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Sample records for americium recovery service

  1. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  2. RECOVERY OF AMERICIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ader, M.; Hyman, H.H.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for separating americium and plutonium and recovering the americium. Plutonium is extracted from a solution containing plutonium and americium with a water-insoluble solvent, and americium is precipitated from the aqueous phase by adding a ferric salt and an alkali metal hydroxide thereto. The precipitate may then be dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the ferric salt extracted from the americium with an organlc solvent.

  3. Status of Americium-241 recovery at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Knighton, J.B.; Hagan, P.G.; Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is presented in two parts: Part I, Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal, and Part II, Aqueous Recovery of Americium from Extraction Salts. The Rocky Flats recovery process used for waste salts includes (1) dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution of residues; (2) cation exchange to convert from the chloride to the nitrate system and to remove gross amounts of monovalent impurities; (3) anion exchange separation of plutonium; (4) oxalate precipitation of americium; and (5) calcination of the oxalate at 600/sup 0/C to yield americium oxide. The aqueous process portion describes attempts to improve the recovery of americium. The first part deals with modifications to the cation exchange step; the second describes development of a solvent extractions process that will recovery americium from residues containing aluminium as well as other common impurities. Results of laboratory work are described. 3 figures, 6 tables. (DP)

  4. Americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runde, Wolfgang H.; Schulz, Wallace W.

    Americium, element 95, was discovered in 1944-45 by Seaborg et al. (1950) at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago as a product of the irradiation of plutonium with neutrons: 239{Pu}( n,γ )^{240} Put( n,γ )^{241} Pu → - β ^-}^{241}{Am} This reaction is still the best method for the production of pure 241Am. In post-World War II work at the University of Chicago, Cunningham isolated Am(OH)3 and measured the first absorption spectrum of the Am3+ aquo ion (Cunningham, 1948). By the 1950s, the major center for americium chemistry research in the world was at Los Alamos. Since the 1970s, the majority of publications on americium have come from researchers in the former USSR and West Germany. Extensive reviews of americium chemistry can be found in Freeman and Keller (1985), Gmelin (1979), Penneman and Asprey (1955), and Schulz (1976).

  5. Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James L

    2012-06-01

    The element americium marks the end of interesting behavior in the periodic table. I will talk about how this was predicted by Johansson and Rosengren and demonstrated by me. I will talk about other questions of localization.

  6. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Adam C.; Belooussova, Olga N.; Hetrick, Lucas Duane

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  7. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-04-23

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced.

  8. SEPARATION OF AMERICIUM FROM PROMETHIUM

    DOEpatents

    Pressly, R.E.

    1959-07-01

    Promethium-147 is separated from americium in acidic aqueous solution by adding fluosilicic acid to the solution, heating the solution to form a promethium precipitate and separating the precipitate from solution. The precipitate is then re-dissolved by ihe addition of boric acid and nitric acid, and re-precipitated by the addition of fluosilicic acid. This procedure is repeated six or more times to obtain a relatively americium-free promeihium precipitate. Americium may be separately recovered from the supernatant liquids. This process is applicable to the recovery of promethium from fission-product solutions which have been allowed to decay for a period of two to four years.

  9. Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

  10. Recovery in Scotland: beyond service development.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Simon; McBrierty, Rona

    2012-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland - including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network - and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland. PMID:22385428

  11. Recovery in England: transforming statutory services?

    PubMed

    Perkins, Rachel; Slade, Mike

    2012-02-01

    English mental health policy has explicitly supported a focus on recovery since 2001. More recently, this has been elaborated through policy support for social inclusion, employment and well-being. We review several drivers for this political orientation, including a refocusing of the role of health services as a whole from treating illnesses to helping people to make the most of their lives, the shift to greater power for the individual, reflected in personal social care and personal health budgets, and the evidence informing clinical guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). A disjunction remains between policy and practice, with organizational policies espousing a recovery orientation and teams re-branding as 'recovery and support' teams, whilst pursuing clinical practices which prioritize symptomatic treatment rather than recovery support. The next phase of development in English statutory mental health services is therefore bridging this gap, through organizational transformation in mental health services towards a focus on recovery. We describe two funded initiatives to support this process of organizational transformation. The first (ImROC) is a national initiative to develop a pro-recovery organizational climate. The second (REFOCUS) is a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940) investigating a team-level pro-recovery intervention. PMID:22385424

  12. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services. PMID:24701559

  13. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  14. The profitable art of service recovery.

    PubMed

    Hart, C W; Heskett, J L; Sasser, W E

    1990-01-01

    In services, mistakes are a fact of life. No matter how hard companies try, they can't prevent the occasional late flight or missed delivery. But they can learn to recover from them. Consider how Club Med-Cancun turned a service nightmare into a memorable experience. When a flight to Cancun left New York six hours late, made two unexpected stops, ran out of food, and had a rough landing, the vacationers on board were certain their holiday was ruined. But the Club Med manager greeted the travelers with food and music and chauffeured them back to the resort. In the end, the vacationers had a better time than if the flight had gone like clockwork. Service recovery starts with identifying the problem. The Bank of Maine in Portland pays customers $1 for writing a letter about the service they received. American Express uses an "800" number to solicit customer complaints. Once they've identified a problem, service companies must act fast. When Smith & Hawken realized that it was taking months to resolve customers' problems by mail, the company decided to use the phone instead. Most important, service companies should encourage frontline employees to deviate from the rules when necessary. Some companies use role playing to help employees develop the creative thinking needed to deal with unusual situations. Sonesta Hotels uses a game in which teams win points for coming up with good solutions to realistic problems. Also, employees must have the authority and responsibility to act on their beliefs-to make phone calls, credit accounts, or send flowers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10106796

  15. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  16. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  17. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  18. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  19. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  20. What are your priorities right now? Identifying service needs across recovery stages to inform service development.

    PubMed

    Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are, for many, chronic conditions that are typically associated with severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. "Recovery" from SUD is, for most, a lengthy process; improvements in other areas of functioning do not necessarily follow the attainment of abstinence. The current SUD service model providing intense, short-term, symptom-focused services is ill-suited to address these issues. A recovery-oriented model of care is emerging, which provides coordinated recovery-support services using a chronic-care model of sustained recovery management. Information is needed about substance users' priorities, particularly persons in recovery who are not currently enrolled in treatment, to guide the development of recovery-oriented systems. As a first step in filling this gap, we present qualitative data on current life priorities among a sample of individuals that collectively represent successive recovery stages (N = 356). Findings suggest that many areas of functioning remain challenging long after abstinence is attained, most notably employment and education, family/social relations, and housing. Although the ranking of priorities changes somewhat across recovery stages, employment is consistently the second most important priority, behind working on one's recovery. Study limitations are noted, and the implications of findings for the development and evaluation of recovery-oriented services are discussed. PMID:19631490

  1. The Role of Recovery Housing: Prioritizing Choice in Homeless Services.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Kristen; Pannella Winn, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Housing options for people exiting homelessness and seeking recovery from substance use disorders are limited. Policies tend to favor low-demand models such as housing first and permanent supportive housing that do not require abstinence, but offer immediate housing placement based on consumer choice and separate housing from clinical services. While these models have proven effective in promoting housing retention, especially among individuals with a primary diagnosis of mental illness, evidence to support positive outcomes related to people with a primary or co-occurring substance use disorder are mixed. Recovery housing models provide abstinence-focused environments and integrated peer support embedded within a recovery framework. Various models exist along a continuum from fully peer-run to clinically staffed residences. However, this continuum is typically separate from the homeless services system, and many barriers to integration persist. Recent national dialogues have begun to explore opportunities to integrate housing and substance use recovery approaches to meet the needs of people who need both types of support. This perspective paper argues that recovery housing is essential for supporting some homeless individuals and families. Within a comprehensive continuum based on choice, both recovery housing and low-demand models can support housing retention, reduce homelessness, promote recovery, and foster self-determination. PMID:27064834

  2. Consumer Attitude Towards Service Failure and Recovery in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahal, Hardeep; Devi, Pinkey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore consumer attitude towards service failure and recovery in the higher education in general and with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure in particular. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data are collected from 120 students of three undergraduate colleges of…

  3. RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

  4. SEPARATION OF CURIUM AND AMERICIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fields, P.R.; Isaac, N.M.

    1962-02-20

    Curium and americium are contained in an anhydrous molten salt medium having a low melting point. Curium is preferentially extracted from the molten salt by a hot organic solvent containing preferably less than 10% alkyl phosphate. (AEC)

  5. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  6. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  7. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  8. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  9. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  10. Recovery in Hong Kong: service user participation in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Cheung, Eric; Kan, Alice; Ng, Roger; Yau, Sania

    2012-02-01

    This article provides an overview of mental health services (MHS) and the application of the recovery concept in Hong Kong, focusing on user participation. It presents stakeholders' views of the recovery movement in a round-table discussion format, demonstrating agreement that user participation merits more public and official attention. Some of the present difficulties with the movement are also reviewed. Social identity theory (SIT) is then analysed as a potentially useful framework for theorizing how service users' identities change as they become service providers. The paper then provides an overview of the current financial and political position of MHS, and identifies signs that the recovery approach is becoming accepted. It also addresses the cultural meanings of the concept, and sets out examples of its implementation in the health and social welfare sectors. Lastly, it summarizes the challenges facing service providers and users and concludes that as the recovery movement is still in its infancy in Hong Kong, more coordinated efforts are needed to establish the organizational support and policy framework, so that sustainable and evidence-based service provision can be achieved. PMID:22385425

  11. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. 54.712 Section 54.712 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users....

  12. Choice, perceived control, and customer satisfaction: the psychology of online service recovery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chi

    2008-06-01

    Service failures and consequent recoveries have been identified as critical determinants of customer retention. Therefore, effective service recovery programs warrant further exploration, particularly in the online shopping environment, where consumers can receive immediate and tangible service recovery. The results of the present study suggest that by providing a choice of recovery options, customers' sense of control is increased, as is their satisfaction with the particular recovery efforts and their overall satisfaction with the entire service experience. Also, service importance accentuated the impact of choice on perceived control. Specifically, when the service was of greater importance, giving customers a choice of recovery options augmented customers' sense of control more than when the service was of lesser importance. The implications of the findings are also discussed. PMID:18537502

  13. Antiservice Within the Medical Service Encounter: Lessons for Radiologists Beyond Service Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul Armstrong; Hill, Ronald Paul

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications in the metrics for reimbursement have reinforced the importance of radiology service-delivery experiences of patients. Evaluating current radiology practices calls for reflection on the various touch points with patients, as well as their overall satisfaction. If problems occur during encounters, service failure, or lack of satisfactory medical experiences can be transformed through service recovery, whereby patients-as-customers are given chances to voice their concerns, and health care providers across the spectrum can work together to resolve problematic issues. This paper takes a systemic view of the patient experience as embedded in the care continuum, recognizing that different beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of members of the health care team can negatively affect or sabotage patient satisfaction. Although radiologists are only one of many roles in the care continuum, recommendations are discussed for how they can integrate service satisfaction as a pervasive communal goal among all health care team members. PMID:26212621

  14. "Speeding up the road to recovery": The Complex Recovery Assessment and Consultation (CRAC) service.

    PubMed

    Davis Le Brun, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The number of bed closures in mental health is on the rise, creating additional pressure on services, including acute mental health services. An efficient way of working is required in order to streamline the acute care pathway and decrease unnecessary delays to length of stay, ensuring all individuals can be offered an inpatient bed when in crisis. The Complex Recovery Assessment and Consultation (CRAC) service was created in order to support acute mental health inpatient clinicians in streamlining hospital stays for service users who present with complex presentations that require lengthier admissions (over 40 days) by offering assessment, advice, and intervention from a rehabilitation perspective. The team was also created to understand why individuals may require a lengthy hospital stay. Preliminary data showed that requiring a placement on discharge proved to be the most significant factor in increased length of stay and so the team took on a new role of discharge coordinator after around a year of operating. This involved assisting in decreasing any delays out of hospital through improved communication and dedicated time to complete tasks, such as completing paperwork for placement referrals and funding panels. Since taking on this role it was found that the time taken for individuals to be discharged to a rehabilitation or specialist placement decreased; a rehabilitation placement by 13.12 days and a specialist placement by 9.22 days. Discharge to a family address also decreased by 2.9 days and a home address by 2.47 days. Those patients with complex presentations benefit from having one dedicated team to coordinate the discharge process. Their lengthier acute inpatient stay is improved through streamlining care pathways, ultimately decreasing delays in discharge. PMID:26734397

  15. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors’ studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg and Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg and Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high schools. Descriptive and qualitative findings are presented. The focus is on characteristics of RHS students and, in light of those student characteristics, findings regarding academic and recovery support programming in recovery high schools. PMID:24976659

  16. Phonon dynamics of americium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, B. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Ahirwar, Ashok K.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2013-06-01

    We report for the first time the complete phonon dispersion curves for Americium telluride (AmTe) using a breathing shell models (BSM) to establish their predominant ionic nature. The results obtained in the present study show the general features of the phonon spectrum. We could not compare our results with the experimental measurements as they are not available so far. We emphasize the need of neutron scattering measurements to compare our results. We also report, for the first time specific heat for this compound.

