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Sample records for amido por meio

  1. Slow Reductive Elimination from Arylpalladium Parent Amido Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We report reductive eliminations of primary arylamines from a series of bisphosphine-ligated arylpalladium(II) parent amido complexes that counter several established trends. In contrast to arylamido and alkylamido complexes of the aromatic bisphosphines DPPF and BINAP, parent amido complexes, do not form or undergo reductive elimination of monoarylamines. However, arylpalladium parent amido complexes ligated by the alkylbisphosphine CyPF-t-Bu form in good yield and undergo reductive elimination. Despite the basicity of parent amido ligand and the typically faster reductive elimination from complexes containing more basic amido ligands, the CyPF-t-Bu-ligated arylpalladium parent amido complexes undergo reductive elimination much more slowly than the analogous complexes containing arylamido or alkylamido ligands. Moreover, the parent amido complexes form more rapidly and are more stable thermodynamically in a series of exchange processes than the arylamido complexes. Computational studies support the overriding influence of steric effects on the stability and reactivity of the parent amido complex. The slow rate of reductive elimination causes the arylpalladium amido complex to be the resting state of the coupling of aryl halides with ammonia catalyzed by CyPF-t-Bu-ligated palladium, and this resting state contrasts the Pd(0) or arylpalladium(II) resting states of reactions of aryl halides with amines catalyzed by most palladium complexes. PMID:20695642

  2. Fuel additives derived from amido-amines

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1993-08-24

    A process is described for producing a dispersant useful as an oil additive which comprises: (a) providing a long chain hydrocarbyl substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid producing material formed by reacting an olefin polymer of C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] monoolefin having a number average molecular weight of about 300 to 10,000 and at least one of a C[sub 4] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated dicarboxylic acid material and a C[sub 3] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated monocarboxylic acid material, said acid producing material having an average of at least about 0.3 dicarboxylic acid producing moieties, per molecule of said olefin polymer present in the reaction mixture used to form said acid producing material; (b) providing an amido-amine compound having at least one primary amino group prepared by reacting at least one polyamine with at least one alpha, beta-unsaturated compound of the formula: R[sup 1]-(C-R[sup 2])[double bond](C-R[sup 3])-(C[double bond]X)-Y wherein X is sulfur or oxygen, Y is -OR[sup 4],-SR[sup 4], or -NR[sup 4](R[sup 5]), and R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], R[sup 4] and R[sup 5] are the same or different and are hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl; and (c) contacting the said acid producing material with said amido-amine compound under conditions sufficient to effect reaction of at least a portion of the primary amino groups on said amido-amine compound with at least a portion of the acid-producing groups in said acid producing material, to form said dispersant.

  3. Tripodal amido boron and aluminum complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongping; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2007-02-19

    The synthesis and structural elucidations of novel boron and aluminum complexes incorporating the tripodal triamido [N3]3- ligand framework that is hypothesized to promote the preorganized pyramidal geometry for high Lewis acidity are reported. Salt metathesis between the in situ-generated trianionic lithium complexes of the tripodal amido ligands with BCl3 leads to boranes HC[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3B (1) and MeSi[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3B (2); however, substitution of the N-Ar group with the bulky tBu affords the unexpected non-boron-containing LiCl adduct {[HC(SiMe2NtBu)2(SiMeNtBu)]Li3(Et2O)Cl}2 (3) via apparent elimination of MeBCl2. The products derived from the salt metathesis reaction with AlCl3 are determined by the reaction medium: while the reaction in a hexanes-ether mixture or toluene affords solvated salt adduct HC[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3Al.ClLi(Et2O)2 (4) or salt adduct HC[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3Al.ClLi (5), respectively; the addition of a small amount of THF produces a mixture of complexes HC[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3Al.(THF) (6, major) and HC[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3Al(OCH=CH2).Li(THF)2 (7, minor). The desired complex 6 can be exclusively formed using HC[SiMe2N(4-MeC6H4)]3Li3.(THF)3 and the hexanes-ether mixture solvent. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 have been elucidated by X-ray diffraction studies. The structure of 1 shows an approximately trigonal pyramidal geometry at B with no significant N-B p-p pi-interactions. The strong salt adduct and solvate formation of the tripodal amido Al complex, as well as its similarity to the strong Lewis acid Al(C6F5)3 in the THF adduct and enolaluminate formation and structure, indicate the desired core structure [N3]Al is indeed highly Lewis acidic. PMID:17291130

  4. Oxidative coupling of rhodium phenyl imido/amido complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Y.W.; Ye, Y.; Sharp, P.R.

    1994-09-07

    In previous work, we found that tautomeric mixtures of the late transition metal imido and amido complexes Rh{sub 2}({mu}-NPh)(CO){sub 2} ({mu}-dppm){sub 2} (1) and Rh{sub 2}({mu}-NHPh)(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm)({mu}-dppm-H){sup 2} (2) (hereafter designated as 1/2) undergo electrophilic ring addition reactions at the NPh group. A single electron transfer mechanism was considered. Such a mechanism would require oxidation of the imido/amido complex to a radical cation. To establish this possibility, we investigated the oxidation chemistry of this system. We found a rich chemistry consistent with formation and coupling of an amido radical cation. This chemistry, described here, is closely related to the well-studied oxidation chemistry of aniline and its derivatives. 16 refs.

  5. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  6. 3-amido-4-anilinocinnolines as a novel class of CSF-1R inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Scott, David A; Dakin, Les A; Del Valle, David J; Diebold, R Bruce; Drew, Lisa; Gero, Thomas W; Ogoe, Claude A; Omer, Charles A; Repik, Galina; Thakur, Kumar; Ye, Qing; Zheng, Xiaolan

    2011-03-01

    3-Amido-4-anilinocinnolines have been identified as potent and highly selective inhibitors of CSF-1R. The synthesis and SAR of these compounds is reported, along with some physical property, pharmacokinetic and kinase selectivity data. PMID:21295474

  7. A cyclic (alkyl)(amido)carbene: synthesis, study and utility as a desulfurization reagent.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Zachary R; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and study of a cyclic (alkyl)(amido)carbene is described. The carbene was found to undergo C-H insertion at low temperatures, formed cyclopropenes upon exposure to alkynes, and facilitated desulfurization reactions. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the carbene is strongly π-accepting but retains a complimentary degree of σ-donating properties. PMID:27010415

  8. Synthesis, structures and stability of amido gold(iii) complexes with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ohtsu, Hideki; Tsuge, Kiyoshi

    2014-11-14

    Three gold(iii) complexes with terminal amido ligands were prepared by the reaction of [Au(III)(trpy)(OH)](ClO4)2 and primary amines having electron-withdrawing groups such as 2-amino-4-chloropyrimidine, 2-amino-5-chloro-pyridine, and 2-aminopyrimidine. Conversion of the amido ligands into the imido or amine ligands resulted in the decomposition of the complexes by intramolecular redox reaction or the release of amine ligands, respectively. PMID:25247831

  9. Amido analogs of mitoxantrone: physico-chemical properties, molecular modeling, cellular effects and antineoplastic potential.

    PubMed

    Zagotto, G; Moro, S; Uriarte, E; Ferrazzi, E; Palù, G; Palumbo, M

    1997-03-01

    To assess the effects of amido substitution in the side-chains of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone (MX) two analogs were synthesized, having hydroxyethylaminoacetyl- and hydroxyethylaminopropionyl- substituents at the nitrogens located at positions 1, 4 of the anthracenedione ring system. The novel derivatives exhibit DNA-affinity and redox properties similar to the parent drug. However, unlike MX, they are not able to stimulate DNA cleavage, as shown by alkaline elution experiments. Molecular modeling studies using ab initio quantum mechanical methods show that, while the stereochemistry of the drug molecule is not appreciably affected when an amide group replaces the aromatic amino function, the reverse is true for the electrostatic properties. Indeed, overlapping of electron density of MX with its analogs is very poor. Moreover, a reversal in the direction of MX dipole moment occurs in the amido congeners. This may explain the lack of recognition of the cleavable topoisomerase II-DNA complex and loss of cleavage stimulation. However, the new derivatives exhibit pharmacological activity comparable to that found for MX, as they are remarkably cytotoxic and are active in vivo against P388 murine leukemia. Hence, amido substitution may lead to a different mechanism of cytotoxicity, not related to classical protein or free radical-mediated DNA damage, which points to a novel type of antineoplastic pharmacophore. PMID:9113065

  10. Screening and evaluation of antioxidant activity of some amido-carbonyl oxime derivatives and their radical scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik; Taş, Murat

    2009-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of some amido-carbonyl oximes containing a C=O and -NH-R adjacent to the oxime group, [Phenyl-C(=O)-C(=N-OH)-N(-H)-Phenyl(-R)] where R= H, 4-chloro, 4-methyl, 4-methoxy, 3,4-dichloro, 3,4-dimethyl, 3-chloro-4-dimethyl, 3-chloro-4-methoxy, naphthyl and an amido-carbonyl dioxime were investigated in vitro by ferric thiocyanate, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH(.)) free radical scavenging, ferrous ions chelating, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity assays. The results indicated that the amido-carbonyl oximes have powerful antioxidant capacity. PMID:19772487

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts for anticancer chemotherapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jee Sun; Song, Doona; Ko, Won Jin; Kim, Bunyea; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Park, Song-Kyu; Won, Misun; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Kyeong; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer effects involving induction of RhoB. Most of these compounds, featuring open-ring forms of aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts, exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities in human cancer cell lines, including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. In further evaluation, the representative compound N,N-diethyl-N-(2-(N-methyltetradecanamido)ethyl)prop-2-en-1-aminium bromide (3b) exhibited potent pro-apoptotic activity, through RhoB activation, in HeLa cells. PMID:23567950

  12. Electron injection from graphene quantum dots to poly(amido amine) dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R.; Kao, C. W.; Shu, G. W.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Yeh, J. M.; Chen-Yang, Y. W.

    2016-04-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the electron injection from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers. The PL is enhanced by depositing GQDs on the surfaces of the PAMAM dendrimers. The maximum enhancement of PL with a factor of 10.9 is achieved at a GQD concentration of 0.9 mg/ml. The dynamics of PL in the GQD/PAMAM composite are analyzed, evidencing the existence of electron injection. On the basis of Kelvin probe measurements, the electron injection from the GQDs to the PAMAM dendrimers is accounted for by the work function difference between them.

  13. Chiral phenoxyimino-amido aluminum complexes for the asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ternel, J; Agbossou-Niedercorn, F; Gauvin, R M

    2014-03-21

    The reactivity of triethylaluminum towards salicylaldimine sulfonamides was probed, affording well-defined complexes through consecutive protonolysis of two Al-C bonds by the proligand. These complexes, when combined with an achiral anilinic N-oxide, catalyze the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilylcyanide to a wide range of aldehydes, with good activity and enantioselectivity (up to 91% ee). Insertion of the benzaldehyde substrate into the Al-N amido bond was observed, bringing elements for discussion around the nature of the actual active species. PMID:24434893

  14. Two-Coordinate Magnesium(I) Dimers Stabilized by Super Bulky Amido Ligands.

    PubMed

    Boutland, Aaron J; Dange, Deepak; Stasch, Andreas; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-01

    A variety of very bulky amido magnesium iodide complexes, LMgI(solvent)0/1 and [LMg(μ-I)(solvent)0/1 ]2 (L=-N(Ar)(SiR3 ); Ar=C6 H2 {C(H)Ph2 }2 R'-2,6,4; R=Me, Pr(i) , Ph, or OBu(t) ; R'=Pr(i) or Me) have been prepared by three synthetic routes. Structurally characterized examples of these materials include the first unsolvated amido magnesium halide complexes, such as [LMg(μ-I)]2 (R=Me, R'=Pr(i) ). Reductions of several such complexes with KC8 in the absence of coordinating solvents have afforded the first two-coordinate magnesium(I) dimers, LMg-MgL (R=Me, Pr(i) or Ph; R'=Pr(i) , or Me), in low to good yields. Reductions of two of the precursor complexes in the presence of THF have given the related THF adduct complexes, L(THF)Mg-Mg(THF)L (R=Me; R'=Pr(i) ) and LMg-Mg(THF)L (R=Pr(i) ; R'=Me) in trace yields. The X-ray crystal structures of all magnesium(I) complexes were obtained. DFT calculations on the unsolvated examples reveal their Mg-Mg bonds to be covalent and of high s-character, while Ph⋅⋅⋅Mg bonding interactions in the compounds were found to be weak at best. PMID:27303934

  15. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    PubMed

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. PMID:26663734

  16. Synthesis of peptide thioacids at neutral pH using bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido peptide precursors.

    PubMed

    Pira, Silvain L; Boll, Emmanuelle; Melnyk, Oleg

    2013-10-18

    Reaction of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) peptides with triisopropylsilylthiol in water at neutral pH yields peptide thiocarboxylates. An alkylthioester derived from β-alanine was used to trap the released bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amine and displace the equilibrium toward the peptide thiocarboxylate. PMID:24073852

  17. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration. PMID:24900853

  18. Triclosan-loaded poly(amido amine) dendrimer for simultaneous treatment and remineralization of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Yang, Jiaojiao; Lin, Zaifu; Li, Jiyao; Liang, Kunneng; Yuan, He; Li, Sheyu; Li, Jianshu

    2014-03-01

    In order to treat dental caries of damaged dentine, triclosan-loaded carboxyl-terminated poly(amido amine) dendrimer (PAMAM-COOH) is prepared and characterized. While being incubated in artificial saliva, triclosan-loaded PAMAM-COOH formulation can induce in situ remineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) on etched dentine, and the regenerated HA has a similar crystal structure with natural dentine. It can also release the encapsulated triclosan for a long period. The interesting drug release profiles are controlled by both dendrimer encapsulation capability and the mineralization degree, which are ideal to obtain multifunctional properties of long-term release of anti-bacterial drug for local treatment during the remineralization process. The triclosan-loaded G4-COOH provides a general strategy to cure dental caries and repair damaged dentine at the same time, which forms a potential restorative material for dental repair. PMID:24362062

  19. Stereoretentive Addition of N-tert-Butylsulfonyl-α-Amido Silanes to Aldehydes, Ketones, α,β-Unsaturated Esters, and Imines.

    PubMed

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Keisuke; Sugawara, Masumi; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-20

    Enantioenriched N-tert-butylsulfonyl-α-amido silanes were successfully reacted with aldehydes, ketones, imines, and α,β-unsaturated esters in the presence of a sub-stoichiometric amount of CsF (0.5 equiv) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) at -20 °C to afford the corresponding coupling products with up to 89 % enantiospecificity in a retentive manner. PMID:27027853

  20. Interplay between hydrido/dihydrogen and amine/amido ligands in ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Picot, Alexandre; Dyer, Hellen; Buchard, Antoine; Auffrant, Audrey; Vendier, Laure; Le Floch, Pascal; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane

    2010-02-15

    This work describes the synthesis of three key intermediates of Noyori-type catalytic systems that are active precatalysts for the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone. Isolation of the cationic chloro(dihydrogen) complex [RuCl(H(2))(H(2)NNPP)(PCy(3))][BArf(4)] provides a facile synthetic route to the corresponding cationic and neutral hydrido complexes, and the series highlights the links between hydride/dihydrogen and amine/amido ligands in neutral and cationic species. PMID:20095639

  1. MeioBase: a comprehensive database for meiosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Meng, Fanrui; Guo, Chunce; Wang, Yingxiang; Xie, Xiaojing; Zhu, Tiansheng; Zhou, Shuigeng; Ma, Hong; Shan, Hongyan; Kong, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a special type of cell division process necessary for the sexual reproduction of all eukaryotes. The ever expanding meiosis research calls for an effective and specialized database that is not readily available yet. To fill this gap, we have developed a knowledge database MeioBase (http://meiosis.ibcas.ac.cn), which is comprised of two core parts, Resources and Tools. In the Resources part, a wealth of meiosis data collected by curation and manual review from published literatures and biological databases are integrated and organized into various sections, such as Cytology, Pathway, Species, Interaction, and Expression. In the Tools part, some useful tools have been integrated into MeioBase, such as Search, Download, Blast, Comparison, My Favorites, Submission, and Advice. With a simplified and efficient web interface, users are able to search against the database with gene model IDs or keywords, and batch download the data for local investigation. We believe that MeioBase can greatly facilitate the researches related to meiosis. PMID:25566299

  2. Interactions of vinca alkaloid subunits with chiral amido[4]resorcinarenes: a dynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Botta, Bruno; Fraschetti, Caterina; Novara, Francesca R; Tafi, Andrea; Sacco, Fabiola; Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Mattay, Jochen; Letzel, Matthias C; Speranza, Maurizio

    2009-05-01

    The stereoselectivity of the reaction between (R)-(-)-2-butylamine and the diastereomeric proton-bound complexes of (+)-catharanthine (C) or (-)-vindoline (V) with some chiral amido[4]resorcinarenes has been investigated in the gas phase by ESI-FT-ICR-MS. The reaction stereoselectivity (0.56 < k(homo)/k(hetero) < 16.9) is found to depend critically on the functional groups present in the chiral pendants of the hosts. Rationalisation of the kinetic results is based on careful computational and spectroscopic studies of the most stable conformations of (+)-catharanthine and its protonated form in the isolated state and in water, as well as in a representative host structure. The emerging picture points to the relevant diastereomeric proton-bound complexes as quasi-degenerate, thus suggesting that their stereoselectivity in the guest exchange reaction is mostly due to kinetic factors. The results of this study may represent a starting point for a deeper comprehension of the intrinsic factors that endow these molecules, and their dimeric forms, with their biochemical properties. PMID:19590774

  3. Steroidal dihydrocarbothioic acid amido pyrazoles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ayaz Mahmood; Gatoo, Manzoor Ahmad; Shamsuzzaman

    2015-07-01

    A new series of steroidal dihydrocarbothioic acid amido pyrazole analogues were synthesized, and after characterization, evaluation for cytotoxicity, comet assay and western blotting was carried out. The synthesis of these analogues is convenient and involves two steps, i.e. aldol condensation as first step followed by nucleophilic addition of thiosemicarbazide across α, β-unsaturated carbonyl as a later step. Quantitative yields of more than 80 % are obtained in both the steps. After characterization by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS and analytical data, all the compounds of both series were tested for cytotoxic activity against a panel of different human cancer cell lines by MTT assay, during which compound 3e, 3f, 4e, 4f and 4h are very potent especially against HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis depicted the cell death in S-phase while as annexin V-FITC/PI analysis showed that compounds effectively induce apoptosis. Apoptotic degradation of DNA of MCF-7 cells in the presence of different steroidal derivatives was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized by ethidium bromide staining (comet assay). In western blotting analysis, the relative expressions of relevant apoptotic markers depicted an apoptosis by steroidal dihydropyrazole in MCF-7 cancer cells. PMID:26101552

  4. Cycloaddition-Rearrangement Sequence of 2-Amido Substituted Furans as a Method of Synthesizing Hexahydroindolinones.

    PubMed

    Padwa, Albert; Brodney, Michael A.; Satake, Kyosuke; Straub, Christopher S.

    1999-06-25

    A convenient synthesis of various substituted hexahydroindolinones has been achieved by an intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition (IMDAF) reaction of 2-amido substituted furans. The initially formed [4 + 2] cycloadduct undergoes nitrogen-assisted ring opening followed by deprotonation of the resulting zwitterion to give the rearranged ketone. The stereochemical outcome of the IMDAF cycloaddition has the sidearm of the tethered alkenyl group oriented syn with respect to the oxygen bridge. The reaction rate and product yield were found to be markedly dependent upon the electronic properties of the alkenyl pi-bond. 2-[2-(tert-Butoxycarbonylfuran-2-yl-amino)ethyl]acrylic acid methyl ester was synthesized from 3-chlorocarbonyl-but-3-enoic acid methyl ester. Thermolysis of the carbomethoxy activated furanamide occurred at 80 degrees C to produce a rearranged hexahydroindolinone. When Me(3)Al or (MeO)(3)Al was used as a Lewis acid to promote the cycloaddition, a rearranged alcohol was obtained. The initially formed [4 + 2] cycloadduct undergoes ring opening in the presence of the Lewis acid, and the resulting aluminum intermediate delivers the substituent group from the same face as the neighboring oxygen to ultimately furnish a rearranged cis-alcohol. In contrast to this result, a mixture of diastereomeric methoxy alcohols was isolated when the IMDAF cycloaddition was carried out in methanol. The major isomer corresponds to the trans-diastereomer that results from trapping of the iminium ion from the less crowded face of the pi-bond. PMID:11674531

  5. Guanidinylated bioresponsive poly(amido amine)s designed for intranuclear gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiankun; Zhang, Jinmin; Xing, Haonan; Yang, Zhen; Cai, Cuifang; Zhang, Conglu; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Wei, Minjie; Yang, Li; Ding, Pingtian

    2016-01-01

    Guanidinylated poly(amido amine)s with multiple disulfide linkages (Gua-SS-PAAs) were designed and constructed as nonviral gene carriers. The main chains of these novel carriers were synthesized based on monomers containing guanidino groups (guanidine hydrochloride and chlorhexidine), which could avoid complicated side-chain-modification reactions while introducing the guanidino groups. The synthesized Gua-SS-PAAs polymers were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, molecular weight, and polydispersity. Furthermore, Gua-SS-PAAs polymers were complexed with pDNA, and the properties of the complexes were determined, including entrapment efficiency, particle size, ζ-potential, atomic force microscopy images, stability, DNA complexation ability, reduction sensitivity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. The new Gua-SS-PAAs carriers exhibited higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity compared with two widely used gene delivery carriers, polyethylenimine and lipofectamine 2000. Furthermore, the relationship between the side-chain structure and morphological/biological properties was extrapolated, and the results showed that guanidine in the side chain aids in the improvement of transfection efficiency. In addition, the introduction of guanidino group might confer the new carriers with nuclear localization function compared to carriers without it. PMID:27574429

  6. Exchange facilitated indirect detection of hyperpolarized 15ND 2-amido-glutamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barb, A. W.; Hekmatyar, S. K.; Glushka, J. N.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    Hyperpolarization greatly enhances opportunities to observe in vivo metabolic processes in real time. Accessible timescales are, however, limited by nuclear spin relaxation times, and sensitivity is limited by magnetogyric ratios of observed nuclei. The majority of applications to date have involved direct 13C observation of metabolites with non-protonated carbons at sites of interest ( 13C enriched carbonyls, for example), a choice that extends relaxation times and yields moderate sensitivity. Interest in 15N containing metabolites is equally high but non-protonated sites are rare and direct 15N observation insensitive. Here an approach is demonstrated that extends applications to protonated 15N sites with high sensitivity. The normally short relaxation times are lengthened by initially replacing protons (H) with deuterons (D) and low sensitivity detection of 15N is avoided by indirect detection through protons reintroduced by H/D exchange. A pulse sequence is presented that periodically samples 15N polarization at newly protonated sites by INEPT transfer to protons while returning 15N magnetization of deuterated sites to the + Z axis to preserve polarization for subsequent samplings. Applications to 15ND 2-amido-glutamine are chosen for illustration. Glutamine is an important regulator and a direct donor of nitrogen in cellular metabolism. Potential application to in vivo observation is discussed.

  7. Copper ion detection using novel silver nanoclusters stabilized with amido black 10B.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Liang, Sheng; Peng, Yibo; Kuang, Yangfang; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Shu; Long, Yunfei; Zeng, Rongjin

    2016-05-01

    Novel fluorescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) were synthesized using amido black 10B (AB) as a stabilizing agent and then employed for the detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)). The AB-stabilized AgNCs (AB-AgNCs) were well dispersed in aqueous solution with an average diameter of around 1.3 nm and exhibited illustrious blue fluorescence emission. Moreover, the fluorescence of AB-AgNCs could be quenched efficiently by Cu(2+), which might be a result of the coordination between Cu(2+) and the free recognition group of AB on surfaces of AB-AgNCs, inducing the aggregation of AB-AgNCs. Based on the linear decrease of fluorescence intensity, the Cu(2+) concentration was determined in the range of 0.01-1.1 μmol L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nΜ. In addition, the detection of Cu(2+) could be performed with AB-AgNCs in the presence of other ions, including 13 kinds of conventional metal ions and 11 kinds of anions. Based on the above experiment, the developed AB-AgNC probe was successfully further applied to detect Cu(2+) in three electroplating effluents, which showed high accuracy. Graphical abstract The process of synthesised silver nanoclusters and the application for Cu(2+) detection. PMID:26873219

  8. Synthesis and in vitro antiproliferative activity of amido and amino analogues of the marine alkaloid isogranulatimide.

    PubMed

    Lavrard, Hubert; Salvetti, Béatrice; Mathieu, Véronique; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Kiss, Robert; Delfourne, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Marine organisms have proven to be a promising source of new compounds with activity against tumor cell lines. Granulatimide and isogranulatimide are marine alkaloids that have been shown to inhibit checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a key protein in the DNA damage response and an emerging target for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we describe the synthesis and preliminary evaluation of amido and amino analogues of isogranulatimide. The new derivatives were prepared in three steps from 2-imidazol-1-yl-1H-indol-5-ylamine. Two of the compounds synthesized exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity (single-digit micromolar concentration range), by at least one log of magnitude, than the natural product isogranulatimide when evaluated in six human tumor cell lines: non-small-cell lung cancer (A549), colon cancer (LoVo), breast cancer (MCF7), oligodendroglioma (Hs683), glioblastoma (U373), and melanoma (SKMEL28). The mechanism of action of these derivatives remains to be elucidated, given that they did not significantly inhibit Chk1, however these compounds are easily synthesized and exhibit potent anticancer activity and are thus worthy of further study. PMID:25735892

  9. Guanidinylated bioresponsive poly(amido amine)s designed for intranuclear gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiankun; Zhang, Jinmin; Xing, Haonan; Yang, Zhen; Cai, Cuifang; Zhang, Conglu; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Wei, Minjie; Yang, Li; Ding, Pingtian

    2016-01-01

    Guanidinylated poly(amido amine)s with multiple disulfide linkages (Gua-SS-PAAs) were designed and constructed as nonviral gene carriers. The main chains of these novel carriers were synthesized based on monomers containing guanidino groups (guanidine hydrochloride and chlorhexidine), which could avoid complicated side-chain-modification reactions while introducing the guanidino groups. The synthesized Gua-SS-PAAs polymers were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, molecular weight, and polydispersity. Furthermore, Gua-SS-PAAs polymers were complexed with pDNA, and the properties of the complexes were determined, including entrapment efficiency, particle size, ζ-potential, atomic force microscopy images, stability, DNA complexation ability, reduction sensitivity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. The new Gua-SS-PAAs carriers exhibited higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity compared with two widely used gene delivery carriers, polyethylenimine and lipofectamine 2000. Furthermore, the relationship between the side-chain structure and morphological/biological properties was extrapolated, and the results showed that guanidine in the side chain aids in the improvement of transfection efficiency. In addition, the introduction of guanidino group might confer the new carriers with nuclear localization function compared to carriers without it. PMID:27574429

  10. Unifying Evaluation of the Technical Performances of Iron-Tetra-amido Macrocyclic Ligand Oxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    DeNardo, Matthew A; Mills, Matthew R; Ryabov, Alexander D; Collins, Terrence J

    2016-03-01

    The main features of iron-tetra-amido macrocyclic ligand complex (a sub-branch of TAML) catalysis of peroxide oxidations are rationalized by a two-step mechanism: Fe(III) + H2O2 → Active catalyst (Ac) (kI), and Ac + Substrate (S) → Fe(III) + Product (kII). TAML activators also undergo inactivation under catalytic conditions: Ac → Inactive catalyst (ki). The recently developed relationship, ln(S0/S∞) = (kII/ki)[Fe(III)]tot, where S0 and S∞ are [S] at time t = 0 and ∞, respectively, gives access to ki under any conditions. Analysis of the rate constants kI, kII, and ki at the environmentally significant pH of 7 for a broad series of TAML activators has revealed a 6 orders of magnitude reactivity differential in both kII and ki and 3 orders differential in kI. Linear free energy relationships linking kII with ki and kI reveal that the reactivity toward substrates is related to the instability of the active TAML intermediates and suggest that the reactivity in all three processes derives from a common electronic origin. The reactivities of TAML activators and the horseradish peroxidase enzyme are critically compared. PMID:26886296

  11. Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioether Amido Sulfonate (Lodyne) in AFFF-Amended Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Houtz, Erika F; Yi, Shan; Field, Jennifer A; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (FtTAoS) were characterized by determining the fate of the compounds in soil and medium microcosms amended with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) solution. The biotransformation of FtTAoS occurred in live microcosms over approximately 40 days and produced 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FtS), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FtUCA), 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FtCA), and C4 to C8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Two biotransformation products corresponding to singly and doubly oxygenated forms of 6:2 FtTAoS were also identified through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and liquid chromatography tandem-MS. An oxidative assay was used to indirectly quantify the total concentration of polyfluorinated compounds and check the mass balance. The assay produced near complete mass recovery of FtTAoS after biotransformation, with 10% (mol/mol) of the amended FtTAoS accounted for in FtS, FtCA, and PFCA products. The transformation rates of identified products appear to be slow relative to FtTAoS, indicating that some intermediates may persist in the environment. This study confirms some of the sources of FtS and PFCAs in groundwater and soil at AFFF-impacted sites and suggests that fluorinated intermediates that are not routinely measured during the biotransformation of PFASs may accumulate. PMID:26042823

  12. Preparation of polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of chitosan and poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) for doxorubicin release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jie; Ni, Caihua; Zhang, Yanan; Shi, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) was prepared using a polymer-monomer pair reaction system. Chitosan was mixed with 2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (AMPS) in an aqueous solution, followed by polymerization of AMPS. The complex was formed by electrostatic interaction of NH3(+) groups of CS and SO3(-) groups of AMPS, leading to a formation of complex nanoparticles of CS-PAMPS. A series of nanoparticles were obtained by changing the weight ratio of CS to AMPS, the structure and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. It was observed that the nanoparticles possessed spherical morphologies with average diameters from 255 nm to 390 nm varied with compositions of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were used as drug vehicles for doxorubicin, displaying relative high drug loading rate and encapsulation rate. The vitro release profiles revealed that the drug release could be controlled by adjusting pH of the release media. The nanoparticles demonstrated apparent advantages such as simple preparation process, free of organic solvents, size controllable, good biodegradability and biocompatibility, and they could be potentially used in drug controlled release field. PMID:26478364

  13. Adsorption of Amido Black 10B from aqueous solutions onto Zr (IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lujie; Hu, Pan; Wang, Jing; Huang, Ruihua

    2016-04-01

    Zr(IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was synthesized by immersing cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite in zirconium oxychloride solution, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy techniques. The adsorption of an anionic dye, Amido Black 10B, from aqueous solution by Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was investigated as a function of loading amount of Zr(IV), adsorbent dosage, pH value of initial dye solution, and ionic strength. The removal of Amido Black 10B increased with an increase in loading amount of Zr(IV) and adsorbent dosage, but decreased with an increase in pH or ionic strength. The adsorption of AB10B onto Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite was favored at lower pH values and higher temperatures. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted well with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data and the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 418.4 mg/g at natural pH value and 298 K. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well described the adsorption process of Amido Black 10B onto Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite. The possible mechanisms controlling Amido Black 10B adsorption included hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions.

  14. Multilayered thin films from poly(amido amine)s and DNA.

    PubMed

    Hujaya, Sry D; Engbersen, Johan F J; Paulusse, Jos M J

    2015-08-01

    Dip-coated multilayered thin films of poly(amido amine)s (PAAs) and DNA have been developed to provide surfaces with cell-transfecting capabilities. Three types of PAAs, differing in side chain functional groups, were synthesized and characterized for their properties in forming multilayered structures with ultrasonicated calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) as model DNA. All three polymers display a multilayer build-up in linear profiles as demonstrated by UV spectroscopy. More highly charged side chains were found to provide the lowest deposition of DNA. Surface profiles of the obtained films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and static water contact angle measurements to reveal complete surface coverage after at least four layer pair depositions, where alternating patterns of surface profiles were observed depending on whether the cationic polymer or the anionic DNA layer was on top. The stability of the formed surfaces was investigated in vitro under physiological and reductive conditions. Owing to the presence of disulfide bonds in the PAA main chain, the films were readily degraded in the presence of 1mM of DTT in vitro. Under non-reductive physiological conditions, two of the thicker films underwent thermodynamic rearrangement, which resulted in release of approximately half of the incorporated material within 1h, which was caused by the physiological salt concentration. Further, this unpacking phenomenon proved useful in transfecting COS-7 cells seeded on top of these multilayers containing functional plasmid DNA encoding for green fluorescence protein (GFP). Two out of the three different multilayers facilitated good COS-7 cell attachment, proliferation, and transfection in vitro within 2d ays of culture. Fluorescence staining further revealed the presence of DNA-containing released film material among cultured cells. The present work demonstrates the possibility of coating surfaces with thin films that are conveniently adjustable in thickness and

  15. Simplifying metal-'ate' chemistry: formation and comprehensive characterisation of a homo-metallic amido lithiate complex.

    PubMed

    Greer, Jamie A; Blair, Victoria L; Thompson, Christopher D; Andrews, Philip C

    2016-07-01

    Addition of TMEDA to lithium allyl-1-naphthylamide in a 1 : 1 ratio afforded the novel amido lithium/lithiate complex, [Li(TMEDA)2][Li{N(1-naph)(CH2CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)}2]. (7)Li NMR and computational calculations indicate this model to be representative of the solution state, with (1)H and (13)C NMR showing a 1,3-sigmatropic rearrangement. [Li{N(1-naph)(CH2CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)}·Et2O]2, and [Li{N(1-naph) (CH2CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)}·PMDETA] , are presented for comparison. PMID:27327036

  16. Tidbits for the synthesis of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) polystyrene resin, SEA peptides and peptide thioesters.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Nathalie; Raibaut, Laurent; Blanpain, Annick; Desmet, Rémi; Dheur, Julien; Mhidia, Reda; Boll, Emmanuelle; Drobecq, Hervé; Pira, Silvain L; Melnyk, Oleg

    2014-02-01

    Protein total chemical synthesis enables the atom-by-atom control of the protein structure and therefore has a great potential for studying protein function. Native chemical ligation of C-terminal peptide thioesters with N-terminal cysteinyl peptides and related methodologies are central to the field of protein total synthesis. Consequently, methods enabling the facile synthesis of peptide thioesters using Fmoc-SPPS are of great value. Herein, we provide a detailed protocol for the preparation of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amino polystyrene resin as a starting point for the synthesis of C-terminal bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido peptides and of peptide thioesters derived from 3-mercaptopropionic acid. PMID:24254655

  17. Investigation on the reactivity of α-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids: Formation of α-amido-1,3-diketones and highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles

    PubMed Central

    Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Mariappan, Arumugam; Suresh, Rajendran; Manivannan, Periasamy

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reaction of α-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids has been investigated resulting in the formation of α-amido-1,3-diketones under microwave irradiation via in situ formation of 2H-azirine intermediates. An interesting reaction is described wherein, with trifluoroacetic acid at lower temperature, it affords highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles. These flexible transformations proceed under solvent free conditions in good to excellent yields without any catalyst. PMID:26664623

  18. Investigation on the reactivity of α-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids: Formation of α-amido-1,3-diketones and highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles.

    PubMed

    Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Mariappan, Arumugam; Suresh, Rajendran; Manivannan, Periasamy; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of α-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids has been investigated resulting in the formation of α-amido-1,3-diketones under microwave irradiation via in situ formation of 2H-azirine intermediates. An interesting reaction is described wherein, with trifluoroacetic acid at lower temperature, it affords highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles. These flexible transformations proceed under solvent free conditions in good to excellent yields without any catalyst. PMID:26664623

  19. Reducible poly(amido ethylenimine)-based gene delivery system for improved nucleus trafficking of plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Sun Hwa; Christensen, Lane V.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2010-01-01

    In a non-viral gene delivery system, localization of a plasmid DNA in the nucleus is a prerequisite for expression of a desired therapeutic protein encoded in the plasmid DNA. In this study, a reducible polymer-based gene delivery system for improved intracellular trafficking and nuclear translocation of plasmid DNA is introduced. The system is consisted of two components, a plasmid DNA having repeated biding sequence for a karyophilic protein, NFκB, and a reducible polymer. A reducible poly(amido ethylenimine), poly(TETA-CBA), was synthesized by a Michael-type addition polymerization between cystamine bisacrylamide and triethyl tetramine. The polymer forming tight complexes with plasmid DNA could be degraded in the reductive cytosol to release the plasmid DNA. The triggered release mechanism in the cytosol could facilitate the interaction between cytosolic NFκB and the plasmid DNA having repeated NFκB biding motif. Upon activation of NFκB by interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the most of plasmid distributed in the cytoplasm was localized within the nucleus, resulting in significantly higher gene transfection efficiency than controls with non-degradable PEI. The current study suggests an alternative way of improving transfection efficiency by taking advantage of endogenous transport machinery for intracellular trafficking and nuclear translocation of a plasmid DNA. PMID:20078099

  20. Piano-Stool Lutetium Amido and Imido Compounds Supported by a Constrained Bis(oxazoline)cyclopentadienyl Ligand.

    PubMed

    Lampland, Nicole L; Zhu, Jing; Hovey, Megan; Jana, Barun; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D

    2015-07-20

    {Bo(M)Cp(tet)}Lu(CH2Ph)2 (1; Bo(M)Cp(tet) = MeC(Ox(Me2))2C5Me4; Ox(Me2) = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline) was prepared in 95% yield from the reaction of Bo(M)Cp(tet)H and Lu(CH2Ph)3THF3. Compound 1 reacts with 1 or 2 equiv of H2NCH2R (R = C6H5, 1-C10H7) to give the corresponding imido complexes [{Bo(M)Cp(tet)}LuNCH2R]2 (R = C6H5 (2a), 1-C10H7 (2b)) or amido complexes {Bo(M)Cp(tet)}Lu(NHCH2R)2 (R = C6H5 (3a), 1-C10H7 (3b)). Once isolated, the imido species are insoluble in nonprotic organic solvents. Crystallographic characterization reveals dimeric [{Bo(M)Cp(tet)}LuNCH2(1-C10H7)]2 in the solid state. The reaction of 1 and NH3B(C6F5)3 affords crystallographically characterized {Bo(M)Cp(tet)}Lu{NHB(C6F5)2}C6F5. This species is proposed to form via a transient lutetium imido, which undergoes C6F5 migration to the lutetium center. PMID:26110352

  1. Combined Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Experimental Studies of the Structure and Dynamics of Poly-Amido-Saccharides.

    PubMed

    Chin, Stacy L; Lu, Qing; Dane, Eric L; Dominguez, Laura; McKnight, Christopher J; Straub, John E; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-05-25

    Poly-amido-saccharides (PAS) are carbohydrate-based, enantiopure synthetic polymers in which sugar repeat units are joined by amide linkages. This unique and relatively rigid pyranose backbone contributes to their defined helical secondary structure and remarkable chemical properties. Glucose- (glc-) and galactose- (gal-) PAS 10-mer structures are synthesized and investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental measurements. Quantum mechanical DFT energy minimization calculations, as well as experimental observables including circular dichroism, (1)H,(13)C-HSQC, and (1)H,(1)H-NOESY 2D-NMR studies, validated the all-atom simulation models produced using a modified CHARMM force field. Water radial distribution functions show distinct differences in the glc- and gal-PAS systems that correlate well with observed differences in solubility between gal-PASs and glc-PASs. The computational analysis and MD simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the proposed models as reliable representations of novel glc- and gal-PASs. PMID:27119983

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of a Poly(amido amine) Modified Magnetic Nanocarrier for Controlled Delivery of Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Wu, Juan; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Renbing

    2016-02-01

    We prepared a magnetic poly(amido amine) (G2.5)-hydrazine hydrate nanocarrier, denoted by MNPs@PAMAM-H. PAMAM dendrimer was conjugated onto the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to increase the biocompatibility of the nanocarrier and provided a large number of reactive sites for coupling of drug molecules. DOX was covalently attached to the nanocarrier via a pH-sensitive linker, hydrazone bond, which hydrolyzes in the acidic lysosomal environment to allow pH-sensitive release of DOX. DOX was successfully loaded into the nanocarrier with a high drug loading (27.53%) and entrapment efficiency (86.44%). Nearly 88% DOX was released within 60 h at pH 5.0, compared with only 30% at pH 7.4. The in vitro MTT assay in HeLa cells demonstrated that MNPs@PAMAM-DOX exhibited high anti-tumor activity, while the MNPs@PAMAM-H were practically non-toxic. These results revealed that MNPs@ PAMAM-H were biocompatible. The Synthesized nanocarrier had the potential to be used as MR probe and guide DOX to enter target sites in cancer therapy by an outer magnet. PMID:27433587

  3. Piano-stool lutetium amido and imido compounds supported by a constrained bis(oxazoline)cyclopentadienyl ligand

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lampland, Nicole L.; Zhu, Jing; Hovey, Megan; Jana, Barun; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-06-25

    {BoMCptet}Lu(CH2Ph)2 (1; BoMCptet = MeC(OxMe2 2C5Me4; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline) was prepared in 95% yield from the reaction of BoMCptetH and Lu(CH2Ph)3THF3. Compound 1 reacts with 1 or 2 equiv of H2NCH2R (R = C6H5, 1-C10H7) to give the corresponding imido complexes [{BoMCptet}LuNCH2R]2 (R = C6H5 (2a), 1-C10H7 (2b)) or amido complexes {BoMCptet}Lu(NHCH2R)2 (R = C6H5 (3a), 1-C10H7 (3b)). When isolated, the imido species are insoluble in nonprotic organic solvents. Crystallographic characterization reveals dimeric [{BoMCptet}LuNCH2(1-C10H7)]2 in the solid state. The reaction of 1 and NH3B(C6F5)3 affords crystallographically characterized {BoMCptet}Lu{NHB(C6F5)2}C6F5. This species is proposed to form via a transient lutetium imido, whichmore » undergoes C6F5 migration to the lutetium center.« less

  4. BF3-Etherate-Promoted Cascade Reaction of 2-Alkynylanilines with Nitriles: One-Pot Assembly of 4-Amido-Cinnolines.

    PubMed

    Senadi, Gopal Chandru; Gore, Babasaheb Sopan; Hu, Wan-Ping; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2016-06-17

    A BF3-etherate-promoted cascade reaction of nitriles with 2-alkynylanilines is described. This method achieves the formation of two new C-N bonds through a reaction sequence of diazotization with t-BuONO, nucleophilic addition of the alkyne to the BF3-coordinated diazonium ion, followed by nitrile addition to the intermediary vinyl cation and hydrolysis. The method provides efficient and general access to a variety of 4-amido-cinnolines. Notable features of the method include its broad functional group tolerance and avoidance of transition metals. PMID:27266479

  5. 3-Amido pyrrolopyrazine JAK kinase inhibitors: development of a JAK3 vs JAK1 selective inhibitor and evaluation in cellular and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Soth, Michael; Hermann, Johannes C; Yee, Calvin; Alam, Muzaffar; Barnett, Jim W; Berry, Pamela; Browner, Michelle F; Frank, Karl; Frauchiger, Sandra; Harris, Seth; He, Yang; Hekmat-Nejad, Mohammad; Hendricks, Than; Henningsen, Robert; Hilgenkamp, Ramona; Ho, Hoangdung; Hoffman, Ann; Hsu, Pei-Yuan; Hu, Dong-Qing; Itano, Andrea; Jaime-Figueroa, Saul; Jahangir, Alam; Jin, Sue; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Kutach, Alan K; Liao, Cheng; Lynch, Stephen; Menke, John; Niu, Linghao; Patel, Vaishali; Railkar, Aruna; Roy, Douglas; Shao, Ada; Shaw, David; Steiner, Sandra; Sun, Yongliang; Tan, Seng-Lai; Wang, Sandra; Vu, Minh Diem

    2013-01-10

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) are involved in multiple signaling networks relevant to inflammatory diseases, and inhibition of one or more members of this class may modulate disease activity or progression. We optimized a new inhibitor scaffold, 3-amido-5-cyclopropylpyrrolopyrazines, to a potent example with reasonable kinome selectivity, including selectivity for JAK3 versus JAK1, and good biopharmaceutical properties. Evaluation of this analogue in cellular and in vivo models confirmed functional selectivity for modulation of a JAK3/JAK1-dependent IL-2 stimulated pathway over a JAK1/JAK2/Tyk2-dependent IL-6 stimulated pathway. PMID:23214979

  6. A chromatographic estimate of the degree of surface heterogeneity of RPLC packing materials. III. Endcapped amido-embedded reversed phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-01-01

    The difference in adsorption behavior between a conventional monomeric endcapped C{sub 18} stationary phase (3.43 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}) and an endcapped polymeric RP-Amide phase (3.31 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}) was investigated. The adsorption isotherms of four compounds (phenol, caffeine, sodium 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and propranololium chloride) were measured by frontal analysis (FA) and the degree of heterogeneity of each phase for each solute was characterized by their adsorption energy distributions (AED), derived using the Expectation-Maximization method. The results show that only certain analytes (phenol and 2-naphthalene sulfonate) are sensitive to the presence of the polar embedded amide groups within the RP phase. Their binding constants on the amide-bonded phase are significantly higher than on conventional RPLC phases. Furthermore, an additional type of adsorption sites was observed for these two compounds. However, these sites having a low density, their presence does not affect much the retention factors of the two analytes. On the other hand, the adsorption behavior of the other two analytes (caffeine and propranololium chloride) is almost unaffected by the presence of the amide group in the bonded layer. Strong selective interactions may explain these observations. For example, hydrogen-bond interactions between an analyte (e.g., phenol or naphthalene sulfonate) and the carbonyl group (acceptor) or the nitrogen (donor) of the amido-embedded group may take place. No such interactions may take place with either caffeine or the cation propranololium chloride. This study confirms the hypothesis that analytes have ready access to locations deep inside the bonded layer, where the amide groups are present.

  7. Design, synthesis, in-vitro antiproliferative activity and kinase profile of new picolinamide based 2-amido and ureido quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    El-Damasy, Ashraf Kareem; Seo, Seon Hee; Cho, Nam-Chul; Kang, Soon Bang; Pae, Ae Nim; Kim, Key-Sun; Keum, Gyochang

    2015-08-28

    New 2-amido and ureido quinoline derivatives substituted with 2-N-methylamido-pyridin-4-yloxy group at the 5-position of quinoline (18 final compounds) have been designed and synthesized as anticancer sorafenib congeners. Among the synthesized derivatives, fourteen compounds were selected for evaluation of their antiproliferative activity over a panel of 60 cancer cell lines at a single dose concentration of 10 μM at National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). Four compounds, 9b-d and 9f showed promising mean growth inhibitions and thus were further tested at five-dose testing mode to determine their IC50 values. The data revealed that 2,4-difluorophenyl (9b) and 4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl (9d) urea compounds are the most active derivatives with significant efficacies and superior potencies than sorafenib in 36 and 12 cancer cell lines, respectively, belonging particularly to renal carcinoma cell (RCC), ovarian, and non small cell lung cancer (NSCL). Compound 9b and 9d were found to be six and two times more potent than sorafenib against A498 RCC line, with IC50 values of 0.42 μM and 1.36 μM, respectively. Accordingly, compound 9d was screened over a panel of 41 oncogenic kinases at a single dose concentration of 10 μM to profile its kinase inhibitory activity. Interestingly, the compound showed highly selective inhibitory activities ( 81.8% and 96.3%) against BRAF(V600E) and C-RAF kinases with IC50 values of 316 nM and 61 nM, respectively. In addition, molecular docking, cell cycle analysis, compliance to Lipinski's rule of five, and in silico toxicity assessment have been reported. PMID:26218653

  8. Triazolines 26: 1-Aryl-5-amido-1,2,3-triazolines, a new group of triazoline anticonvulsants. Effect of 5-substitution on anticonvulsant activity.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, P K

    1996-01-01

    Studies in our laboratories have led to the discovery of the delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines as a unique family of anticonvulsant agents hitherto unknown. The anticonvulsant activity of 1,5-diaryl- and 1-aryl-5-pyridyltriazolines was previously reported; this paper describes the evaluation of two series of 1-aryl-5-amido-1,2,3-triazolines, A and B, where the 5-amido groups are (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidino)- (1-8) and (N-methyl-N-acetamido)- (9-15), respectively. The 1-aryl-5-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidino)-1,2,3-triazolines of the A series, which are uniquely substituted with the pyrrolidinone lactam ring, a cyclic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) structure, seem to function by enhancing inhibitory GABAergic mechanisms. Radioligand binding studies for the two most active triazolines 2 and 7, indicate that both compounds strongly inhibit the specific binding of [3H]GABA to GABAB receptor sites, with Ki = 1.7 and 0.91 microM respectively. The anticonvulsant activity among the various groups of triazolines studied so far appears to be dependent on the 5-substituent groups: 4-pyridyl- > 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidino- > N-methyl-N-acetamido- > 3-pyridyl > or = aryl approximately 2-pyridyl > 2-quinolyl. PMID:8881374

  9. Linear poly(amido amine)s with secondary and tertiary amino groups and variable amounts of disulfide linkages: synthesis and in vitro gene transfer properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Lok, Martin C; Jiang, Xulin; Hennink, Wim E; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johan F J

    2006-11-28

    A group of novel poly(amido amine) homo- and copolymers (PAAs) containing secondary and tertiary amine groups in their main chain and different structures in the bisacrylamide segments were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene delivery vectors. Among these, also the disulfide-containing cystaminebisacrylamide was employed as a (co)monomer, yielding PAAs with variable amounts of bioreducible disulfide linkages in the main chain. Michael addition the trifunctional 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine to equimolar amounts of the appropriate bis(acrylamide) yielded linear polymers as was elucidated by their (13)C NMR spectra. The polymers possess buffering capacities between pH 5.1 and pH 7.4 higher than branched polyethylenimine (pEI) and are able to efficiently condense DNA into nanosized (<150 nm) and positively charged complexes. Transfection experiments with COS-7 cells showed that polyplexes from PAAs with disulfide linkages give significant higher transfections than those from PAAs lacking the disulfide linkage, and XTT assays showed that these polymers are essentially non-toxic. Variation of the disulfide content revealed that polyplexes of PAA copolymers with appropriate disulfide content have largely improved biophysical properties, yielding enhanced levels of gene expression along with low toxicity. The results demonstrate that bioreducible poly(amido amine)s are a very promising class of polymers for safe and efficient gene delivery. PMID:17079046

  10. Piano-stool lutetium amido and imido compounds supported by a constrained bis(oxazoline)cyclopentadienyl ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Lampland, Nicole L.; Zhu, Jing; Hovey, Megan; Jana, Barun; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-06-25

    {BoMCptet}Lu(CH2Ph)2 (1; BoMCptet = MeC(OxMe2 2C5Me4; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline) was prepared in 95% yield from the reaction of BoMCptetH and Lu(CH2Ph)3THF3. Compound 1 reacts with 1 or 2 equiv of H2NCH2R (R = C6H5, 1-C10H7) to give the corresponding imido complexes [{BoMCptet}LuNCH2R]2 (R = C6H5 (2a), 1-C10H7 (2b)) or amido complexes {BoMCptet}Lu(NHCH2R)2 (R = C6H5 (3a), 1-C10H7 (3b)). When isolated, the imido species are insoluble in nonprotic organic solvents. Crystallographic characterization reveals dimeric [{BoMCptet}LuNCH2(1-C10H7)]2 in the solid state. The reaction of 1 and NH3B(C6F5)3 affords crystallographically characterized {BoMCptet}Lu{NHB(C6F5)2}C6F5. This species is proposed to form via a transient lutetium imido, which undergoes C6F5 migration to the lutetium center.

  11. Effect of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) G4 dendrimer on heart and liver mitochondria in an animal model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Labieniec, Magdalena; Ulicna, Olga; Vancova, Olga; Kucharska, Jarmila; Gabryelak, Teresa; Watala, Cezary

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes-induced injury related to hyperglycaemia is associated with impaired function of mitochondria. Regardless of their cytotoxicity, PAMAM [poly(amido)amine] G4 dendrimers lower plasma glucose and suppress long-term markers of diabetic hyperglycaemia in experimental diabetes. In the present study, we aimed at verifying whether such modulatory effects of PAMAM G4 (0.5 micromol/kg of body weight daily for 60 days) may contribute to improved respiration in heart and liver mitochondria from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. PAMAM G4 alleviated long-term markers of hyperglycaemia and reduced blood and tissue lipophilic antioxidants in diabetic animals, but did not restore mitochondrial function. In hearts, but not livers, dendrimers further reduced respiratory function and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus ameliorating effects of PAMAM G4 on glycation and glycoxidation in experimental diabetes are not sufficient to restore the impaired mitochondrial function in diabetes. PMID:19947941

  12. Crystal structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido-κN)­bis­(di­methyl­amine-κN)­zirconium(IV) iodide

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Wesley D.; Akurathi, Gopalakrishna; Valle, Henry U.; Hollis, T. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium amides have become increasingly popular and useful due to their widespread use as precursors to other zirconium complexes and their use in the production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Herein we report the mol­ecular structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido)­bis­(di­methyl­amine)­zirconium(IV) iodide, [Zr(C2H6N)3(C2H7N)2]I. The bond lengths and bond angles are consistent with a slightly distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry around the metal atom. N⋯I contacts of 3.6153 (15) and 3.5922 (14) Å are consistent with the presence of N—H⋯I inter­actions. These N—H⋯I inter­actions link the complex cations and iodide anions into extended chains that propagate parallel to the a axis. PMID:26870590

  13. Bis[μ-N-(tert-butyl­dimethyl­silyl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)amido]­bis­[methyl­cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Malassa, Astrid; Agthe, Christine; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The green title complex, [Co2(CH3)2(C12H21N2Si)2], was obtained from bis­{[μ-N-tert-butyl­dimethyl­silyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)amido]­chloridocobalt(II)} and methyl­lithium in diethyl ether at 195 K via a metathesis reaction. The dimeric cobalt(II) complex exhibits a crystallographic center of inversion in the middle of the Co2N2 ring (average Co—N = 2.050 Å). The CoII atom shows a distorted tetra­hedral coordination sphere. The exocyclic Co—N bond length to the pyridyl group shows a similar value of 2.045 (4) Å. The exocyclic methyl group has a rather long Co—C bond length of 2.019 (5) Å. PMID:22969464

  14. Body Size Versus Depth: Regional and Taxonomical Variation in Deep-Sea Meio- and Macrofaunal Organisms.

    PubMed

    van der Grient, Jesse M A; Rogers, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Body size (weight per individual) is an important concept in ecology. It has been studied in the deep sea where a decrease in size with increasing depth has often been found. This has been explained as an adaptation to food limitation where size reduction results in a lowered metabolic rate and a decreased energetic requirement. However, observations vary, with some studies showing an increase in size with depth, and some finding no depth correlation at all. Here, we collected data from peer-reviewed studies on macro- and meiofaunal abundance and biomass, creating two datasets allowing statistical comparison of factors expected to influence body size in meio- and macrofaunal organisms. Our analyses examined the influence of region, taxonomic group and sampling method on the body size of meiofauna and macrofauna in the deep sea with increasing depth, and the resulting models are presented. At the global scale, meio- and macrofaunal communities show a decrease in body size with increasing depth as expected with the food limitation hypothesis. However, at the regional scale there were differences in trends of body size with depth, either showing a decrease (e.g. southwest Pacific Ocean; meio- and macrofauna) or increase (e.g. Gulf of Mexico; meiofauna only) compared to a global mean. Taxonomic groups also showed differences in body size trends compared to total community average (e.g. Crustacea and Bivalvia). Care must be taken when conducting these studies, as our analyses indicated that sampling method exerts a significant influence on research results. It is possible that differences in physiology, lifestyle and life history characteristics result in different responses to an increase in depth and/or decrease in food availability. This will have implications in the future as food supply to the deep sea changes as a result of climate change (e.g. increased ocean stratification at low to mid latitudes and reduced sea ice duration at high latitudes). PMID:26320616

  15. Carbohydrate-interactive pDNA and siRNA gene vectors based on boronic acid functionalized poly(amido amine)s.

    PubMed

    Piest, Martin; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J

    2013-08-10

    In order to evaluate the influence of incorporation of boronic acid groups on the properties of poly(amido amine)s as gene vectors, a novel poly(amido amine) copolymer p(CBA-ABOL/2AMPBA) containing ortho-aminomethylphenylboronic acid (2AMPBA) moieties was prepared by Michael-type polyaddition of a mixture of 1,4-aminobutanol (ABOL) and 2-((4-aminobutylamino)methyl)phenyl boronic acid to N,N'-cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA). It appeared that the presence of the boronic acid moieties as side groups along the polymer chain strongly enhances the stability of the self-assembled nanoparticles and nanosized polyplexes formed from this polymer; no aggregation was observed after storage for 6days at 37°C. This strong stabilization can be attributed to intermolecular Lewis acid-base interactions between the 2AMPBA groups and the alcohol and amine groups present in the polymer, leading to dynamical (reversible) crosslinking in the nanoparticles. Moreover, since the boronic acids can reversibly form boronic esters with vicinal diol groups, the presence of the 2AMPBA groups add carbohydrate-interactive properties to these polymers that strongly influence their behavior as gene delivery vectors. DNA transfection with p(CBA-ABOL/2AMPBA) polyplexes gave transfection efficiencies that were approximately similar to commercial PEI in different cell lines (COS-7, HUH-6 and H1299-Fluc), but lower than those obtained with reference polyplexes from p(CBA-ABOL). It is hypothesized that the uptake of the boronated polyplexes is suppressed by binding to the glycocalyx of the cells. This is supported by the observation that addition of sorbitol or dextran to the transfection medium significantly enhances the transfection efficiency, which can be attributed to increased cellular uptake of the polyplexes due to boronic ester formation with these agents. AFM, SEM and confocal microscopy showed that polyplexes of p(CBA-ABOL/2AMPBA) become decorated with a dextran layer in the presence of 0.9% (w

  16. Cobalt(II) amido complexes derived from a monodentate arylamido ligand featuring a highly electron-withdrawing C6F5 substituent.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuang; Tam, Dennis Yiu Sun; Cheung, Pak Shing; Lam, Chi-Keung; Guo, Pei; Lam, Sik Lok; Lee, Hung Kay

    2015-11-01

    A series of cobalt(ii) complexes of a highly electron-withdrawing amido ligand, [N(C6F5)(C6H3Pr(i)2-2,6)](-) (L), were synthesized and structurally characterized. Mononuclear [CoL(Cl)(TMEDA)] (3) and heterobimetallic [CoL2(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3] (4) were obtained by direct metathetical reactions of anhydrous CoCl2 with one molar equivalent of [LiL(TMEDA)] (1) (TMEDA = Me2NCH2CH2NMe2) and [LiL(THF)3] (2), respectively. Complex 3 underwent facile ligand substitution reactions with LiMe and NaN3, yielding the corresponding mixed-ligand complexes [CoL(X)(TMEDA)] (X = Me 5, N36). Treatment of 3 with NaOMe led to the heterobimetallic complex [CoL2(μ-OMe)Na(TMEDA)] (7). The solid-state structures of complexes 1-7 were established by X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:26418474

  17. Amido/ureidosubstituted benzenesulfonamides-isatin conjugates as low nanomolar/subnanomolar inhibitors of the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoform XII.

    PubMed

    Eldehna, Wagdy M; Fares, Mohamed; Ceruso, Mariangela; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Abou El Ella, Dalal A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-03-01

    By using a molecular hybridization approach, two series of amido/ureidosubstituted benzenesulfonamides incorporating substituted-isatin moieties were synthesized. The prepared derivatives were in vitro evaluated for their inhibitory activity against human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) I, II (cytosolic) and IX, XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated) isoforms. All these isoforms were inhibited in variable degrees by the sulfonamides reported here. hCA I was inhibited with KIs in the range of 7.9-894 nM, hCA II in the range of 7.5-1645 nM (with one compound having a KI > 10 μM); hCA IX in the range of 5.0-240 nM, whereas hCA XII in the range of 0.47-2.83 nM. As all these isoforms are involved in various pathologies, in which their inhibition can be exploited therapeutically, the derivatives reported here may represent interesting extensions to the field of CA inhibitors of the sulfonamide type. PMID:26840366

  18. Atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} from tetrakis-dimethyl-amido titanium or Ti isopropoxide precursors and H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Qi; Jiang Yulong; Detavernier, Christophe; Deduytsche, Davy; Van Meirhaeghe, Roland L.; Ru Guoping; Li Bingzong; Qu Xinping

    2007-10-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} thin films using Ti isopropoxide and tetrakis-dimethyl-amido titanium (TDMAT) as two kinds of Ti precursors and water as another reactant was investigated. TiO{sub 2} films with high purity can be grown in a self-limited ALD growth mode by using either Ti isopropoxide or TDMAT as Ti precursors. Different growth behaviors as a function of deposition temperature were observed. A typical growth rate curve-increased growth rate per cycle (GPC) with increasing temperatures was observed for the TiO{sub 2} film deposited by Ti isopropoxide and H{sub 2}O, while surprisingly high GPC was observed at low temperatures for the TiO{sub 2} film deposited by TDMAT and H{sub 2}O. An energetic model was proposed to explain the different growth behaviors with different precursors. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation was made. The GPC in the low temperature region is determined by the reaction energy barrier. From the experimental results and DFT calculation, we found that the intermediate product stability after the ligand exchange is determined by the desorption behavior, which has a huge effect on the width of the ALD process window.

  19. Synthesis of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives were prepared through multistep synthesis. The key step in the synthesis was to obtain the C-7 fatty amide derivative. The azide was selectively formed at C-7 position using sodium azide at 60°C. Subsequently, the azide was reduced under mild conditions using zinc and ammonium chloride to form the corresponding amine. The synthesized derivatives were further subjected to biological evaluation studies like cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines such as DU145, A549, SKOV3, MCF7 and normal lung cells, IMR-90 as well as with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the carboxylated quinolone derivatives with hexanoic (8a), octanoic (8b), lauric (8d) and myristic (8e) moieties exhibited promising cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines. The results also suggested that hexanoic acid-based fatty amide carboxylated quinolone derivative (8a) exhibited promising activity against both bacterial and fungal strains and significant antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (MIC value of 3.9μg/mL). The compound 8a also showed excellent anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 with MIC values of 2.1 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26646219

  20. Bioreducible-Cationic Poly(amido amine)s for Enhanced Gene Delivery and Osteogenic Differentiation of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hansaem; Lee, Eun-Seo; Jung, Giyoung; Park, Jungha; Jeong, Byeongmoon; Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-05-01

    The development of efficient and safe gene delivery carriers has been a major challenge in the clinical application of non-viral gene therapy. Herein, we report novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for the efficient delivery of genetic material such as plasmid DNA. A library of 34 different bioreducible polymer compounds was synthesized and screened to find lead materials for in vitro gene transfection. Our lead material (CBA-106) allows effortless polyplex formation with genetic materials by electrostatic interactions at the weight ratio of 1:5 (DNA/polymer). Polyplexes were further characterized by DLS and AFM analysis. Enhanced serum stability and bioreducibility under physiological conditions were confirmed, in addition to low cellular cytotoxicity. When compared with a commercially available gene delivery carrier (Lipofectamine 2000), CBA-1 06 shows comparable or even surpassing gene transfection efficiency. Furthermore, BMP-2 plasmids were efficiently delivered to tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) for osteogenic commitment in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate the potential of novel bioreducible polymeric systems for gene delivery applications. We suggest that our system can provide a valuable platform for the broad application of gene regulation in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:27305823

  1. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R.; Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S.

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300 °C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M = Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200 °C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18 nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  2. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  3. The Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulator OsNPR1 Attenuates Growth by Repressing Auxin Signaling through Promoting IAA-Amido Synthase Expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaozun; Yang, Dong-Lei; Sun, Li; Li, Qun; Mao, Bizeng; He, Zuhua

    2016-09-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance to pathogens. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (OsNPR1), a master gene for systemic acquired resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), greatly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae However, the growth and development of the OsNPR1 overexpression (OsNPR1-OX) plants were restrained, and the mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we dissected the OsNPR1-induced growth inhibition. We found that the OsNPR1-OX lines displayed phenotypes mimicking auxin-defective mutants, with decreases in root system, seed number and weight, internode elongation, and tiller number. Whole-genome expression analysis revealed that genes related to the auxin metabolism and signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the OsNPR1-OX and wild-type plants. Consistently, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was decreased and the auxin distribution pattern was altered in OsNPR1-OX plants. Importantly, we found that some GH3 family members, in particular OsGH3.8 coding IAA-amido synthetase, were constitutively up-regulated in OsNPR1-OX plants. Decreased OsGH3.8 expression by RNA interference could partially restore IAA level and largely rescue the restrained growth and development phenotypes but did not affect the disease resistance of OsNPR1-OX plants. Taken together, we revealed that OsNPR1 affects rice growth and development by disrupting the auxin pathway at least partially through indirectly up-regulating OsGH3.8 expression. PMID:27378815

  4. Astronomia cultural e meio ambiente segundo uma abordagem holística

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho ampliamos a discussão da abordagem holística para o ensino de astronomia que temos desenvolvido nos últimos anos, analisamos novos resultados e apresentamos exemplos práticos para interessados em experimentá-la. A constatação básica a orientar este enfoque é que cursos introdutórios em astronomia costumam ser excessiva e prematuramente técnicos, além de assumirem uma visão tradicional, muito estreita, do que seja educação científica, herdada da era cartesiana e positivista da ciência. Fundamentamos porque é importante que elementos de astronomia cultural ofereçam o mote e constituam o eixo norteador daqueles cursos e porque é urgente revermos a visão que temos da relação entre astronomia e meio ambiente. Um ponto central nesta abordagem é explorar formas de reativar e atualizar uma relação orgânica com o meio e excitar a consciência de nossa inevitável e profunda interdependência com ele em nível cósmico. Neste trabalho exemplificamos a possibilidade de concretização desta proposta em três diferentes situações: disciplinas de cursos de licenciatura em geografia e em física; escolas de nível fundamental; e, neste caso ainda a ser implementada, comunidades carentes. Estes casos envolvem públicos e espaços diferenciados para educação formal e não-formal. Dos casos já implementados, destacamos os resultados alcançados pelos alunos: enriquecimento cultural, aprendizagem significativa de conteúdos astronômicos tradicionais; mudanças de comportamento, incorporando contato diário com o céu; e freqüentes vivências de sentimentos empáticos que redirecionam a relação com a natureza e a consciência ecológica global. Além disto, para interessados em aplicar esta proposta, também socializamos procedimentos e cuidados para a implementação de ações alternativas consonantes com a mesma. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  5. A Highly Efficient Diversification of 2-Amino/Amido-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Reagent-Based Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate on Solid-Phase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Abdildinova, Aizhan; Gong, Young-Dae

    2015-12-14

    A 2-amino/amido-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole library has been constructed on solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step on this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeleton resin by cyclization of thiosemicarbazide with EDC·HCl and p-TsCl, respectively. The resulting core skeleton undergoes functionalization reaction with various electrophiles such as alkyl halides, and acid chlorides to generate N-alkylamino and N-acylamino-1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, the 2-amino and 2-amido-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was then generated in good yields and high purities by cleavage of the respective resin under trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) in dichloromethane(DCM). The constructed library shows reasonable, oral bioavailability drug properties as determine by using the Lipinski's Rule and similar parameters. PMID:26524617

  6. CD44-Targeted Hyaluronic Acid-Coated Redox-Responsive Hyperbranched Poly(amido amine)/Plasmid DNA Ternary Nanoassemblies for Efficient Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jijin; Chen, Xinyi; Ren, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiulei; Fang, Xiaoling; Sha, Xianyi

    2016-07-20

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), which can specifically bind to CD44 receptor, is a specific ligand for targeting to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells. The current study aimed to develop ternary nanoassemblies based on HA-coating for targeted gene delivery to CD44-positive tumors. A novel reducible hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (RHB) was assembled with plasmid DNA (pDNA) to form RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies. HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies were fabricated by coating HA on the surface of the RHB/pDNA nanoassembly core through electrostatic interaction. After optimization, HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies were spherical, core-shell nanoparticles with nanosize (187.6 ± 11.4 nm) and negative charge (-9.1 ± 0.3 mV). The ternary nanoassemblies could efficiently protect the condensed pDNA from enzymatic degradation by DNase I, and HA could significantly improve the stability of nanoassemblies in the sodium heparin solution or serum in vitro. As expected, HA significantly decreased the cytotoxicity of RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies due to the negative surface charges. Moreover, it revealed that HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies showed higher transfection activity than RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies in B16F10 cells, especially in the presence of serum in vitro. Because of the active recognition between HA and CD44 receptor, there was significantly different transfection efficiency between B16F10 (CD44+) and NIH3T3 (CD44-) cells after treatment with HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies. In addition, the cellular targeting and transfection activity of HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies were further evaluated in vivo. The results indicated that the interaction between HA and CD44 receptor dramatically improved the accumulation of HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies in CD44-positive tumor, leading to higher gene expression than RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies. Therefore, HA/RHB/pDNA ternary nanoassemblies may be a potential gene vector for delivery of therapeutic genes to treat CD44-overexpressing tumors in vivo. PMID:27311558

  7. Poly(amido amine)-based multilayered thin films on 2D and 3D supports for surface-mediated cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Hujaya, Sry D; Marchioli, Giulia; Roelofs, Karin; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; Moroni, Lorenzo; Karperien, Marcel; Paulusse, Jos M J; Engbersen, Johan F J

    2015-05-10

    Two linear poly(amido amine)s, pCABOL and pCHIS, prepared by polyaddition of cystamine bisacrylamide (C) with 4-aminobutanol (ABOL) or histamine (HIS), were explored to form alternating multilayer thin films with DNA to obtain functionalized materials with transfection capacity in 2D and 3D. Therefore, COS-7 cells were cultured on top of multilayer films formed by layer-by-layer dipcoating of these polymers with GFP-encoded pDNA, and the effect of the number of layers and cell seeding density on the transfection efficiency was evaluated. Multilayer films with pCABOL were found to be superior to pCHIS in facilitating transfection, which was attributed to higher incorporation of pDNA and release of the transfection agent. High amounts of transfected cells were obtained on pCABOL films, correlating proportionally over a wide range with seeding density. Optimal transfection efficiency was obtained with pCABOL films composed of 10 bilayers. Further increase in the number of bilayers only marginally increased transfection efficiency. Using the optimal multilayer and cell seeding conditions, pCABOL multilayers were fabricated on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), heparinized PCL (PCL-HEP), and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) disks as examples of common biomedical supports. The multilayers were found to completely mask the properties of the original substrates, with significant improvement in cell adhesion, which is especially pronounced for PCL and PLA disks. With all these substrates, transfection efficiency was found to be in the range of 25-50% transfected cells. The pCABOL/pDNA multilayer films can also conveniently add transfection capability to 3D scaffolds. Significant improvement in cell adhesion was observed after multilayer coating of 3D-plotted fibers of PCL (with and without an additional covalent heparin layer), especially for the PCL scaffold without heparin layer and transfection was observed on both 3D PCL and PCL-HEP scaffolds. These results show that layer

  8. A comparative study of three ternary complexes prepared in different mixing orders of siRNA/redox-responsive hyperbranched poly (amido amine)/hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, Zhi-Xia; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Zhao, En-Yu; Gao, Ling-Yan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Wan-Liang; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel redox-responsive hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (named PCD) was synthesized and used as a cationic polymer to form a ternary complex with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) for siRNA delivery. Here, it is hypothesized that different mixing orders result in different assembly structures, which may affect the siRNA delivery efficiency. To investigate the effects of mixing orders on siRNA delivery efficiency in two human breast cancer cell lines, three ternary complexes with different mixing orders of siRNA/PCD/HA were prepared and characterized: mixing order I (initially prepared siRNA/PCD binary complex further coated by negatively charged HA), mixing order II ( initially prepared HA/PCD binary complex further incubated with siRNA), and mixing order III ( initially prepared siRNA/HA mixture further electrostatically compacted by positively charged PCD). With an optimized siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the particle sizes and zeta potentials of these ternary complexes were 124.8 nm and 27.3 mV (mixing order I), 147.5 nm and 29.9 mV (mixing order II), and 128.8 nm and 19.4 mV (mixing order III). Also, the effects on stability, cellular uptake, and gene silencing efficiency of siRNA formulated in ternary complexes with different mixing orders were investigated. The results showed that mixing orders I and III displayed better siRNA transfection and protection than mixing order II in human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. More interesting, at the siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the gene silencing effects on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in MDA-MB- 231 cells were as follows: mixing order III > mixing order I > mixing order II. Based on these results, a likely explanation for the difference in functionality dependent on mixing orders is the formation of different assembly structures. These results may help future optimization of siRNA ternary complexes for achieving better delivery

  9. Two-coordinate, quasi-two-coordinate, and distorted three coordinate, T-shaped chromium(II) amido complexes: unusual effects of coordination geometry on the lowering of ground state magnetic moments.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Jessica N; Merrill, W Alexander; Reiff, William M; Fettinger, James C; Power, Philip P

    2012-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the mononuclear chromium(II) terphenyl substituted primary amido-complexes Cr{N(H)Ar(Pr(i)(6))}(2) (Ar(Pr(i)(6)) = C(6)H(3)-2,6-(C(6)H(2)-2,4,6-(i)Pr(3))(2) (1), Cr{N(H)Ar(Pr(i)(4))}(2) (Ar(Pr(i)(4)) = C(6)H(3)-2,6-(C(6)H(3)-2,6-(i)Pr(2))(2) (2), Cr{N(H)Ar(Me(6))}(2) (Ar(Me(6)) = C(6)H(3)-2,6-(C(6)H(2)-2,4,6-Me(3))(2) (4), and the Lewis base adduct Cr{N(H)Ar(Me(6))}(2)(THF) (3) are described. Reaction of the terphenyl primary amido lithium derivatives Li{N(H)Ar(Pr(i)(6))} and Li{N(H)Ar(Pr(i)(4))} with CrCl(2)(THF)(2) in a 2:1 ratio afforded complexes 1 and 2, which are extremely rare examples of two coordinate chromium and the first stable chromium amides to have linear coordinated high-spin Cr(2+). The reaction of the less crowded terphenyl primary amido lithium salt Li{N(H)Ar(Me(6))} with CrCl(2)(THF)(2) gave the tetrahydrofuran (THF) complex 3, which has a distorted T-shaped metal coordination. Desolvation of 3 at about 70 °C gave 4 which has a formally two-coordinate chromous ion with a very strongly bent core geometry (N-Cr-N= 121.49(13)°) with secondary Cr--C(aryl ring) interactions of 2.338(4) Å to the ligand. Magnetometry studies showed that the two linear chromium species 1 and 2 have ambient temperature magnetic moments of about 4.20 μ(B) and 4.33 μ(B) which are lower than the spin-only value of 4.90 μ(B) typically observed for six coordinate Cr(2+). The bent complex 4 has a similar room temperature magnetic moment of about 4.36 μ(B). These studies suggest that the two-coordinate chromium complexes have significant spin-orbit coupling effects which lead to moments lower than the spin only value of 4.90 μ(B) because λ (the spin orbit coupling parameter) is positive. The three-coordinated complex 3 had a magnetic moment of 3.79 μ(B). PMID:22356657

  10. The amide C-N bond of isatins as the directing group and the internal oxidant in Ru-catalyzed C-H activation and annulation reactions: access to 8-amido isocoumarins.

    PubMed

    Kaishap, Partha Pratim; Sarma, Bipul; Gogoi, Sanjib

    2016-07-28

    The N-O, N-N and O-O bonds are the frequently used internally oxidative directing groups used in various redox-neutral coupling reactions. The sole use of the C-N bond as the oxidizing directing group was reported recently by Li X. and co-workers for the Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation of phenacyl ammonium salts. Herein, we report the use of the amide C-N bond of isatins as the oxidizing directing group for the Ru(ii)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation and annulation reactions with alkynes which afford 8-amido isocoumarins. The reaction also features excellent regioselectivity with alkyl aryl substituted alkynes. PMID:27417438

  11. Combined use of meio- and macrobenthic indices to assess complex chemical impacts on a stream ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne T.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Traunspurger, Walter; Höss, Sebastian; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2016-04-01

    habitats for overall ecosystem health, many biological indices tend only to reflect the ecological quality of surface water, rather than of the sedimentary zones where the accumulation of pollutants is often highest. To address this issue, we monitored meiobenthic (i.e. nematodes) and macrobenthic invertebrate communities along a pollution gradient in order to assess the impact of multiple stressors on a groundwater-fed stream, and thus quantify the link between chemical and ecological status. The studied stressors included point source pollutants originating from contaminated groundwater and aquaculture, and diffuse source pollutants originating from conventional agriculture and urban areas. The use of macrofauna is now well-accepted for assessing ecological integrity in aquatic ecosystems, but less is known about the application of meiofaunal community indicators. High abundance and ubiquitous distribution are two potential advantages for including meiofaunal indicators, and notably - for the case of groundwater-surface water interactions - they are particularly suitable for identifying changes in environmental conditions over smaller spatial scales. The results indicate a change in community composition for both meio- and macrobenthic fauna, pointing towards the presence of a local impact resulting from the discharging contaminated groundwater, which extends downstream along a dilution gradient of the groundwater contaminants. Ecological impacts could be linked to xenobiotic compounds coming from groundwater (both chlorinated solvents and pharmaceuticals), as well as the presence of trace metals of diffuse and/or biogenic origin.

  12. Development of Bifunctional Gadolinium-Labeled Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles (Gd-MnMEIO) for In Vivo MR Imaging of the Liver in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gin-Chung; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Liver tumors are common and imaging methods, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), play an important role in their non-invasive diagnosis. Previous studies have shown that detection of liver tumors can be improved by injection of two different MR contrast agents. Here, we developed a new contrast agent, Gd-manganese-doped magnetism-engineered iron oxide (Gd-MnMEIO), with enhancement effects on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images of the liver. A 3.0T clinical MR scanner equipped with transmit/receiver coil for mouse was used to obtain both T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo axial images of the liver before and after intravenous contrast agent injection into Balb/c mice with and without tumors. After pre-contrast scanning, six mice per group were intravenously injected with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-MnMEIO, or the control agents, i.e., Gd-DTPA or SPIO. The scanning time points for T1-weighted images were 0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after contrast administration. The post-enhanced T2-weighted images were then acquired immediately after T1-weighted acquisition. We found that T1-weighted images were positively enhanced by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO and negatively enhanced by SPIO. The enhancement by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO peaked at 0.5 min and gradually declined thereafter. Gd-MnMEIO (like Gd-DTPA) enhanced T1-weighted images and (like SPIO) T2-weighted images. Marked vascular enhancement was clearly visible on dynamic T1-weighted images with Gd-MnMEIO. In addition, the T2 signal was significantly decreased at 30 min after administration of Gd-MnMEIO. Whereas the effects of Gd-MnMEIO and SPIO on T2-weighted images were similar (p = 0.5824), those of Gd-MnMEIO and Gd-DTPA differed, with Gd-MnMEIO having a significant T2 contrast effect (p = 0.0086). Our study confirms the feasibility of synthesizing an MR contrast agent with both T1 and T2 shortening effects and using such an agent in vivo. This agent enables tumor detection and

  13. Development of Bifunctional Gadolinium-Labeled Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles (Gd-MnMEIO) for In Vivo MR Imaging of the Liver in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Liu, Gin-Chung; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Liver tumors are common and imaging methods, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), play an important role in their non-invasive diagnosis. Previous studies have shown that detection of liver tumors can be improved by injection of two different MR contrast agents. Here, we developed a new contrast agent, Gd-manganese-doped magnetism-engineered iron oxide (Gd-MnMEIO), with enhancement effects on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images of the liver. A 3.0T clinical MR scanner equipped with transmit/receiver coil for mouse was used to obtain both T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo axial images of the liver before and after intravenous contrast agent injection into Balb/c mice with and without tumors. After pre-contrast scanning, six mice per group were intravenously injected with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-MnMEIO, or the control agents, i.e., Gd-DTPA or SPIO. The scanning time points for T1-weighted images were 0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after contrast administration. The post-enhanced T2-weighted images were then acquired immediately after T1-weighted acquisition. We found that T1-weighted images were positively enhanced by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO and negatively enhanced by SPIO. The enhancement by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO peaked at 0.5 min and gradually declined thereafter. Gd-MnMEIO (like Gd-DTPA) enhanced T1-weighted images and (like SPIO) T2-weighted images. Marked vascular enhancement was clearly visible on dynamic T1-weighted images with Gd-MnMEIO. In addition, the T2 signal was significantly decreased at 30 min after administration of Gd-MnMEIO. Whereas the effects of Gd-MnMEIO and SPIO on T2-weighted images were similar (p = 0.5824), those of Gd-MnMEIO and Gd-DTPA differed, with Gd-MnMEIO having a significant T2 contrast effect (p = 0.0086). Our study confirms the feasibility of synthesizing an MR contrast agent with both T1 and T2 shortening effects and using such an agent in vivo. This agent enables tumor detection and

  14. The Meio 1498 earthquake and tsunami : driving force of abrupt environmental change in the Hamana floodplain, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Fujiwara, Osamu; Umitsu, Masatomo; Sato, Yoshiki; Ono, Einsuke; Yata, Toshifumi

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the role of a tsunami, generated by the 1498 Meio earthquake (M8.2 - 8.4) along the eastern Nankai on the geomorphological evolution of the Hamana river floodplain, located along the Pacific coastline of Central Japan (Shizuoka prefecture). Historical sources document a sudden decline at the end of the 15th century of the harbour town Hashimoto, located along the river Hamana. Before the 15th century, this river connected the Pacific Ocean with an enclosed coastal embayment separated by a sand barrier (i.e. the present-day Hamana lake) from the Pacific. The reconstruction of the palaeocourse of the Hamana river was carried out on the basis of detailed facies and diatom analyses of undisturbed sediment cores (geoslicer and drilling). The palaeochannel was detected along the western side of the present-day coastal embayment. It seems that the river's mouth was abruptly sealed off due to the migration of huge volumes of sand that initiated the development of a marsh environment upstream along the channel. The identification and radiocarbon dating of these sandy high-energy flow deposits in several cores (thick sand bed of marine origin intercalated at the estuarine - marsh environmental change boundary) suggests that the river mouth closure was initated by mass sediment transport by a storm surge or tsunami (1498 Meio tsunami and/or 1498 and 1499 large storm surges along the Hamana coastline). The same process, of sudden river mouth sealing by tsunami-transported sediments, was recently observed in the northeast of Japan during the great 2011 Sendai tsunami (Uda, T., 2011). Historical sources document that after the 1498 Meio tsunami, the Hamana back-barrier sheltered environment was reconnected to the Pacific Ocean due to breaching of its sand barrier. Both environmental changes (river mouth closure and barrier breaching)are synchronous with the sudden decline of the harbour town Hashimoto. These data suggest that disruption

  15. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R.; Bright, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50′ N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes. PMID:26166922

  16. Use of S-[2,3-Bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-Propyl]-R-Cysteinyl-Amido-Monomethoxy Polyethylene Glycol as an Adjuvant Improved Protective Immunity Associated with a DNA Vaccine Encoding Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase of Brucella abortus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection. PMID:25165025

  17. How do the full-generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers activate blood platelets? Activation of circulating platelets and formation of "fibrinogen aggregates" in the presence of polycations.

    PubMed

    Watala, Cezary; Karolczak, Kamil; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Przygodzki, Tomasz; Maczynska, Katarzyna; Labieniec-Watala, Magdalena

    2016-04-30

    Direct use of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers as drugs may be limited, due to uncertain (cyto)toxicity. Peripheral blood components, which constitute the first line of a contact with administered pharmaceuticals, may become vastly affected by PAMAM dendrimers. The aim of this study was to explore how PAMAMs' polycationicity might affect blood platelet activation and reactivity, and thus trigger various haemostatic events. We monitored blood platelet reactivity in rats with experimental diabetes upon a long-term administration of the unmodified PAMAM dendrimers. In parallel, the effects on blood flow in a systemic circulation was recorded intravitally in mice administered with PAMAM G2, G3 or G4. Compounding was the in vitro approach to monitor the impact of PAMAM dendrimers on blood platelet activation and reactivity and on selected haemostatic and protein conformation parameters. We demonstrated the activating effects of polycations on blood platelets. Some diversity of the revealed outcomes considerably depended on the used approach and the particular technique employed to monitor blood platelet function. We discovered undesirable impact of plain PAMAM dendrimers on primary haemostasis and their prothrombotic influence. We emphasize the need of a more profound verifying of all the promising findings collected for PAMAMs with the use of well-designed in vivo preclinical studies. PMID:26319628

  18. Growth of tantalum nitride film as a Cu diffusion barrier by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition from bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chan; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeon, Dong Ju; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2016-01-01

    A new bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex was synthesized for plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of tantalum nitride (TaN) film. Using the synthesized Ta compound, PEALD of TaN was conducted at growth temperatures of 150-250 °C in combination with NH3 plasma. The TaN PEALD showed a saturated growth rate of 0.062 nm/cycle and a high film density of 9.1-10.3 g/cm3 at 200-250 °C. Auger depth profiling revealed that the deposited TaN film contained low carbon and oxygen impurity levels of approximately 3-4%. N-rich amorphous TaN films were grown at all growth temperatures and showed highly resistive characteristic. The Cu barrier performance of the TaN film was evaluated by annealing of Cu/TaN (0-6 nm)/Si stacks at 400-800 °C, and excellent Cu diffusion barrier properties were observed even with ultrathin 2 nm-thick TaN film.

  19. 4-amido-2-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-ones as new potent and selective human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists. synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and ligand-receptor modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Ombretta; Colotta, Vittoria; Catarzi, Daniela; Varano, Flavia; Filacchioni, Guido; Martini, Claudia; Trincavelli, Letizia; Ciampi, Osele; Varani, Katia; Marighetti, Federico; Morizzo, Erika; Moro, Stefano

    2006-06-29

    A structural investigation on some 4-amido-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one derivatives, designed as human A3 adenosine receptor (hA3 AR) antagonists, is described. In the new derivatives, some acyl residues with different steric bulk were introduced on the 4-amino group, and their combination with the 4-methoxy group on the 2-phenyl moiety, and/or the 6-nitro/6-amino substituent on the fused benzo ring, was also evaluated. Most of the new derivatives were potent and selective hA3 AR antagonists. SAR analysis showed that hindering and lipophilic acyl moieties not only are well tolerated but even ameliorate the hA3 affinity. Interestingly, the 4-methoxy substituent on the appended 2-phenyl moiety, as well as the 6-amino group, always exerted a positive effect, shifting the affinity toward the hA3 receptor subtype. In contrast, the 6-nitro substituent exerted a variable effect. An intensive molecular modeling investigation was performed to rationalize the experimental SAR findings. PMID:16789747

  20. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  1. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  2. Variations of lipid profile in animals caused by adenosine analogs: N6 (amido-3-propyl) adenosine hydrochloride and (carboxamido-3-propylamino)-6-(triproprionyl) 2',3',5'beta (D-ribosyl)-9-purine.

    PubMed

    Laborit, G; Hasni, H; Baron, C; Pierrefiche, G; Laborit, H

    1992-03-01

    N6-substituted adenosine analogues are powerful inhibitors of lipolysis in the adipose tissues of animals and humans, because of their agonist effect on A1 purine receptors. Using a model of hypertriglyceridemia provoked by intravenous injection of Triton WR 1339, we observed that Agr 529 [N6(amido-3-propyl)adenosine hydrochloride] at 2 mg.kg-1 intravenous in rabbits, and intraperitoneally and orally in rats led to a return of the levels of circulating triglycerides to normal values. In addition, Agr 529 and its prodrug, Agr 540 [(carboxamido-3-propylamino)-6-(triproprionyl)2', 3',5'beta(D-ribosyl)-9-purine] administered to rats at 3 and 30 mg.kg-1, respectively, returned plasma triglyceride concentrations to normal levels. Intravenous administration of Agr 529 to normal rats led to decreased concentrations of plasma fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol as a function of dose. The decrease began at 0.1 mg.kg-1 and was highly significant at 3 mg.kg-1. In the same conditions, the intraperitoneal administration of Agr 529 caused a dose-dependent hypolipemia. There was no apparent effect on cholesterol and on the triglycerides of high density lipoproteins. A kinetic study showed that the antilipemic effect of Agr 529 intravenously injected at 3 mg.kg-1 began 30 minutes after the injection with a maximum effect at 2 hours. The effect persisted up to 8 hours after injection. The present results show that the administration of Agr 529 and Agr 540 to normal animals causes hypolipemia (decrease in fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol) and restores induced hypertriglyceridemia. These effects may be attributed to an interaction of the molecules with A1 purinergic receptors of adipose tissue. PMID:1509199

  3. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  4. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  5. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  6. Reaction Mechanism of the Symmetry-Forbidden [2+2] Addition of Ethylene and Acetylene to Amido-Substituted Digermynes and Distannynes Ph2N-EE-NPh2, (E = Ge, Sn): A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Jones, Cameron; Frenking, Gernot

    2015-08-24

    Quantum chemical calculations of reaction mechanisms for the formal [2+2] addition of ethylene and acetylene to the amido-substituted digermyne and distannyne Ph2N-EE-NPh2 (E = Ge, Sn) have been carried out by using density functional theory at the BP86/def2-TZVPP level. The nature and bonding situations were studied with the NBO method and with the charge and energy decomposition analysis EDA-NOCV. The addition of ethylene to Ph2N-EE-NPh2 takes place through an initial [2+1] addition to one metal atom and consecutive rearrangement to four-membered cyclic species, which feature a weak E-E bond. Rotation about the C-C bond with concomitant rupture of the E-E bond leads to the 1,2-disubstituted ethanes, which have terminal E(NPh2) groups. The overall reaction Ph2N-EE-NPh2+C2H4→(Ph2N)E-C2H4-E(NPh2) has very low activation barriers and is slightly exergonic for E = Ge but slightly endergonic for E = Sn. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that there is charge donation of nearly one electron to the ethylene moiety already in the first part of the reaction. The energy partitioning analysis suggests that the HOMO(Ph2N-EE-NPh2)→LUMO(C2H4) interaction has a similar strength as the HOMO(C2H4)→LUMO(Ph2N-EE-NPh2) interaction. The [2+2] addition of acetylene to Ph2N-EE-NPh2 also takes place through an initial [2+1] approach, which eventually leads to 1,2-disubstituted olefins (Ph2N)E-C2H2-E(NPh2). The formation of the energetically lowest lying conformations of cis-(Ph2N)E-C2H2-E(NPh2), which occurs with very low activation barriers, is clearly exergonic for the germanium and the tin compound. The trans-coordinated isomers of (Ph2N)E-C2H2-E(NPh2) are slightly lower in energy than the cis form but they are separated by a substantial energy barrier for the rotation about the C-C bond. The energy decomposition analysis indicates that the initial reaction takes place under formation of electron-sharing bonds between triplet fragments rather than HOMO

  7. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  8. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  9. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  10. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  11. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOEpatents

    McCray, Scott B.

    1989-01-01

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  12. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOEpatents

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  13. Direct Spectroscopic Observation of Large Quenching of First Order Orbital Angular Momentum with Bending in Monomeric, Two-Coordinate Fe(II) Primary Amido Complexes and the Profound Magnetic Effects of the Absence of Jahn- and Renner-Teller Distortions in Rigorously Linear Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, W. Alexander; Stich, Troy A.; Brynda, Marcin; Yeagle, Gregory J.; Fettinger, James C.; De Hont, Raymond; Reiff, William M.; Schulz, Charles E.; Britt, R. David; Power, Philip P.

    2009-01-01

    The monomeric iron(II) amido derivatives Fe{N(H)Ar*}2 (1), Ar* = C6H3-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-Pri3)2, and Fe{N(H)Ar#}2 (2), Ar# = C6H3-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2, were synthesized and studied in order to determine the effects of geometric changes on their unusual magnetic properties. The compounds, which are the first stable homoleptic primary amides of iron(II), were obtained by the transamination of Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2, with HN(SiMe3)2 elimination, by the primary amines H2NAr* or H2NAr#. X-ray crystallography shows that they have either strictly linear (1) or bent (2, N–Fe–N = 140.9(2)°) iron coordination. Variable temperature magnetization and applied magnetic field Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal a very large dependence of the magnetic properties on the metal coordination geometry. At ambient temperature, the linear 1 displayed an effective magnetic moment in the range 7.0 to 7.50 μB, consistent with essentially free ion magnetism. There is a very high internal orbital field component, HL ≈ 170 T which is only exceeded by a HL ≈ 203 T of Fe{C(SiMe3)3}2. In contrast, the strongly bent 2 displays a significantly lower μeff value in the range 5.25 to 5.80 μB at ambient temperature and a much lower orbital field HL value of 116 T. The data for the two amido complexes demonstrate a very large quenching of the orbital magnetic moment upon bending the linear geometry. In addition, a strong correlation of HL with overall formal symmetry is confirmed. ESR spectroscopy supports the existence of large orbital magnetic moments in 1 and 2, and DFT calculations provide good agreement with the physical data. PMID:19670870

  14. New octahedral Ta(V) hydrazido-substituted compounds for atomic layer deposition: Syntheses, X-ray diffraction structures of TaCl(NMe2)(3)[N(TMS)NMe2] and Ta(NMe2)(4)[N(TMS)NMe2], and fluxional behavior of the amido and hydrazido ligands in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Huang Huang; Pilvi, Tero; Wang, Xiaoping; Leskela,, Markku; Richmond, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of new tantalum(V) compounds containing a single hydrazido(1) ligand are reported. Hydrazinolysis of TaCl(NMe2)(4) using trimethylsilyl(dimethyl)hydrazine affords the compound TaCl(NMe2)(3)[N(TMS)NMe2] in essentially quantitative yield. Metathetical replacement of the chloride ligand in TaCl(NMe2)(3)]N(TMS)NMe2] by LiNMe2 gives the all-nitrogen coordinated compound Ta(NMe2)(4)[N(TMS)NMe2]. VT H-1 NMR studies support the existence of low-energy pathways involving rotation about the Ta-N bonds of the ancillary amido and hydrazido ligands in both hydrazido-substituted compounds. X-ray crystallographic analyses confirm the octahedral disposition about the tantalum metal in TaCl(NMe2)(3)[N(TMS)NMe2] and Ta(NMe2)(4)[N(TMS)NMe2] and the presence of an mu(2)-hydrazido(1) ligand. Preliminary data using Ta(NMe2)(4)[N(TMS)NMe2] as an ALD precursor for the preparation of tantalum nitride and tantalum oxide thin films are presented.

  15. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  16. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  17. A novel amido-pyrophosphate Mn(II) chelate complex with the synthetic ligand O{P(O)[NHC(CH3)3]2}2 (L): [Mn(L)2{OC(H)N(CH3)2}2]Cl2·2H2O.

    PubMed

    Tarahhomi, Atekeh; Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

    2013-03-01

    The title complex, trans-bis(dimethylformamide-κO)bis{N,N'-N'',N'''-tetra-tert-butyl[oxybis(phosphonic diamide-κO)]}manganese(II) dichloride dihydrate, [Mn(C16H40N4O3P2)2(C3H7NO)2]Cl2·2H2O, is the first example of a bis-chelate amido-pyrophosphate (pyrophosphoramide) complex containing an O[P(O)(NH)2]2 fragment. Its asymmetric unit contains half of the complex dication, one chloride anion and one water molecule. The Mn(II) atom, located on an inversion centre, is octahedrally coordinated, with a slight elongation towards the monodentate dimethylformamide ligand. Structural features of the title complex, such as the P=O bond lengths and the planarity of the chelate ring, are compared with those of previously reported complexes with six-membered chelates involving the fragments C(O)NHP(O), (X)NP(O) [X = C(O), C(S), S(O)2 and P(O)] and O[P(O)(N)2]2. This analysis shows that the six-membered chelate rings are less puckered in pyrophosphoramide complexes containing a P(O)OP(O) skeleton, such as the title compound. The extended structure of the title complex involves a linear aggregate mediated by N-H...O and N-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, in which the chloride anion is an acceptor in two additional O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:23459342

  18. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  19. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  20. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  1. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  2. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  3. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  4. Poly(amido amine) dendrimers in oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been extensively investigated for oral delivery applications due to their ability to translocate across the gastrointestinal epithelium. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the evaluation of PAMAM dendrimers as oral drug delivery carriers. Specifically, toxicity, mechanisms of transepithelial transport, models of the intestinal epithelial barrier including isolated human intestinal tissue model, detection of dendrimers, and surface modification are discussed. We also highlight evaluation of various PAMAM dendrimer-drug conjugates for their ability to transport across gastrointestinal epithelium for improved oral bioavailability. In addition, current challenges and future trends for clinical translation of PAMAM dendrimers as carriers for oral delivery are discussed. PMID:27358755

  5. Phenyl bis­(m-tolyl­amido)­phosphinate

    PubMed Central

    Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Negari, Monireh; Nečas, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The P atom of the title compound, C20H21N2O2P, has a distorted tetra­hedral configuration; the bond angles at P are in the range 96.11 (6)–117.32 (8)°. The N atom exhibits sp 2 character. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into bands along the a axis, consisting of R 2 2(8) rings. PMID:22090923

  6. Iridium {mu}-imido/amido A-frame complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Changqing; Sharp, P.R.

    1995-01-04

    The reaction of Ir{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm){sub 2}(dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) with 2 equiv of LiNHR yields Ir{sub 2}({mu}-NR)(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm){sub 2}, (1) (R=p-tolyl,Ph,p-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}), or its tautomer Ir{sub 2}({mu}-NHR)(CO){sub 2}({mu}-dppm)-({mu}-dppm-H), (2) (dppm-H = bis(diphenylphosphino)methanide; R= Et, Bu{sup 5}). NMR data suggest that (1) (R=p-tolyl, Ph, p-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}) are in equilibrium with small amounts of (2) in polar solvents. An X-ray structural determination of (1) (R = p-tolyl) shows that the imido nitrogen atom links two iridium atoms at the apex of an A-frame complex. A very short N-C distance in the imido group suggests extensive N-lone pair donation to the tolyl ring. Crystals of (1) (R = p-tolyl) from benzene are tetragonal (P4{sub 3}) with a = 21.337(1) {Angstrom},c = 14.478-(2) {Angstrom}, and Z = 4. With the exception of R=p-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, p-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}, and Et, the complexes react with 1 equiv of CO at ambient temperature to form Ir{sub 2}(CO){sub 3}({mu}-dppm){sub 2} as the major metal containing product. For R = Et, the reaction generates the unstable isocyanate complex Ir{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}({mu}-dppm){sub 2} and amine except for the p-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4} complex, which gives a complex mixture of products.

  7. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  8. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  9. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  10. Meio-Socks & Other Genetic Yarns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stravroulakis, Anthea M.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher, the author is always interested in novel pedagogical methods for presenting complex concepts and material in genetics that interest and engage the students, while helping them understand and recall the lesson. In this article, she describes sock and yarn models that allow students the opportunity to examine the meiotic process in a…

  11. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  12. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  13. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  14. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  15. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  16. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  17. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  18. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  19. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  20. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  1. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  2. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  3. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  4. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  5. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  6. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  7. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  8. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  9. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  13. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  14. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  15. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  16. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  17. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  18. Antigenic topology of chlamydial PorB protein and identification of targets for immune neutralization of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Diane E; Stephens, Richard S

    2002-05-15

    The outer membrane protein PorB is a conserved chlamydial protein that functions as a porin and is capable of eliciting neutralizing Abs. A topological antigenic map was developed using overlapping synthetic peptides representing the Chlamydia trachomatis PorB sequence and polyclonal immune sera. To identify which antigenic determinants were surface accessible, monospecific antisera were raised to the PorB peptides and were used in dot-blot and ELISA-based absorption studies with viable chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). The ability of the surface-accessible antigenic determinants to direct neutralizing Ab responses was investigated using standardized in vitro neutralization assays. Four major antigenic clusters corresponding to Phe(34)-Leu(59) (B1-2 and B1-3), Asp(112) -Glu(145) (B2-3 and B2-4), Gly(179)-Ala(225) (B3-2 to B3-4), and Val(261)-Asn(305) (B4-4 to B5-2) were identified. Collectively, the EB absorption and dot-blot assays established that the immunoreactive PorB Ags were exposed on the surface of chlamydial EBs. Peptide-specific antisera raised to the surface-accessible Ags neutralized chlamydial infectivity and demonstrated cross-reactivity to synthetic peptides representing analogous C. pneumoniae PorB sequences. Furthermore, neutralization of chlamydial infectivity by C. trachomatis PorB antisera was inhibited by synthetic peptides representing the surface-exposed PorB antigenic determinants. These findings demonstrate that PorB Ags may be useful for development of chlamydial vaccines. PMID:11994474

  19. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth. PMID:27285815

  20. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper. PMID:17371304

  3. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. Methods The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe3+ and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. Results In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe3+ or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ or addition of 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5-ALA and Fe3+ increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression. PMID:23554636

  4. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  5. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  6. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  7. Recovery of naphthalene during evaporative concentration. [Tenax; XAD-2; POR-Q, XE-340

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of trace organics usually requires concentrating organic extracts to small volumes prior to instrumental analysis. The use of a concentration apparatus employing a nitrogen blanket and reduced pressure is desirable because the inert atmosphere and low temperature help to ensure stable composition. Unfortunately, diaromatic compounds such as the naphthalenes and biphenyls are frequently almost completely lost during the concentration step. Even under carefully controlled conditions only 26 +- 11% of the naphthalene is recovered. By placing a sorbent either in or downstream of the evaporation concentration flask, recovery of diaromatic compounds can be improved significantly. In this investigation, the following sorbents, Tenax, XAD-2, POR-Q, and XE-340 were tested. Recoveries with and without the use of sorbents, effects of solute concentration, purge time after solvent removal, and type of solvent used are reported here.

  8. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  9. Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J; Abu-Shilbayeh, L; Rao, V B

    1997-01-01

    The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5' end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. Both the PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc recombinant phages are highly immunogenic in mice and elicit strong antipeptide antibody titers even with a weak adjuvant such as Alhydrogel or no adjuvant at all. The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. PMID:9353063

  10. Crystal structure of 2-benzene-sulfon-amido-3-hy-droxy-propanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nabila; Mushtaq, Misbah; Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Raza, Muhammad Asam

    2015-11-01

    In the title compound, C9H11NO5S, the O=S=O plane of the sulfonyl group is twisted at a dihedral angle of 52.54 (16)° with respect to the benzene ring. The dihedral angle between the carb-oxy-lic acid group and the benzene ring is 49.91 (16)°. In the crystal, C-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into (001) sheets. PMID:26594589

  11. Tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)uranium: Compounds with tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    This trivalent uranium compound, serves as a precursor to new tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium species. The geometry about the U atom is pyramidal. Lewis-base coordination compounds of U(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/ with a one-to-one- ratio of Lewis base to uranium were isolated with pyridine, 4-dimethylamino-pyridine, 2,6-Me/sub 2/-C/sub 6/H/sub 3/NC, and TPO. Two-to-one coordination compounds were obtained with t-butylnitrile and t-butylisocyanide. Compounds with more sterically demanding bases could not be isolated. The expected decrease in U-N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ bond length with increase in oxidation state is not observed. Reaction of ClU(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/and Li(NH(p-tolyl)) yields the uranium (IV) dimer, U/sub 2/(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 4/(..mu..-N(p-tolyl))/sub 2/. Reaction with 2,4,6-triemethylaniline produces a dimer. Analogous substitution products could not be obtained with aniline or p-toluidine. t-Bu/sub 3/CO/sup /minus//, t-Bu/sub 2/CHO/sup /minus//, and t-Bu/sub 3/SiO/sup /minus// are used to synthesize new tetravalent, mononuclear uranium compounds. Reaction of ClU(tritox)/sub 3/ with alkyllithium reagents leads to isolation of RU(tritox)/sub 3/. The reaction of U(ditox)/sub 4/ with MeLi affords the addition product U(ditox)/sub 4/(Me)Li, whose crystal structure is described. Preparation of uranium silox compounds is reported. 97 refs., 26 figs., 39 tabs.

  12. Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and bis(trimethylsilyl)amido complexes of the di- and trivalent lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, T.D.

    1982-03-01

    The reaction of the divalent iodides YbI/sub 2/ and EuI/sub 2/ with NaN(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ has provided pentane-soluble, monomeric derivatives of the divalent lanthanides. These compounds are isolated as the solvated species Eu(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/L/sub 2/ (L = thf or 1,2-dme), Yb(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/(thf)/sub 1/ /sub 5/ and Yb(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/L/sub 2/ (L = 1,2-dme or OEt/sub 2/), or as the sodium salts NaM(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/ (M = Eu or Yb). The pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligand has been used to obtain trivalent derivatives of the type (C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)/sub 2/MCl/sub 2/M'L/sub x/ (M = