of shale gas via LNG to Asia (despite the fact that Canadian gas production is down 16 percent from its 2001 peak). And the EIA has forecast that the U.S. will become a net exporter of gas by 20213. Similarly, recent reports from Citigroup and Harvard suggest that an oil glut is on the horizon thanks in part to the application of fracking technology to formerly inaccessible low permeability tight oil plays. The fundamentals of well costs and declines belie this optimism. Shale gas is expensive gas. In the early days it was declared that "continuous plays" like shale gas were "manufacturing operations", and that geology didn't matter. One could drill a well anywhere, it was suggested, and expect consistent production. Unfortunately, Mother Nature always has the last word, and inevitably the vast expanses of purported potential shale gas resources contracted to "core" areas, where geological conditions were optimal. The cost to produce shale gas ranges from 4.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) to 10.00, depending on the play. Natural gas production is a story about declines which now amount to 32% per year in the U.S. So 22 billion cubic feet per day of production now has to be replaced each year to keep overall production flat. At current prices of 2.50/mcf, industry is short about 50 billion per year in cash flow to make this happen4. As a result I expect falling production and rising prices in the near to medium term. Similarly, tight oil plays in North Dakota and Texas have been heralded

  7. Management of Energy and Environment Conservation: Current Methodical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.; Siemianowicz, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a continuation in the series of works devoted to the acute problems of energy use management in different periods of economic transition in the CEE countries. Research carried out by the team of scientists has resulted in creation of modern management methods. In particular, unitary indices were worked out which connect the consumption of energy carriers and environment pollutions in a definite time period and the values of production (services) realised in this period. The cooperation of researchers from different countries has given rise to the ICEEP (International Center of Energy and Environment Policy), where under research are issues of the risk management in the conditions of informational uncertainty, non-knowledge, as well as dynamic and stochastic behaviour of systems (processes). The main emphasis in the methodical approaches is given to the complex (strategic) thinking, which would be necessary for establishment of global regulations in the scope of energy and environment conservation.

  8. Insulation materials for commercial buildings in North America: An assessment of lifetime energy and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Shrestha, Som S.; Bhandari, Mahabir S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-12

    In the United States, commercial buildings accounted for about 19 percent of the total primary energy consumption in 2012. Further, 29 percent of the site energy in commercial buildings was consumed for space heating and cooling. Applying insulation materials to building envelopes is an effective way of reducing energy consumption for heating and cooling, and limiting the negative environmental impacts from the buildings sector. While insulation materials have a net positive impact on the environment due to reduced energy consumption, they also have some negative impacts associated with their 'embodied energy'. The total lifetime environmental impacts of insulation materials are a summation of: (1) direct impacts due to their embodied energy, and (2) indirect or impacts avoided due to the reduced building energy consumption. Here, assessments of the lifetime environmental impacts of selected insulation materials are presented. Direct and indirect environmental impact factors were estimated for the cradle-to-grave insulation life cycle stages. Impact factors were calculated for two categories: primary energy consumption and global warming potential. The direct impact factors were calculated using data from existing literature and a life cycle assessment software. The indirect impact factors were calculated through simulations of a set of standard whole-building models.

  9. Insulation materials for commercial buildings in North America: An assessment of lifetime energy and environmental impacts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Biswas, Kaushik; Shrestha, Som S.; Bhandari, Mahabir S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-12

    In the United States, commercial buildings accounted for about 19 percent of the total primary energy consumption in 2012. Further, 29 percent of the site energy in commercial buildings was consumed for space heating and cooling. Applying insulation materials to building envelopes is an effective way of reducing energy consumption for heating and cooling, and limiting the negative environmental impacts from the buildings sector. While insulation materials have a net positive impact on the environment due to reduced energy consumption, they also have some negative impacts associated with their 'embodied energy'. The total lifetime environmental impacts of insulation materials aremore » a summation of: (1) direct impacts due to their embodied energy, and (2) indirect or impacts avoided due to the reduced building energy consumption. Here, assessments of the lifetime environmental impacts of selected insulation materials are presented. Direct and indirect environmental impact factors were estimated for the cradle-to-grave insulation life cycle stages. Impact factors were calculated for two categories: primary energy consumption and global warming potential. The direct impact factors were calculated using data from existing literature and a life cycle assessment software. The indirect impact factors were calculated through simulations of a set of standard whole-building models.« less

  10. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  11. America's Maritime Heritage: From Sail Power to Nuclear Power. Book 1 and Book 2. An Energy Education Activity Book [And] America's Maritime Heritage: A Frequently Forgotten Treasure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, William Ray

    These documents provide background information and a series of problems and activities to familiarize students with important maritime activities in the United States. Book I contains problems involving the movement of freight on inland waterways, questions on energy and the environment, and a chart with questions on United States oil imports.…

  12. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, California

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. Through Building America research and other innovative programs throughout the country, many of the technical challenges to building to the ZERH standard have been addressed. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, CA. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. The case study discusses challenges encountered, lessons learned, and how obstacles were overcome. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  13. Solar America Cities Awards, Solar Energy Technologies Program, Fact Sheet, March 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    This publication represents an ongoing effort to support outreach activities through the Solar America Cities program. The two-page fact sheet offers an overview of the SAC program and lists specific resources for more information on developing solar programs.

  14. Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

  15. Energy and the Environment: a current awareness journal

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on environmental/biological aspects of energy. The subject areas covered include the atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments with emphasis on impacts of any energy-related activities on these environments. This includes transport, fate, and ecological-biological consequences of various pollutants such as flue gas, NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, hydrocarbons, CO/sub 2/, thermal effluents, and radioactive isotopes. (ACR)

  16. Kansas energy, environment, and conservation: a geological overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriam, Daniel F.

    2009-02-01

    The State of Kansas, as an energy-producing and agriculture-based state, faces problems in production of natural resources and potential pollution from their production. To coordinate information on the exploration, production, and use of coal, nuclear, petroleum, natural gas, hydro, wind, geothermal, coalbed methane, biofuel, solar, and other energy resources, the Kansas Energy Council and the University of Kansas Energy Research Center were created. Water, surface and subsurface, is the other important and maybe the most important natural resource in the welfare of the state. To ease the problems of contamination, situations are monitored by regulatory agencies: the Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, and Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kansas serves as the archive for energy and natural resource data and conducts research pertinent to the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, including energy and water. The Kansas Energy Research Center coordinates and supports energy activities. The Kansas Water Office and the staff for the Kansas Water Authority are charged with water planning and preparing reports on water problems and possible solutions. The cost of preserving the environment in a relatively pristine state really is of no concern considering the possible consequences; living conditions should be preserved to assure future generations, a suitable, sustainable, stable environment. With all the dire predictions for the future and energy-producing and pollution problems, Kansas is a model state in this modern industrial age for protecting the environment and is a leader in conservation.

  17. Me and My Environment. Unit III: Energy Relationships in My Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.

    Presented is the experimental edition of Unit III: Energy Relationships in My Environment, which consists of 25 life science curriculum activities intended for the 13-to-15-year-old educable mentally retarded child. The curriculum guide is being used in the final field test prior to revision. Stressed throughout the program are ecological themes,…

  18. The 1992 conference on Latin America's Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year's Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America's energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America's need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important pull'' factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico's plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  19. Building America Best Practices Series: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Marine Climate (Volume 11)

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2010-09-01

    With the measures described in this guide, builders in the marine climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers.

  20. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  1. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Water and Energy Balance Over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Angelis, C.

    2013-05-01

    With the objective of analyzing the effects of land use changes in the Amazon and its consequences on the main components of the water and energy balance over South America, with emphasis on the Amazon and La Plata Basin, two experiments were carried for 10-year period (1999-2008), in which the land use conditions were modified, representing conditions for the 90s (CONTROL Experiment) and current conditions over land use in the Amazon region (Experiment 1). Changes in land use were observed mainly in the Amazon region and southern Brazil. The numerical model used to perform the simulations was the ETA in its climate version, using as an initial and boundary condition the CFSR/NCEP reanalysis datasets. The results show for the analyzed period that there was a reduction of 3.3 mm/month in average rainfall rates in the La Plata Basin and 4.2 mm/month in the Amazon region, with some places where this reduction was more pronounced. Seasonally was observed that during the summer there is an average reduction of 3.9 mm/month in the Amazon region. Already on the La Plata Basin was observed an average increase of 11.7 mm/month in the La Plata Basin during the summer and an reduction in winter season. Through the overall result was also possible to conclude that the changes in land use for more realistic conditions, there were significant reductions in evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes, as well as an increase in sensible heat fluxes, especially over the regions where the changes were more pronounced. Through the analyzes it can be observed that in general the La Plata Basin is sensitive to changes in land use over the Amazon and adjacent regions, allowing to conclude that such changes can influence the amount of rainfall, the intensity of the major meteorological systems, as well as temperature trends on the regions analyzed.

  2. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  4. WESTERN ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT MONITORING STUDY: PLANNING AND COORDINATION SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the planning, coordination and implementation mechanisms which provide the framework for the Western Energy/Environment Monitoring Study. This Study involves participation by elements of EPA, NASA, NOAA, and USGS and is a segment of the Interagency Ene...

  5. CALORSTOCK 1994: Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, M. T.; Lund, P. D.

    This publication is the second volume of the Proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the Sixth International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage held in Espoo, Finland on 22-25 Aug. 1994. This volume contains 51 presentations from the following six sessions: Chemical storage; Heat storage and environment; Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage; Water storage pits and tanks; Cooling; and National activities.

  6. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  7. Energy and environment: A political ecology of woodfuels in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, E. Mark

    This study examines relationships between energy use and the exploitation of woodland natural resources in the West African nation of Senegal. As in many other countries in the developing world, the majority of the population in Senegal depend on woodfuels, i.e., firewood and charcoal, to satisfy most of their household energy needs. Consequences of this situation include added pressure on the country's limited natural resource base, and increased socioeconomic hardship, particularly for women, as woodfuel resources become increasingly scarce. Woodfuel energy problems in developing countries are typically described in terms of an imbalance between supply and demand that is driven by rapid population growth. However, recent research suggests that a number of other factors should be explored in order to achieve a more thorough understanding of the relationship between woodfuel energy and forest resource management. This study attempts to determine what some of these factors are, and to explain how they inform the energy-environment situation in the case of Senegal. In addition, I examine the scope for addressing Senegal's woodfuel problem through greater local community participation in managing energy and natural resources, a current thrust in many international initiatives designed to help the country cope with this persistent problem. A relatively new conceptual framework for the analysis of human-environment relationships---viz. political ecology---is employed in this study. I attempt to show how political ecology can contribute to the resolution of Senegal's energy-environment dilemma by considering a more inclusive suite of social, economic, political, and environmental variables than has been explored by previous approaches. Findings from the research demonstrate the ability of the political ecology approach to capture many heretofore unexplored factors related to the energy-environment nexus in Senegal. A detailed matrix is generated that illustrates the

  8. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, O.; Ouedraogo, A.; Kuznik, F.; Baillis, D.; Koulidiati, J.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m2/year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  9. Politics of sunshine: an inquiry into the origin, growth, and ideological character of the solar energy movement in America

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the political significance of the solar energy movement in America - tracing its historical development, identifying its constituent elements, and analyzing the ideological issues that threaten to impede its growth and further divide its diverse membership. Two levels of analysis are presented. The first proffers an historical interpretation of the American solar movement, beginning with its utopian origins in the early nineteenth century and chronicling its subsequent development up to the present day. Particular attention is paid to the emergence of national solar energy policy since 1945. I conclude that three factors have been particularly influential in directing the course of solar development in America: the effect of wars, the perception of energy shortages, and the rise of ideologies in energy policy making. The second level of analysis is theoretical in nature; it involves an examination of this last factor - ideology - and its linkage to contemporary solar-energy politics. By integrating history, political theory, sociology, and technology assessment in this way, an attempt is made to construct a comprehensive picture of what the solar movement is - both practically and symbolically - and to offer a theoretically rich explanation of why it has become, at least in the minds of many of its members, an important vehicle of social change.

  10. Urban environment interventions linked to the promotion of physical activity. A mixed methods study applied to the urban context of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Luis F; Sarmiento, Rodrigo; Ordoñez, Maria Fernanda; Pardo, Carlos Felipe; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Mallarino, Christina H; Miranda, J Jaime; Mosquera, Janeth; Parra, Diana Celmira; Reis, Rodrigo; Quistberg, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study summarizes the evidence from quantitative systematic reviews that assessed the association between urban environment attributes and physical activity. It also documents sociopolitical barriers and facilitators involved in urban interventions linked with active living in the ten most populated urban settings of Latin America. The synthesis of evidence indicates that several attributes of urban environments are associated with physical activity, including land-use mix and cycling infrastructure. The documentary analysis indicated that despite the benefits and opportunities provided by the programs and existing infrastructure in the examined cities, an overall concern is the rising inequality in the coverage and distribution of the initiatives in the region. If these programs and initiatives are to achieve a real population level effect that helps to reduce health disparities, they need to examine their social and spatial distribution within the cities so they can reach underserved populations and develop to their full potential. PMID:25748111

  11. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  12. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement. PMID:24683332

  13. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement. PMID:24683332

  14. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  15. Constraining Habitable Environments on Mars by Quantifying Available Geochemical Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, L. L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    The search for life on Mars includes the availability of liquid water, access to biogenic elements and an energy source. In the past, when water was more abundant on Mars, a source of energy may have been the limiting factor for potential life. Energy, either from photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, is required in order to drive metabolism. Potential martian organisms most likely took advantage of chemosynthetic reactions at and below the surface. Terrestrial chemolithoautotrophs, for example, thrive off of chemical disequilibrium that exists in many environments and use inorganic redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions to drive metabolism and create cellular biomass. The chemical disequilibrium of six different martian environments were modeled in this study and analyzed incorporating a range of water and rock compositions, water:rock mass ratios, atmospheric fugacities, pH, and temperatures. All of these models can be applied to specific sites on Mars including environments similar to Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater. Both a mass transfer geochemical model of groundwater-basalt interaction and a mixing model of groundwater-hydrothermal fluid interaction were used to estimate hypothetical martian fluid compositions that results from mixing over the entire reaction path. By determining the overall Gibbs free energy yields for redox reactions in the H-O-C-S-Fe-Mn system, the amount of geochemical energy that was available for potential chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms was quantified and the amount of biomass that could have been sustained was estimated. The quantity of biomass that can be formed and supported within a system depends on energy availability, thus sites that have higher levels and fluxes of energy have greater potential to support life. Results show that iron- and sulfur-oxidation reactions would have been the most favorable redox reactions in aqueous systems where groundwater and rock interacted at or near the surface. These types of reactions could

  16. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  17. Energy, The Environment And Astronomy: Education And Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, G.; Kalas, P.; Lacy, J.; Beck, T.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    The specter of global climate change is arguably the most pressing scientific, social and ethical issue of our time. Although the relatively small field of astronomy represents only a fraction of the total human carbon emissions, astronomers have a great potential, and therefore perhaps a great responsibility, to educate themselves and the public on this issue. In addition, the average per capita carbon emissions of professional astronomers are not small, and our profession can do much to reduce its energy consumption and maximize the cost-benefit ratio of our work. At the January AAS meeting, we are organizing a half-day splinter meeting titled "Energy, the Environment and Astronomy: Education and Action". The focus will be on energy conservation and education as it relates to professional astronomy. Education focuses on informing ourselves, our students and the general public with which we interact, about the real issues, the necessary actions, and the likely consequences of various energy consumption and carbon emission scenarios. Action focuses on effective energy conservation and renewable energy initiatives within professional astronomy. Air travel, solar energy at ground-based observatories, and Gemini's "Green Initiative” are among the topics that will be discussed. The splinter meeting will be open to all and will include expert speakers from outside astronomy, contributed talks by astronomers, and a discussion session.

  18. Wind energy. Views on the environment: clean and green

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Thomas O.

    1999-12-01

    As the United States grapples with the issue of global climate change resulting from fossil fuel combustion, and as the U.S. Congress and individual state legislatures consider restructuring the electric utility industry, lawmakers should keep in mind the environmental preferability of renewable energy sources such as wind and the long, continuing record of public support for them. This is particularly important in view of restructuring, which will have the effect of shifting decisions about the type and quantity of new power plants to be built from utility executives to the general public. Preliminary information suggests that ''green,'' or environmentally-friendly, power sources could win a significant market share. In addition to creating new demand for clean energy sources, this development is likely to create a committed, educated political constituency for clean energy that has not existed in the past. In such an altered environment for the selection of new generation, public attitudes on the desirability of various power sources will become much more important than they have in the past. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize public opinion surveys on the environment in general, renewable energy in general, and wind energy in particular in that order, using data gathered from polling in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Canada. At this writing, more than 16 years after the first wind plants began going up in California, there is a solid and growing body of information available on public acceptance of wind energy. This paper draws on more than 25 surveys conducted over the years on wind and renewables, as well as individual findings on attitudes on the environment from other polls. An abbreviated summary of the public attitudes reviewed in this document is as follows: Views on the Environment: Public concern about protecting the environment, and particularly those aspects of the environment that relate to human health, such as air pollution, is

  19. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  20. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  2. Energy aware path planning in complex four dimensional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Anjan

    This dissertation addresses the problem of energy-aware path planning for small autonomous vehicles. While small autonomous vehicles can perform missions that are too risky (or infeasible) for larger vehicles, the missions are limited by the amount of energy that can be carried on board the vehicle. Path planning techniques that either minimize energy consumption or exploit energy available in the environment can thus increase range and endurance. Path planning is complicated by significant spatial (and potentially temporal) variations in the environment. While the main focus is on autonomous aircraft, this research also addresses autonomous ground vehicles. Range and endurance of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be greatly improved by utilizing energy from the atmosphere. Wind can be exploited to minimize energy consumption of a small UAV. But wind, like any other atmospheric component , is a space and time varying phenomenon. To effectively use wind for long range missions, both exploration and exploitation of wind is critical. This research presents a kinematics based tree algorithm which efficiently handles the four dimensional (three spatial and time) path planning problem. The Kinematic Tree algorithm provides a sequence of waypoints, airspeeds, heading and bank angle commands for each segment of the path. The planner is shown to be resolution complete and computationally efficient. Global optimality of the cost function cannot be claimed, as energy is gained from the atmosphere, making the cost function inadmissible. However the Kinematic Tree is shown to be optimal up to resolution if the cost function is admissible. Simulation results show the efficacy of this planning method for a glider in complex real wind data. Simulation results verify that the planner is able to extract energy from the atmosphere enabling long range missions. The Kinematic Tree planning framework, developed to minimize energy consumption of UAVs, is applied for path planning

  3. Partitioning of Initial Energy Release in a Tunnel Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felts, Joshua; Lee, Richard; Mychajlonka, Kyle; Davis, Andy

    2015-06-01

    After the detonation of an explosive charge in the closed end of a tunnel, the products and excess fuels mix and partially combust with the available air before expanding down the tunnel. Both the energy of the detonation and from the combustion of the products and excess fuels drive the blast wave. The energy of the blast wave was calculated for several explosives in a small-scale tunnel. The calculations were performed using the methodology of Hutchens, which is an adaptation of the classical approach of Taylor and Sedov. For similarly sized explosives, the detonation energy was measured using a detonation calorimeter. The difference in the initial energy release of the tunnel with that of the calorimeter is the energy from the initial partial combustion of the detonation products and excess fuels in the explosive formulation. This difference is related to the explosive formulations and can be interpolated for new formulations. This relationship can guide new formulation development for use in a tunnel environment. Knowledge of the initial energy release partitioning can lead to better computer models for fuel-rich explosives.

  4. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  5. Energy in the Environment - Initiatives 2004-08

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Jehn

    2009-09-11

    Under the Energy and Environment Initiative, the GWPC/GWPRF will expand the oil and gas electronic commerce initiatives used to enhance the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and the Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA). The GWPC/GWPRF has identified the following priorities for work efforts during the time period that will act as the base from which selections for each work period will be proposed. Work tasks will be presented for each reporting period by the GWPC from areas selected from the general list of priorities.

  6. SOLERAS solar-energy controlled-environment agriculture project

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.; Froechtenigt, J.; Falatah, A.

    1982-05-01

    Three commercial-size (5-ha), solar-powered, controlled-environment agriculture systems for hot, dry climates are described. The systems use brackish well water for cooling. The well water is desalinated for irrigation using reverse osmosis. Produce output ranges from 44 to 78 kg/m/sup 2/.yr with an overall water consumption of 8 to 139 L/kg produce and electric energy consumption of 111 to 790 Wh/kg produce. The levelized cost ranges from $1.14 to $8.07 per kg of produce.

  7. Climate variability and human impact on the environment in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flantua, S. G. A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuille, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M. P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M. S.; Whitney, B. S.; González-Arango, C.

    2015-07-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past two millennia. Global efforts to reconstruct regional climate modes are in the process of validating and integrating paleo-proxies. For South America, however, the full potential of vegetation records for evaluating and improving climate models has hitherto not been sufficiently acknowledged due to its unknown spatial and temporal coverage. This paper therefore serves as a guide to high-quality pollen records that capture environmental variability during the last two millennia. We identify the pollen records with the required temporal characteristics for PAGES-2 ka climate modelling and we discuss their sensitivity to the spatial signature of climate modes throughout the continent. Diverse patterns of vegetation response to climate change are observed, with more similar patterns of change in the lowlands and varying intensity and direction of responses in the highlands. Pollen records display local scale responses to climate modes, thus it is necessary to understand how vegetation-climate interactions might diverge under variable settings. Additionally, pollen is an excellent indicator of human impact through time. Evidence for human land use in pollen records is useful for archaeological hypothesis testing and important in distinguishing natural from anthropogenically driven vegetation change. We stress the need for the palynological community to be more familiar with climate variability patterns to correctly attribute the potential causes of observed vegetation dynamics. The LOTRED-SA-2 k initiative provides the ideal framework for the integration of the various paleoclimatic sub-disciplines and paleo-science, thereby jumpstarting and fostering multi-disciplinary research into environmental change on centennial and millennial time scales.

  8. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    A new construction pilot community was constructed by builder-partner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes (WCHH) based on a single occupied test house that was designed to achieve greater than 30% energy savings with respect to the House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn (2010). Building America House Simulation Protocols. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.). Builders face several key problems when implementing a whole-house systems integrated measures package (SIMP) from a single test house into multiple houses. Although a technical solution already may have been evaluated and validated in an individual test house, the potential exists for constructability failures at the community scale. This report addresses factors of implementation and scalability at the community scale and proposes methodologies by which community-scale energy evaluations can be performed based on results at the occupied test house level. Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a SIMP and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Zero Net-Energy Homes Production Builder Business Case: California/Florida Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Grupe Homes of Sacramento’s work with Building America to design California’s first production-scale community of solar homes. The homes outsold neighboring developments two to one.

  10. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan Byrne, Owen Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-28

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 10{sup 17} watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3{sup rd} generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  11. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world's energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  12. Multi-energy imagers for a radiotherapy treatment environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Liu, Langechuan; Liang, Albert K.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Koniczek, Martin; Jiang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Over the last ~15 years, the central goal in external beam radiotherapy of maximizing dose to the tumor while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues has been greatly facilitated by the development and clinical implementation of many innovations. These include megavoltage active matrix flat-panel imagers (MV AMFPIs) designed to image the treatment beam, and separate kilovoltage (kV) AMFPIs and x-ray sources designed to provide high-contrast projection and cone-beam CT images in the treatment room. While these systems provide clinically valuable information, a variety of advantages would accrue through introduction of the capability to produce clinically useful, high quality imaging information at multiple energies (e.g., kV and MV) from a single detector along the treatment beam direction. One possible approach for achieving this goal involves substitution of the x-ray converters used in conventional MV AMFPIs with thick, segmented crystalline scintillators designed for dual-energy operation, coupled with the addition of x-ray imaging beams that contain a significant diagnostic component. A second approach involves introduction of a large area, monolithic array of photon counting pixels with multiple energy thresholds and event counters, which could provide multi-spectral views of the treatment beam with improved contrast. In this paper, the motivations behind, and the merits of each approach are described. In addition, prospects for such dual-energy imagers and photon counting array designs are discussed in the context of the radiotherapy environment.

  13. Modeling Impacts On and Feedbacks Among Surface Energy and Water Budgets Due to Aerosols-In-Snow Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaida, C. M.; Xue, Y.; Chin, M.; Flanner, M.; De Sales, F.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Snow albedo is known to have a significant impact on energy and water budgets by modulating land-atmosphere flux exchanges. In recent decades, anthropogenic activities that cause dust and soot emission and deposition on snow-covered areas have lead to the alteration of snow albedo. Our study aims to investigate and quantitatively assess the impact of aerosols-in-snow on surface energy and water budgets at a local and regional scale using a recently enhanced regional climate model that has physically based snow processes, including aerosols in snow. We employ NCAR's WRF-ARW model, which we have previously coupled with a land surface model, Simplified Simple Biosphere version 3 (SSiB-3). We improve the original WRF/SSiB-3 framework to include a snow-radiative transfer model, Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiative (SNICAR) model, which considers the effects of snow grain size and aerosols-in-snow on snow albedo evolution. Furthermore, the modified WRF/SSiB-3 can now account for the deposition and tracking of aerosols in snow. The model is run for 10 continuous years (2000-2009) over North America under two scenarios: (1) no aerosol deposition in snow, and (2) with GOCART dust, black carbon, and organic carbon surface deposition in snow. By comparing the two cases, we can investigate the impact of aerosols-in-snow. We examine the changes in surface energy balance, such as albedo, surface net solar radiation (radiative forcing), and surface air and skin temperature, and how these might interact with, and lead to, changes in the hydrologic cycle, including SWE, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. We investigate the mechanisms and feedbacks that might contribute to the changes seen across select regions of North America, which are potentially a result of both local and remote effects.

  14. Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haesun

    2005-12-01

    Given the role electricity and natural gas sectors play in the North American economy, an understanding of how markets for these commodities interact is important. This dissertation independently characterizes the price dynamics of major electricity and natural gas spot markets in North America by combining directed acyclic graphs with time series analyses. Furthermore, the dissertation explores a generalization of price difference bands associated with the law of one price. Interdependencies among 11 major electricity spot markets are examined in Chapter II using a vector autoregression model. Results suggest that the relationships between the markets vary by time. Western markets are separated from the eastern markets and the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas. At longer time horizons these separations disappear. Palo Verde is the important spot market in the west for price discovery. Southwest Power Pool is the dominant market in Eastern Interconnected System for price discovery. Interdependencies among eight major natural gas spot markets are investigated using a vector error correction model and the Greedy Equivalence Search Algorithm in Chapter III. Findings suggest that the eight price series are tied together through six long-run cointegration relationships, supporting the argument that the natural gas market has developed into a single integrated market in North America since deregulation. Results indicate that price discovery tends to occur in the excess consuming regions and move to the excess producing regions. Across North America, the U.S. Midwest region, represented by the Chicago spot market, is the most important for price discovery. The Ellisburg-Leidy Hub in Pennsylvania and Malin Hub in Oregon are important for eastern and western markets. In Chapter IV, a threshold vector error correction model is applied to the natural gas markets to examine nonlinearities in adjustments to the law of one price. Results show that there are nonlinear

  15. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  16. Energy and Environment Directorate Status Report March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2006-02-21

    The Energy and Environment Directorate (E& ED) is one of 13 directorates at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is operated by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We operate in the context of a national security laboratory and focus on meeting major national needs, especially from a long-term perspective. In the LLNL context, E&ED is a hybrid ''program'' and ''discipline'' directorate, combining the program development responsibilities in the national energy and environment arenas to the benefit of the entire Laboratory and also serving as the Laboratory's science base of atmospheric, earth, environmental, and energy science. This Status Report is part of the annual evaluation process required by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its contract with UC. The annual review typically will focus on about one third of the activities and programs of a directorate, so that the entire organization is evaluated over a three-year window. This year's review is focused on the basic science foundations for the directorate and two major program areas in the directorate, with an update from a third program. The programs for review are: (1) Earth System Science and Engineering; (2) Nuclear Systems Science and Engineering; and (3) NARAC/IMAAC update. Major questions to be addressed during this review include: (1) Are the programmatic directions appropriate? How can they be improved? (2) What actions can E&ED take to ensure success? How well poised for success are the current staff and facilities? What additions are needed? (3) What recommendations can be made to the Director and the University? This Status Report provides background information on the entire directorate including the parts of the directorate that are the focus of this year's review by the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee, to be held March 6-9, 2006. The following sections describe the overall

  17. Building America Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center, Denver, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a 'Power of Zero Energy Center' linked to its model home in the Stapleton community of Denver. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. The case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  18. Fluxes of water and energy in physically heterogeneous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.D.; Barnes, F.J.; Davenport, D.W.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluxes of water and energy at the near-surface environment are tightly interrelated with a heterogeneous vegetation pattern that is a mosaic of tree canopies and intercanopy area. The objective was to improve the ability to predict these interrelationships, which are not well quantified. The authors (1) quantified how vegetation overstory determines the patterns of soil moisture and near-ground solar radiation, (2) developed spatial neighborhood analyses that demonstrated how woody plants exploit canopy/intercanopy heterogeneity, (3) developed a spatially explicit model for predicting near-ground solar radiation for sites along a grassland-forest continuum, (4) developed a water balance model that predicted temporal shifts in soil moisture between canopy and intercanopy patches, and (5) used the collective results to assess large-scale ecosystem responses to climate variations that lead to accelerated soil erosion.

  19. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Vegas Review Journal and the Moapa Valley Progress and on the following Web site: www.MoapaSolarEnergy... of a solar energy ground lease and agreements entered into by the Tribe with Moapa Solar LLC... caption ``DEIS Comments, Proposed Moapa Solar Energy Center'' on the first page of your written...

  20. Chemical energy powered nano/micro/macromotors and the environment.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The rise of miniaturized artificial self-powered devices, demonstrating autonomous motion, has brought in new considerations from the environmental perspective. This review addresses the interplay between these nano/micro/macromotors and the environment, recent advances, and their applications in pollution management. Such self-propelled devices are able to actuate chemical energy into mechanical motion in situ, adding another powerful dimension towards solving environmental problems. Use of synthetic nano/micro/macromotors has demonstrated potential in environmental remediation, both in pollutant removal and contaminant degradation, owing to motion-induced mixing. At the same time, the chemical environment exerts influence on the locomotion of the motors. These sensitized self-powered devices demonstrate capabilities for being deployed as sensors and their chemotactic behaviors show efficacy to act as first responders towards a chemical leakage. Thus, the notion of a self-propelling entity also entails further investigation into its inherent toxicity and possible implications as a pollutant. Future challenges and outlook of the use of these miniaturized devices are discussed, with specific regard to the fields of environmental remediation and monitoring, as we move towards their wider acceptance. We believe that these tiny machines will stand up to the task as solutions for environmental sustainability in the 21st century. PMID:25410790

  1. Photochemical conversion of solar energy in the environment. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Zepp, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. Recently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric condensed phases. These new investigations have been stimulated in part by interest in developing a scientific understanding of the role of photochemical processes in the biogeochemical cycles of various elements. In addition, other studies have explored the role of natural photochemical processes in cleansing the environemnt of various waste materials or, in some cases, in converting the wastes to more toxic substances. In the paper, current research results on the photochemical conversion of solar energy in aquatic environments and on soil and metal oxide surfaces are presented. Rate equations and products for selected homogeneous and heterogeneous photoreactions that occur in these systems are described. Data are presented for direct and sensitized photoreactions and for sunlight-initiated free radical reactions. (Copyright (c) 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  2. North America Today: A Reproducible Atlas. 1995 Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This book contains illustrative maps, tables and graphs depicting North America's: size; population; resources; commodities; trade; languages; religions; cities; environment; food and agriculture; schooling; jobs; energy; industry, demographic statistics; women; aspects of government; and territorial disputes. Sections of the book include: (1)…

  3. Counting on Energy. Project E3 (Energy, Economics, and the Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr.; Reese, D. Chris

    Five units are designed to provide an opportunity for in-depth, technical analysis in the fields of energy, economics, and the environment. In an effort to move upper elementary and secondary students beyond general awareness, activities call for the application of numbers where typically only vague generalities are discussed. Within each chapter,…

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. Assessing the suitability of Holocene environments along the central Belize coast, Central America, for the reconstruction of hurricane records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomat, Friederike; Gischler, Eberhard

    2016-03-01

    Since the Belize coast was repeatedly affected by hurricanes and the paleohurricane record for this region is poor, sediment cores from coastal lagoon environments along the central Belize coast have been examined in order to identify storm deposits. The paleohurricane record presented in this study spans the past 8000 years and exhibits three periods with increased evidences of hurricane strikes occurring at 6000-4900, 4200-3600 and 2200-1500 cal yr BP. Two earlier events around 7100 and 7900 cal yr BP and more recent events around 180 cal yr BP and during modern times have been detected. Sand layers, redeposited corals and lagoon shell concentrations have been used as proxies for storm deposition. Additionally, hiatuses and reversed ages may indicate storm influence. While sand layers and corals represent overwash deposits, the lagoon shell concentrations, which mainly comprise the bivalve Anomalocardia cuneimeris and cerithid gastropods, have been deposited due to changes in lagoon salinity during and after storm landfalls. Comparison with other studies reveals similarities with one record from Belize, but hardly any matches with other published records. The potential for paleotempestology reconstructions of the barrier-lagoon complexes along the central Belize coast differs depending on geomorphology, and deposition of washovers in the lagoon basins is limited, probably due to the interplay of biological, geological and geomorphological processes.

  6. The future of energy efficiency services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-12-31

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry raises fundamental strategic questions about how energy efficiency services can best be delivered. While some utilities believe that the ``commoditization`` of electric power will extinguish their role in providing efficiency services, others are committed to developing new ways of profitably delivering highly integrated service packages in a more competitive environment. In other industries that have undergone similar transitions, leading companies have prospered by developing new ``reintegration`` strategies to provide enhanced customer value. In the electric power sector, these strategies will bring to the fore finance and marketing skills, giving rise to far-reaching changes in the provision of energy services. Using market-based forward prices for electricity, power merchants may soon be able to ``monetize`` electricity savings and arbitrate against kilowatt-hour prices. Providers of efficiency services will be forced to develop new techniques for ``mass customization`` of service packages, incorporating features such as power quality management, innovative pricing, billing, and financial risk management. Technology integration will be a central task for these companies. As the transmission and distribution grid is permeated with real-time price information, the optimal technical solutions for the customer, including distributed generation, storage, and efficiency options, will become increasingly site-specific and time-dependent.

  7. Characterization of an energy storage capacitor in abnormal thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.; Chen, K.C.; Baron, R.V.

    2000-01-05

    There are applications of high-voltage, energy-storage, capacitors where it is desirable that the energy storage capability can be reliably and predictably negated in abnormal environments such as fire. This property serves as a safety feature to prevent events of unintended consequence. The present paper describes studies of the thermal response characteristics of a cylindrically wound, discrete Mylar film/foil capacitor design. The experimental setups that simulate fires will be presented. Three different heat input geometries were employed: uniform radial input, spot radial input, and axial input. Heat input was controlled via feedback system to maintain specific temperature ramp rates. Both capacitor voltage and current were monitored during the thermal excursion to ascertain the failure temperature, i.e. when the capacitor permanently shorts. Temperature of failure data is presented for the three heat input cases along with a statistical analysis of the results and application implications. The physics of failure will be described in terms of the thermal/mechanical properties of the Mylar.

  8. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for

  9. Using EnergyPlus to Perform Dehumidification Analysis on Building America Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xia; Winkler, Jon; Christensen, Dane

    2011-03-01

    This study used EnergyPlus to investigate humidity issues on a typical mid-1990s reference home, a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code home, and a high-performance home in a hot-humid climate; the study confirmed that supplemental dehumidification should be provided to maintain space relative humidity below 60% in a hot-humid climate.

  10. 78 FR 22043 - Rural Energy for America Program-Grants and Guaranteed Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... (RBS) promulgated a rule (70 FR 41264, July 18, 2005) establishing the renewable energy systems and... guarantees and grants. On April 14, 2011, Rural Development published an Interim Rule for REAP (76 FR 21110... 26, 2009 (74 FR 24769) and August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47525). For energy audits and renewable...

  11. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  12. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  13. Strengthening America's Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  14. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude. PMID:26315373

  15. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  16. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  17. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  18. Energy and the Environment. Final Report, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E., Ed.; Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    These self-contained energy units were developed by Florida teachers to help high school students better understand energy, energy conservation, and life-styles. The major objectives are to help students understand the science and technology of energy, make informed and fair judgments on energy options, make personal life-style commitments which…

  19. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Burton; Goldston, David; Crabtree, George; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Greene, David; Kammen, Dan; Levine, Mark; Lubell, Michael; Savitz, Maxine; Sperling, Daniel; Schlachter, Fred; Scofield, John; Dawson, James

    2008-10-01

    The American Physical Society regularly produces reports on issues of public import that require technical understanding and for which an objective and authoritative analysis would be of particular use to the public and policy makers. This report, entitled Energy Future: Think Efficiency, is the latest in the series and appears here as a special supplement issue of Reviews of Modern Physics, as have other such reports. It is hard to imagine a more timely study topic, given the urgent environmental, geopolitical, and economic incentives for improving energy efficiency at this juncture. Energy Future: Think Efficiency provides a valuable and broadly applicable guide to effective approaches, many of which employ existing technologies and, surprisingly, need not be difficult or expensive. In order to have the most immediate impact, an earlier version of Energy Future: Think Efficiency was issued at a press release in Washington, D.C. in September of 2008 in hard copy and online. Prior to its release a distinguished review panel examined the report and its conclusions. Thus the study has been rigorously refereed although this was outside of the usual review process employed by RMP. Except for adjustments in pagination, this version is unchanged from the earlier version. The report introduction contains full information on the study personnel, review panel members, and other acknowledgments, so these are not repeated here. What is repeated is an expression of deep appreciation to all those involved in the preparation of a revelatory report on a topic of critical importance.

  20. Energy exchange and evapotranspiration over two temperate semi-arid grasslands in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seasonal and interannual variability in surface energy exchange and evapotranspiration (E) of two temperate semi-arid grasslands in southern Arizona, USA were investigated using continuous eddy covariance measurements from 2004 to 2007, including two drought years (2004 and 2005). One of the gra...

  1. Building America Case Study: Community-Scale Energy Modeling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes' was modeled. The homes were in two communities--one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  2. Advanced Dehumidification Analysis on Building America Homes Using EnergyPlus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

    2010-08-01

    A parametric study was conducted using EnergyPlus version 4.0 to analyze the impact of various dehumidification equipment and control strategies on a typical mid-1990's reference home, a 2006 IECC home, and a high-performance home in a hot humid climate.

  3. ACCESSING OVERSEAS MARKETS ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND APPLIANCE LABELING IN ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to reduce pollution and environmental degradation by increasing the efficiency of energy end-uses in the industrial and household sectors of key Asian and Latin American countries. This will be accomplished by encouraging the adoption and harmo...

  4. Energy and Economic Impacts of H.R.5049, the Keep America Competitive Global Warming Policy

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2006 request from Congressmen Tom Udall and Tom Petri asking the Energy Information Administration to analyze the impacts of their legislation implementing a market-based allowance program to cap greenhouse gas emissions at 2009 levels.

  5. Using EnergyPlus to Perform Dehumidification Analysis on Building America Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

    2011-03-01

    A parametric study was conducted using EnergyPlus version 6.0 to investigate humidity issues on a typical mid-1990s reference home, a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code home, and a high-performance home in a hot-humid climate. The impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls are analyzed on the high performance home. The study examined the combined effects of infiltration and mechanical ventilation with balanced and unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems. Indoor relative humidity excursions were examined; specifically, the number of excursions, average excursion length, and maximum excursion length. Space relative humidity, thermal comfort, and whole-house source energy consumption were analyzed for indoor relative humidity set points of 50%, 55%, and 60%. The study showed and explained why similar trends of high humidity were observed in all three homes regardless of energy efficiency, and why humidity problems are not necessarily unique in high-performance homes. Thermal comfort analysis indicated that occupants are unlikely to notice indoor humidity problems. The study confirmed that supplemental dehumidification should be provided to maintain space relative humidity below 60% in a hot-humid climate.

  6. Feasibility study of porous media compressed air energy storage in South Carolina, United States of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene

    Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle

  7. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lieshout, P. van

    1996-12-31

    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  8. High plains changes: An ethnography of energy development in rural America

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is an ethnographic study of an industrial boom and its aftermath in Mercer County, North Dakota. It is based on field research undertaken there between 1980 and 1985. The author's field work took place during and after the construction of an enormous complex including a strip mine, two electrical generating units, and a synthetic gas plant. He examines the transformations that occurred in local society, economy, and politics over the course of the energy boom, focusing on how local social structure, culture, and ideology influenced the relationship between the energy corporations and the communities, and shaped Mercer Countians' understanding of events. Mercer Countians' conception of historical change was basically social-evolutionistic, and hegemonically dominated by the ideology of progress. Corporate publicity encouraged them to equate industrialization with progress and future prosperity. The industrial developers are the primary beneficiaries of this system that encourages the residents of affected communities not to interfere in the shaping of their own future.

  9. Energy sprawl or energy efficiency: climate policy impacts on natural habitat for the United States of America.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joe; Miller, William M; Powell, Jimmie

    2009-01-01

    Concern over climate change has led the U.S. to consider a cap-and-trade system to regulate emissions. Here we illustrate the land-use impact to U.S. habitat types of new energy development resulting from different U.S. energy policies. We estimated the total new land area needed by 2030 to produce energy, under current law and under various cap-and-trade policies, and then partitioned the area impacted among habitat types with geospatial data on the feasibility of production. The land-use intensity of different energy production techniques varies over three orders of magnitude, from 1.9-2.8 km(2)/TW hr/yr for nuclear power to 788-1000 km(2)/TW hr/yr for biodiesel from soy. In all scenarios, temperate deciduous forests and temperate grasslands will be most impacted by future energy development, although the magnitude of impact by wind, biomass, and coal to different habitat types is policy-specific. Regardless of the existence or structure of a cap-and-trade bill, at least 206,000 km(2) will be impacted without substantial increases in energy efficiency, which saves at least 7.6 km(2) per TW hr of electricity conserved annually and 27.5 km(2) per TW hr of liquid fuels conserved annually. Climate policy that reduces carbon dioxide emissions may increase the areal impact of energy, although the magnitude of this potential side effect may be substantially mitigated by increases in energy efficiency. The possibility of widespread energy sprawl increases the need for energy conservation, appropriate siting, sustainable production practices, and compensatory mitigation offsets. PMID:19707570

  10. Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joe; Miller, William M.; Powell, Jimmie

    2009-01-01

    Concern over climate change has led the U.S. to consider a cap-and-trade system to regulate emissions. Here we illustrate the land-use impact to U.S. habitat types of new energy development resulting from different U.S. energy policies. We estimated the total new land area needed by 2030 to produce energy, under current law and under various cap-and-trade policies, and then partitioned the area impacted among habitat types with geospatial data on the feasibility of production. The land-use intensity of different energy production techniques varies over three orders of magnitude, from 1.9–2.8 km2/TW hr/yr for nuclear power to 788–1000 km2/TW hr/yr for biodiesel from soy. In all scenarios, temperate deciduous forests and temperate grasslands will be most impacted by future energy development, although the magnitude of impact by wind, biomass, and coal to different habitat types is policy-specific. Regardless of the existence or structure of a cap-and-trade bill, at least 206,000 km2 will be impacted without substantial increases in energy efficiency, which saves at least 7.6 km2 per TW hr of electricity conserved annually and 27.5 km2 per TW hr of liquid fuels conserved annually. Climate policy that reduces carbon dioxide emissions may increase the areal impact of energy, although the magnitude of this potential side effect may be substantially mitigated by increases in energy efficiency. The possibility of widespread energy sprawl increases the need for energy conservation, appropriate siting, sustainable production practices, and compensatory mitigation offsets. PMID:19707570

  11. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  12. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 11 and 12 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  13. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 9 and 10 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  14. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 4, 5, and 6 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  15. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 6, 7, and 8 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  16. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 45 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students apply knowledge of energy uses to energy conservation in the home and develop an awareness of their own social responsibilities for energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of six objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  17. Avian fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America: A comparison of recent approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Loss, Scott R.; Smallwood, K. Shawn; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2016-01-01

    Three recent publications have estimated the number of birds killed each year by wind energy facilities at 2012 build-out levels in the United States. The 3 publications differ in scope, methodology, and resulting estimates. We compare and contrast characteristics of the approaches used in the publications. In addition, we describe decisions made in obtaining the estimates that were produced. Despite variation in the 3 approaches, resulting estimates were reasonably similar; about a quarter- to a half-million birds are killed per year by colliding with wind turbines.

  18. The LAGO Collaboration: Searching for high energy GRB emissions in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, H.; Lago Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    During more than a decade Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB a cosmological phenomena of tremendous power) have been extensively studied in the keV - MeV energy range. However, the higher energy emission still remains a mystery. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (L.A.G.O.) is an international collaboration started in 2005 aiming at a better understanding of the GRB by studying their emission at high energies (> 1 GeV), where the fluxes are low and measurements by satellites are difficult. This is done using the Single Particle Technique, by means of ground-based Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at sites of high altitude. At those altitudes it is possible to detect air showers produced by high energy photons from the GRB, i. e. a higher rate of events on a short time scale, of the order of the second. The Pierre Auger Observatory could detect such GRB given its large number of detectors, but at 1400 m.a.s.l. the expected signal is quite small. At higher altitudes, similar performance is expected with only a very small number of WCD. As of 2011, high altitude WCD are in operation at Sierra Negra (Mexico, 4650 m.a.s.l.), Chacaltaya (Bolivia, 5200 m.a.s.l.), Maracapomacocha (Peru, 4200 m.a.s.l.), and new WCDs are being installed in Venezuela (Pico Espejo, 4750 m.a.s.l.), Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala. Most of the new WCDs will not be at high enough altitude to detect GRB, never the less it will allow obtaining valuable measurements of secondaries at ground level, which are relevant for solar physics. The LAGO sensitivity to GRB is determined from simulations (under a sudden increase of 1 GeV - 1 TeV photons from a GRB) of the gamma initiated particle shower in the atmosphere and the WCD response to secondaries. We report on WDC calibration and operation at high altitude, GRB detectability, background rates, search for bursts in several months of preliminary data, as well as search for signals at ground level when satellite burst is reported, all these show the

  19. The Trenton Group (Upper Ordovician Series) of eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Trenton Group of eastern North America is a predominately carbonate series of sedimentary rocks that contains major oil and gas deposits. The 18 papers contained in this volume discuss the stratigraphy, depositional environment, tectonics, and petroleum and natural gas exploration in this sedimentary sequence. Each of the papers has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

  20. RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM. FISCAL YEAR 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administered by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry within EPA's Office of Research and Development, the Interagency Energy/Environment Program plans, coordinates, and funds research and development on the health and environmental effects and on control technologies relat...

  1. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    This dissertation focuses on understanding two different, but in each case extreme, astrophysical environments: the Crab Nebula and emission line galaxies. These relatively local objects are well constrained by observations and are test cases of phenomena seen at high-z where detailed observations are rare. The tool used to study these objects is the plasma simulation code known as Cloudy. The introduction provides a brief summary of relevant physical concepts in nebular astrophysics and presents the basic features and assumptions of Cloudy. The first object investigated with Cloudy, the Crab Nebula, is a nearby supernova remnant that previously has been subject to photoionization modeling to reproduce the ionized emission seen in the nebula's filamentary structure. However, there are still several unanswered questions: (1) What excites the H2 emitting gas? (2) How much mass is in the molecular component? (3) How did the H2 form? (4) What is nature of the dust grains? A large suite of observations including long slit optical and NIR spectra over ionized, neutral and molecular gas in addition to HST and NIR ground based images constrain a particularly bright region of H2 emission, Knot 51, which exhibits a high excitation temperature of ˜3000 K. Simulations of K51 revealed that only a trace amount of H2 is needed to reproduce the observed emission and that H2 forms through an uncommon nebular process known as associative detachment. The final chapters of this dissertation focus on interpreting the narrow line region (NLR) in low-z emission line galaxies selected by a novel technique known as mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). A mixture of starlight and radiation from an AGN excites the gas present in galaxies. MFICA separates galaxies over a wide range of ionization into subsets of pure AGN and pure star forming galaxies allowing simulations to reveal the properties responsible for their observed variation in ionization. Emission line ratios can

  2. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  3. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Meier, Alan K.

    1999-12-01

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services--and a host of other vital services--must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  4. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for kindergarten and grades 1 to 3 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3)…

  5. Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David

    1981-01-01

    Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food…

  6. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 33 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students become familiar with past, present, and alternative sources and forms of energy as well as the economic and environmental cost of energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of five objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  7. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  8. Energy, Economics, and the Environment: Case Studies and Teaching Activities for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Educators are faced with the task of teaching students to be responsible stewards of the world's natural resources. This curriculum focuses on three interrelated topics in this area: energy, economics, and the environment. The goal of this book is to: (1) teach students basic knowledge and concepts about energy, the environment, and economics; (2)…

  9. 78 FR 16465 - Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and the... Commercial Service (CS), is organizing an Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand, and the... the Asian Development Bank (CS ADB) in Manila, mission participants will also have the opportunity...

  10. Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future: Report to the Secretary of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Preamble The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future (BRC) was formed by the Secretary of Energy at the request of the President to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new strategy. It was co-chaired by Rep. Lee H. Hamilton and Gen. Brent Scowcroft. Other Commissioners are Mr. Mark H. Ayers, the Hon. Vicky A. Bailey, Dr. Albert Carnesale, Sen. Pete Domenici, Ms. Susan Eisenhower, Sen. Chuck Hagel, Mr. Jonathan Lash, Dr. Allison M. Macfarlane, Dr. Richard A. Meserve, Dr. Ernest J. Moniz, Dr. Per Peterson, Mr. John Rowe, and Rep. Phil Sharp. The Commission and its subcommittees met more than two dozen times between March 2010 and January 2012 to hear testimony from experts and stakeholders, to visit nuclear waste management facilities in the United States and abroad, and to discuss the issues identified in its Charter. Additionally, in September and October 2011, the Commission held five public meetings, in different regions of the country, to hear feedback on its draft report. A wide variety of organizations, interest groups, and individuals provided input to the Commission at these meetings and through the submission of written materials. Copies of all of these submissions, along with records and transcripts of past meetings, are available at the BRC website (www.brc.gov). This report highlights the Commission’s findings and conclusions and presents recommendations for consideration by the Administration and Congress, as well as interested state, tribal and local governments, other stakeholders, and the public.

  11. Wind Powering America Webinar Series (Postcard), Wind Powering America (WPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Wind Powering America offers a free monthly webinar series that provides expert information on today?s key wind energy topics. This postcard is an outreach tool that provides a brief description of the webinars as well as the URL.

  12. Energy efficiency and the environment: Forging the link

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Crawley, D.; Centolella, P.

    1991-12-31

    Energy efficiency in homes, the workplace and transportation provides one of the most immediate and valuable solutions to the environmental problems that endanger the world. This book addresses the direct correlation between conserving energy and mitigating environmental hazards such as global warming, air pollution, acid rain, and ozone depletion. Twenty chapters focus on how energy efficiency measures and programs can reduce pollutant emissions, and how planners can incorporate environmental externalities in the allocation of natural resources. Based on papers presented at the ACEEE 1990 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, the book is written by leading researchers, program analysts and policymakers. Topics include: global warming--public perspectives and CO{sub 2} reduction potential; efficiency improvements as an acid rain compliance strategy; efficiency and regulatory policy options; environmental externality costs; integrating energy and environmental planning; trees, landscaping and urban heat islands; and CFCs, energy use in buildings.

  13. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1995-11-01

    This book discusses the broad topic of environmental science. Several articles specifically address the climate problem. The development of emission inventories, which are crucial inputs to climate models, is discussed. The complex task of simplifying the structure of environmental science in order to produce environmental indices that permit more subtle environmental policies is evaluated. Several authors present aspects of environmental policy analysis, all in an international context. In addition, other topics focus on energy supply, energy demand, energy use, and energy efficiency. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  15. PHOTOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. ecently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric co...

  16. Solar America Initiative (Across America Map)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet gives an overview of the Solar America Initiative (SAI) using a map to show locations of the Solar America Cities, Solar America Showcases and other market transformation and research and development projects.

  17. Textbook America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  18. Illiterate America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  19. Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents resources for grades K-8, on the subject of Colonial America. Describes Web sites; CD-ROMs and software; videos; books; audios; magazines; and professional resources. Includes two articles, "Native Americans in the Colonies," and "The Golden Age of Pirates," which also highlight resources. Presents a Web activity focusing on daily life in…

  20. America 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Danis P.

    1991-01-01

    America 2000 is the first serious policy initiative in U.S. history to consider enlargement of the federal education role. The program is vigorous, upbeat, and demands hard work, private initiative, self-reliance, and freedom from bureaucratic intrusion. The U.S. public supports underlying concepts: choice, higher standards, radical reform, and…

  1. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  2. Strategic environments (SWOT) for nuclear energy innovation in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Joon; Oh, Keun-Bae

    2004-07-01

    In prospecting the role of nuclear energy in a future society, it is necessary to foresee the social attitudes towards energy, economy and environment, and to analyze their interactions with the exploitation of nuclear energy itself. As those issues, this article looks upon the change of the socio-economic environment, the concerns about nuclear power and eco-environment, and the sustainability and limits of the energy resources, etc. With this perception, the so-called SWOT analysis is employed to identify the internal strengths (S) and/or weaknesses (W) of nuclear energy compared with other energy competitors on the basis of the evaluation of the external factors which are likely to play the roles of opportunities (O) for and/or threats (T) against the technological change in nuclear energy. (authors)

  3. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 11. Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Marine Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-09-01

    This best practices guide is the eleventh in a series of guides for builders produced by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the marine climate (portions of Washington, Oregon, and California) can achieve homes that have whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers. These best practices are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. The guide includes information for managers, designers, marketers, site supervisors, and subcontractors, as well as case studies of builders who are successfully building homes that cut energy use by 40% in the marine climate. This document is available on the web at www.buildingamerica.gov. This report was originally cleared 06-29-2010. This version is Rev 1 cleared in Nov 2010. The only change is the reference to the Energy Star Windows critieria shown on pg 8.25 was updated to match the criteria - Version 5.0, 04/07/2009, effective 01/04/2010.

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  5. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides in fossil energy environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification and combustion is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} and chlorine as HCl. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys, including iron aluminides, in multicomponent gas environments of typical coal-conversion systems. Mechanisms of scale development/breakdown, performance envelopes for long-term usage of these materials, approaches to modifying the surfaces of engineering alloys by cladding or coating them with intermetallics, and in-service experience with these materials are emphasized. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the electrospark deposition process or by weld overlay techniques.

  6. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  7. 75 FR 68784 - Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of, and soliciting public comments for 30 days, on voluntary Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades, in conjunction with the availability of the Department of Energy (DOE) Workforce Guidelines for Home Energy. The EPA protocols are intended for voluntary adoption by weatherization......

  8. Meeting the Challenge: Providing High-Quality School Environments through Energy Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birr, David

    2000-01-01

    Energy performance contracting allows schools to pay for needed new energy equipment and modernization improvements with savings from reduced utility and maintenance costs. Improved energy efficiency reduces demand for burning fossil fuels, which reduces air pollution, leading to improved learning environments and budgets (through improved average…

  9. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  10. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  11. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  12. America's challenge.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, G N

    1968-01-01

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than

  13. ENVIRONMENT CONSEQUENCES OF WOOD AND OTHER BIOMASS SOURCES OF ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current important researchg needs whose results will be critical to EPA's mission in the next two to three decades with regard to a major expansion in the use of biomass, as an energy source are identified. Biomass currently contributes about 2.4 quads or 3% to the total national...

  14. THE CLEAN ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT GUIDE TO ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guide to Action identifies and describes sixteen clean energy policies and strategies that are delivering economic and environmental results for states. For each policy, the Guide describes: Objectives and benefits of the policy; Examples of states that have implemented the p...

  15. The Economy, Energy, and the Environment. A Background Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This study surveys the existing literature related to various technical aspects of electric power production, with primary emphasis on the supply of the various fuels used in the production of electricity and on the environmental consequences of energy conversion. It was prepared by the Environmental Policy Division, Legislative Reference Service,…

  16. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  17. 75 FR 74750 - In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Register (74 FR 28112), that requires applicants for a variety of licensing activities, including nuclear... entities required to protect SGI (73 FR 63546). The NRC is issuing this Order to Toshiba America Nuclear... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72...

  18. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  19. Resolving North America`s environmental disputes

    SciTech Connect

    Mauseth, M.

    1998-12-31

    Seventeen years ago John E. Carroll and Newell B. Mack analyzed the then-current status of environmental protection mechanisms used between Canada and the United States. They criticized the ad hoc nature of North America`s history of environmental dispute resolution, which they dubbed ``ad hockery,`` and believed the present ambiguity hurt business, diplomatic relations, and the citizenry`s environment. Since that publication, increasing efforts to incorporate environmental concerns into Conventions have resulted in several multilateral agreements focusing on environmental protection and dispute resolution. Part 2 of this paper introduces a few of these recent agreements and the mechanisms they have established to monitor environmental damage and to enforce the goals of the agreements. The agreements discussed include: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Canada-United States: Agreement on Air Quality; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Part 3 discusses the general concern related to economic development (with the need to maintain ``sustainable development``), the possible environmental impact of NAFTA, and the Supplemental Agreement`s strengths and weaknesses.

  20. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 9: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Love, Pat M.

    2009-10-23

    This best practices guide is the ninth in a series of guides for builders produced by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates can achieve homes that have whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers. These best practices are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. The guide includes information for managers, designers, marketers, site supervisors, and subcontractors, as well as case studies of builders who are successfully building homes that cut energy use by 40% in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  1. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  2. Closing Keynote Presentation on the Genomics of Energy and the Environment (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Benner, Stephen [Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology

    2013-01-22

    Steve Benner, a distinguished chemist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, provides the closing keynote address for the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  3. Closing Keynote Presentation on the Genomics of Energy and the Environment (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, Stephen

    2012-03-22

    Steve Benner, a distinguished chemist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, provides the closing keynote address for the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  4. Marine-hydrokinetic energy and the environment: Observations, modeling, and basic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-03-01

    Research at the Interface of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy and the Environment: A Workshop; Minneapolis, Minnesota, 5-7 October 2011 Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy harvesting technologies convert the kinetic energy of waves and water currents into power to generate electricity. Although these technologies are in early stages of development compared to other renewable technologies, such as solar and wind energy, they offer electricity consumers situated near coastlines or inland rivers an alternative energy technology that can help meet renewable portfolio standards. However, the potential environmental impacts of MHK energy are far from well understood, both in general principles and in site-specific cases. As pressure for new MHK energy licenses builds, accelerated research in providing the scientific understanding of harnessing the natural power of water for renewable energy at a competitive cost and without harming the environment becomes a priority.

  5. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages. PMID:21817042

  6. Seismic energy transmission in an intensively scattering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    In order to account for some special features of lunar seismograms, namely, the gradual build-up of the signal, the extremely prolonged tail, and the lack of apparent coherence among three orthogonal components of ground motion, a statistical approach is proposed for describing transmission of seismic energy through a medium in which strong scattering takes place. A seismic diffusion theory is presented for a medium with randomly distributed scatterers of a given size distribution. A solution of the resulting diffusion equation for an impulsive energy source gives a curve which fairly closely reproduces the envelope of typical lunar impact seismograms. Since the model is based on constant diffusivity, long-range transmission will require a combination of diffusion and wave propagation treatments for accurate description.

  7. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  8. Keynote Presentation: Genome Beat (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Zimmer, Carl [New York Times

    2013-01-22

    Carl Zimmer, a reporter for the New York Times, speaks on "The Genome Beat," the opening keynote presentation at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  9. Keynote Presentation: Genome Beat (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, Carl

    2012-03-20

    Carl Zimmer, a reporter for the New York Times, speaks on "The Genome Beat," the opening keynote presentation at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  10. Negotiating energy dynamics through embodied action in a materially structured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Flood, Virginia J.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Wittmann, Michael C.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2013-12-01

    We provide evidence that a learning activity called Energy Theater engages learners with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including disambiguating matter flow and energy flow and theorizing mechanisms for energy transformation. A participationist theory of learning, in which learning is indicated by changes in speech and behavior, supports ethnographic analysis of learners’ embodied interactions with each other and the material setting. We conduct detailed analysis to build plausible causal links between specific features of Energy Theater and the conceptual engagement that we observe. Disambiguation of matter and energy appears to be promoted especially by the material structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants, while objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope. Theorizing mechanisms of energy transformation is promoted especially by Energy Theater’s embodied action, which necessitates modeling the time ordering of energy transformations.

  11. Mining death: Cancer among America`s uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.

    1995-10-01

    The approach the author takes in this book is that American uranium miners suffered unnecessary severe, often fatal, health problems because of their exposure to radiation. More than half the book reprints a 1986 report from the Committee on Energy and Commerce titled `America`s Nuclear Guinea Pigs: three Decades of Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens.` The book continues well documented history of the nuclear era.

  12. Science and society test VII: Energy and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, D.W.

    1982-08-01

    Approximate numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of environmental effects that result from energy production. The results of these calculations are consistent with either direct observations or with more complex calculations. This paper will cover some of the possible environmental effects of the following: (1) the greenhouse effect caused by increased CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere; (2) loss of coolant accidents in nuclear reactors; (3) increased radon concentrations in buildings with very low air infiltration rates; (4) acid rain from the combustion of fossil fuels; (5) expolosions of liquified natural gas (LNG); and (6) ozone in the stratosphere.

  13. Science and society test VII: Energy and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1982-08-01

    Approximate numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of environmental effects that result from energy production. The results of these calculations are consistent with either direct observations or with more complex calculations. This paper will cover some of the possible environmental effects of the following: (1) the greenhouse effect caused by increased CO2 in the atmosphere; (2) loss of coolant accidents in nuclear reactors; (3) increased radon concentrations in buildings with very low air infiltration rates; (4) acid rain from the combustion of fossil fuels; (5) expolosions of liquified natural gas (LNG); and (6) ozone in the stratosphere.

  14. Energy efficiency services: What role in a competitive environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-11-01

    If experience from other industries counts, energy services will remain the strategically critical center of the chessboard in a reconfigured electric utility market. Players who can create customized, integrated packages of customer services will be in a strong position to {open_quotes}create value{close_quotes} in a highly fragmented and competitive industry. The initial phase of disintegration is likely to be followed by period of reintegration, in which non-price services become increasing important. An overview is given on how utilities can deliver value to customers through innovative marketing strategies, leveraging existing knowledge, and the maintaining or building of infrastructure.

  15. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  16. Providing a computing environment for a high energy physics workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    Although computing facilities have been provided at conferences and workshops remote from the hose institution for some years, the equipment provided has rarely been capable of providing for much more than simple editing and electronic mail over leased lines. This presentation describes the pioneering effort involved by the Computing Department/Division at Fermilab in providing a local computing facility with world-wide networking capability for the Physics at Fermilab in the 1990's workshop held in Breckenridge, Colorado, in August 1989, as well as the enhanced facilities provided for the 1990 Summer Study on High Energy Physics at Snowmass, Colorado, in June/July 1990. Issues discussed include type and sizing of the facilities, advance preparations, shipping, on-site support, as well as an evaluation of the value of the facility to the workshop participants.

  17. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modem levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the downside risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth. That means providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand.

  18. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  19. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2014-05-13

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  20. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  1. Building environment analysis based on temperature and humidity for smart energy systems.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaeseok; Won, Kwang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment. PMID:23202004

  2. Building Environment Analysis based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jaeseok; Won, Kwang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment. PMID:23202004

  3. Creating High Energy Density Jets in Laboratory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Robert

    2005-04-01

    A new experimental platform for the investigation of high Mach-number, high energy-density jets has been developed at the University of Rochester's Omega laser facility. Assuming the scalability of the Euler equations, the resulting mm-sized jets should scale to astrophysical objects such as Herbig-Haro objects and jet-driven supernovae that may involve jets with similar internal Mach numbers. This scalability still holds in the presence of radiation as long as the relative importance of radiative cooling is similar. In these experiments, either direct or indirect laser drive is used to launch a strong shock into a 125 micron thick titanium foil target that caps a 700 micron thick titanium washer. After the shock breaks out into the 300 micron diameter cylindrical hole in the washer, a dense, well-collimated jet with an energy density of more than 0.1 MJ per cc is formed. The jet is then imaged as it propagates for 100s of ns down a cylinder of low-density polymer foam. The experiments are diagnosed by point-projection with a micro-dot vanadium backligher. The field of view is several mm and the resolution is 15 microns. The X-ray radiographs show the hydrodynamically unstable jet and the bow shock driving into the surrounding foam. Such complex experimental data provide a challenge to hydrocodes and so are being used to test the hydrodynamic simulations of these types of flows. Initial comparisons between the data and LANL and AWE simulations will be shown. However, the high Reynolds numbers of both the laboratory and astrophysical jets suggest that, given sufficient time and shear, turbulence should develop; this cannot be reliably modeled by present, resolution-limited simulations. Future work concerning the applicability of the Omega experiments to astrophysical objects and the quantitative study of turbulent mixing via subgrid-scale models will be discussed.

  4. Observing Future Changes in the Photochemical Environment over Western North America due to Changes in Foreign Emissions: Lessons from Mount Bachelor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jaffe, D. A.; Weatherhead, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence that springtime O3 mixing ratios are increasing over western North America, and rising O3 precursor emissions in East Asia are cited as potentially responsible. The Asian contribution to background O3 has two components: 1) O3 has a sufficient lifetime in spring such that O3 formed in the Asian boundary layer can cross the Pacific, and 2) O3 can be formed en-route as a result of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) decomposition. To confidently detect a trend in a trace species such as O3, the trend must be large relative to both the natural variability and to the long-term measurement uncertainty, or alternatively one needs many years of observations. Detection of changes to the O3 budget in the air entering North America is challenging because consistent long-term observations are sparse. We report on measurements of PAN and O3 from the summit of Mount Bachelor (43.979°N, 121.687°W; 2.7 km a.s.l). These are the first consistent multi-year springtime measurements of PAN in the free troposphere over the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We combine the observed variability in PAN and O3 at Mount Bachelor with a range of possible future trends in these species to determine the observational requirements to detect such trends. A previous study using a global chemical transport model suggested that rising Asian emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) will result in a relatively larger positive trend in PAN than O3 over western North America. We show that the timescale for PAN and O3 trend detection is equivalent when the PAN trend is approximately 4 times larger than the O3 trend. This reflects greater observed relative variability in PAN than O3. Our analysis suggests that if the true O3 trend over western North America due to rising Asian precursor emissions is on the order of 1% per year, it could be corroborated at a strategic representative site like Mount Bachelor in a relatively short timeframe

  5. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  6. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  7. Energy, Economics and the Environment: Case Studies and Teaching Activities for Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    This curriculum guide for middle school environmental education focuses on energy, economics, and the environment (EEE), and the interrelatedness of these three areas of study. The booklet is designed to provide teachers and students with a conceptual framework for analyzing complicated issues that involve the economic implications of energy and…

  8. The Delicate Balance: An Energy and the Environment Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Glen; Keifer, William; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching about energy and the environment. In this book, energy is discussed as one aspect of a general problem in environmental chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  9. Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

    2004-06-24

    A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

  10. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  11. Impact of energy sector of the Indian sub-continent on environment

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, S.; Narasimhan, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    India is second largest populous country and third in coal consumption. At present, the total energy consumption is around 550 million tonne oil equivalent. The ambitious program for economic development is expected to enhance the energy consumption several fold. For a reasonable growth, it is estimated that the level will touch 1,300 million tonne oil equivalent by the year 2020. Energy consumption of such a magnitude will have significant impact on global environment due to major pollutants like oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen. Also, the energy mix has substantial intake from non-commercial sources, mainly fuel wood. In this paper options open to meet the increased energy needs are considered and impact on environment is projected. It is observed that one way of meeting the energy needs and at the same time contain pollution is by adopting clean coal technologies. This will particularly contain oxides of sulfur and nitrogen significantly.

  12. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  13. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small

  14. Food and physical activity environments: an energy balance approach for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Economos, Christina D; Hatfield, Daniel P; King, Abby C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are a function of chronic, population-level energy imbalance, whereby energy intakes exceed energy expenditures. Although sometimes viewed in isolation, energy intakes and expenditures in fact exist in a dynamic interplay: energy intakes may influence energy expenditures and vice versa. Obesogenic environments that promote positive energy balance play a central role in the obesity epidemic, and reducing obesity prevalence will require re-engineering environments to promote both healthy eating and physical activity. There may be untapped synergies in addressing both sides of the energy balance equation in environmentally focused obesity interventions, yet food/beverage and physical activity environments are often addressed separately. The field needs design, evaluation, and analytic methods that support this approach. This paper provides a rationale for an energy balance approach and reviews and describes research and practitioner work that has taken this approach to obesity prevention at the environmental and policy levels. Future directions in research, practice, and policy include moving obesity prevention toward a systems approach that brings both nutrition and physical activity into interdisciplinary training, funding mechanisms, and clinical and policy recommendations/guidelines. PMID:25891062

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  16. Building America Systems Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building America Research Teams use a systems engineering approach to achieve higher quality and energy savings in homes. Using these techniques, the energy consumption of new houses can be reduced by 40% or more with little or no impact on the cost of ownership.

  17. Energy & Environment in Florida—A Voter Survey in 2007 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gordon L.

    2009-07-01

    Related professionally conducted polls associated with energy and the environment in Florida are reviewed. Changes in attitudes brought about by economic change in 2009 versus 2007 are contrasted. While voters generally think of themselves as "pro-environment," environmental issues are not their ♯1 priority. The survey results show the clear challenge for sustainability—that of long term social commitment and political will.

  18. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  19. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations.

    PubMed

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Dijkstra, Arend G; Lambert, Neill; Nazir, Ahsan

    2016-01-28

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously. We find that though an enhancement of the dimer energy transfer rate can be obtained when compared to an unstructured environment, its magnitude is rather sensitive to both the dimer-peak resonance conditions and the relative strengths of the underdamped and overdamped contributions. PMID:26827205

  20. Discharge characteristics of dielectric materials examined in mono-, dual-, and spectral energy electron charging environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, P.; Treadway, M.; Wild, N.; Kitterer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of midenergy electrons on the charge and discharge characteristics of spacecraft dielectric materials and the data base from which basic discharge models can be formulated is expanded. Thin dielectric materials were exposed to low, mid combined low and mid, and spectral energy electron environments. Three important results are presented: (1) it determined electron environments that lead to dielectric discharges at potentials less negative than -5 kV; (2) two types of discharges were identified that dominate the kinds of discharges seen; and (3) it is shown that, for the thin dielectric materials tested, the worst-case discharges observed in the various environments are similar.

  1. Effects of buffer size and shape on associations between the built environment and energy balance.

    PubMed

    James, Peter; Berrigan, David; Hart, Jaime E; Hipp, J Aaron; Hoehner, Christine M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Major, Jacqueline M; Oka, Masayoshi; Laden, Francine

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in the relevant spatial context may drive heterogeneity in findings on the built environment and energy balance. To estimate the effect of this uncertainty, we conducted a sensitivity analysis defining intersection and business densities and counts within different buffer sizes and shapes on associations with self-reported walking and body mass index. Linear regression results indicated that the scale and shape of buffers influenced study results and may partly explain the inconsistent findings in the built environment and energy balance literature. PMID:24607875

  2. Effects of Buffer Size and Shape on Associations between the Built Environment and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Berrigan, David; Hart, Jaime E.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Hoehner, Christine M.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Major, Jacqueline M.; Oka, Masayoshi; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in the relevant spatial context may drive heterogeneity in findings on the built environment and energy balance. To estimate the effect of this uncertainty, we conducted a sensitivity analysis defining intersection and business densities and counts within different buffer sizes and shapes on associations with self-reported walking and body mass index. Linear regression results indicated that the scale and shape of buffers influenced study results and may partly explain the inconsistent findings in the built environment and energy balance literature. PMID:24607875

  3. Photosynthetic Energy Storage for the Built Environment: Modeling Energy Generation and Storage for Net-Zero Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichter-Marck, Eli Morris

    There is a growing need to address the energy demand of the building sector with non-polluting, renewable energy sources. The Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) mandate seeks to reduce the impact of building sector energy consumption by encouraging on-site energy generation as a way to offset building loads. However, current approaches to designing on-site generation fail to adequately match the fluctuating load schedules of the built environment. As a result, buildings produce highly variable and often-unpredictable energy import/export patterns that create stress on energy grids and increase building dependence on primary energy resources. This research investigates the potential of integrating emerging photo-electrochemical (PEC) technologies into on-site generation systems as a way to enable buildings to take a more active role in collecting, storing and deploying energy resources according to their own demand schedules. These artificially photosynthetic systems have the potential to significantly reduce variability in hour-to-hour and day-to-day building loads by introducing high-capacity solar-hydrogen into the built environment context. The Building Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis (BIAP) simulation framework presented here tests the impact of hydrogen based energy storage on NZEB performance metrics with the goal of developing a methodology that makes on-site energy generation more effective at alleviating excessive energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, as a design performance framework, the BIAP framework helps guide how material selection and scale up of device design might tie photo-electrochemical devices into parallel building systems to take full advantage of the potential outputs of photosynthetic building systems.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Unvented, Conditioned Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research which influenced code requirements by demonstrating that unvented, conditioned crawlspaces use 15% to 18% less energy for heating and cooling while reducing humidity over 20% in humid climates.

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Ducts in Conditioned Space

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that found moving ductwork into the home’s conditioned space can save 8%-15% on energy costs, improve comfort, reduce moisture problems, and even reduce installation costs.

  7. Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Booth, Cormac G

    2016-01-01

    The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here. PMID:26610949

  8. For sustainable development: some aspects on energy and environment in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Salvarli, H.

    2009-07-01

    The high energy demand in Turkey is closely linked to economic growth, industrialization, and population increase. Turkish general energy policies are designed to support economic and social development. Natural conditions of Turkey are favorable for utilization of new and renewable energies, such as hydraulic energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, biomass energy, solar energy, and, probably, nuclear energy. As the use of hydraulic and coal in Turkey will reach its full capacity by 2020, imported natural gas, coal, and other resources will be used to meet the energy demand. By 2020, approximately 75% of final energy demand and 67% of electricity supply will be met by coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy investments, which are closely related with the environmental protection, require massive financial resources. It is also important to use standardized equipment and materials in all areas of energy generation, transmission, distribution, and trade. For a sustainable development, the next investments on industry should be made for the clean technologies in regard with being environment-friendly.

  9. Farming systems with improved returns to inputs of energy and water in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming systems which are environmentally responsible, economically robust and energy reduced [refers to a term of(ER)] are in various stages of development and implementation in the Northern Great Plains. Improving the energy use energy (EUE) or net energy balance of farming systems in a sustainabl...

  10. A universal, broad-environment energy conversion signature of explosive cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Mitchell Timothy; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first analysis of the Lorenz energetics associated with a global climatology of explosive cyclones. Energy budgets of the large-scale environment are calculated for 32 year climatologies (1980-2011) of explosive cyclones within four of the most active regions in the world: the Northwest Pacific, the North Atlantic, the Southwest Pacific, and the South Atlantic. A robust signature in the Lorenz energy cycle is observed; anomalous energy conversions commence 48 h before explosive cyclone development and remain strong (i.e., significantly above background noise) for 120 h. Remarkably, the calculated signature of energy conversion is virtually identical for all four geographical regions. While the conversions imply a classic baroclinic growth cycle, they are not seen in regular cyclones that undergo a deepening of less than half that exhibited by explosive cyclones. This finding opens a new avenue of exploration of explosive storm behavior based on the large-scale environment.

  11. Energy, environment and climate assessment using the MARKAL energy system model

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA ORD’s efforts to develop an understanding of the potential environmental impacts of future changes in energy use, the Energy and Climate Assessment Team has developed a database representation of the U.S. energy system for use with the MARKet ALlocation (MARK...

  12. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Challenges in Maintaining Emotion Regulation in a Sleep and Energy Deprived State Induced by the 4800Km Ultra-Endurance Bicycle Race; The Race Across AMerica (RAAM)

    PubMed Central

    Lahart, Ian M.; Lane, Andrew M.; Hulton, Andrew; Williams, Karen; Godfrey, Richard; Pedlar, Charles; Wilson, Mathew G.; Whyte, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional) of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM); a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1) identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal) and worst (dysfunctional) performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2) create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3) create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4) prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships. Key Points Completing the Race Across AMerica (RAAM); a 4856km continuous cycle race associated with sleep disturbance, an energy-deficient state, and experiencing intense unwanted emotions. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition and actual sleep and sleep efficiency

  15. Energy and the environment; application of geosciences to decision-making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Lorna M., (Edited By)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains 67 extended abstracts that summarize some of the oral and poster presentations of the tenth annual V. E. McKelvey forum on mineral and energy resources, held in Washington, D.C., Feb. 13-17, 1995. The focus is on our energy resources and the environment, new research techniques, and cooperative efforts between the USGS and industry, State and Federal agencies, universities, and other countries.

  16. Estimating trace gas and aerosol emissions over South America: Relationship between fire radiative energy released and aerosol optical depth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Freitas, Saulo R.; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Ferreira, Nelson Jesus; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Rao, Vadlamudi Brahmananda; Longo, Karla M.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary human activities such as tropical deforestation, land clearing for agriculture, pest control and grassland management lead to biomass burning, which in turn leads to land-cover changes. However, biomass burning emissions are not correctly measured and the methods to assess these emissions form a part of current research area. The traditional methods for estimating aerosols and trace gases released into the atmosphere generally use emission factors associated with fuel loading and moisture characteristics and other parameters that are hard to estimate in near real-time applications. In this paper, fire radiative power (FRP) products were extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) fire products and new South America generic biomes FRE-based smoke aerosol emission coefficients were derived and applied in 2002 South America fire season. The inventory estimated by MODIS and GOES FRP measurements were included in Coupled Aerosol-Tracer Transport model coupled to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS) and evaluated with ground truth collected in Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, rainfall, and Climate (SMOCC) and Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions (RaCCI). Although the linear regression showed that GOES FRP overestimates MODIS FRP observations, the use of a common external parameter such as MODIS aerosol optical depth product could minimize the difference between sensors. The relationship between the PM 2.5μm (Particulate Matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and CO (Carbon Monoxide) model shows a good agreement with SMOCC/RaCCI data in the general pattern of temporal evolution. The results showed high correlations, with values between 0.80 and 0.95 (significant at 0.5 level by student t test), for the CATT-BRAMS simulations with PM 2.5μm and CO.

  17. Study of energy education on the elementary level in Colorado: an evaluation of Energy and Man's Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a curriculum designed to improve energy education. The curriculum selected, Energy and Man's Environment (EME), was implemented in a typical Colorado school district. Approximately 530 fifth graders participated in the study, from ten schools, five control and five experimental. The program lasted for nine weeks, taking approximately three and one third hours of science time each week. Teachers in the experimental group attended twenty hours of inservice. This research examined the affective and cognitive effects of the EME curriculum on the students and considered the affective results of the EME program on teachers of the experimental and control groups. The two major conclusions of the research were: (1) Students who participate in a conscientiously implemented Energy and Man's Environment program can expect to raise their energy literacy level. (2) Students who participate in a conscientiously implemented Energy and Man's Environment program can expect to maintain their general cognitive gains for at least three months after the program.

  18. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  19. Joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation in grid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunlin, Li; Layuan, Li

    2010-09-01

    Mobile and wireless devices with limited energy are now of interest for the grid community. Reducing the related energy consumption is very important for wireless devices. Compared to conventional grid systems, energy aware grids need to support application quality of service (QoS) with limited energy. There is an inherent conflict in the design goals for high grid application QoS and low energy consumption. To address this challenging problem, this article considers joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation in grid environment. Joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation is targeted to maximise the system utility without exceeding the deadline and the total energy available, which can be provided by an exhaustible source such as a battery. This article formulates joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation as constrained maximisation problem; the constraints include energy budget and application QoS requirements. This article also presents a QoS and energy aware scheduling algorithm (QESA) which balances application QoS and energy conservation to improve system performance. In the simulation, the performance evaluation of QESA is conducted.

  20. Investing in technologies for America's energy future. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, US House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 16, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The witnesses testifying in this hearing are experts in energy policy. Recommendations for global US leadership in energy choices and protection of the global environment, based on advanced technologies, economics, resource management, and environmental decision making, are discussed. Witnesses include those from the following programs: Energy and Material Program, OTA; Electric Power Research Institute; National Commission on the Environment (Train Commission); Manufacturers Resource Center; TVA.

  1. Energizing Your Future with Energy, Economics and the Environment! Environmental Stewardship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Mary; Thomas, Susan

    This curriculum guide is designed for educators who want to teach youths aged 5-18 about the interactions among energy, economics, and the environment. This guide contains five chapters of activities, each focusing on a different topic related to this interaction as well as several sections that guide session leaders in helping youth along the…

  2. Teaching Energy Metabolism Using Scientific Articles: Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Giannella, Tais Rabetti; Struchiner, Miriam; da Silva, Wagner S.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) applied to the biochemistry class for undergraduate, first-year medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The course focused on the integration of energy metabolism, exploring metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as…

  3. Relationship between wave energy and free energy from pickup ions in the Comet Halley environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Johnstone, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    The free energy available from the implanted heavy ion population at Comet Halley is calculated by assuming that the initial unstable velocity space ring distribution of the ions evolves toward a bispherical shell. Ultimately this free energy adds to the turbulence in the solar wind. Upstream and downstream free energies are obtained separately for the conditions observed along the Giotto spacecraft trajectory. The results indicate that the waves are mostly upstream propagating in the solar wind frame. The total free energy density always exceeds the measured wave energy density because, as expected in the nonlinear process of ion scattering, the available energy is not all immediately released. An estimate of the amount which has been released can be obtained from the measured oxygen ion distributions and again it exceeds that observed. The theoretical analysis is extended to calculate the k spectrum of the cometary-ion-generated turbulence.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Geant4 Predictions of Energy Spectra in Typical Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of energy spectra inside spacecraft is important for protecting astronauts as well as sensitive electronics from the harmful effects of space radiation. Such knowledge allows one to confidently map the radiation environment inside the vehicle. The purpose of this talk is to present preliminary calculations for energy spectra inside a spherical shell shielding and behind a slab in typical space radiation environment using the 3D Monte-Carlo transport code Geant4. We have simulated proton and iron isotropic sources and beams impinging on Aluminum and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) targets at energies of 0.2, 0.6, 1, and 10 GeV/u. If time permits, other radiation sources and beams (_, C, O) and targets (C, Si, Ge, water) will be presented. The results are compared to ground-based measurements where available.

  7. Limiting Results for the Free Energy of Directed Polymers in Random Environment with Unbounded Jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comets, Francis; Fukushima, Ryoki; Nakajima, Shuta; Yoshida, Nobuo

    2015-11-01

    We study asymptotics of the free energy for the directed polymer in random environment. The polymer is allowed to make unbounded jumps and the environment is given by Bernoulli variables. We first establish the existence and continuity of the free energy including the negative infinity value of the coupling constant β . Our proof of existence at β =-∞ differs from existing ones in that it avoids the direct use of subadditivity. Secondly, we identify the asymptotics of the free energy at β =-∞ in the limit of the success probability of the Bernoulli variables tending to one. It is described by using the so-called time constant of a certain directed first passage percolation. Our proof relies on a certain continuity property of the time constant, which is of independent interest.

  8. Geant4 predictions of energy spectra in typical space radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of energy spectra inside spacecraft is important for protecting astronauts as well as sensitive electronics from the harmful effects of space radiation. Such knowledge allows one to confidently map the radiation environment inside the vehicle. The purpose of this talk is to present preliminary calculations for energy spectra inside a spherical shell shielding and behind a slab in typical space radiation environment using the 3D Monte-Carlo transport code Geant4. We have simulated proton and iron isotropic sources and beams impinging on Aluminum and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) targets at energies of 0.2, 0.6, 1, and 10 GeV/u. If time permits, other radiation sources and beams (α, C, O) and targets (C, Si, Ge, water) will be presented. The results are compared to ground-based measurements where available.

  9. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  10. 'Low energy' sandy beaches in marine and estuarine environments: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Eliot, Ian; Masselink, Gerdhard

    2002-11-01

    This review was undertaken to identify locations where low energy beaches may occur and their diagnostic forms and process controls, including waves, tides and water levels. Examples are drawn from the sheltered coastline of Western Australia near Perth and fetch-limited estuarine environments on the northeast coast of the United States. We suggest that the term low energy be used in locations where: (1) non-storm significant wave heights are minimal (e.g. <0.25 m); (2) significant wave heights during strong onshore winds are low (e.g. <0.50 m); (3) beachface widths are narrow (e.g. <20 m in microtidal environments); and (4) morphologic features include those inherited from higher energy events. Micro-topographic features can persist in the swash zone of low energy beaches under non-storm wave conditions. There is little evidence of cyclic cross-shore sediment exchange. Bars, excepting transverse forms, located seaward of low still-water level do not appear to be part of the sediment exchange system with the foreshore. Developing a better definition of the term low energy requires understanding the occurrence and duration of morphological characteristics and the type, magnitude and frequency of hydrodynamic controls that are responsible for these characteristics. Efforts also should be directed toward: (1) discriminating between processes generated within basins (in true fetch-limited environments) and processes generated outside basins (that affect sheltered environments); (2) identifying the relative contributions of tide- and surge-related water level fluctuations on low energy beach shape; and (3) estimating thresholds for beach change.

  11. Whole-body task energy metrics for robots performing useful work in unstructured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Theobald, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    When considering energy requirements and optimization for robots, it is important to consider mission requirements, and the type of robot performing the mission. For example, the small robots used in today's reconnaissance and explosive ordnance disposal applications have weak manipulators, and do not perform significant physical work on their surrounding environment. In this paper, we focus on robots that will be required to do much more physically demanding tasks, such as manipulating large heavy objects in unstructured environments, and carrying such objects over challenging terrain. Energy considerations for such systems must include models of physical work performed for basic manipulation, pose transition, and locomotion maneuvers. Given the scarcity of robots that can perform useful work in unstructured environments, it is useful to begin the investigation of energy optimization for such robots by considering typical tasks they might perform. This paper makes three contributions in this direction. First, we develop a set of standard tasks that would be useful in unstructured environments. The tasks are expressed in terms of the objects being manipulated, and the work being done, so they are independent of robot morphology. Second, we develop energy metrics and analytical results for theoretical energy requirements for these tasks. These requirements assume no losses due to friction, so they give a best-case estimate of what is achievable. Such metrics are useful in subsequent evaluation of real systems that are not as efficient. Third, we perform preliminary comparisons between different actuation technologies in performing these tasks. These actuation technologies will include electro-mechanical and hydraulic systems. We compare these technologies in terms of power density, and evaluate expected energy efficiency when performing the metric tasks.

  12. Energy intensity and the energy mix: what works for the environment?

    PubMed

    El Anshasy, Amany A; Katsaiti, Marina-Selini

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of carbon sequestration, mitigating carbon emissions can be achieved through a mix of two broad policy approaches: (i) reducing energy intensity by improving energy efficiency and conservation, and (ii) changing the fuel mix. This paper investigates the long-run relationship between energy intensity, the energy mix, and per capita carbon emissions; while controlling for the level of economic activity, the economic structure measured by the relative size of the manufacturing sector, and the differences in institutional qualities across countries. We aim to answer two particularly important policy questions. First, to what extent these policy approaches are effective in mitigating emissions in the long-run? Second, which institutional qualities significantly contribute to better long-run environmental performance? We use historical data for 131 countries in a heterogeneous panel framework for the period 1972-2010. We find that less dependence on fossil fuel and lower energy intensity reduce emissions in the long run. A goal of 10% reduction in CO2 levels in the long-run requires reducing the share of fossil fuel in total energy use by 11%, or reducing energy intensity by 13%. In addition, specific institutional qualities such as better corruption control and judiciary independence contribute to mitigating levels of emissions. PMID:24568940

  13. Development of energy plants and their potential to withstand various extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Saibi, Walid; Brini, Faiçal; Hanin, Moez; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biomass utilization is increasingly considered as a practical way for sustainable energy supply and long-term environment care around the world. In concerns with food security, starch or sugar-based bioethanol and edible-oilderived biodiesel are severely restricted for large scale production. Alternatively, conversion of lignocellulosic residues from food crops could be considered, but due to its recalcitrance, the current biomass process is unacceptably expensive. In this context, genetic breeding of energy crops appears as a promising solution. To fulfil the global world need as both food and biofuel sources, energy crops are expected to be produced with higher yields and especially in marginal lands. This review focus on recent progress and patents dealing with energy plants and the challenges associated with bioenergy development. We also discuss the potential use of molecular approaches including genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation for improving specific traits or generating new cultivars of energy plants. PMID:22779438

  14. Phase-dependent exciton transport and energy harvesting from thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo-Casado, S.; Prior, J.; Chin, A. W.; Rosenbach, R.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Non-Markovian effects in the evolution of open quantum systems have recently attracted widespread interest, particularly in the context of assessing the efficiency of energy and charge transfer in nanoscale biomolecular networks and quantum technologies. With the aid of many-body simulation methods, we uncover and analyze an ultrafast environmental process that causes energy relaxation in the reduced system to depend explicitly on the phase relation of the initial-state preparation. Remarkably, for particular phases and system parameters, the net energy flow is uphill, transiently violating the principle of detailed balance, and implying that energy is spontaneously taken up from the environment. A theoretical analysis reveals that nonsecular contributions, significant only within the environmental correlation time, underlie this effect. This suggests that environmental energy harvesting will be observable across a wide range of coupled quantum systems.

  15. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America: Diagnosis of feedbacks between groundwater and land energy fluxes at continental scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed; Condon, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Model results suggest that partitioning of plant transpiration to bare soil evaporation is a function of water table depth and later groundwater flow. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  16. Thermal stability and energy harvesting characteristics of Au nanorods: harsh environment chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the levels of polluting gases such as CO and NOx from high temperature (500°C and higher) combustion environments requires materials with high thermal stability and resilience that can withstand harsh oxidizing and reducing environments. Au nanorods (AuNRs) have shown potential in plasmonic gas sensing due to their catalytic activity, high oxidation stability, and absorbance sensitivity to changes in the surrounding environment. By using electron beam lithography, AuNR geometries can be patterned with tight control of the rod dimensions and spacings, allowing tunability of their optical properties. Methods such as NR encapsulation within an yttria-stabilized zirconia overcoat layer with subsequent annealing procedures will be shown to improve temperature stability within a simulated harsh environment. Since light sources and spectrometers are typically required to obtain optical measurements, integration is a major barrier for harsh environment sensing. Plasmonic sensing results will be presented where thermal energy is harvested by the AuNRs, which replaces the need for an external incident light source. Results from gas sensing experiments that utilize thermal energy harvesting are in good agreement with experiments which use an external incident light source. Principal component analysis results demonstrate that by selecting the most "active" wavelengths in a plasmonic band, the wavelength space can be reduced from hundreds of monitored wavelengths to just four, without loss of information about selectivity of the AuNRs. By combining thermal stability, the thermal energy harvesting capability, and the selectivity in gas detection (achieved through multivariate analysis), integration of plasmonic sensors into combustion environments can be greatly simplified.

  17. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  18. Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Jane Lau of the Joint BioEnergy Institute on "Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  19. The Second Discovery of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard S.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the major areas of concern considered at the first international conference on Science and Man in the Americas. Topics emphasized include: natural resources of the oceans, movements of the earth's crust, volcanology, energy resources, and food production as it relates to the world population problem. (JR)

  20. 77 FR 38043 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... development, West Branch Penobscot River, Maine. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r... a modification to its Water Quality Certificate from the Maine Department of Environment Protection... Energy Regulatory Commission Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for...

  1. Consequences of complex environments: Temperature and energy intake interact to influence growth and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Jodrey, Alicia D; Luoma, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    The field of comparative physiology has a rich history of elegantly examining the effects of individual environmental factors on performance traits linked to fitness (e.g., thermal performance curves for locomotion). However, animals live in complex environments wherein multiple environmental factors co-vary. Thus, we investigated the independent and interactive effects of temperature and energy intake on the growth and metabolic rate of juvenile corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the context of shifts in complex environments. Unlike previous studies that imposed constant or fluctuating temperature regimes, we manipulated the availability of preferred thermal microclimates (control vs. relatively warm regimes) for eight weeks and allowed snakes to behaviorally thermoregulate among microclimates. By also controlling for energy intake, we demonstrate an interactive effect of temperature and energy on growth-relevant temperature shifts had no effect on snakes' growth when energy intake was low and a positive effect on growth when energy intake was high. Thus, acclimation to relatively warm thermal options can result in increased rates of growth when food is abundant in a taxon in which body size confers fitness advantages. Temperature and energy also interactively influenced metabolic rate-snakes in the warmer temperature regime exhibited reduced metabolic rate (O2 consumption rate at 25 °C and 30 °C) if they had relatively high energy intake. Although we advocate for continued investigation into the effects of complex environments on other traits, our results indicate that warming may actually benefit important life history traits in some taxa and that metabolic shifts may underlie thermal acclimation. PMID:25899738

  2. The top 50 commodity chemicals: Impact of catalytic process limitations on energy, environment, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Gerber, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The production processes for the top 50 U.S. commodity chemicals waste energy, generate unwanted byproducts, and require more than a stoichiometric amount of feedstocks. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has quantified this impact on energy, environment, and economics for the catalytically produced commodity chemicals. An excess of 0.83 quads of energy per year in combined process and feedstock energy is required. The major component, approximately 54%, results from low per-pass yields and the subsequent separation and recycle of unreacted feedstocks. Furthermore, the production processes, either directly or through downstream waste treatment steps, release more than 20 billion pounds of carbon dioxide per year to the environment. The cost of the wasted feedstock exceeds 2 billion dollars per year. Process limitations resulting from unselective catalysis and unfavorable reaction thermodynamic constraints are the major contributors to this waste. Advanced process concepts that address these problems in an integrated manner are needed to improve process efficiency, which would reduce energy and raw material consumption, and the generation of unwanted byproducts. Many commodity chemicals are used to produce large volume polymer products. Of the energy and feedstock wasted during the production of the commodity chemicals, nearly one-third and one-half, respectively, represents chemicals used as polymer precursors. Approximately 38% of the carbon dioxide emissions are generated producing polymer feedstocks.

  3. Glycolytic Coupling to Mitochondrial Energy Production Ensures Survival in an Oxygen Rich Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.; Kream, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environment while yielding more ATP than by glycolysis alone. This ability provides a protective existential advantage in naturally occurring hypoxic environments via diminished free radical generation. In the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and other marine organisms, a functionally active mitochondrial anaerobic respiratory mechanism tailored to hypoxic conditions reflects an evolutionary adaptation/reworking of ancient metabolic pathways. Components of these pathways were also discovered and characterized as metabolic intermediates in plant parasites, specifically crown gall tumors. Mechanistic similarities between anaerobically functioning mitochondria in M. edulis and crown gall tissues and metabolic processes in human tumors are known to occur, demonstrating commonalities in diverse life energy processes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic glycolytic processes are now shown also to exhibit a dynamic capacity for enhanced energy generation by increasing its efficiency in hypoxic environments, making it equally dynamic in meeting its cellular survival goal. PMID:27439008

  4. Glycolytic Coupling to Mitochondrial Energy Production Ensures Survival in an Oxygen Rich Environment.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environment while yielding more ATP than by glycolysis alone. This ability provides a protective existential advantage in naturally occurring hypoxic environments via diminished free radical generation. In the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and other marine organisms, a functionally active mitochondrial anaerobic respiratory mechanism tailored to hypoxic conditions reflects an evolutionary adaptation/reworking of ancient metabolic pathways. Components of these pathways were also discovered and characterized as metabolic intermediates in plant parasites, specifically crown gall tumors. Mechanistic similarities between anaerobically functioning mitochondria in M. edulis and crown gall tissues and metabolic processes in human tumors are known to occur, demonstrating commonalities in diverse life energy processes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic glycolytic processes are now shown also to exhibit a dynamic capacity for enhanced energy generation by increasing its efficiency in hypoxic environments, making it equally dynamic in meeting its cellular survival goal. PMID:27439008

  5. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  6. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  7. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  8. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  9. Transient unidirectional energy flow and diode-like phenomenon induced by non-Markovian environments.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jun; Segal, Dvira; Li, Baowen; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2015-01-01

    Relying on an exact time evolution scheme, we identify a novel transient energy transfer phenomenon in an exactly-solvable quantum microscopic model consisting of a three-level system coupled to two non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic baths through two separable quantum channels. The dynamics of this model can be solved exactly using the quantum-state-diffusion equation formalism, demonstrating finite intervals of unidirectional energy flow across the system, typically, from the non-Markovian environment towards the more Markovian bath. Furthermore, when introducing a spatial asymmetry into the system, an analogue of the rectification effect is realized. In the long time limit, the dynamics arrives at a stationary state and the effects recede. Understanding temporal characteristics of directional energy flow will aid in designing microscopic energy transfer devices. PMID:26478230

  10. Transient unidirectional energy flow and diode-like phenomenon induced by non-Markovian environments

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jun; Segal, Dvira; Li, Baowen; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2015-01-01

    Relying on an exact time evolution scheme, we identify a novel transient energy transfer phenomenon in an exactly-solvable quantum microscopic model consisting of a three-level system coupled to two non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic baths through two separable quantum channels. The dynamics of this model can be solved exactly using the quantum-state-diffusion equation formalism, demonstrating finite intervals of unidirectional energy flow across the system, typically, from the non-Markovian environment towards the more Markovian bath. Furthermore, when introducing a spatial asymmetry into the system, an analogue of the rectification effect is realized. In the long time limit, the dynamics arrives at a stationary state and the effects recede. Understanding temporal characteristics of directional energy flow will aid in designing microscopic energy transfer devices. PMID:26478230

  11. Energy, Environment, Productivity. Proceedings of the First Symposium on RANN: Research Applied to National Needs, November 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jay, Ed.

    This volume records the presentations made at the Symposium on Research Applied to National Needs. The three major problem areas of energy, the environment, and productivity serve as a focus for the papers. The 14 papers in the first section deal with energy programs; energy under the ocean; energy conversion and transmission systems; and…

  12. Modular and Manufactured Houses Offer Homeowners the Building America and ENERGY STAR(R) Advantage: Genesis Homes -- Auburn Hills, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Genesis Homes is headquartered in Auburn, Michigan, and has 11 factories throughout the nation. They build modular and manufactured homes with quality design, construction practice, and building materials that qualify for the Energy Star label.

  13. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Electrical Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on electrical energy usage in the home was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about…

  14. Energy and Man's Environment: Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication provides the goals, concepts, objectives, and rationale for the six activity guides in this series of energy education materials. The organization of this series, as presented in this publication, centers around six goals which correspond to the activity guides. Under each goal are several concepts, which in turn, have several…

  15. ACEEE 1990 summer study on energy efficiency in buildings: Proceedings. Volume 4, Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This panel of the 1990 Summer Study examines the potential contribution of energy efficiency in buildings to environmental protection. The Panel also covers other aspects of the relationship between building efficiency and the environment, including indoor air quality, radon exposure, and urban heat island effects. Global environmental risks, growing interest in market-based environmental regulation, and the integration of environmental and energy planning have focused attention on energy efficiency as a low-cost pollution prevention strategy. This combination of factors is making public concern over the environment a driving force for improvements in energy efficiency. The environmental issues that are related to air pollution include the group of problems that have been in the public consciousness for two decades: acid rain, urban smog, ozone depletion, and general outdoor air pollution. Indoor air quality is also an air pollution problem. Whereas indoor air pollution causes direct health impacts on occupants of the space in question, outdoor air pollution affects others, often at remote locations, in ways that are more difficult to quantify. There is an immediacy to the indoor pollution issue that has important policy implications. The papers in the indoor air quality and radon sessions focus on several of the important issues in this area. For these conference proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  16. Animals, energy, and water in extreme environments: perspectives from Ithala 2004.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Navas, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    Animals occupy an impressive range of environments, and many approach the limits of conditions that are compatible with life. Such environments are often characterized by low productivity, and survival depends on abilities to maintain levels of hydration sufficient for biochemical reactions and an adequate level of energy turnover. Specific adaptations for acquiring and conserving water affect the intake and utilization of energy that is available for growth and reproduction. Almost any benign, historically stable environment can become hostile if conditions change, and the severity of challenges to animals depends on temporal as well as spatial factors that are related to the intensity and duration of harsh conditions (e.g., drought). Animals have responded to such changes through avoidance, phenotypically plastic adjustments, and evolutionary changes in genomic structure. Here we present an overview of research findings presented at a session of the Third International Conference of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. We hope such a synthesis will stimulate new directions in research that address biological responses to environmental change. In this context, we believe that challenging environments in Africa might provide increasingly useful sites for biological investigations relating to the application of comparative and evolutionary approaches toward a deeper understanding of physiological adaptation. PMID:16555186

  17. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  18. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ..., but also saves energy, preserves valuable raw materials, and reduces emissions of greenhouse gases... States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-27910 Filed...

  19. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  20. Binding energies of exciton complexes in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers and effect of dielectric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka

    2015-11-01

    Excitons, trions, biexcitons, and exciton-trion complexes in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide sheets of MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, WS2, and WSe2 are studied by means of density functional theory and path-integral Monte Carlo method in order to accurately account for the particle-particle correlations. In addition, the effect of dielectric environment on the properties of these exciton complexes is studied by modifying the effective interaction potential between particles. Calculated exciton and trion binding energies are consistent with previous experimental and computational studies, and larger systems such as biexciton and exciton-trion complex are found highly stable. Binding energies of biexcitons are similar to or higher than those of trions, but the binding energy of the trion depends significantly stronger on the dielectric environment than that of biexciton. Therefore, as a function of an increasing dielectric constant of the environment the exciton-trion complex "dissociates" to a biexciton rather than to an exciton and a trion.

  1. Environment and energy in Iceland: A comparative analysis of values and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen . E-mail: theth@hi.is

    2007-08-15

    Within an Icelandic framework plan for energy, environmental values and impacts were estimated in multicriteria analyses for 19 hydroelectric and 22 geothermal developments. Four natural environment classes were defined (geology + hydrology, species, ecosystems + soils, landscape + wilderness) with cultural heritage as the fifth class. Values and impacts were assessed through 6 agglomerated attributes: richness/diversity, rarity, size/continuity/pristineness, information/symbolic value, international responsibility and visual value. The project offers a unique opportunity for comparing environmental values and impacts within a large sample of sites and energy alternatives treated within a common methodological framework. Total values were higher in hydroelectric than in geothermal areas. Hydroelectric areas scored high for cultural heritage (particularly in rarity and information value), landscape and wilderness. Geothermal areas had high bedrock and hydrological diversity and information values, and a high landscape visual value but little cultural heritage. High values were correlated among some classes of the natural environment, all of which are likely to reflect functional relationships. In contrast, cultural heritage values were not related to natural environment values. Overall, landscape and wilderness had the highest mean value and were also most affected by energy development. Over 40% of the hydroelectric development had a predicted mean impact value of > 4 (out of a maximum of 10), compared with 10% of the geothermal projects. Excluding two outsized hydropower options, there was a significant correlation between plant capacity and impact on geology and hydrology but not with other environmental variables.

  2. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100). PMID:27336482

  3. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Elizabeth K.; Watts, Bryan D.; Turrin, Courtney L.

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60–100). PMID:27336482

  4. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Gallo, August A.

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification. PMID:27437456

  5. Privatization, industry integration and international politics: The case of energy and the role of business leadership in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireur, Yannick

    2000-10-01

    This thesis analyzes how matters traditionally decided by states because deemed strategic such as cross-border physical energy integration, are now the product of corporate strategy. As a direct result of state divestiture implemented in the scope of a changing model of political economy, corporate bodies have taken on an increasingly important role in the achievement of regional integration. The privatization and ownership transfer of a strategic industry, namely energy, has indeed positioned the private sector at the forefront of regional economic affairs. The study also points out the political impact of private sector-driven projects of infrastructure, particularly between two countries that have been separated by strong antagonism in the recent past, the launching of regional energy integration by private companies has provided the substance that was lacking to governments, even though these were willing to operate a rapprochement. The parameters of foreign policy decisions have been modified and rapprochement has been accelerated as a result of initiatives from the private sector. The thesis thus explores the links between the adoption of a neo-liberal political economy that includes the privatization of the energy sector, regional energy integration, and foreign relations. It analyzes how the transformation of transnational economic ties usually derived from decisions of state can now be the product of private business deals. It emphasizes the role of corporate executives in carrying out projects and shaping a new economic reality that governments have proved to be unable or unwilling to create in the past. Its focus is the Chile-Argentina energy integration process and rapprochement in the nineties. The spread of neo-liberalism in the Southern Cone has taken place in a time of waning alternative discourse on development strategy in the international public arena and of acute sense of development imperative in the so-called emerging economies. The thesis

  6. America's Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Forum | Publications | Data Sources | Help Search America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well- ... Obesity Asthma List of Tables List of Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies Data Source ...

  7. Spondylitis Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Ankylosing Spondylitis About the Spondylitis Association of America Join Today Renew Your Membership Contact Us News ... Twitter Pinterest YouTube Copyright 2016 Spondylitis Association of America | Privacy Statement | Terms Of Use

  8. Computational Transport Modeling of High-Energy Neutrons Found in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brad; Theriot, Corey A.; Rohde, Larry H.; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    The high charge and high energy (HZE) particle radiation environment in space interacts with spacecraft materials and the human body to create a population of neutrons encompassing a broad kinetic energy spectrum. As an HZE ion penetrates matter, there is an increasing chance of fragmentation as penetration depth increases. When an ion fragments, secondary neutrons are released with velocities up to that of the primary ion, giving some neutrons very long penetration ranges. These secondary neutrons have a high relative biological effectiveness, are difficult to effectively shield, and can cause more biological damage than the primary ions in some scenarios. Ground-based irradiation experiments that simulate the space radiation environment must account for this spectrum of neutrons. Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS), it is possible to simulate a neutron environment that is characteristic of that found in spaceflight. Considering neutron dosimetry, the focus lies on the broad spectrum of recoil protons that are produced in biological targets. In a biological target, dose at a certain penetration depth is primarily dependent upon recoil proton tracks. The PHITS code can be used to simulate a broad-energy neutron spectrum traversing biological targets, and it account for the recoil particle population. This project focuses on modeling a neutron beamline irradiation scenario for determining dose at increasing depth in water targets. Energy-deposition events and particle fluence can be simulated by establishing cross-sectional scoring routines at different depths in a target. This type of model is useful for correlating theoretical data with actual beamline radiobiology experiments. Other work exposed human fibroblast cells to a high-energy neutron source to study micronuclei induction in cells at increasing depth behind water shielding. Those findings provide supporting data describing dose vs. depth across a water-equivalent medium. This

  9. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  10. Youth action research in the marine environment: A case study analysis of selected education projects in Hawai'i, United States of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zicus, Sandra A.

    The marine environment has always been extremely important to the human inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands. Today, the ocean environment around Hawai'i is no less important, but it is far more threatened. Coastal and urban development, overfishing, introduction of alien species, and other commercial and recreational uses pose serious risks to coastal and marine ecosystems. There is a recognized need for greater public awareness and understanding of the importance of marine and coastal ecosystems. Involving children actively in the care and management of community resources is an essential factor for long-term societal change in environmental attitudes and behavior. Agencies and organizations in Hawai'i offer a wide range of marine education programs and materials aimed at children. However, there has been little assessment of their overall effectiveness, or analysis of factors that encourage or impede their success. The goal of this research was to begin to address this gap. The first stage of the research examined the perceptions and attitudes of Hawai'i resource managers and educators toward youth involvement in coastal and marine protection, and to answer the question "What is currently being done and by whom?" The second stage examined in detail three different programs that represent a range of approaches and age levels, and include two public charter schools (one elementary and one high school) and a nonprofit after-school program that drew youth from four area high schools. The case study research was conducted over the course of the 2001--2002 school year by means of observations, participant-observations, interviews, focus groups, and reviews of written and electronic media. The case studies were exploratory in nature and differed in their settings, age groups, administration, size, and focus. However, an analysis using the assessment rubric revealed broad patterns common to all three projects. This allowed the development of analytical generalizations

  11. Togetherness in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jan Knippers

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)

  12. Role of complementary relationship in Budyko framework from water-limited to energy-limited environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Tian, F.; Tang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The complementary relationship and Budyko curve are two kinds of approaches for describing the relationship between catchment-scale actual and potential evaporation. According to a nonlinear complementary relationship model, it was derived that, with constant energy input (denoted by constant radiation term (Erad) of potential evaporation), the changes in aerodynamic term (Eaero) are accompanied with opposite changes in actual evaporation under water-limited conditions, but same direction changes in actual evaporation under energy-limited conditions. As a result, the radiation term and aerodynamic term play different roles in the Budyko curve. In other words, complementary relationship plays a role in the Budyko framework, which should be seriously considered. The role of complementary relationship on the Budyko curve from water-limited to energy-limited environments was schematically analyzed, considering the different correlations between actual evaporation and the radiation and the aerodynamic terms. Under water limited conditions, the catchment with a higher Erad/Eaero would be wetter, and characterized with higher evaporation efficiency and larger properties parameter of Budyko curve. Under energy limited conditions, the role of complementary relationship may be different. Erad/Eaero is found to be connected with the variations of catchment parameter in the Budyko curve, and an exponential relationship between the catchment parameter and Erad/Eaero was derived through dimensional analysis and mathematical reasoning. The analysis will be evaluated using water balance data of a number of catchments from non-humid to humid environments over China.

  13. Toward quantitative aerial thermal infrared thermography for energy conservation in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allinson, David; Medjdoub, Benachir; Wilson, Robin

    2005-03-01

    The UK Home Energy Conservation Act puts a duty on local authorities to develop strategies to improve energy efficiency in all public and private sector housing in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The City of Nottingham, UK turned to aerial Thermal InfraRed Thermography (TIRT) to try and identify households where energy savings can be made. In this paper, existing literature is reviewed to explain the limitations of aerial TIRT for energy conservation in the built environment and define the techniques required to overcome them. This includes the range of suitable meteorological conditions at the time of the survey, the use of ground truth data, the need to account for all radiation paths and losses when calculating roof surface temperature and the assumptions that must be made when calculating insulation levels. Atmospheric calibration, roof surface emissivity and sky view factor must also be determined by some means and approaches to these problems are reviewed from the wider literature. Error analysis and benchmarking are important if the technique is to be validated and these are discussed with reference to the literature. A methodology for determining the thickness of loft insulation for residential buildings in the city of Nottingham, UK using aerial TIRT data within a GIS software environment is proposed.

  14. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon

  15. DEEP-SaM - Energy-Efficient Provisioning Policies for Computing Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, Christian; Püschel, Tim; Hedwig, Markus; Neumann, Dirk

    The cost of electricity for datacenters is a substantial operational cost that can and should be managed, not only for saving energy, but also due to the ecologic commitment inherent to power consumption. Often, pursuing this goal results in chronic underutilization of resources, a luxury most resource providers do not have in light of their corporate commitments. This work proposes, formalizes and numerically evaluates DEEP-Sam, for clearing provisioning markets, based on the maximization of welfare, subject to utility-level dependant energy costs and customer satisfaction levels. We focus specifically on linear power models, and the implications of the inherent fixed costs related to energy consumption of modern datacenters and cloud environments. We rigorously test the model by running multiple simulation scenarios and evaluate the results critically. We conclude with positive results and implications for long-term sustainable management of modern datacenters.

  16. Secondary gamma rays from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays produced in magnetized environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armengaud, Eric; Sigl, Günter; Miniati, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Nearby sources of cosmic rays up to a ZeV(=1021eV) could be observed with a multimessenger approach including secondary γ-rays and neutrinos. If cosmic rays above ˜1018eV are produced in magnetized environments such as galaxy clusters, the flux of secondary γ-rays can be enhanced by a factor ˜10 at Gev energies and by a factor of a few at TeV energies, compared to unmagnetized sources. Particularly enhanced are synchrotron and cascade photons from e+e- pairs produced by protons from sources with relatively steep injection spectra ∝E-2.6. Such sources should be visible at the same time in ultrahigh energy cosmic ray experiments and γ-ray telescopes.

  17. Contributions of divergent and nondivergent winds to the kinetic energy balance of a severe storm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, P. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Divergent and rotational components of the synoptic scale kinetic energy balance are presented using rawinsonde data at 3 and 6 h intervals from the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 4). Two intense thunderstorm complexes occurred during the period. Energy budgets are described for the entire computational region and for limited volumes that enclose and move with the convection. Although small in magnitude, the divergent wind component played an important role in the cross contour generation and horizontal flux divergence of kinetic energy. The importance of V sub D appears directly to the presence and intensity of convection within the area. Although K sub D usually comprised less than 10 percent of the total kinetic energy content within the storm environment, as much as 87 percent of the total horizontal flux divergence and 68 percent of the total cross contour generation was due to the divergent component in the upper atmosphere. Generation of kinetic energy by the divergent component appears to be a major factor in the creation of an upper level wind maximum on the poleward side of one of the complexes. A random error analysis is presented to assess confidence limits in the various energy parameters.

  18. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  19. Updated Miscellaneous Electricity Loads and Appliance Energy Usage Profiles for Use in Home Energy Ratings, the Building America Benchmark Procedures and Related Calculations. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny; Fairey, Philip; Hendron, Robert

    2011-06-10

    This report discusses how TIAX data, supplemented by the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS)public use data set was used to make significant improvements in the prediction metods for estimating energy use of miscellaneous electric loads.

  20. Energy-Efficient Privacy Protection for Smart Home Environments Using Behavioral Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Homin; Basaran, Can; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks. PMID:25184489

  1. Energy-efficient privacy protection for smart home environments using behavioral semantics.

    PubMed

    Park, Homin; Basaran, Can; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks. PMID:25184489

  2. Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Management Plan. Fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report describes efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to effectively plan for environment, safety and health activities that protect the environment, workers and the public from harm. This document, which covers fiscal year 1996, reflects planning by operating contractors and Program Offices in early 1994, updated to be consistent with the President`s FY 1996 budget submittal to Congress, and subsequent Department of Energy Program refinements. Prior to 1992, only a small number of facilities had a structured process for identifying environment, safety and health (ES and H) needs, reporting the costs (in both direct and indirect budgets) of ES and H requirements, prioritizing and allocating available resources, and efficiently communicating this information to DOE. Planned costs for ES and H activities were usually developed as an afterthought to program budgets. There was no visible, consistently applied mechanism for determining the appropriate amount of resources that should be allocated to ES and H, or for assuring that significant ES and H vulnerabilities were planned to be funded. To address this issue, the Secretary (in November 1991) directed DOE to develop a Safety and Health Five-Year Plan to serve as a line management tool to delineate DOE-wide programs to reduce and manage safety and health risks, and to establish a consistent framework for risk-based resource planning and allocation.

  3. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  4. 75 FR 13757 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy... announcing an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission)....

  5. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-04-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of communicable respiratory illness, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  6. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series. Volume 17 - Energy Renovations-Insulation: A Guide for Contractors to Share With Homeowners

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Adams, K. T.; Hefty, M. G.; Gilbride, T. L.; Love, Pat M.

    2012-05-01

    This guide will help contractors and homeowners identify ways to make their homes more comfortable, more energy efficient, and healthier to live in. It also identifies the steps to take, with the help of a qualified home performance contractor, to increase their home’s insulation, ensure healthy levels of ventilation, and prevent moisture problems. Contractors can use this document to explain the value of these insulation measures to their customers. The references in this document provide further explanation of insulation techniques and technologies.

  8. Fermilab and Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-25

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  9. Fermilab and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  10. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How Parents and Teachers Are Helping to Create Better Environments for Learning (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-02-01

    School districts around the country are finding that smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce their energy consumption and costs. These savings can then be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers.

  11. Gene-Environment Interactions Controlling Energy and Glucose Homeostasis and the Developmental Origins of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bouret, Sebastien; Levin, Barry E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often occur together and affect a growing number of individuals in both the developed and developing worlds. Both are associated with a number of other serious illnesses that lead to increased rates of mortality. There is likely a polygenic mode of inheritance underlying both disorders, but it has become increasingly clear that the pre- and postnatal environments play critical roles in pushing predisposed individuals over the edge into a disease state. This review focuses on the many genetic and environmental variables that interact to cause predisposed individuals to become obese and diabetic. The brain and its interactions with the external and internal environment are a major focus given the prominent role these interactions play in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in health and disease. PMID:25540138

  12. Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry

    2014-10-01

    We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph.

  13. Role of defect coordination environment on point defects formation energies in Ni-Al intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Emrys; Rondinelli, James

    We present a relationship among the point defect formation energies and the bond strengths, lengths, and local coordination environment for Ni-Al intermetallic alloys based on density functional calculations, including Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, NiAl,Ni3Al4, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3. We find the energetic stability of vacancy and anti-site defects for the entire family can be attributed primarily to changes in interactions among first nearest neighbors, owing to spatially localized charge density reconstructions in the vicinity of the defect site. We also compare our interpretation of the local coordination environment with a DFT-based cluster expansion and discuss the performance of each approach in predicting defect stability in the Ni-Al system.

  14. Energy degradation pathways and binding sites environment of micelle bound ruthenium(II) photosensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Dressick, W.J.; Cline, J. III; Demas, J.N.; DeGraff, B.A.

    1986-11-26

    A series of ..cap alpha..-diimine Ru(II) sensitizers were studied in aqueous, alcohol, and sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) micellar solutions. The emission efficiency, lifetime, and spectra change dramatically on micellization. From the temperature dependence of the excited-state lifetime and luminescence quantum efficiencies, coupled with spectral fitting, they interpret these changes and elucidate the environment of the micellized sensitizer. The increased efficiencies and lifetimes on micellization arise from decreased rates of deactivation via the photoactive d-d state and by a decrease in other intramolecular nonradiative paths. Radiationless decay theory permits semiquantitative calculation of nonradiative rate constants. A model describing the binding site and local solvent environment for the sensitizers is proposed. Implications of the results for solar energy conversion schemes are described.

  15. Biotemplated materials for sustainable energy and environment: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2011-10-17

    Materials science will play a key role in the further development of emerging solutions for the increasing problems of energy and environment. Materials found in nature have many inspiring structures, such as hierarchical organizations, periodic architectures, or nanostructures, that endow them with amazing functions, such as energy harvesting and conversion, antireflection, structural coloration, superhydrophobicity, and biological self-assembly. Biotemplating is an effective strategy to obtain morphology-controllable materials with structural specificity, complexity, and related unique functions. Herein, we highlight the synthesis and application of biotemplated materials for six key areas of energy and environment technologies, namely, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, CO(2) reduction, solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, photocatalytic degradation, and gas/vapor sensing. Although the applications differ from each other, a common fundamental challenge is to realize optimum structures for improved performances. We highlight the role of four typical structures derived from biological systems exploited to optimize properties: hierarchical (porous) structures, periodic (porous) structures, hollow structures, and nanostructures. We also provide examples of using biogenic elements (e.g., C, Si, N, I, P, S) for the creation of active materials. Finally, we disscuss the challenges of achieving the desired performance for large-scale commercial applications and provide some useful prototypes from nature for the biomimetic design of new materials or systems. The emphasis is mainly focused on the structural effects and compositional utilization of biotemplated materials. PMID:21905237

  16. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6″ standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  17. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guthrie, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment.more » For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.« less

  18. On the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in dense molecular environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Benten, Rebekka S.; Abel, Bernd

    2010-12-01

    Transient femtosecond-IR-pump-UV-absorption probe-spectroscopy has been employed to shed light on the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer (IVR) in dense molecular environments ranging from the diluted gas phase to the liquid. A general feature in our experiments and those of others is that IVR proceeds via multiple timescales if overtones or combination vibrations of high frequency modes are excited. It has been found that collisions enhance IVR if its (slower) timescales can compete with collisions. This enhancement is, however, much more weaker and rather inefficient as opposed to the effect of collisions on intermolecular energy transfer which is well known. In a series of experiments we found that IVR depends not significantly on the average energy transferred in a collision but rather on the number of collisions. The collisions are much less efficient in affecting IVR than VET. We conclude that collision induced broadening of vibrational energy levels reduces the energy gaps and enhances existing couplings between tiers. The present results are an important step forward to rationalize and understand apparently different and not consistent results from different groups on different molecular systems between gas and liquid phases.

  19. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  20. DOE Building America Technology and Energy Savings Analysis of Two 2721 ft2 Homes in a Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Christian, Jeffrey E; Khowailed, Gannate A

    2013-09-01

    The ZEBRAlliance is an opportunity to accelerate progress toward DOE s goal of maximizing cost-effective energy efficiency by investing in a highly leveraged, focused effort to test new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The Alliance integrated efficient components into the construction of four research houses that will be used as test markets to gauge the integral success of the components and houses. These four research houses are expected to be the first houses used to field-test several newly emerging products such as the ClimateMaster ground-source integrated heat pump, factory assembled ZEHcor walls, and one or more new appliances from Whirlpool Corporation.

  1. Evaporation in a Mediterranean environment by energy budget and Penman methods, Lake Baratz, Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, F.; Niedda, M.; Cohen, D.; Pirastru, M.

    2015-05-01

    In Mediterranean environments, evaporation is a key component of lake water budgets. This applies to Lake Baratz in Sardinia, Italy, a closed lake that almost dried up in 2008 after a succession of years with low seasonal rainfall. We used the energy budget method and Penman's equation to estimate evaporation over Lake Baratz. We measured, using a raft station, water temperature at the surface, at 1, 2, 4, 6 m depth and at the bottom of the lake, as well as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and net radiation over a period of 3 years. We also compared Penman's equation and the energy budget method in two other climatic zones using published data. Our results indicate that mean yearly evaporation over Lake Baratz was 950 mm. On an annual scale, evaporation estimated by Penman's method omitting heat storage as is usually done was 18% higher than by the energy budget method that included heat storage, with monthly differences ranging between -38 and +60%. Including the heat storage term in Penman's equation changed the monthly values but did not change the yearly value significantly. Solar radiation and heat storage were found to be the most important energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates for the energy budget method. The bias between the two methods has a seasonal cycle due to the storage and release of energy from the lake. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water and ground water had minor effect on evaporation rates. Lake Baratz, like other lakes in a Mediterranean environment, is particularly sensitive to the summer hot and dry climate. In contrast, we found that rates of evaporation estimated from Penman and the energy budget methods over tropical African lakes were nearly constant over the entire year and the difference between the two methods smaller. Difference between the two methods for North American lakes is also smaller probably owing to the ice-cover season and to

  2. 76 FR 37804 - Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2011), Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC (Mid-America), petitioned the... a proposed expansion of Mid- America's existing Rocky Mountain pipeline system (the Expansion)....

  3. [Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy]. Annual report 1996--97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Annual report lists initiatives, activities and achievements for the year: Reforming environmental approvals; streamlining environmental legislation; strengthening environmental assessment; changes to the electricity sector; landfill standards; soil cleanup guideline; regulatory reforms; 3-year plan for priority standards; vehicle emissions testing; the fight against smog; greenhouse gas reduction; municipalities get responsibility for water and sewage works; remedial action plans -- RAPs; Ontario`s sport fish; MISA regulations, Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement; pollution prevention partnerships; and EECO `96, Environment and Energy Conference of Ontario. An expenditure statement concludes the document.

  4. Convective available potential energy in the environment of oceanic and continental clouds: Correction and comments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Christopher; Zipser, Edward J.; Lemone, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    In 1980, Zipser and LeMone estimated the convective available potential energy (CAPE) for the Thunderstorm Project cumulonimbus environment to be about 3000 J per kg. By assuming the most adiabat reported by Byers and Braham (1949) to be that of an undilute parcel rather than a reference moist adiabat, a significant error was introduced. On the basis of recent calculations made under similar conditions in Oklahoma and Florida, CAPE is now estimated to be considerably lower. These lower CAPE estimates shed doubt on the suggestion that differences in CAPE account for differences in the vertical velocities in convective updrafts over land and over the ocean.

  5. Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an Exergaming Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q.; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    environment, the results could be incorporated into game play to more accurately control the energy expenditure requirements. PMID:26000460

  6. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    PubMed

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    environment, the results could be incorporated into game play to more accurately control the energy expenditure requirements. PMID:26000460

  7. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Gestwick, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  8. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  9. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  10. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  11. The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Rieseberg, Loren [University of British Columbia

    2013-01-15

    Loren Rieseberg from the University of British Columbia on "The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  12. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University

    2013-01-22

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  13. Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Goldberg, Robert [UCLA

    2013-01-22

    Robert Goldberg of UCLA presents "Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  14. Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Amasino, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Rick Amasino of the University of Wisconsin on "Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  15. The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Rieseberg, Loren

    2012-03-21

    Loren Rieseberg from the University of British Columbia on "The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  16. Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Robert

    2012-03-21

    Robert Goldberg of UCLA presents "Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  17. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallivan, Justin

    2012-03-21

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  18. PMI: Plant-Microbe Interfaces (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schadt, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Christopher Schadt of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Plant-Microbe Interactions" in the context of poplar trees at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 held in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  19. Genomics of Climate Resilience (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-27

    Eldredge Bermingham of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-Panama on "Genomics of climate resilience" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  20. Building America Developments, September 2000, Information Bulletin Number 1 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Anderson, J.; Epstein, K.

    2001-12-01

    Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

  1. PTI TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO REBUILD AMERICA

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    Public Technology Inc. (PTI) engaged in a cooperative agreement, DE-FC26-01NT41107, with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program to provide energy efficiency and energy conservation technical assistance to local governments across the United States. The first year of the cooperative agreement dated from April 2, 2001 to April 1, 2002, at a funding level of $375,000. This technical report covers the period of October 2001--March 2002. PTI appreciates the support that it has received from Rebuild America and plans to continue, with DOE and Rebuild America support, to serve in a strategic capacity, lending the technical experience of its staff and that of the Energy Task Force on approaches to increasing program efficiencies, furthering program development, and coordinating information sharing to help ensure that energy programs are responsive to the needs of local governments.

  2. Energy band alignment and electronic states of amorphous carbon surfaces in vacuo and in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Miguel A.; Määttä, Jukka; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the energy band positions of amorphous carbon (a-C) surfaces in vacuum and in aqueous environment. The calculations are performed using a combination of (i) classical molecular dynamics (MD), (ii) Kohn-Sham density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional, and (iii) the screened-exchange hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE). PBE allows an accurate generation of a-C and the evaluation of the local electrostatic potential in the a-C/water system, HSE yields an improved description of energetic positions which is critical in this case, and classical MD enables a computationally affordable description of water. Our explicit calculation shows that, both in vacuo and in aqueous environment, the a-C electronic states available in the region comprised between the H2/H2O and O2/H2O levels of water correspond to both occupied and unoccupied states within the a-C pseudogap region. These are localized states associated to sp2 sites in a-C. The band realignment induces a shift of approximately 300 meV of the a-C energy band positions with respect to the redox levels of water.

  3. Energy band alignment and electronic states of amorphous carbon surfaces in vacuo and in aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, Miguel A.; Määttä, Jukka; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we obtain the energy band positions of amorphous carbon (a–C) surfaces in vacuum and in aqueous environment. The calculations are performed using a combination of (i) classical molecular dynamics (MD), (ii) Kohn-Sham density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional, and (iii) the screened-exchange hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE). PBE allows an accurate generation of a-C and the evaluation of the local electrostatic potential in the a-C/water system, HSE yields an improved description of energetic positions which is critical in this case, and classical MD enables a computationally affordable description of water. Our explicit calculation shows that, both in vacuo and in aqueous environment, the a-C electronic states available in the region comprised between the H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O levels of water correspond to both occupied and unoccupied states within the a-C pseudogap region. These are localized states associated to sp{sup 2} sites in a-C. The band realignment induces a shift of approximately 300 meV of the a-C energy band positions with respect to the redox levels of water.

  4. Gonadal Transcriptome Alterations in Response to Dietary Energy Intake: Sensing the Reproductive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment. PMID:19127293

  5. A simple model for exploring the role of quantum coherence and the environment in excitonic energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Sreenath K; Shaji, Anil

    2015-07-28

    We investigate the role of quantum coherence in modulating the energy transfer rate between two independent energy donors and a single acceptor participating in an excitonic energy transfer process. The energy transfer rate depends explicitly on the nature of the initial coherent superposition state of the two donors and we connect it to the observed absorption profile of the acceptor and the stimulated emission profile of the energy donors. We consider simple models with mesoscopic environments interacting with the donors and the acceptor and compare the expression we obtained for the energy transfer rate with the results of numerical integration. PMID:26123739

  6. 76 FR 28765 - Roquette America, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Roquette America, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 9, 2011...), Roquette America, Inc. (Roquette) filed a request for waiver of the operating and efficiency standards...

  7. 3 CFR - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 29, 2010 Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future Memorandum for the Secretary of Energy Expanding our Nation's capacity to generate clean nuclear energy is crucial...

  8. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  9. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-01

    Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. America program is aiming for a 20%–30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020.

  10. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  11. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  12. The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Goff, David C.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Popkin, Barry M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993) followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011); 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population) and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score). We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25th to 75th percentile) predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m2 [estimate (95% CI): -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02)]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01) to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08)]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m2 in men [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06) to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15)] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI

  13. How Parents and Teachers Are Helping To Create Better Environments for Learning. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide explores the contributions that parents and teachers can make to enhance energy choice decisions that affect the design and operation of educational facilities. It also examines how making the right choice can create better learning environments. The guide reveals how schools have turned energy improvements into powerful teaching tools;…

  14. Integrating Quantitative Reasoning into STEM Courses Using an Energy and Environment Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J. D.; Lyford, M. E.; Mayes, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Many secondary and post-secondary science classes do not integrate math into their curriculum, while math classes commonly teach concepts without meaningful context. Consequently, students lack basic quantitative skills and the ability to apply them in real-world contexts. For the past three years, a Wyoming Department of Education funded Math Science Partnership at the University of Wyoming (UW) has brought together middle and high school science and math teachers to model how math and science can be taught together in a meaningful way. The UW QR-STEM project emphasizes the importance of Quantitative Reasoning (QR) to student success in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). To provide a social context, QR-STEM has focused on energy and the environment. In particular, the project has examined how QR and STEM concepts play critical roles in many of the current global challenges of energy and environment. During four 3-day workshops each summer and over several virtual and short face-to-face meetings during the academic year, UW and community college science and math faculty work with math and science teachers from middle and high schools across the state to improve QR instruction in math and science classes. During the summer workshops, faculty from chemistry, physics, earth sciences, biology and math lead sessions to: 1) improve the basic science content knowledge of teachers; 2) improve teacher understanding of math and statistical concepts, 3) model how QR can be taught by engaging teachers in sessions that integrate math and science in an energy and environment context; and 4) focus curricula using Understanding by Design to identify enduring understandings on which to center instructional strategies and assessment. In addition to presenting content, faculty work with teachers as they develop classroom lessons and larger units to be implemented during the school year. Teachers form interdisciplinary groups which often consist of math and

  15. A sensitivity model for energy consumption in buildings. Part 1: Effect of exterior environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple analytical model is developed for the simulation of seasonal heating and cooling loads of any class of buildings to complement available computerized techniques which make hourly, daily, and monthly calculations. An expression for the annual energy utilization index, which is a common measure of rating buildings having the same functional utilization, is derived to include about 30 parameters for both building interior and exterior environments. The sensitivity of a general class building to either controlled or uncontrolled weather parameters is examined. A hypothetical office type building, located at the Goldstone Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California, is selected as an example for the numerical sensitivity evaluations. Several expressions of variations in local outside air temperature, pressure, solar radiation, and wind velocity are presented.

  16. Energy and Environment Division, Environmental Research Program, annual report FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1982, research was concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion research, environmental effects of oil shale processing, fresh-water ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each research task for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  17. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  18. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  19. Fixing atmospheric CO2 by environment adaptive sorbent and renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Liu, J.; Ge, K.; Fang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fixing atmospheric CO2, followed by geologic storage in remote areas is considered an environmentally secure approach to climate mitigation. A moisture swing sorbent was investigated in the laboratory for CO2 capture at a remote area with humid and windy conditions. The energy requirement of moisture swing absorption could be greatly reduced compared to that of traditional high-temperature thermal swing, by assuming that the sorbent can be naturally dried and regenerated at ambient conditions. However, for currently developed moisture swing materials, the CO2 capacity would drop significantly at high relative humidity. The CO2 capture amount can be reduced by the poor thermodynamics and kinetics at high relative humidity or low temperature. Similar challenges also exist for thermal or vacuum swing sorbents. Developing sorbent materials which adapt to specific environments, such as high humidity or low temperature, can ensure sufficient capture capacity on the one hand, and realize better economics on the other hand (Figure 1) .An environment adaptive sorbent should have the abilities of tunable capacity and fast kinetics at extreme conditions, such as high humidity or low temperature. In this presentation, the possibility of tuning CO2 absorption capacity of a polymerized ionic liquid material is discussed. The energy requirement evaluation shows that tuning the CO2 binding energy of sorbent, rather than increasing the temperature or reducing the humidity of air, could be much more economic. By determining whether the absorption process is controlled by physical diffusion controlled or chemical reaction, an effective approach to fast kinetics at extreme conditions is proposed. A shrinking core model for mass transfer kinetics is modified to cope with the relatively poor kinetics of air capture. For the studied sample which has a heterogeneous structure, the kinetic analysis indicates a preference of sorbent particle size optimization, rather than support layer

  20. Energy-Based Tetrahedron Sensor for High-Temperature, High-Pressure Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Kent L.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic energy-based probe has been developed that incorporates multiple acoustic sensing elements in order to obtain the acoustic pressure and three-dimensional acoustic particle velocity. With these quantities, the user can obtain various energy-based quantities, including acoustic energy density, acoustic intensity, and acoustic impedance. In this specific development, the probe has been designed to operate in an environment characterized by high temperatures and high pressures as is found in the close vicinity of rocket plumes. Given these capabilities, the probe is designed to be used to investigate the acoustic conditions within the plume of a rocket engine or jet engine to facilitate greater understanding of the noise generation mechanisms in those plumes. The probe features sensors mounted inside a solid sphere. The associated electronics for the probe are contained within the sphere and the associated handle for the probe. More importantly, the design of the probe has desirable properties that reduce the bias errors associated with determining the acoustic pressure and velocity using finite sum and difference techniques. The diameter of the probe dictates the lower and upper operating frequencies for the probe, where accurate measurements can be acquired. The current probe design implements a sphere diameter of 1 in. (2.5 cm), which limits the upper operating frequency to about 4.5 kHz. The sensors are operational up to much higher frequencies, and could be used to acquire pressure data at higher frequencies, but the energy-based measurements are limited to that upper frequency. Larger or smaller spherical probes could be designed to go to lower or higher frequency range

  1. Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM tm) Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, Phillip R.

    2012-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) has completed the sponsored project entitled, Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM) Curriculum. The project involved the development of a structured professional development program to improve the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies of engineers and operators of commercial buildings. TE2AM advances a radically different approach to commercial building design, operation, maintenance, and end of life disposition. By employing asset management principles to the lifecycle of a commercial building, owners and occupants will realize improved building performance, reduced energy consumption and positive environmental impacts. Through our commercialization plan, we intend to offer TE2AM courses and certificates to the professional community and continuously improve TE2AM course materials. The TE2AM project supports the DOE Strategic Theme 1 Energy Security; and will further advance the DOE Strategic Goal 1.4 Energy Productivity. Through participation in the TE2AM curriculum, engineers and operators of commercial buildings will be eligible for a professional certificate; denoting the completion of a prescribed series of learning activities. The project involved a comprehensive, rigorous approach to curriculum development, and accomplished the following goals: 1. Identify, analyze and prioritize key learning needs of engineers, architects and technical professionals as operators of commercial buildings. 2. Design and develop TE2AM curricula and instructional strategies to meet learning needs of the target learning community. 3. Establish partnerships with the sponsor and key stakeholders to enhance the development and delivery of learning programs. 4. Successfully commercialize and sustain the training and certificate programs for a substantial time following the term of the award. The project team was successful in achieving the goals and

  2. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001) but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:26133125

  3. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-07-01

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001) but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:26133125

  4. Local environment dependance of the water diffusion energy barrier onto the (101) anatase surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, Lorenzo; Gala, Fabrizio; Zollo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption properties of TiO2 surfaces with biological environments have shown to be very important for bio-compatibility properties. Interactions of biological molecules with inorganic materials in aqueous systems, are mediated by water molecules. Hence the understanding of the possible conformations that water molecules can assume on the inorganic surfaces it is very important. Many studies concerning the structural conformations of adsorbed water molecules on rutile and anatase, the most likely exposed surface phases, show that the first layer of adsorbed water molecules play a crucial role in mediating the structural and physical properties of the upper interacting environment layers. In this contest we performed a detailed analysis of the possible conformations of the first layer of water molecules adsorbed on the (101) TiO2 surface; total energy calculations and NEB techniques, in contest of the DFT theory, has been used to study the stability and the diffusion properties as a further insight of our previous studies about this topic.

  5. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets. PMID:16604595

  6. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that it is predisposed to…

  7. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Hathaway, John E.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Dirks, James A.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Stephan, Eric G.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  8. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

  9. A statistical analysis of the low-energy geosynchronous plasma environment. I - Electrons. II - Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Schwank, D. C.; Deforest, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the geosynchronous plasma environment between approximately 30 eV and 80 keV are analyzed statistically. Nearly 50 days of 10 minute averages of the first four moments of the distribution function from low-energy plasma detectors on the ATS-5 and ATS-6 geosynchronous satellites were used. The data were studied in terms of occurrence frequency, local time variations, and response to geomagnetic activity. These techniques revealed marked differences in the ATS-5 and ATS-6 data bases. When translated into a 2-Maxwellian representation, it was found that (1) the ATS-6 data covered an energy range not covered by ATS-5 (between 1 and 50 eV) and (2) there was a definite change in the ion plasma between the ATS-5 and ATS-6 measurements. Simple expressions are derived to simulate the relationship between the four moments, and a model is presented, which takes into account the ATS-5 and ATS-6 plasma variations. Despite the differences in the ion data, the accuracy of the four-moment representation was found valid for characterizing the geosynchronous electron population.

  10. LASER SPECTROSCOPY AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Various, Authors

    1981-05-01

    In order to control pollutants resulting from energy production and utilization, adequate methods are required for monitoring the level of various substances often present at low concentrations. The Energy and Environment Division Applied Research in Laser Spectroscopy & Analytical Techniques Program is directed toward meeting these needs, Emphasis is on the development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques. The advantages, now widely recognized, include ultra-high sensitivity coupled with minimal sample preparation. In some instances physical methods provide multi-parameter measurements which often provide the only means of achiev·ing the sensitivity necessary for the detection of trace contaminants. Work is reported in these areas: APPLIED PHYSICS AND LASER SPECTROSCOPY RESEARCH; MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETER FOR TRACE METALS ANALYSIS IN WATER; THE SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; THE POSSIBLE CHRONDRITIC NATURE OF THE DANISH CRETACEOUS~TERTIARY BOUNDARY; IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY AND PRECISION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENTS IN PLANKTON AND PLANKTONIC FISH; and SOURCES OF SOME SECONDARILY WORKED OBSIDIAN ARTIFACTS FROM TIKAL, GUATEMALA.

  11. The role of science and technology for energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hjersen, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    The premise of this paper is that science, and the technology derived from science, is not the answer to energy and environmental problems. Science is a method of answering questions and as modern societies people must be very careful and specific in posing those questions. Many of the environmental issues addressed at the meeting are the direct result of not being specific enough in the demands placed on the science community. For example, when science was asked to increase chemical production to produce greater and greater quantities of consumer products, society forgot to ask that they be produced without significant damage to the environment. When society developed nuclear deterrents to protect national security interests, it failed to consider the life-cycle costs of these weapons systems. Now society must deal with a legacy of hundreds of billions of dollars in clean-up costs. One impediment has been that energy and environmental problems are intrinsically crosscutting, both across scientific disciplines and the decision-making systems of society. The author suggests that one approach to this problem is better integration across scientific disciplines and the integration of science and technology with political, economic and social factors. Three examples of successes are used to illustrate this.

  12. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  13. The quest for greenhouse-constrained technologies amid other concerns for environment and energy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    As we approach the 21st century, sentiments run high in the US for improved air quality in our cities and for a more secure energy future, hopefully to be manifest in lesser dependence on foreign supplies of oil. These sentiments are reflected in intense political activity on both the federal and state levels to enact legislation that will help alleviate both problems. At the same time though, the recent emergence of awareness of a threat of global warming due to ever increasing emissions of greenhouse gases has only served as an additional complicating factor, one which has not been fully dealt with either socially or politically in the US. Much discussion and deliberation on the issue of the greenhouse effect is underway in the US and aimed at understanding the size of the problem as well as identifying options for solutions. This paper will review the recent political climate on issues of environment and energy and will include brief descriptions of the recent US Clean Air Act Amendments, the California Clean Air Act, the National Energy Strategy, and the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These policies and programs form a backdrop for the additional and more recent challenges brought about by the issue of global warming. To integrate all of these concerns will require complex solutions. First an understanding and discussion of all the options must exist. It is that integration process that is currently underway in the US. The paper will also review the current understanding of greenhouse gas emissions as well as options for mitigating them, especially as related to the transportation sector. 15 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Relative velocity of seagrass blades: Implications for wave attenuation in low-energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Kevin; Houser, Chris

    2009-03-01

    While the ability of subaquatic vegetation to attenuate wave energy is well recognized in general, there is a paucity of data from the field to describe the rate and mechanisms of wave decay, particularly with respect to the relative motion of the vegetation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the attenuation of incident wave height through a seagrass meadow and characterize the blade movement under oscillatory flow under the low-energy conditions characteristic of fetch-limited and sheltered environments. The horizontal motion of the seagrass blades and the velocity just above the seagrass canopy were measured using a digital video camera and an acoustic Doppler velicometer (ADV) respectively in order to refine the estimates of the drag coefficient based on the relative velocity. Significant wave heights (Hs) were observed to increase by ˜0.02 m (˜20%) through the first 5 m of the seagrass bed but subsequently decrease exponentially over the remainder of the bed. The exponential decay coefficient varied in response to the Reynolds number calculated using blade width (as the length scale) and the oscillatory velocity measured immediately above the canopy. The ability of the seagrass to attenuate wave energy decreases as incident wave heights increase and conditions become more turbulent. Estimates of the time-averaged canopy height and the calculated hydraulic roughness suggest that, as the oscillatory velocity increases, the seagrass becomes fully extended and leans in the direction of flow for a longer part of the wave cycle. The relationship between the drag coefficient and the Reynolds number further suggests that the vegetation is swaying (going with the flow) at low-energy conditions but becomes increasingly rigid as oscillatory velocities increase over the limited range of the conditions observed (200 < Re < 800). In addition to the changing behavior of the seagrass motion, the attenuation was not uniform with wave frequency, and waves at a

  15. Rebuild America Partner Update, January--February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research that is improving domestic hot water modeling capabilities to more effectively address one of the largest energy uses in residential buildings.

  17. Broadband Acoustic Environment at a Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2012-04-04

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines. Several monitoring technologies are being considered to determine the presence of SRKW near the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for determining design and operational specifications of these technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array from three different cruises during high tidal period in February, May, and June 2011. The ambient noise level decreases approximately 25 dB re 1 μPa per octave from frequency ranges of 1 kHz to 70 kHz, and increases approximately 20 dB re 1 μPa per octave for the frequency from 70 kHz to 200 kHz. The difference of noise pressure levels in different months varies from 10 to 30 dB re 1 μPa for the frequency range below 70 kHz. Commercial shipping and ferry vessel traffic were found to be the most significant contributors to sound pressure levels for the frequency range from 100 Hz to 70 kHz, and the variation could be as high as 30 dB re 1 μPa. These noise level measurements provide the basic information for designing and evaluating both active and passive monitoring systems proposed for deploying and operating for tidal power generation alert system.

  18. Deep Horizons - Implications of the deep carbon cycle for life, energy, and the environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    B. Sherwood Lollar1, C.J. Ballentine2, E. Shock3 1Dept. of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B1 email bslollar@chem.utoronto.ca 2School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environ. Sci., Univ. of Manchester, UK M13 9PL 3School of Earth & Space Exploration, Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 While well-developed models exist regarding surface biogeochemical carbon cycles on short-, medium- and long-term scales over geologic time, major unknowns persist concerning the deep carbon cycle, including the pathways and flux of carbon exchange between the surface and deep interior of the planet; the nature of microbial life in the Earth's deep subsurface; and the implications of the deep carbon cycle for energy resources and the environment. Major research questions include: What is the distribution, form and abundance of carbon in the deep crust and mantle? What is the nature of deep carbon flux and the timescale and mechanisms of recycling? Do the lower crust and mantle contribute biologically available carbon to the shallow subsurface and surface? To what extent does the deep carbon cycle support microbial ecosystems in the deep marine and/or deep terrestrial biosphere? What is the volume and depth of the Earth's habitable zone and what are the implications of this for the search for life on other planets and moons? What is the role of the deep carbon cycle in sustaining abiotic organic synthesis and what potential contribution might such chemical organic synthesis have made to the origin of life and the sustainability of deep microbial ecosystems? How does our understanding of the deep carbon cycle impact on emerging global issues such as climate change, energy and carbon sequestration? While fundamental to our understanding of the origin and evolution of life and the planet - these questions are also relevant to the major practical challenges facing science and society as we struggle with the implications of still increasing fossil fuel

  19. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  20. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Masco Environments for Living, Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Masco’s Environments for Living Certified Green demo home at the 2009 International Builders Show in Las Vegas. The home has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index score of 44, a right-sized air conditi