  17. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory for Measurement of Nursing Student Views on Recovery-oriented Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented services are a goal for policy and practice in the Australian mental health service system. Evidence-based reform requires an instrument to measure knowledge of recovery concepts. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was designed for this purpose, however, its suitability and validity for student health professionals has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current article is to report the psychometric features of the RKI for measuring nursing students' views on recovery. The RKI, a self-report measure, consists of four scales: (I) Roles and Responsibilities, (II) Non-Linearity of the Recovery Process, (III) Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and (IV) Expectations Regarding Recovery. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the baseline data (n = 167) were applied to assess validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses generally replicated the item structure suggested by the three main scales, however more stringent analyses (confirmatory factor analysis) did not provide strong support for convergent validity. A refined RKI with 16 items had internal reliabilities of α = .75 for Roles and Responsibilities, α = .49 for Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and α = .72, for Recovery as Non-Linear Process. If the RKI is to be applied to nursing student populations, the conceptual underpinning of the instrument needs to be reworked, and new items should be generated to evaluate and improve scale validity and reliability. PMID:26514258

  18. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery…

  19. The vision of recovery today: what it is and what it means for services

    PubMed Central

    FARKAS, MARIANNE

    2007-01-01

    In the past, practice in mental health was guided by the belief that individuals with serious mental illnesses do not recover. The course of their illness was either seen pessimistically, as deteriorative, or optimistically, as a maintenance course. Research over the past thirty to forty years has indicted that belief and shown that a vision of recovery can be achieved for many individuals. People with serious mental illnesses have themselves published accounts of their own recovery as well as advocated for the development of recovery promoting services. In North America and other regions, policies have been developed to make recovery the guiding vision of services. Today, particularly in the United States, much effort is going into the transformation of services and systems to achieve recovery outcomes. Despite these trends, the idea of recovery remains controversial and, some say, even illusory. This article clarifies the meaning of the term "recovery", reviews the research and first person accounts providing a rationale for recovery, and sets out implications for developing recovery oriented services. PMID:18235855

  20. Separation and determination of americium in low-level alkaline waste of NPP origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, B.; Djingova, R.; Nikiforova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a short and cost-saving procedure for the determination of 241Am in sludge sample of the alkaline low-level radioactive waste (LL LRAW) collected from Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”. The determination of americium was a part of a complex analytical approach, where group actinide separation was achieved. An anion exchange was used for separation of americium from uranium, plutonium and iron. For the separation of americium extraction with diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was studied. The final radioactive samples were prepared by micro co-precipitation with NdF3, counted by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The procedure takes 2 hours. The recovery yield of the procedure amounts to (95 ± 1.5)% and the detection limit is 53 mBq/kg 241Am (t=150 000 s). The analytical procedure was applied for actual liquid wastes and results were compared to standard procedure.

  1. Peer-Delivered Recovery Support Services for Addictions in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Ellen L; Hanson, Justine; Greene, R Neil; Richard, Molly; Laudet, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review identifies, appraises, and summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness of peer-delivered recovery support services for people in recovery from alcohol and drug addiction. Nine studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. They were assessed for quality and outcomes including substance use and recovery-related factors. Despite significant methodological limitations found in the included studies, the body of evidence suggests salutary effects on participants. Current limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26882891

  2. The Most Useful Actinide Isotope: Americium-241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navratil, James D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed is the discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses of an isotope of Americium (Am-241). Production and separation techniques used in industry are emphasized. Processes are illustrated in flow sheets. (CW)

  3. Neutron production in several americium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    Americium, like other alpha emitting actinides, may indirectly produce neutrons when combined with light target materials. These (alpha,n) reaction neutrons, along with well known photon lines, have been an advantage of the {sup 241}Am isotope for diverse applications such as radiography, thickness gauges, neutron sources, and even common household smoke detectors. To characterize these sources, the SOURCES code was used to calculate neutron yields and spectra from {sup 241}Am metal, americium oxide, and americium aluminum alloys. Such information may be used as source terms for future transport problems (e.g. shielding calculations). Table 1 contains neutron yields for six americium configurations. The metal, oxides, and alloys were run as homogeneous problems while the interface case was run in both two- and three-region interface modes.

  4. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  5. Promoting recovery in an evolving policy context: what do we know and what do we need to know about recovery support services?

    PubMed

    Laudet, Alexandre B; Humphreys, Keith

    2013-07-01

    As both a concept and a movement, "recovery" is increasingly guiding substance use disorder (SUD) services and policy. One sign of this change is the emergence of recovery support services that attempt to help addicted individuals using a comprehensive continuing care model. This paper reviews the policy environment surrounding recovery support services, the needs to which they should respond, and the status of current recovery support models. We conclude that recovery support services (RSS) should be further assessed for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, that greater efforts must be made to develop the RSS delivery workforce, and that RSS should capitalize on ongoing efforts to create a comprehensive, integrated and patient-centered health care system. As the SUD treatment system undergoes its most important transformation in at least 40years, recovery research and the lived experience of recovery from addiction should be central to reform. PMID:23506781

  6. Improving Service Utilization for Parents with Substance Abuse Problems: Experimenting with Recovery Coaches in Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization. PMID:25865431

  7. Promoting recovery in an evolving policy context: What do we know and what do we need to know about recovery support services?

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.; Humphreys, Keith

    2013-01-01

    As both a concept and a movement, “recovery” is increasingly guiding substance use disorder (SUD) services and policy. One sign of this change is the emergence of recovery support services that attempt to help addicted individuals using a comprehensive continuing care model. This paper reviews the policy environment surrounding recovery support services, the needs to which they should respond, and the status of current recovery support models. We conclude that recovery support services (RSS) should be further assessed for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, that greater efforts must be made to develop the RSS delivery workforce, and that RSS should capitalize on ongoing efforts to create a comprehensive, integrated and patient-centered health care system. As the SUD treatment system undergoes its most important transformation in at least 40 years, recovery research and the lived experience of recovery from addiction should be central to reform. PMID:23506781

  8. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study. PMID:12798092

  9. Americium thermodynamic data for the EQ3/6 database

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    Existing thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid species of americium have been reviewed and collected in a form that can be used with the EQ3/6 database. Data that are important in solubility calculations for americium at a proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository were emphasized. Conflicting data exist for americium complexes with carbonates. Essentially no data are available for americium solids or complexes at temperatures greater than 25{sup 0}C. 17 references, 4 figures.

  10. Lifetime followup of the 1976 americium accident victim: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Palmer, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the 11 year medical course of Harold R. McCluskey, a Hanford nuclear chemical operator, who, at age 64, was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily contaminated with americium (Am-241), sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The immediate and long-term medical care is summarized, including decontamination procedures, chelation therapy, and routine and special clinical laboratories studies. The estimates of the operator's Am-241 deposition, post accident and during the remainder of his life and the special techniques and equipment used to make the estimates, are reported. Post-accident, the total amount of Am-241 excreted in his urine and feces was 41 MBq (1.1 mCi). He died of complications of chronic coronary artery disease on August 17, 1987. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The Setting is the Service: How the Architecture of Sober Living Residences Supports Community Based Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Fried; Jee, Babette; Polcin, Douglas L.; Henderson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of residential recovery settings is an important silent partner in the alcohol/drug recovery field. The settings significantly support or hinder recovery experiences of residents, and shape community reactions to the presence of sober living houses (SLH) in ordinary neighborhoods. Grounded in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous, the SLH provides residents with settings designed to support peer based recovery; further, these settings operate in a community context that insists on sobriety and strongly encourages attendance at 12-step meetings. Little formal research has been conducted to show how architectural features of the recovery setting – building appearance, spatial layouts, furnishings and finishes, policies for use of the facilities, physical care and maintenance of the property, neighborhood features, aspects of location in the city – function to promote (or retard) recovery, and to build (or detract from) community support. This paper uses a case-study approach to analyze the architecture of a community-based residential recovery service that has demonstrated successful recovery outcomes for its residents, is popular in its community, and has achieved state-wide recognition. The Environmental Pattern Language (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) is used to analyze its architecture in a format that can be tested, critiqued, and adapted for use by similar programs in many communities, providing a model for replication and further research. PMID:25328377

  12. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    PubMed

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. PMID:26808168

  13. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mary E. Barr; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Louis D. Schulte; Peter C. Stark; Rebecca M. Chamberlin; Kent D. Abney; Thomas E. Ricketts; Yvette E. Valdez; Richard A. Bartsch

    2000-03-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material.

  14. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko

    Purpose of this study is to explore sustainable service where continuous validation is possible through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. We designed and implemented conversation support service via coimagination method based on multiscale service design method, both were proposed by the author. Interactive conversation supported by coimagination method generates social interaction so as to prevent progress of dementia. Multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales of tool, event, and human were developed according to the model. Firstly, we developed conversation interactivity measuring method in order to measure intensity of cognitive activities for prevention of dementia (event). Secondly, education program for learning coimagination method was designed and provided in order to bring out social intelligence of participants and instructors (human). Thirdly, relationship between social intelligence and prevention of dementia is discussed based on the experimental data (tool).

  15. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  16. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  17. An experimental investigation of justice-based service recovery on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and word-of-mouth intentions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Terri; Nieman-Gonder, Jennifer M; Andreoli, Nicole A; Trimarco-Beta, Darlene

    2006-12-01

    Service recovery is related to many important organizational outcomes such as customer satisfaction, loyalty, and profitability. Within the theoretical framework of organizational justice, an experiment using a simulated "live" service failure was used to assess the effects of justice-based service-recovery strategies on customer satisfaction, loyalty, positive word-of-mouth intentions, and negative word-of-mouth intentions. Analysis indicated that strategies including interactional justice, distributive justice, and a combination of these were equally effective in maintaining customer satisfaction, loyalty, and positive word of mouth, and minimizing negative word of mouth after a service failure. No support for the service recovery paradox, that is, increased satisfaction following service failure and recovery compared to never having a problem, was found. Satisfaction and loyalty for those in the failure conditions were equal to, although not higher than, in the no-failure control condition. Practical implications for organizational practices are discussed. PMID:17305206

  18. oxidation of americium(iii) and the stability of americium(iv) and americium(vi) in solutions of sulfuric and perchloric acids

    SciTech Connect

    Milyukova, M.S.; Litvina, M.N.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The oxidation of weighable amounts of americium in solutionsof sulfuric and perchloric acids was investigated by a spectrophotometric method. The stability of americium(IV) and (VI) in mineral acids was studied. A method was developed for the production of tetravalent americium in solutions of 0.1-3 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 0.1-1 M HClO/sub 4/, containing potassium phosphotungstate K/sub 10/P/sub 2/W/sub 17/O/sub 61/ an an oxidizing mixture - a silver salt and ammonium persulfate.

  19. Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, David W.

    2004-08-15

    The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

  20. Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1979-01-01

    High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

  1. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    PubMed

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways. PMID:24963803

  2. Electron heat capacity and lattice properties of Americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povzner, A. A.; Filanovich, A. N.; Os'kina, V. A.; Volkov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron heat capacity of americium is calculated using the concepts on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of this element. The Debye temperature, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the bulk modulus of americium are determined on the basis of the results of calculations and experimental data on heat capacity.

  3. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko

    Purpose of this study is to explore service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. We designed and implemented conversation support service via coimagination method based on multiscale service design method, both were proposed by the author. Multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Interactive conversation supported by coimagination method activates cognitive functions so as to prevent progress of dementia. This paper proposes theoretical bases for science of lethe. Firstly, relationship among coimagination method and three cognitive functions including division of attention, planning, episodic memory which decline at mild cognitive imparement. Secondly, thought state transition model during conversation which describes cognitive enhancement via interactive communication. Thirdly, Set Theoretical Measure of Interaction is proposed for evaluating effectiveness of conversation to cognitive enhancement. Simulation result suggests that the ideas which cannot be explored by each speaker are explored during interactive conversation. Finally, coimagination method compared with reminiscence therapy and its possibility for collaboration is discussed.

  4. Retrofitting the Williams Energy Services Ignacio Plant for higher throughput and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Pitman, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    The Ignacio Plant located near Durango, Colorado was originally designed to process 346 MMscfd of feed gas and to recover approximately 82% of the contained ethane. Based on increasing volumes of available feed gas, Williams Energy Services (WES) undertook a study to investigate alternatives for increasing plant capacity and ethane recovery. This study led to the selection of Ortloff's Recycle Split-Vapor (RSV) process for retrofitting the existing facility because it offered several very important advantages: maximum utilization of existing equipment, a 30% increase in plant feed handling capacity and an increase in average ethane recovery to 94% without adding residue compressors. This paper presents the comparative case analysis that led to the selection of the RSV design. It also describes the modifications required for the retrofit, all of which can be accomplished with minimum plant down time. The modified Ignacio Plant is scheduled for startup in March 1999.

  5. The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G.T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O.

    1948-01-01

    Several isotopes of the new element 95 have been produced and their radiations characterized. The chemical properties of this tripositive element are similar to those of the typical tripositive lanthanide rare-earth elements. Element 95 is different from the latter in the degree and rate of formation of certain compounds of the complex ion type, which makes possible the separation of element 95 from the lanthanide rare-earths. The name americium (after the Americas) and the symbol Am are suggested for the element on the basis of its position as the sixth member of the actinide rare-earth series, analogous to europium, Eu, of the lanthanide series.

  6. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-12-31

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

  7. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, Denis; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  8. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko

    This paper proposes multiscale service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. Proposed multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Firstly, the author proposes and practices coimagination method as an ``event'', which is expected to prevent the progress of cognitive impairment. Coimagination support system was developed as a ``tool''. Experimental results suggest the effective activation of episodic memory, division of attention, and planning function of participants by the measurement of cognitive activities during the coimagination. Then, Fonobono Research Institute was established as a ''network'' for ``human'' who studies coimagination, which is a multisector research organization including elderly people living around Kashiwa city, companies including instrument and welfare companies, Kashiwa city and Chiba prefecture, researchers of the University of Tokyo. The institute proposes and realizes lifelong research as a novel life ``style'' for elderly people, and discusses life with two rounds as an innovative ``rule'' for social system of aged society.

  9. Use of EIChroM TRU RESIN in the determination of Americium, Plutonium and Uranium in air filter and water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Berne, Anna

    1995-03-01

    TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material ((octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory’s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

  10. Use of EIChroM`s TRU resin in the determination of americium, plutonium and uranium in air filter and water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Berne, A.

    1995-12-01

    TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material (octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for a spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

  11. Frontiers of Chemistry for Americium and Curium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Keller, O. L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discoveries of americium and curium were made only after Seaborg had formulated his actinide concept in order to design the chemistry needed to separate them from irradiated /sup 239/Pu targets. Their discoveries thus furnished the first clear-cut evidence that the series exists and justified Seaborg`s bold assumption that even though Th and Pa appeared to presage a following 6d series, the pattern established by the periodic table after Cs and Ba would be repeated exactly after Fr and Ra. That is to say, a new 5f element rare earth series (the actinides) would follow Ac in the same way the 4f rare earth series (the lanthanides) follows La. The consequences of the resulting half-filled 5f/sup 7/ shell at Cm were originally presented by Seaborg as a test of his hypothesis. Recent research is outlined that substantiates Seaborg`s predictions in new and definitive ways.

  12. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Law, Jack D.; Goff, George S.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Burns, Jon D.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Shehee, Thomas C.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  13. Frontiers of chemistry for americium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, O.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discoveries of americium and curium were made only after Seaborg had formulated his actinide concept in order to design the chemistry needed to separate them from irradiated /sup 239/Pu targets. Their discoveries thus furnished the first clear-cut evidence that the series exists and justified Seaborg's bold assumption that even though Th and Pa appeared to presage a following 6d series, the pattern established by the periodic table after Cs and Ba would be repeated exactly after Fr and Ra. That is to say, a new 5f element rare earth series (the actinides) would follow Ac in the same way the 4f rare earth series (the lanthanides) follows La. The consequences of the resulting half-filled 5f/sup 7/ shell at Cm were originally presented by Seaborg as a test of his hypothesis. Recent research is outlined that substantiates Seaborg's predictions in new and definitive ways. 15 references, 4 figures.

  14. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  15. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  16. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  17. Tributylphosphate Extraction Behavior of Bismuthate-Oxidized Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2008-08-01

    Higher oxidation states of americium have long been known; however, options for their preparation in acidic solution are limited. The conventional choice, silver-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, is not useful at nitric acid concentrations above about 0.3 M. We investigated the use of sodium bismuthate as an oxidant for Am3+ in acidic solution. Room-temperature oxidation produced AmO2 2+ quantitatively, whereas oxidation at 80 °C produced AmO2+ quantitatively. The efficacy of the method for the production of oxidized americium was verified by fluoride precipitation and by spectroscopic absorbance measurements. We performed absorbance measurements using a conventional 1 cm cell for high americium concentrations and a 100 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell for low americium concentrations. Extinction coefficients for the absorbance of Am3+ at 503 nm, AmO2+ at 514 nm, and AmO2 2+ at 666 nm in 0.1 M nitric acid are reported. We also performed solvent extraction experiments with the hexavalent americium using the common actinide extraction ligand tributyl phosphate (TBP) for comparison to the other hexavalent actinides. Contact with 30% tributyl phosphate in dodecane reduced americium; it was nevertheless extracted using short contact times. The TBP extraction of AmO2 2+ over a range of nitric acid concentrations is shown for the first time and was found to be analogous to that of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl ions.

  18. RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-01-08

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  19. “Speeding up the road to recovery”: The Complex Recovery Assessment and Consultation (CRAC) service

    PubMed Central

    Davis Le Brun, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The number of bed closures in mental health is on the rise, creating additional pressure on services, including acute mental health services. An efficient way of working is required in order to streamline the acute care pathway and decrease unnecessary delays to length of stay, ensuring all individuals can be offered an inpatient bed when in crisis. The Complex Recovery Assessment and Consultation (CRAC) service was created in order to support acute mental health inpatient clinicians in streamlining hospital stays for service users who present with complex presentations that require lengthier admissions (over 40 days) by offering assessment, advice, and intervention from a rehabilitation perspective. The team was also created to understand why individuals may require a lengthy hospital stay. Preliminary data showed that requiring a placement on discharge proved to be the most significant factor in increased length of stay and so the team took on a new role of discharge coordinator after around a year of operating. This involved assisting in decreasing any delays out of hospital through improved communication and dedicated time to complete tasks, such as completing paperwork for placement referrals and funding panels. Since taking on this role it was found that the time taken for individuals to be discharged to a rehabilitation or specialist placement decreased; a rehabilitation placement by 13.12 days and a specialist placement by 9.22 days. Discharge to a family address also decreased by 2.9 days and a home address by 2.47 days. Those patients with complex presentations benefit from having one dedicated team to coordinate the discharge process. Their lengthier acute inpatient stay is improved through streamlining care pathways, ultimately decreasing delays in discharge. PMID:26734397

  20. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  1. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater-bentonite-fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L(-1)) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10(-10) M (241)Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (k(f)) of 0.01-0.02 h(-1). Am recoveries in each column were 55-60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h(-1) in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. Our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long distance scales because

  2. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-07-13

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater–bentonite–fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. Themore » colloidal suspension (100 mg L–1) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10–10 M241Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (kf) of 0.01–0.02 h–1. Am recoveries in each column were 55–60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h–1 in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. As a result, our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long

  3. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-07-13

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater–bentonite–fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L–1) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10–10 M241Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (kf) of 0.01–0.02 h–1. Am recoveries in each column were 55–60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h–1 in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. As a result, our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill

  4. “An Old Way to Solve an Old Problem”: Provider Perspectives on Recovery-Oriented Services and Consumer Capabilities in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Marnie K.; Bonham, Caroline A.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Hough, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of recovery has emerged as a core value in the reformation of public and private mental health services in the last twenty years. However, definitions of recovery remain as varied as methods of implementation. Through an ethnographic lens, we examine meanings of recovery in the context of a major statewide reform of mental health services in New Mexico, focusing specifically on provider-voiced concerns regarding recovery and recovery-oriented care. We argue that the concept of recovery functions as a symbol that seemingly reconciles the long-standing tension between biological and social explanations of mental illness. Drawing upon provider perspectives, we also discuss concerns that popular rhetoric about recovery may mask some needed fundamental changes to transform the mental health system to a recovery orientation. Finally, we consider recovery from a capabilities standpoint and discuss how this view lends itself to addressing both individual and social components of mental illness. PMID:21892229

  5. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlait, Denis; Caraballo, Richard; Lebreton, Florent; Jégou, Christophe; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO2) and sesquioxide (Am2O3) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am2O3 and P-3m1 A-type Am2O3 are identified. For AmO2, a clear band is noted at 390 cm-1. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am2O3 evolution under ambient conditions and against 241Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am2O3 as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO2-δ over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed.

  6. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and…

  7. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  8. Do it right this time: the role of employee service recovery performance in customer-perceived justice and customer loyalty after service failures.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui

    2007-03-01

    Integrating justice and customer service literatures, this research examines the role of customer service employees' behaviors of handling customer complaints, or service recovery performance (SRP), in conveying a just image of service organizations and achieving desirable customer outcomes. Results from a field study and a laboratory study demonstrate that the dimensions of SRP--making an apology, problem solving, being courteous, and prompt handling--positively influenced customer satisfaction and then customer repurchase intent through the mediation of customer-perceived justice. In addition, service failure severity and repeated failures reduced the positive impact of some dimensions of SRP on customer satisfaction, and customer-perceived justice again mediated these moderated effects. PMID:17371092

  9. A TRUEX-based separation of americium from the lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt; Mary E. Case

    2011-03-01

    Abstract: The inextractability of the actinide AnO2+ ions in the TRUEX process suggests the possibility of a separation of americium from the lanthanides using oxidation to Am(V). The only current method for the direct oxidation of americium to Am(V) in strongly acidic media is with sodium bismuthate. We prepared Am(V) over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and investigated its solvent extraction behavior for comparison to europium. While a separation is achievable in principal, the presence of macro amounts of cerium competes for the sparingly soluble oxidant and the oxidant itself competes for CMPO complexation. These factors conspire to reduce the Eu/Am separation factor from ~40 using tracer solutions to ~5 for extractions from first cycle raffinate simulant solution. To separate pentavalent americium directly from the lanthanides using the TRUEX process, an alternative oxidizing agent will be necessary.

  10. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented for the routine determination of americium and curium in 10 g of soil. The soil is dissolved with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid. Insoluble sulfates and phosphates are metathesized with boiling sodium hydroxide solutions. Plutonium and iron a...

  11. PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241 UPTAKE BY PLANTS FROM SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alfalfa was grown in soil contaminated with plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) at a concentration of 29.7 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). In addition to alfalfa, radishes, wheat, rye, and tomatoes were grown in soils contaminated with americium-241 nitrate (241Am(NO3)3) at a concentrat...

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  13. Service Recovery in Marketing Education: It's What We Do that Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Rajesh; Muncy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    One thing that higher education has in common with other service providers is that service failures occur. There are times when students are negatively impacted by mistakes made in the classroom. An extensive body of literature has developed in the area of services marketing about what to do when such service failures occur. The current study…

  14. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  15. Embodying Recovery: A Qualitative Study of Peer Work in a Consumer-Run Service Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Hopper, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The use of peer support for persons with mental illness has been gaining force. While research has demonstrated the benefits of peer support, few studies have investigated the qualitative characteristics of how peer support aids persons recovering from mental illness. Therefore, this study sought to clarify the characteristics that constitute peer support and its contribution to recovery. We conducted ethnographic fieldwork and semi-structured interviews with nine peer advocates at a consumer-run organization in New York City, and identified three themes that describe how peer support influences recovery: transforming experience into expertise, understanding the mechanics of peer support, and launching peers towards their own recovery. Peer support plays a critical role in helping clients move beyond their patient role to an empowered sense of personhood. Additionally, the value of peer support highlights current deficiencies within the mental health system and how a bolder shift towards recovery might repair them. PMID:24464104

  16. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  18. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  19. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  20. 75 FR 53970 - Office of Community Services; Expansion Supplements Under 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Community Services; Expansion... and tracking of the funds and results. The activities funded by this expansion supplement expand upon.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Danielle Williams, U.S. Department of Health and Human...

  1. AMERICIUM SEPARATIONS FROM NITRIC ACID PROCESS EFFLUENT STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. BARR; G. JARVINEN; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the ever-increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues from {sup 241}Am. Minimization of this weak gamma-emitter in process and waste solutions is desirable to reduce both worker exposure and the effects of radiolysis on the final waste product. Removal of americium from plutonium nitric acid processing effluents, however, is complicated by the presence of large.quantities of competing metals, particularly Fe and Al, and-strongly oxidizing acidic solutions. The reprocessing operation offers several points at which americium removal maybe attempted, and we are evaluating two classes of materials targeted at different steps in the process. Extraction chromatography resin materials loaded with three different alkylcarbamoyl phosphinates and phosphine oxides were accessed for Am removal efficiency and Am/Fe selectivity from 1-7 molar nitric acid solutions. Commercial and experimental mono- and bifunctional anion-exchange resins were evaluated for total alpha-activity removal from post-evaporator solutions whose composition, relative to the original nitric acid effluent, is reduced in acid and greatly increased in total salt content. With both classes of materials, americium/total alpha emission removal is sufficient to meet regulatory requirements even under sub-optimal conditions. Batch distribution coefficients, column performance data, and the effects of Fe-masking agents will be presented.

  2. Recovery of paper and wood for recycling: Actual and potential. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ince, P.J.; McKeever, D.B.

    1995-11-01

    Quantities of paper and wood recovered annually for recycling were estimated for all principal commercial uses in the United States, based on material consumption and end-use data. Proncipal catagories of commercial uses were identified and relative quantities were compared. Some innovative or novel commercial product developments were identified. The potential for addition recovery from municipal solid waste, construction and demolition debris, primary timber processing residues, and other sources was also identified.

  3. Product recovery of ponderosa pine in Arizona and New Mexico. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, T.D.; Ayer Sachet, J.K.

    1993-11-01

    A mill recovery of ponderosa pine in Arizona and New Mexico showed wide variation in quality within the resource. Lumber grade ranged widely by log grade and diameter, with a major difference within grade 5 logs between old growth and young growth. Old growth produced mostly Shop and Selects grades of lumber while young growth produced mostly Dimension grades of lumber; small-diameter young growth developed severe problems of warpage. Log grades separated logs into distinct value classes, and separating young-growth timber (as an additional grade) allowed better segregation of logs by product type and expected value.

  4. Service-Learning in Disaster Recovery: Rebuilding the Mississippi Gulf Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Cowley, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a course in the City and Regional Planning program at the Ohio State University. Its overarching goal was to offer service-learning by providing students with an opportunity to apply what they learned in the classroom by meeting community needs following Hurricane Katrina and to reflect on their experiences through…

  5. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  6. Art Therapy Applications of Dolls in Grief Recovery, Identity, and Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; McIntyre, Barbara; Sands-Goldstein, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the history of dollmaking that is relevant to art therapy, and the application of dolls as therapeutic media in clinical and educational settings. The authors describe their experiences using dollmaking in the resolution of grief, in professional identity construction, and in community service. The article addresses the…

  7. Recovery work’ and ‘magic’ among long-term mental health service-users

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Based on an extended period of qualitative research with mental health service-users in north-east England, this article considers the various forms of ‘magical work’ and ‘recovery work’ that emerge in the lives of people living with severe mental health problems. Given the now sizeable body of literature which seeks to problematize traditional conceptual boundaries of work, the article asks to what extent these hidden and unusual work-forms might also be considered legitimate members of the category. Rather than argue for the expansion of the construct to accommodate these activities, the paper attempts simply to problematize the extent to which so-called ‘mad’ forms of work are irresolvably different to more conventional forms of occupation. In challenging notions of the psychiatric patient as inevitably inactive, new vocabularies for service-user work are explored. Concluding remarks are also directed to recent policy debates concerning ‘back-to-work’ welfare reform for long-term out of work service-users. PMID:24223439

  8. Neptunium and americium speciation in selected basalt, granite, shale, and tuff ground waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Neptunium and americium are relatively insoluble in ground waters containing high sulfate concentrations, particularly at 90??C. The insoluble neptunium species is Np(IV); hence reducing waters should enhance its formation. Americium can exist only in the trivalent state under these conditions, and its solubility also should be representative of that of curium.

  9. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  10. 10 CFR 32.102 - Schedule C-prototype tests for calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sources containing americium-241 or radium-226. 32.102 Section 32.102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... americium-241 or radium-226. An applicant for a license under § 32.57 shall, for any type of source which is designed to contain more than 0.185 kilobecquerel (0.005 microcurie) of americium-241 or...

  11. 10 CFR 32.102 - Schedule C-prototype tests for calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sources containing americium-241 or radium-226. 32.102 Section 32.102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... americium-241 or radium-226. An applicant for a license under § 32.57 shall, for any type of source which is designed to contain more than 0.185 kilobecquerel (0.005 microcurie) of americium-241 or...

  12. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  13. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  14. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  15. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  16. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  17. 10 CFR 32.102 - Schedule C-prototype tests for calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sources containing americium-241 or radium-226. 32.102 Section 32.102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... americium-241 or radium-226. An applicant for a license under § 32.57 shall, for any type of source which is designed to contain more than 0.185 kilobecquerel (0.005 microcurie) of americium-241 or...

  18. Passive field monitoring of plutonium and americium in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Meyer, K.E.; Dudney, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The authors` progress is described in applying passive alpha track detectors (ATDS) and electret ion chambers (EICS) to in-situ field monitoring of soils contaminated with particulate plutonium and americium at a desert site. By varying the exposure times, from a few minutes to about one day, they quantitatively measured alpha activity varying between {approximately} 100 pCi/g and {approximately} 100 nCi/g. Suggested applications are definition of the boundaries of contamination zones and verification that post-remediated soils are below release limits.

  19. High pressure phase transition and elastic properties of americium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Rukmangad, Aditi; Arya, B. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2013-06-01

    The structural and elastic properties of Americium Telluride (AmTe) have been investigated by using a modified inter-ionic potential theory (MIPT). This theory is capable of explaining first order phase transition with a crystallographic change NaCl to CsCl structure for this compound. The values of optimized lattice constant, phase transition pressure, zero pressure bulk modulus and second order elastic constants (C11, C44) agree well with their corresponding experimental data. Debye temperature (θD) is also calculated for this compound for the first time.

  20. [Fundación Mundo Bipolar: learning among peers in the service of recovery].

    PubMed

    Morales Cano, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Due to severe mental illness, such as a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, people's quality of life may be seriously compromised and they may bear the risk of losing opportunities and being socially isolated as a result of stigma and discrimination. Early diagnosis is crucial, as a recovery process is possible with appropriate medical and psychosocial treatment. A person affected by such circumstances, with adequate training, can learn to handle his condition by himself and become expert by experience. This article depicts how learning among peers, based to a large degree on empathy, enables and promotes self management and, at the same time, a larger political and social consciousness. This has been affirmed by the virtual community of bipolarweb since 2002 and, subsequently, as a further development by the Fundación Mundo Bipolar. This foundation, which offers a training program for people affected by bipolar disorder, engages in several activities and goals which are described in this paper. It also has developed a multidisciplinary program for the training of trainers. Some features of these programs are summarized, with a special emphasis on the fact that trained students are encouraged to give lectures for high school students. This paper summarizes qualitative evaluations made by participants that have followed each of the sessions of the training programs. PMID:24511560

  1. A Density Functional Study of the Americium (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Da; Ray, Asok Kumar

    2006-03-01

    Electronic structure properties of the fcc americium (001) surface, modeled by periodically repeated fcc Am (001) surface slabs, have been studied with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The alternative basis set APW+lo is used inside the atomic spheres for chemically important orbitals that are difficult to converge, whereas LAPW is used for others. The core states are treated fully relativistically and for valence states, two levels of treatments are implemented: (1) a scalar relativistic scheme including the mass-velocity correction and the Darwin s-shift and (2) a fully relativistic scheme with spin-orbit coupling included in a second variational treatment using the scalar-relativistic eigenfunctions as basis. Our results indicate that the ground state of Am (001) surface is anti-ferromagnetic. The quantum size effects in the surface energies and the work functions of the (001) fcc americium ultra thin films (UTF) have been examined up to seven layers. In addition, the Am (001) surface properties are compared with our earlier study of the Am (111) surface.

  2. Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaras, Sean A.; Knight, Travis W.

    2012-07-01

    The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non

  3. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent.

  4. Extraction of americium in different oxidation states in a two-phase aqueous system based on poly(ethylene glycol)

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Frenkel', B.F.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1987-09-01

    The extraction of americium in different states of oxidation was studied in a two-phase aqueous system based on poly(ethylene glycol). Conditions were found for the quantitative extraction of americium (III) and americium (V) from solutions of ammonium sulfate in the pH range of 3-5 and in the presence of arsenazo III. The composition of the complexes of americium with the reagent was determined; americium (III) reacts with arsenazo III in solutions of ammonium sulfate to form complexes with the composition of MeR and Me/sub 2/R. Characteristics of the absorption spectra of complexes of americium (III) and (V) with arsenazo III in ammonium sulfate solutions and in extracts based on aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) were found. The molar extinction coefficients of complexes of americium with arsenazo III were determined in these solutions.

  5. Making the Most of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: A Guide for Full-Service School Leaders and Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughen, Katherine; Stewart, Nichole H.; LaVallee, Robert; Zvara, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To address the economic crisis facing the country, the President signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law on February 17, 2009. The ARRA offers numerous opportunities for full-service school leaders and may provide the necessary funding to prevent significant decreases in operating budgets. One of the largest investments…

  6. A Case Study Comparison of Charter and Traditional Schools in New Orleans Recovery School District: Selection Criteria and Service Provision for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Nikki L.

    2011-01-01

    In post-Katrina New Orleans, Louisiana, there is a growing concentration of charter schools. The Recovery School District (RSD) has oversight of the majority of these schools. To explore charges from community advocates that RSD charter schools restricted admission and provided inadequate services for students with disabilities, the following…

  7. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: in vivo measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Icayan, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed external measurement were made of internally deposited /sup 241/Am in a nuclear chemical operator involved in an americium exposure accident at the Hanford plant. Despite some interference from high-level external contamination, quantitative measurements of the /sup 241/Am content in the lung, liver, and bones were made starting on the third day after the accident. The rate of excretion of /sup 241/Am from these organs was determined. The /sup 241/Am embedded in the skin of the face and head was carefully mapped. The distribution over the total length of the body was also determined. Linear and rectilinear scanners, gamma cameras, large and small scintillation detectors, proportional counters, and Si(Li) and intrinsic germanium detectors were used to evaluate the internal deposition. Methods of calibration for quantitative measurement included simulation of the /sup 241/Am activity in both phantom and cadaver parts.

  8. Separation of americium from curium by oxidation and ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jonathan D; Shehee, Thomas C; Clearfield, Abraham; Hobbs, David T

    2012-08-21

    Nuclear energy has the potential to be a clean alternative to fossil fuels, but in order for it to play a major role in the US, many questions about the back end of the fuel cycle must be addressed. One of these questions is the difficult separation of americium from curium. Here, we report the oxidation of Am in two systems, perchloric acid and nitric acid and the affect of changing the acid has on the oxidation. K(d) values were observed and a direct separation factor was calculated and was seen to be as high as 20 for four metal(IV) pillared phosphate phosphonate inorganic organic hybrid ion exchange materials. These ion exchangers are characterized by very low selectivity for cations with low charge but extremely high uptake of ions of high charge. PMID:22827724

  9. The 1976 Hanford Americium Accident: Then and Now

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2013-10-02

    The 1976 chemical explosion of an 241Am ion exchange column at a Hanford Site waste management facility resulted in the extreme contamination of a worker with 241Am, nitric acid and debris. The worker underwent medical treatment for acid burns, as well as wound debridement, extensive personal skin decontamination and long-term DTPA chelation therapy for decorporation of americium-241. Because of the contamination levels and prolonged decontamination efforts, care was provided for the first three months at the unique Emergency Decontamination Facility with gradual transition to the patient’s home occurring over another two months. The medical treatment, management, and dosimetry of the patient have been well documented in numerous reports and journal articles. The lessons learned with regard to patient treatment and effectiveness of therapy still form the underlying philosophy of treatment for contaminated injuries. Changes in infrastructure and facilities as well as societal expectations make for interesting speculation as to how responses might differ today.

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of spallation targets containing uranium and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2014-09-01

    Neutron production and transport in spallation targets made of uranium and americium are studied with a Geant4-based code MCADS (Monte Carlo model for Accelerator Driven Systems). A good agreement of MCADS results with experimental data on neutron- and proton-induced reactions on 241Am and 243Am nuclei allows to use this model for simulations with extended Am targets. It was demonstrated that MCADS model can be used for calculating the values of critical mass for 233,235U, 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am. Several geometry options and material compositions (U, U + Am, Am, Am2O3) are considered for spallation targets to be used in Accelerator Driven Systems. All considered options operate as deep subcritical targets having neutron multiplication factor of k∼0.5. It is found that more than 4 kg of Am can be burned in one spallation target during the first year of operation.

  11. Plutonium, americium, and neptunium speciation in selected groundwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Speciation was determined at 25 and 90 degree C in four groundwaters from diverse sources: the Sparta aquifer in Louisiana, near the Vacherie salt dome; Mansfield No. 2 well in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; the Stripa mine in Sweden; and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Neptunium generally was soluble in all waters and was present exclusively as Np(V) and Np(VI), regardless of initial oxidation state. The results indicated that plutonium and neptunium solubilities were determined by the oxidation-reduction properties of the waters, i. e. , their abilities to convert these elements to soluble oxidation states. This was not the case for americium, however; Am(IV) was not detected, and the solubility of this element was determined entirely by the chemical properties of Am(III).

  12. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S; Titov, Anatoly V; Kiselev, Yuri M

    2013-07-21

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable. PMID:23883027

  13. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  14. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  15. Bringing Science to the Service of Culture: The Recovery of Endangered Birds of Prey and the Recovery of Our Relationship with Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl

    1996-01-01

    For 20 years, Robert Mestas, a Native American biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has devoted his career to the study, conservation, and management of endangered birds of prey. The study of his own Yaqui culture and of other traditional Indian cultures has deepened his conviction regarding the cultural significance of preserving…

  16. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  17. Electronic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of americium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Fawei; Wang, Bao-Tian; Zhang, Ping

    2013-10-01

    By performing density functional theory (DFT) +U calculations, we systematically study the electronic, mechanical, tensile, and thermodynamic properties of AmO2. It is found that the chemical bonding character in AmO2 is similar to that in PuO2, with smaller charge transfer and stronger covalent interactions between americium and oxygen atoms. The stress-strain relationship of AmO2 is examined along the three low-index directions, showing that the [1 0 0] and [1 1 1] directions are the strongest and weakest tensile directions, respectively, but the theoretical tensile strengths of AmO2 are smaller than those of PuO2. The phonon dispersion curves of AmO2 are calculated and the heat capacities as well as lattice expansion curve are subsequently determined. The lattice thermal conductivity of AmO2 is further evaluated and compared with attainable experiments. Our present work integrally reveals various physical properties of AmO2 and can be referenced for technological applications of AmO2 based materials.

  18. Evaluation of the United States Public Health Service guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Janet T.; Colvin, Ryan; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Bardsley, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate US Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines for discontinuing anti-CMV therapy in patients with AIDS who have immune recovery and quiescent retinitis after initiating highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Design Cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS). Methods Participants had CMV retinitis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 50 cells/uL or fewer enrolled from 1998 to 2009 who demonstrated sustained immune recovery (two consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts of 100 cells/uL or more at least 6 months apart) and inactive retinitis. Participants were classified into 2 groups according to anti-CMV treatment after immune recover: (1) continued anti-CMV therapy and (2) discontinued therapy. We evaluated survival, visual acuity, and CMV retinitis activity; we employed propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors for these analyses. Results Of 152 participants reviewed, 71 demonstrated immune recovery; 37 of whom discontinued therapy and 34 who continued therapy. At immune recovery, participants continuing therapy tended to be older (44 vs 40 years, P=0.09), have bilateral retinitis (53% vs 32%, P=0.10), and have lower CD4+ T-cell counts (148 vs 207 cells/μL, P<0.001). There were no statistical differences in any of the clinical outcomes (death, retinitis progress, visual acuity or incidence of bilateral retinitis). Both groups lost visual acuity during follow-up, on average 1.2 letters per year (P<0.01). Conclusion Discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery did not increase the risk of poor outcomes. These results support the current guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after achievement of sustained immune recovery. PMID:21742304

  19. Another breed of "service" animals: STARS study findings about pet ownership and recovery from serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Saedi, Goal Auzeen; Green, Carla A

    2009-07-01

    This study elucidates the role of pets in recovery processes among adults with serious mental illness. Data derive from interviews with 177 HMO members with serious mental illness (52.2% women, average age 48.8 years) in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies (STARS). Interviews and questionnaires addressed factors affecting recovery processes and included questions about pet ownership. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory method to identify the roles pets play in the recovery process. Primary themes indicate pets assist individuals in recovery from serious mental illness by (a) providing empathy and "therapy"; (b) providing connections that can assist in redeveloping social avenues; (c) serving as "family" in the absence of or in addition to human family members; and (d) supporting self-efficacy and strengthening a sense of empowerment. Pets appear to provide more benefits than merely companionship. Participants' reports of pet-related contributions to their well-being provide impetus to conduct more formal research on the mechanisms by which pets contribute to recovery and to develop pet-based interventions. PMID:19839680

  20. Environmental impact of a teratogenic actinide: a case study of americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-10-16

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. A previous report based on a worst-case scenario involving a hypothetical fire accident in a contaminated facility indicated that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from a unit release of americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion. However, because the facility is located in a rural region where most drinking water supplies are drawn from private wells, it is believed that deposition of americium-241 from the atmosphere might also have impacts via the groundwater pathway by infiltration of rainwater. In this analysis, a three-dimensional analytical mathematical model is used to assess several aspects of americium-241 contamination of groundwater, including radioactive transformation, advection, dispersion, and soil sorption. Simulation results indicate that no significant radiological impacts would occur to the nearby residents via the groundwater pathway. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Head Start and Hurricane Recovery: Using a Family Outcomes Measure to Assess the Impact of Program Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiak, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In Head Start, family service workers facilitate the process for guiding and assisting families in securing services needed for specific family issues regarding health care, housing, employment, education, and/or crisis management. These services were particularly important to families following Hurricane Charley and the subsequent recovery…

  2. Oxidation of trivalent americium, curium, and terbium in solutions of sodium paratungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    In the further study of the behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in solutions of heteropoly-compounds, the authors succeed in finding conditions under which the formation of americium (IV), curium (IV), and terbium (IV) decatungstates is observed. The results of experiments along this line are brieflyoutlined. It is shown that trivalent americium, curium, and terbium are oxidzed by heating with persulfate not only in solutions ofunsaturated heteropolytungstates but also in solutions of isopoly-compounds of tungsten. However, the degree of oxidation of curium and terbium (III) in the latter case is appreciably lover. In addition to persulfate ions, ozone can be used for the oxidation of americium (III) in solutions of sodium paratungstate.

  3. Opportunities in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for Supports and Services for Youth Transitioning from Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn-Khan, Margaret; Langford, Barbara Hanson

    2009-01-01

    To address the economic crisis facing the country, the President signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law on February 17, 2009. This sweeping legislation provides $789 billion to jumpstart the economy and boost employment. This act includes $463 billion in new spending and $326 billion in tax relief directed at those…

  4. Americium biokinetics in benthic organisms as a function of feeding mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.

    1985-12-01

    Transuranic radionuclides in the environment have arisen from nuclear weapons testing, release from nuclear waste reprocessing plants and accidents with nuclear devices. Although at present the plutonium inventory is greater than that of any other transuranium element, the americium inventory will continue to increase due to the in situ decay of SU Pu. Furthermore some studies have demonstrated that americium is more bioavailable than plutonium in aquatic environments. The authors therefore undertook to delineate, experimentally, the biokinetics of SU Am in some marine benthic species with very different feeding-digestion strategies, which hitherto have not been studied in any detail in a radioecological context.

  5. Americium purification by a combined anion exchange and bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.

    1981-04-10

    Americium is separated from mixtures containing plutonium, other actinides, and other non-lanthamide impurities, by a combined process of anion exchange resin sorption to remove plutonium, and a bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction of americium of the anion exchange resin effluent. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate is a preferred solvent. The initial mixture may be subjected to a cation exchange operation to remove monovalent impurities. The process is especially effective when aluminum, zinc, lead, and copper are present in significant quantities in the original mixture.

  6. Synthesis of functionalised BTPhen derivatives - effects on solubility and americium extraction.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Matthew A; Kyle, Nichola D; Marsden, Olivia J; Thompson, Paul; Livens, Francis R; Heath, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Separation of the minor actinides (Am/Cm) from spent nuclear fuel post-PUREX process is expected to play a key part in new reprocessing methodologies. To date, a number of selective americium extractants from the BTPhen ligand family have been identified. In this investigation, we synthesise 24 novel BTPhens with additional functionality to determine the effects on solubilities and americium extraction capabilities. The data obtained will allow for tuning of steric/electronic properties of BTPhens in order to assist future extractant design. PMID:26331995

  7. Environmental impacts of the release of a transuranic actinide, americium-241, from a contaminated facility

    SciTech Connect

    Want, J.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-10-29

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body because of its high dose conversion factor. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. In Ohio, a gemologist's laboratory was contaminated with americium-241. Prior to decontamination of the laboratory, potential radiological impacts to the surrounding environment were assessed. A hypothetical fire accident resulting in a unit release (1 curie) was assumed. Potential radiological impacts were simulated using an atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry model with local meteorological data, population census data, and detailed information regarding the neighborhood. The results indicate that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion if a major catastrophic release had occurred prior to contamination and decommissioning of the laboratory. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 241}Am can be found and {sup 241}Am behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  9. Apparatus for fabrication of americium- beryllium neutron sources prevents capsule contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, W. C.; Van Loom, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Modified gloved enclosure is used to fill a capsule with a mixture of americium and beryllium radioactive powders to seal weld the opening, and to test it for leaks. It contains a horizontal partition, vortex mixer, mounting press, welder, test vessel, and radiation shielding to prevent surface contamination.

  10. Separation of Americium in High Oxidation States from Curium Utilizing Sodium Bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jason M; Sudowe, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    A simple separation of americium from curium would support closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, assist in nuclear forensic analysis, and allow for more accurate measurement of neutron capture properties of (241)Am. Methods for the separation of americium from curium are however complicated and time-consuming due to the similar chemical properties of these elements. In this work a novel method for the separation of americium from curium in nitric acid media was developed using sodium bismuthate to perform both the oxidation and separation. Sodium bismuthate is shown to be a promising material for performing a simple and rapid separation. Curium is more strongly retained than americium on the undissolved sodium bismuthate at nitric acid concentrations below 1.0 M. A separation factor of ∼90 was obtained in 0.1 M nitric acid. This separation factor is achieved within the first minute of contact and is maintained for at least 2 h of contact. Separations using sodium bismuthate were performed using solid-liquid extraction as well as column chromatography. PMID:27079565

  11. Understanding the Chemistry of Uncommon Americium Oxidation States for Application to Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh Martin; Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2007-09-01

    A spectroscopic study of the stability of Am(V) and Am(VI) produced by oxidizing Am(III) with sodium bismuthate is presented, varying the initial americium concentration, temperature and length of the oxidation was seen to have profound effects on the resultant solutions.

  12. Fees-for-services, cost recovery, and equity in a district of Burkina Faso operating the Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gauge the effects of operating the Bamako Initiative in Kongoussi district, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Qualitative and quasi-experimental quantitative methodologies were used. FINDINGS: Following the introduction of fees-for-services in July 1997, the number of consultations for curative care fell over a period of three years by an average of 15.4% at "case" health centres but increased by 30.5% at "control" health centres. Moreover, although the operational results for essential drugs depots were not known, expenditure increased on average 2.7 times more than income and did not keep pace with the decline in the utilization of services. Persons in charge of the management committees had difficulties in releasing funds to ensure access to care for the poor. CONCLUSION: The introduction of fees-for-services had an adverse effect on service utilization. The study district is in a position to bear the financial cost of taking care of the poor and the community is able to identify such people. Incentives must be introduced by the state and be swiftly applied so that the communities agree to a more equitable system and thereby allow access to care for those excluded from services because they are unable to pay. PMID:12973646

  13. Process for the recovery of curium-244 from nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Posey, J.C.

    1980-10-01

    A process has been designed for the recovery of curium from purex waste. Curium and americium are separated from the lanthanides by a TALSPEAK extraction process using differential extraction. Equations were derived for the estimation of the economically optimum conditions for the extraction using laboratory batch extraction data. The preparation of feed for the extraction involves the removal of nitric acid from the Purex waste by vaporization under reduced pressure, the leaching of soluble nitrates from the resulting cake, and the oxalate precipitation of a pure lanthanide-actinide fraction. Final separation of the curium from americium is done by ion-exchange. The steps of the process, except ion-exchange, were tested on a laboratory scale and workable conditions were determined.

  14. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. 31.8 Section 31.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC LICENSES FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a) A general license is issued to...

  15. The 5f localization/delocalization in square and hexagonal americium monolayers: a FP-LAPW electronic structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.; Ray, A. K.

    2006-04-01

    The electronic and geometrical properties of bulk americium and square and hexagonal americium monolayers have been studied with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The effects of several common approximations are examined: (1) non-spin polarization (NSP) vs. spin polarization (SP); (2) scalar-relativity (no spin-orbit coupling (NSO)) vs. full-relativity (i.e., with spin-orbit (SO) coupling included); (3) local-density approximation (LDA) vs. generalized-gradient approximation (GGA). Our results indicate that both spin polarization and spin orbit coupling play important roles in determining the geometrical and electronic properties of americium bulk and monolayers. A compression of both americium square and hexagonal monolayers compared to the americium bulk is also observed. In general, the LDA is found to underestimate the equilibrium lattice constant and give a larger total energy compared to the GGA calculations. While spin orbit coupling shows a similar effect on both square and hexagonal monolayer calculations regardless of the model, GGA versus LDA, an unusual spin polarization effect on both square and hexagonal monolayers is found in the LDA results as compared with the GGA results. The 5f delocalization transition of americium is employed to explain our observed unusual spin polarization effect. In addition, our results at the LDA level of theory indicate a possible 5f delocalization could happen in the americium surface within the same Am II (fcc crystal structure) phase, unlike the usually reported americium 5f delocalization which is associated with crystal structure change. The similarities and dissimilarities between the properties of an Am monolayer and a Pu monolayer are discussed in detail.

  16. Recovery Act: Head Start Grantees Expand Services, but More Consistent Communication Could Improve Accountability and Decisions about Spending. Report to the Congress. GAO-11-166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.; Jones, Yvonne D.

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to two mandates for GAO under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). First, it is the latest report on the uses of and accountability for Recovery Act funds in selected states and localities. Second, it comments on recipients' reports of the jobs created and retained. The Recovery Act provided $2.1…

  17. Solid-liquid separation of oxidized americium from fission product lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehee, T. C.; Martin, L. R.; Nash, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    The separation of americium from the lanthanides and curium is a requirement if transmutation of americium is to be performed in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Oxidation of Am3+ to AmO2+ or AmO22+ may allow separation of Am from Ln and Cm in one step, since the lanthanides and curium do not have higher oxidation states as accessible. Two possible solid-liquid separation methods have been developed to address this difficult separation. Under acidic conditions using oxone or persulfate, the oxidation and retention of tracer Am in the aqueous phase has been observed with a separation factor of 11 ± 1. Most of these studies have been conducted using 237NpO2(NO3), 233UO2(NO3)2, 238Pu(NO3)4 and 241Am(NO3)3 at radiotracer concentrations. Lanthanides precipitate as the sodium or potassium europium double sulfate salt. Under basic conditions, ozone oxidation of Am(CO3)OH(s) solubilizes Am from a lanthanide carbonate hydroxide solid phase to the aqueous phase as the AmO2(CO3)34-or AmO2(CO3)35- species. For the ozone oxidation of the americium tracer a separation factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 and 47 ± 2 for the oxidation/separation in Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 respectively.

  18. Structure of a single model to describe plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a single modeling structure to describe both plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA, which is based on hypotheses mostly validated by experimental data. Decorporation efficacy of extracellular retention depends on the concentration ratio of DTPA vs. actinides and varies in each compartment according to the amount of biological ligands and their affinity for actinides. By contrast, because the relatively long residence time of DTPA after its cell internalization and the stability of actinide-DTPA complexes, intracellular decorporation efficacy is mainly controlled by a DTPA/actinide ratio, which is specific to each retention compartment. Although the affinity of DTPA is much lower for americium than for plutonium, a larger decorporation of americium can be obtained, which is explained by different biological ligands and/or their affinity for the actinide. Altogether, these results show that the relative contribution of intra vs. extracellular decorporation varies depending on the actinide, the chemical form of radionuclides, the galenic formulation of DTPA, and the treatment schedule. PMID:20838098

  19. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22/sup 0/C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90/sup 0/C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22/sup 0/C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  20. Fabrication of uranium-americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, E.; Picart, S.; Delahaye, T.; Jobelin, I.; Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D.; Bisel, I.; Blanchart, P.; Ayral, A.

    2014-10-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  1. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  2. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  3. Young People in Recovery: Building a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2012-01-01

    The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…

  4. Production of films of uranium and americium compounds by thermal decomposition of volatile β-diketonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilin, I. D.; Kartushin, V. D.; Pilipenko, N. V.; Abramycheva, I. D.; Vesnovskii, S. P.

    2002-03-01

    The production of films containing uranium and americium through thermal decomposition of diketonates and their adducts is described. It is demonstrated that for substrate temperatures in the range 300-400°C and at a residual reactor pressure of 1.3 Pa, stable uranium-containing layers up to several milligrams per square centimetre can be produced, with yields of up to 90%. A variety of metal backings were investigated, including aluminium and its alloys, stainless steel and titanium. Similar results were obtained for americium, but with a strong influence of backing material on the yield. X-ray diffraction identified the chemical form of the uranium deposits as dioxide, with crystal lattice parameters varying from 5.4338 to 5.4871 Å, while the density determined by X-rays lies within the range from 10920 to 11255 kg/m 3. In the case of Am (Cm) hexafluoroacetyl acetonate decomposition, the deposit is most probably AmF 3 (CmF 3). The gases released from the pyrolytic uranium dioxide layers heated in vacuum to 470°C were studied. The volume of gas released varied between 10 and 40 cm 3 per gram of UO 2 depending on the initial β-diketonate preparation and reagent purity. The released gases were mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water and a small amount of methane. The films of uranium and americium obtained by thermal decomposition show good adhesion to backings and are suitable for use in a number of fields, for example in nuclear physics research and instrument engineering.

  5. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    PubMed

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  6. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy.

  7. Magnetic Polarization of the Americium J =0 Ground State in AmFe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, N.; Caciuffo, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Colineau, E.; Eloirdi, R.; Griveau, J.-C.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Rogalev, A.; Lander, G. H.

    2015-03-01

    Trivalent americium has a nonmagnetic (J =0 ) ground state arising from the cancellation of the orbital and spin moments. However, magnetism can be induced by a large molecular field if Am3 + is embedded in a ferromagnetic matrix. Using the technique of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that this is the case in AmFe2 . Since ⟨Jz⟩=0 , the spin component is exactly twice as large as the orbital one, the total Am moment is opposite to that of Fe, and the magnetic dipole operator ⟨Tz⟩ can be determined directly; we discuss the progression of the latter across the actinide series.

  8. Americium/europium separation by synergistic extraction mixtures of bis-tetrazolyl pyridines with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, I.V.; Babain, V.A.; Chirkov, A.V.

    2008-07-01

    Americium and europium extraction by synergistic mixtures of 2,6-bis(1-aryl-1 H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridines (ATP) with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in polar diluents from acidic media was studied. The effect of diluent, composition of aqueous phase, and substituent nature in the aryl ring of ATPs on the extraction efficiency and selectivity of americium and europium separation was investigated. The Am-Eu separation factor was close to 100 at the optimal ratio of ATPs:CCD {approx}1:1 in the synergistic mixture. High resistance of 2,6-bis-aryl-tetrazolyl pyridines to the action of acids and radiolysis was demonstrated. (authors)

  9. Health assessment for Solvents Recovery Services of New England, Southington, Hartford County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD009717604. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The Solvents Recovery Services of New England site is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List (NPL). The facility receives various industrial solvents which are distilled for reuse or blended for use as a fuel product. Exact contaminant concentrations for VOCs in on-site and off-site ground water were not provided. Contaminants found were isopropyl alcohol, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), acetone, tetrahydrofuran, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylene chloride, toluene, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2-trans-dichloroethene, ethylbenzene, trichloroethene were detected between 1,000-10,000 ppb; 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, and tetrachloroethene were detected at less than 1,000 ppb. Some compounds frequently exceeded 10,000 ppb, with others exceeding 100,000 ppb, on a less frequent basis, in ground water underlying and near the SRSNE facility. In addition, a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) plume may be present. Lead (905 ppm), cadmium (331 ppm), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (maximum Arochor-1260 at 110 ppm) were found in on-site surface soils. Trichloroethene (120 ppm), methylene chloride (580 ppm), vinyl chloride (2 ppm) and tetrachloroethene (820 ppm) were found in the on-site subsurface soils (1-6 feet). The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to VOCs, heavy metals, PCBs, and other unidentified site-related contamination may occur, may have occurred, or may be occurring via either ingestion, dermal, or inhalation exposure to sediments, surface water, ground water, consumable biota, or air.

  10. CRIB—the use of cardiac rehabilitation services to aid the recovery of patients with bowel cancer: a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) with embedded feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Julie; Adams, Richard; Campbell, Anna; Campbell, Sandra; Donaldson, Cam; Godwin, Jon; Haw, Sally; Kidd, Lisa; Lane, Chrissie; Leslie, Stephen J; Mason, Helen; Mutrie, Nanette; O'Carroll, Ronan; Taylor, Cara; Treweek, Shaun; Watson, Angus; Hubbard, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with colorectal cancer report ongoing physical and psychological impairments and a high proportion of these patients are overweight, insufficiently active and high-risk drinkers, putting them at risk of poor recovery and risk of recurrence and comorbidities. A challenge is implementing sustainable and effective rehabilitation as part of routine care for this group. Methods and analysis A two-arm pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) with embedded feasibility study undertaken as a phased programme of work. The intervention involves an existing cardiac rehabilitation programme for cardiac patients accepting colorectal cancer patient referrals. The intervention consists of supervised exercise sessions run by a cardiac physiotherapist and information sessions. Phase 1 will involve one research site enrolling 12 patients to assess intervention and study design processes. Semistructured interviews with patients with colorectal cancer and cardiac patients and clinicians will be used to gather data on acceptability of the intervention and study procedures. Phase 2 will involve three sites enrolling 66 patients with colorectal cancer randomised to control or intervention groups. Outcome measures will be taken preintervention and postintervention, for phases 1 and 2. The primary outcome is accelerometer measured physical activity; secondary outcomes are self-report physical activity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, symptoms including fatigue. The following variables will also be examined to determine if these factors influence adherence and outcomes: self-efficacy, risk perception and treatments. Ethics and dissemination Full ethical approval was granted by NRES Committees—North of Scotland (13/NS/0004; IRAS project ID: 121757) on 22 February 2013. The proposed work is novel in that it aims to test the feasibility and acceptability of using an evidence-based and theory driven existing cardiac rehabilitation service with patients with

  11. Service Based Internship Training to Prepare Workers to Support the Recovery of People with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Trevor P.; Kelly, Peter; Pepper, James; McLennan, Ross; Deane, Frank P.; Buckingham, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A repeated measures design was used to evaluate a 12 month on-site counsellor internship programme aimed at training staff to support the recovery needs of people with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders. Fifty-four interns completed measures of recovery knowledge, attitudes, confidence/competence, as well as identifying…

  12. Comparative skeletal distribution of americium and plutonium in man, monkey and baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, T.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.

    1988-10-01

    The skeletal distributions of americium and plutonium in four humans were compared with the skeletal distributions of these radioelements in baboons and monkeys. With respect to the skeletal distribution of these elements, excellent agreement was noted among the four human cases; americium data was available for all four cases and plutonium for three. The human case database was thus adequate for comparison with those of other primates. A statistically significant correlation was found between the /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu + /sup 240/Pu skeletal distributions in the humans and those in non-human primates. Trabecular bone had the highest concentrations of /sup 241/Am and /sup 239 +240/Pu in man, baboon, and monkey. Scaling factors are proposed to convert the percentages of skeletal activity in animal bones to the corresponding percentages in the bones of the human skeleton. However, considerable variation was found between the humans and animals in the percentages of the skeletal activity found in the same bone. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of americium-241 toxicity influence on the microbial growth of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Padua Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de; Keiko Isiki, Vera Lucia; Miyamoto, Hissae; Sayuri Takara, Aline; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Bellini, Maria Helena; Cardoso Pedroso de Lima, Luis Filipe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since the licenses for using radioactive sources in radioactive lightning rods were lifted by the Brazilian national nuclear authority, in 1989, the radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 20 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission. This situation causes concern, due to, first, the possibility of the rods being disposed as domestic waste, and second, the americium, the most commonly employed radionuclide, is classified as a high-toxicity element. In the present study, Am-241 migration experiments were performed by a lysimeter system, in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Besides the risk evaluation, it is important to know the mechanism of the Am-241 release or retention in waste as well as its influence in the waste decomposition processes. Many factors are involved, but microorganisms present in the waste play an important role in its degradation, which control the physical and chemical processes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Am-241 influence on the microbial population by counting number of cells in lysimeters leachate. Preliminary results suggest that americium may influence significantly the bacteria growth in organic waste, evidenced by culture under aerobiosis and an-aerobiosis and the antimicrobial resistance test. (authors)

  14. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G.

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  15. Ditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes as unique receptors for efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuyu; Yuan, Xiangyang; Wu, Lei; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Wen; Liu, Ning; Xu, Dingguo; Li, Shoujian; Sengupta, Arijit; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Yuan, Lihua

    2015-03-11

    A unique host-guest recognition process involving a new class of homoditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes and lanthanides was revealed to proceed in a stepwise manner, and correlated with the efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III) under acidic feed conditions. PMID:25671799

  16. Model-based assessment of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery as a groundwater ecosystem service for the Brussels-Capital Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas are characterized by their concentrated demand of energy, applying a high pressure on urban ecosystems including atmosphere, soils and groundwater. In the light of global warming, urbanization and an evolving energy system, it is important to know how urbanized areas can contribute to their own energy demands. One option is to use the possibilities aquifers offer as an ecosystem service (BONTE et al., 2011). If used effectively an improvement in air and groundwater quality is achieved. Additionally, the more efficient distribution of the used energy may also lead to a decrease in primary energy consumption (ZUURBIER, 2013). Therefore, investigations of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is being conducted. The potential of ATES systems are of special interest for energy demands in high density urban areas because of such infrastructure as office buildings, schools, hospitals and shopping malls. In an open water circuit ATES systems consist of two or more groundwater wells, where in seasonal cycles one subtracts and the other recharges water to the aquifer. Heat pumps use the heat capacity of water for heating or cooling a building. An important limitation of the methodology is the quality of the groundwater used (i.e. precipitation of Fe- or Mn-oxides can decrease the yield). However, ATES systems on the other hand can also improve groundwater quality and groundwater ecosystems. The current knowledge of the potential for ATES systems in the Brussels-Capital Region is based on geological assessments from VITO (2007). The Brussels-Capital Region is divided into a western and eastern section with respect to geology. While the western part has less favorable conditions for ATES, the eastern is composed of the Brussels Sand formation, which is a 20-40 m thick aquifer layer that has the highest potential for ATES systems in the region. By applying groundwater flow and heat

  17. XRD monitoring of α self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) transmutation fuels (with x ≤ 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) α-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ≤ 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±δ) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±δ), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am α self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ∼0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample α-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, α self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with

  18. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...- National Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery...: The Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is available...

  19. The Role of Colloids in the Transport of Plutonium and Americium: Implications for

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B

    2003-09-17

    Colloids are small particulates (ranging in size from 1 to 0.001 micron) composed of inorganic and organic material and found in all natural water. Due to their small size, they have the ability to remain suspended in water and transported. Small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) can adsorb (attach) to colloids, and/or form colloidal-sized polymers and migrate in water. At Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) sedimentation and resuspension of particulates and colloids in surface waters represent the dominant process for Pu and Am migration. The amount of Pu and Am that can be transported at RFETS has been quantified in the Pathway Analysis Report. The Pathway Analysis Report shows that the two dominant pathways for Pu and Am transport at RFETS are air and surface water. Shallow groundwater and biological pathways are minor.

  20. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization

  1. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  2. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  3. Magnetic polarization of the americium J=0 ground state in AmFe(2).

    PubMed

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Wilhelm, F; Colineau, E; Eloirdi, R; Griveau, J-C; Rusz, J; Oppeneer, P M; Rogalev, A; Lander, G H

    2015-03-01

    Trivalent americium has a nonmagnetic (J=0) ground state arising from the cancellation of the orbital and spin moments. However, magnetism can be induced by a large molecular field if Am^{3+} is embedded in a ferromagnetic matrix. Using the technique of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that this is the case in AmFe_{2}. Since ⟨J_{z}⟩=0, the spin component is exactly twice as large as the orbital one, the total Am moment is opposite to that of Fe, and the magnetic dipole operator ⟨T_{z}⟩ can be determined directly; we discuss the progression of the latter across the actinide series. PMID:25793847

  4. High Purity Americium-241 for Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2011-07-01

    Previously the U.S. Department of Energy released Am-241 for various applications such as smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources for oil wells. At this date there is a shortage of usable, higher purity Am-241 in metal and oxide form available in the United States. Recently, the limited source of Am-241 has been from Russia with production being contracted to existing customers. The shortage has resulted in the price per gram rising dramatically over the last few years. DOE-NE currently has need for high purity Am-241 metal and oxide to fabricate fuel pellets for reactor testing in the Fuel Cycle R&D program. All the available high purity americium has been gathered from within the DOE system of laboratories. However, this is only a fraction of the projected needs of FCRD over the next 10 years. Therefore, FCR&D has proposed extraction and purification concepts to extract Am-241 from a mixed AmO2-PuO2 feedstock stored at the Savannah River Site. The most simple extraction system is based upon high temperature reduction using lanthanum metal with concurrent evaporation and condensation to produce high purity Am metal. Metallic americium has over a four order of magnitude higher vapor pressure than plutonium. Results from small-scale reduction experiments are presented. These results confirm thermodynamic predictions that at 1000 deg C metallic lanthanum reduces both PuO2 and AmO2. Faster kinetics are expected for temperatures up to about 1500 deg C.

  5. Aqueous complexes for efficient size-based separation of americium from curium.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Chiarizia, Renato; Shkrob, Ilya A; Ulicki, Joseph S; Spindler, Brian D; Murphy, Daniel J; Hossain, Mahmun; Roca-Sabio, Adrián; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2014-06-16

    Complexation of the adjacent actinide ions americium(III) and curium(III) by the ligand N,N'-bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridyl)methyl]-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 (H2bp18c6) in aqueous solution was studied to quantify and characterize its americium/curium selectivity. Liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric titration indicated the presence of both fully deprotonated and monoprotonated complexes, An(bp18c6)(+) and An(Hbp18c6)(2+) (An = Am or Cm), at the acidities that would be encountered when treating nuclear wastes. The stability constants of the complexes in 1 M NaNO3 determined using competitive complexation were log β101 = 15.49 ± 0.06 for Am and 14.88 ± 0.03 for Cm, indicating a reversal of the usual order of complex stability, where ligands bind the smaller Cm(III) ion more tightly than Am(III). The Am/Cm selectivity of bp18c6(2-) that is defined by the ratio of the Am and Cm stability constants (β101 Am/β101 Cm = 4.1) is the largest reported so far for binary An(III)-ligand complexes. Theoretical density functional theory calculations using the B3LYP functional suggest that the ligand's size-selectivity for larger 4f- and 5f-element cations arises from steric constraints in the crown ether ring. Enhanced 5f character in molecular orbitals involving actinide-nitrogen interactions is predicted to favor actinide(III) complexation by bp18c6(2-) over the complexation of similarly sized lanthanide(III) cations. PMID:24890863

  6. Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Grimmett, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten LiCl-KCl and activity coefficients for Cd and Bi. Data were obtained between 400 and 500 C. Results for the rare earth chlorides using an improved experimental technique were consistent with theory, with standard free energy of formation values somewhat more negative than those found in the literature. Special attention was given to Am in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system because it can exist as the +2 and/or +3 ion in this system. Americium ions existed only as the +3 ion in LiCl-KCl/Bi. Standard electrochemical potentials for Am/Am{sup +2} in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 400, 450, and 500 C were {minus}2.893, {minus}2.853, and {minus}2.838 V, respectively, relative to Cl{sup 2}/Cl{sup {minus}}. Standard electrochemical potentials vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup {minus}} for Am/Am{sup +3} in LiCl-KCl eutectic were {minus}2.83 V at 450 C and {minus}2.78 V at 500 C. Activity coefficients for Am in molten Cd were 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} at 450 and 500 C.

  7. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  8. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  9. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  10. 38 CFR 17.101 - Collection or recovery by VA for medical care or services provided or furnished to a veteran for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... physician service, procedure, test, supply, or other medical service. ICU means Intensive Care Unit... of this section, standard room and board days and ICU room and board days are mutually exclusive: VA will bill either a standard room and board per diem charge or an ICU room and board per diem charge,...

  11. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability. PMID:26090553

  12. Artist's rendering of Transearch Injection and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Transearch Injection and Recovery: The Service [Module] propulsion engine fires to thrust the spacecraft Earthward. The Service Module is jettisoned and the Command Module hits the atmosphere at about 24,500 miles per hour. Three 83-1/2-foot- diameter parachutes lower it to the Pacific Ocean where Department of Defense recovery forces retrieve the crew and spacecraft.

  13. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost recovery. 251.58 Section 251.58 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.58 Cost recovery. (a) Assessment of fees to recover agency processing and monitoring costs. The Forest Service shall assess fees...

  14. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  15. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  16. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  17. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  18. Recovering Americium and Curium from Mark-42 Target Materials- New Processing Approaches to Enhance Separations and Integrate Waste Stream Disposition - 12228

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Brad D.; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Robinson, Sharon M.; Wham, Robert M.

    2012-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and to address waste streams associated with recovery of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) from Mark-42 (Mk-42) target materials stored at ORNL. The objective of this work was to identify the most effective flowsheet with which to process the 104 Mk-42 oxide capsules holding a total of 80 g of plutonium (Pu), 190 g of Cm, 480 g of Am, and 5 kg of lanthanide (Ln) oxides for the recovery and purification of the Am/Cm for future use as feedstock for heavy actinide production. Studies were also conducted to solidify the process flowsheet waste streams for disposal. ORNL is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and address waste streams associated with recovery of Am and Cm from Mk-42 target materials stored at ORNL. A series of small-scale runs are being performed to demonstrate an improved process to recover Am/Cm and to optimize the separations of Ln fission products from the Am/Cm constituents. The first of these runs has been completed using one of the Am/Cm/Ln oxide capsules stored at ORNL. The demonstration run showed promising results with a Ln DF of 40 for the Am/Cm product and an Am/Cm DF of 75 for the Ln product. In addition, the total losses of Am, Cm, and Ln to the waste solvents and raffinates were very low at <0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.04%, respectively. However, the Ln-actinide separation was less than desired. For future Reverse TALSPEAK demonstration runs, several parameters will be adjusted (flow rates, the ratio of scrub to strip stages, etc.) to improve the removal of Ln from the actinides. The next step will also include scale-up of the processing flowsheet to use more concentrated solutions (15 g/L Ln versus 5 g/L) and larger volumes and to recycle the HDEHP solvent. This should improve the overall processing efficiency and further reduce losses to waste streams. Studies have been performed with simulated wastes to develop solidification

  19. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 ..mu..Ci) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 ..mu..rem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 ..mu..Sv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 ..mu..Sv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated to be about 0.38 person-Sv (38 person-rem) to total body and 00 ft/sup 2/).

  20. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  1. Plutonium process control using an advanced on-line gamma monitor for uranium, plutonium, and americium

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Miller, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    An on-line gamma monitor has been developed to profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in waste and product streams of the anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The gamma monitor employs passive gamma spectrometry to measure /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu, based on their 59.5-keV and 129-keV gamma rays, respectively. Because natural and depleted uranium present in typical process streams have no gamma rays suitable for measurement by such passive methods, uranium measurement requires a novel and less direct technique. Plutonium-241, which is always present in plutonium processed at Los Alamos, decays primarily by beta emission to form /sup 241/Am. However, a small fraction of /sup 241/Pu decays by alpha emission to 6.8-day /sup 237/U. The short half-life and 208-keV gamma energy of /sup 237/U make it an ideal radiotracer to mark the position of macro amounts of uranium impurity in the separation process. The real-time data obtained from an operating process allow operators to optimize many process parameters. The gamma monitor also provides a permanent record of the daily performance of each ion exchange system. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  3. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  4. Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden

    The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

  5. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation.

  6. Preparation of curium-americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading

    SciTech Connect

    Chattin, F.R.; Benker, D.E.; Lloyd, M.H.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material (about 2.2 kg) for HFIR targets since 1971. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in 1975. Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation. The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. Yields approaching 95% are routinely obtained and only one unacceptable product has been generated during routine production operations. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. The present scale of production of 150 to 250 g/y supplies the present need and is comparable with the level of other chemical process operations at TRU. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment.

  7. Cesium, americium and plutonium isotopes in ground level air of vilnius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Šapolaite, J.; Remeikis, V.; Lujanas, V.; Jermolajev, A.; Aninkevičius, V.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic observations of radionuclide composition and concentration in the atmosphere have been carried out at the Institute of Physics in Vilnius since 1963. Increases in activity concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere were observed after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident. At present the radiation situation in Lithuania is determined by two main sources of radionuclides, forest fire and resuspension products transferred from highly polluted region of the Ukraine and Belarus. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were measured in two to three days samples while plutonium and americium in monthly samples. The extremely high activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am determined in the atmosphere during the Chernobyl accident can be explained by transport of “hot particles” of different composition. Activity concentration in 1995 2003 of 241Am and 239,240Pu isotopes ranged from 0.3 to 500 and from 1 to 500 nBq/m3, respectively. 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratio in measured samples differs from 0.03 to 0.45. A decrease in 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio from 0.30 to 0.19 was observed in 1995 2003.

  8. Comparative biokinetics of trivalent radionuclides with similar ionic dimensions: promethium-147, curium-242 and americium-241.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D

    2007-09-01

    Data on the distribution and redistribution patterns in the laboratory rat of three trivalent elements with a similar ionic radius have been compared. This showed that these distributions for the two ions with the same ionic radius (111 pm), i.e., those of promethium (a lanthanoid) and curium (an actinoid), were indistinguishable and that americium, with a slightly larger ion size (111.5 pm), behaved similarly. The results are consistent with the suggestion that ion size is the only important factor controlling the deposition and redistribution patterns of trivalent lanthanoids and actinoids in rats. The result is important because it suggests that the same radiological protection dosimetry models should be used for trivalent actinoids and lanthanoids, that human volunteer data generated for lanthanoid isotopes can be used to predict the behavior of actinoids with the same ion size, and that appropriate pairs of beta-particle-emitting lanthanoid and alpha-particle-emitting actinoids could be used to study the relative toxicity of alpha and beta particles in experimental animals. PMID:17705633

  9. Osteosarcoma development following single inhalation exposure to americium-241 in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Muggenberg, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    Young, mature Beagle dogs underwent single inhalation exposure to respirable aerosols of SU AmO2 to determine the radiation dose distribution to tissues. The dogs were serially sacrificed to assess the clearance of SU Am from the lung, the rate of translocation to internal organs, the pattern of retention in the organs, and the rates and modes of excretion. Americium dioxide was relatively soluble in the lung, leading to the translocation of significant quantities of SU Am to bone and liver, thus delivering radiation doses to these tissues nearly equal to that received by the lung. Osteoblastic osteosarcomas developed in four dogs surviving more than 1000 days after exposure. Histologically, all of the osteosarcomas were associated with areas of radiation osteodystrophy characterized by bone infarction, peritrabecular new bone formation, marrow fibrosis, and microresorptive cavities. The retention and translocation of inhaled SU Am in dogs is similar to that of man, indicating that 241Am inhaled by humans may potentially result in significant risk of bone tumor development.

  10. Americium-based oxides: Dense pellet fabrication from co-converted oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Gauthé, Aurélie; Caisso, Marie; Arab-Chapelet, Bénédicte; Picart, Sébastien; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Mixed oxides are used as nuclear fuels and are notably envisaged for future fuel cycles including plutonium and minor actinide recycling. In this context, processes are being developed for the fabrication of uranium-americium mixed-oxide compounds for transmutation. The purpose of these processes is not only the compliance with fuel specifications in terms of density and homogeneity, but also the simplification of the process for its industrialization as well as lowering dust generation. In this paper, the use of a U0.85Am0.15O2±δ powder synthesized by oxalate co-conversion as a precursor for dense fuel fabrications is assessed. This study notably focuses on sintering, which yielded pellets up to 96% of the theoretical density, taking advantage of the high reactivity and homogeneity of the powder. As-obtained pellets were further characterized to be compared to those obtained via processes based on the UMACS (Uranium Minor Actinide Conventional Sintering) process. This comparison highlights several advantages of co-converted powder as a precursor for simplified processes that generate little dust.

  11. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed. PMID:25126837

  12. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  13. Characterization of neutron calibration fields at the TINT's 50 Ci americium-241/beryllium neutron irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liamsuwan, T.; Channuie, J.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2015-05-01

    Reliable measurement of neutron radiation is important for monitoring and protection in workplace where neutrons are present. Although Thailand has been familiar with applications of neutron sources and neutron beams for many decades, there is no calibration facility dedicated to neutron measuring devices available in the country. Recently, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has set up a multi-purpose irradiation facility equipped with a 50 Ci americium-241/beryllium neutron irradiator. The facility is planned to be used for research, nuclear analytical techniques and, among other applications, calibration of neutron measuring devices. In this work, the neutron calibration fields were investigated in terms of neutron energy spectra and dose equivalent rates using Monte Carlo simulations, an in-house developed neutron spectrometer and commercial survey meters. The characterized neutron fields can generate neutron dose equivalent rates ranging from 156 μSv/h to 3.5 mSv/h with nearly 100% of dose contributed by neutrons of energies larger than 0.01 MeV. The gamma contamination was less than 4.2-7.5% depending on the irradiation configuration. It is possible to use the described neutron fields for calibration test and routine quality assurance of neutron dose rate meters and passive dosemeters commonly used in radiation protection dosimetry.

  14. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute/high security units from those in medium or in low secure/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway. PMID:21722396

  15. 7 CFR 766.206 - Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. 766.206... Agreements and Net Recovery Buyout Agreements § 766.206 Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. (a) Servicing existing Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreements. Prior to July 3, 1996, the Agency...

  16. 7 CFR 766.206 - Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. 766.206... Agreements and Net Recovery Buyout Agreements § 766.206 Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. (a) Servicing existing Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreements. Prior to July 3, 1996, the Agency...

  17. 42 CFR 124.703 - Federal right of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal right of recovery. 124.703 Section 124.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.703 Federal right of recovery. (a) If any facility is at any...

  18. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  19. Adsorption and dissociation of molecular hydrogen on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal close packed americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholabhai, P. P.; Ray, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen molecule adsorption on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal packed americium has been studied in detail within the framework of density functional theory using a full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method (FP-L/APW+lo). Weak molecular hydrogen adsorptions were observed. Adsorption energies were optimized with respect to the distance of the adsorbates from the surface for three approach positions at three adsorption sites, namely t1 (one-fold top), b2 (two-fold bridge), and h3 (three-fold hollow) sites. Adsorption energies were computed at the scalar-relativistic level (no spin-orbit coupling NSOC) and at the fully relativistic level (with spin-orbit coupling SOC). The most stable configuration corresponds to a horizontal adsorption with the molecular approach being perpendicular to a lattice vector. The surface coverage is equivalent to one-fourth of a monolayer (ML), with the adsorption energies at the NSOC and SOC theoretical levels being 0.0997 eV and 0.1022 eV, respectively. The respective distance of the hydrogen molecule from the surface and hydrogen-hydrogen distance was found to be 2.645 Å and 0.789 Å, respectively. The work functions decreased and the net magnetic moments remained almost unchanged in all cases compared with the corresponding quantities of bare dhcp Am (0001) surface. The adsorbate-substrate interactions have been analyzed in detail using the partial charges inside the muffin-tin spheres, difference charge density distributions, and the local density of states. The effects of adsorption on the Am 5f electron localization-delocalization characteristics have been discussed. Reaction barrier for the dissociation of hydrogen molecule has been presented.

  20. Investigation of the neutron spectrum of americium-beryllium sources by Bonner sphere spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Roberts, N.; Thomas, D. J.; Chiti, M.; Esposito, A.; Garcia, M. J.; Gentile, A.; Liu, Z. Z.; de-San-Pedro, M.

    2014-11-01

    Americium-beryllium neutron sources are certainly the most widely used in neutron dosimetry laboratories, basically due to their long half-life and their energy distribution, which covers the energy domain of interest for many applications in ambient and personal dosimetry. Nevertheless, the spectrum of this source depends on the materials and dimension of the capsule and on the amount and physical-chemical properties of the active material, thus affecting relevant quantities such as the spectrum-averaged fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient. A EURAMET (European Association of National Metrology Institutes) project (n. 1104) was initiated to experimentally investigate how the neutron spectrum changes for different source sizes and encapsulations with a view to providing improved data for a planned revision of the ISO 8529 Standard Series. The experimental campaign was carried out in the low scatter facility at NPL. Here three different Bonner sphere spectrometers, BSSs, were exposed to the neutron fields produced by three different neutron sources formats: one X3 capsule (1 Ci) and two X14 capsules (10 Ci and 15 Ci). The specific advantage of the BSS is the large sensitivity to low-energy neutrons (E<0.1 MeV) which is the component expected to be most affected by the capsule-to-capsule variations and the component which is least well known. This paper summarises the results of the campaign with emphasis on (1) estimating the low-energy component of the Am-Be neutron spectrum, according to the encapsulation type; (2) evaluating the coherence between the Bonner spheres data and the previous studies performed with high-resolution spectrometers but limited in energy to E>0.1 MeV; (3) understanding whether the ISO-recommended Am-Be spectrum needs to be amended, and for which source formats.

  1. Americium and plutonium association with magnesium hydroxide colloids in alkaline nuclear industry process environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Zoe; Ivanov, Peter; O'Brien, Luke; Sims, Howard; Taylor, Robin J.; Heath, Sarah L.; Livens, Francis R.; Goddard, David; Kellet, Simon; Rand, Peter; Bryan, Nick D.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviours of Pu, Am and colloids in feed solutions to the Site Ion-exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP) at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in the U.K. have been studied. For both Pu and Am, fractions were found to be associated with material in the colloidal size range, with ˜50% of the Pu in the range 1-200 nm. The concentration of soluble Pu (<1 nm) was ˜1 nM, which is very similar to the solubility limit for Pu(V). The soluble Am concentration was of the order of 10-11 M, which was below the solubility limit of americium hydroxide. The size, morphology and elemental composition of the particulates and colloids in the feed solutions were investigated. Magnesium is homogeneously distributed throughout the particles, whereas U, Si, Fe, and Ca were present in localised areas only. Amongst some heterogeneous material, particles were identified that were consistent with hydrotalcite. The distribution of 241Am(III) on brucite (magnesium hydroxide) colloids of different sizes was studied under alkaline conditions representative of nuclear fuel storage pond and effluent feed solution conditions. The morphology of the brucite particles in the bulk material observed by ESEM was predominantly hexagonal, while that of the carbonated brucite consisted of hexagonal species mixed with platelets. The association of 241Am(III) with the brucite colloids was studied by ultrafiltration coupled with gamma ray-spectrometry. For carbonate concentrations up to 10-3 M, the 241Am(III) was mainly associated with larger colloids (>300 kDa), and there was a shift from the smaller size fractions to the larger over a period of 6 months. At higher carbonate concentrations (10-2 M), the Am was predominantly detected in the true solution fraction (<3 kDa) and in smaller size colloidal fractions, in the range 3-100 kDa.

  2. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, George S.; Long, Kristy Marie; Reilly, Sean D.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Runde, Wolfgang H.

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  3. Complete recovery of actinides from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of hard and soft donor ligands. II. soft donor structure variation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Klaehn, John R.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2015-07-30

    The feasibility of simultaneous separation of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium from a simulated dissolved used fuel simulant adjusted to 1.0 M nitric acid is investigated using a mixture of the soft donor bis(bis-3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (“0”) and the hard donor synergist trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in toluene. The results reported in this work are compared to our recent demonstration of a complete actinide recovery from a simulated dissolved fuel solution using a synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid (“1”) and TOPO dissolved in either toluene or trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone. While the extraction efficiency of americium was enhanced for the liquid-liquidmore » system containing “0”, enabling to accomplish a trivalent An/Ln separation at 1.0 M HNO3, the extraction of neptunium was drastically diminished, relative to “1”. The partitioning behavior of curium was also negatively impacted, introducing an effective opportunity for americium/curium separation. Radiometric and spectrophotometric studies demonstrate that the complete actinide recovery using the solvent based upon “0” and TOPO is not feasible. Additionally, the importance of radiolytic degradation processes is discussed through the comparisons of extraction properties of liquid-liquid systems based on both soft donor reagents.« less

  4. Complete recovery of actinides from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of hard and soft donor ligands. II. soft donor structure variation

    SciTech Connect

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Klaehn, John R.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2015-07-30

    The feasibility of simultaneous separation of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium from a simulated dissolved used fuel simulant adjusted to 1.0 M nitric acid is investigated using a mixture of the soft donor bis(bis-3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (“0”) and the hard donor synergist trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in toluene. The results reported in this work are compared to our recent demonstration of a complete actinide recovery from a simulated dissolved fuel solution using a synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid (“1”) and TOPO dissolved in either toluene or trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone. While the extraction efficiency of americium was enhanced for the liquid-liquid system containing “0”, enabling to accomplish a trivalent An/Ln separation at 1.0 M HNO3, the extraction of neptunium was drastically diminished, relative to “1”. The partitioning behavior of curium was also negatively impacted, introducing an effective opportunity for americium/curium separation. Radiometric and spectrophotometric studies demonstrate that the complete actinide recovery using the solvent based upon “0” and TOPO is not feasible. Additionally, the importance of radiolytic degradation processes is discussed through the comparisons of extraction properties of liquid-liquid systems based on both soft donor reagents.

  5. Rapid, quantitative analysis of americium, curium and plutonium isotopes in Hanford samples using extraction chromatography and precipitation plating

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, J.H.; Strebin, R.S.; Orr, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    Recently developed methods for the rapid, quantitative analysis of americium (Am), curium (Cm), and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in Hanford soil, sludge, and waste-tank samples are described. After dissolution, dilutions are made as necessary based on alpha-energy analysis of a small aliquot of the original solution. isotopic tracers are then added and Am-Cm and Pu are separated by extraction chromatography, coprecipitated with neodymium fluoride, and counted. Examples of alpha spectra are given, and results obtained for Hanford sludge samples are presented.

  6. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF SELECTED GROUNDWATERS FROM THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE ON PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AND AMERICIUM SPECIATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, Terry F.; Cleveland, Jess M.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1984-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium, neptunium, and americium was determined in groundwaters from four sources in the Basin and Range Province: the lower carbonate aquifer, Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Crystal Pool); alluvial fill, Frenchman Flat, NTS (well 5C); Hualapai Valley, Arizona (Red Lake south well); and Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Rentfrow well). The results were interpreted to indicate that plutonium and, to a lesser extent, neptunium are least soluble in reducing groundwaters containing a large concentration of sulfate ion and a small concentration of strongly complexing anions. The results further emphasize the desirability of including studies such as this among the other site-selection criteria for nuclear waste repositories.

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ( ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance, U.S. General Services Administration - Project 194 U.S. Custom Cargo Inspection Facility, Detroit, MI

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the findings of an on-site audit of the U.S. Customs Cargo Inspection Facility (CIF) in Detroit, Michigan. The federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy-efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electrical and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  8. Use of two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separtion of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1995-11-01

    The feasibility has been demonstrated of using two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and dextran sulfate, in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separation of actinides. A convenient method has been proposed for continuous recovery of {sup 239}Np from {sup 243}Am, originating from differences in sorption of tri- and pentavalent actinides from sulfate solutions containing potassium phosphotungstate by silica gel impregnated with polyethylene glycol. New plates for thin-layer chromatography using water-soluble polymers have been developed. These plates were used to study behavior of americium in various oxidation states in thin sorbent layers.

  9. Recovery in Schizophrenia: What Consumers Know and Do Not Know.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Marino, Brielle A; Rosenthal, Elizabeth; Buckner, Alex; Hunter, Kristin M; Mabe, Paul Alex; Buckley, Peter F

    2016-06-01

    The recovery model has permeated mental health systems by leading to the development of new psychiatric interventions and services and the reconfiguration of traditional ones. There is growing evidence that these interventions and services confer benefits in clinical and recovery-oriented outcomes. Despite the seeming adoption of recovery by policy makers, the transformation of mental health systems into recovery-oriented systems has been fraught with challenges. PMID:27216905

  10. The solvent extraction of americium(III) in HCl solutions by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphospino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime}-trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.; FitzPatrick, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    The liquid/liquid extraction of Am(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime}-trioxide (ENOPOPO) is described. ENOPOPO exhibits modest extraction ability for americium(III) (D{sub Am} = 2.2 at 5 M HCl) and can be efficiently back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1 M HCl. The ligand dependency data suggest that three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the extraction complex. Additional aspects of the extraction mechanism are described.

  11. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  12. Do clinical outcome measures assess consumer-defined recovery?

    PubMed

    Andresen, Retta; Caputi, Peter; Oades, Lindsay G

    2010-05-30

    There is an international call for mental health services to become recovery-oriented, and also to use evidence-based practices. Addressing this call requires recovery-oriented measurement of outcomes and service evaluation. Mental health consumers view recovery as leading as meaningful life, and have criticised traditional clinical measures for being too disability-oriented. This study compares three measures of consumer-defined recovery from enduring mental illness: the Recovery Assessment Scale, the Mental Health Recovery Measure and the Self-Identified Stage of Recovery, with four conventional clinical measures. Correlational analyses supported the convergent validity of the recovery measures, although certain subscales were unrelated to each other. More importantly, little relationship was found between consumer-defined recovery and the clinical measures. Analyses of variance revealed that scores on the recovery measures increased across self-identified stage of recovery, but scores on most clinical measures did not improve consistently across stage of recovery. The findings demonstrate the qualitative difference between the two types of measures, supporting the claim by consumers that clinical measures do not assess important aspects of recovery. There is a need for further research and refinement of recovery measurement, including assessment of stages of recovery, with the aim of including such measures as an adjunct in routine clinical assessment, service evaluation and research. PMID:20227768

  13. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds of any...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan...

  16. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds...

  4. Swelling under irradiation of MgO pellets containing americium oxide: The ECRIX-H irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, J.; Béjaoui, S.; Hanifi, K.; Valot, Ch.; Loubet, L.

    2011-06-01

    The ECRIX-H irradiation experiment studied the behaviour of pellets containing americium dispersed in MgO. The purpose of the irradiation was to demonstrate the capacity of magnesia to provide an efficient support matrix. After fabrication, the sintered pellets contained 16.65 wt.% of Am microdispersed in the inert matrix. The ECRIX-H pellets were irradiated under a locally moderated neutron flux in the Phénix sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) for 318 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD). Post-test calculations indicated that the fission and transmutation rates of americium at the maximum flux plane reached 33.9% and 92.6% respectively at the end of the irradiation phase. The results of the post-irradiation examinations - both non-destructive and destructive - are discussed in this paper. These results indicate a satisfactory behaviour of the MgO matrix. Particularly, a moderate swelling occurs in the pellets under irradiation even with significant quantities of helium generated and at high transmutation rate.

  5. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu. Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-15

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures (T > {Theta}{sub D}, {Theta}{sub D} is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  6. Hurricane Katrina: Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children Persist in Greater New Orleans, Although Federal Grants Are Helping to Address Them. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-935T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    The greater New Orleans area has yet to fully recover from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005. One issue of concern in the recovery is the availability of mental health services for children. It is estimated that in 2008 about 187,000 children were living in the greater New Orleans area. Many children in the…

  7. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    PubMed

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD. PMID:25742991

  8. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Elizabeth J.; Berg, John M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N.; Barefield, James E.

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  9. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  10. Recovery mode.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2012-12-10

    More than a month after superstorm Sandy, five hospitals are still scrambling to restore inpatient services in New York, while hospitals are assessing what changes they'll need to make to withstand future storms that could be even worse. "While today I am not in a flood zone, I don't know what the weather is going to be in 2022 or 2032," says Ken Holden, right, of Continuum Health Partners. PMID:23323335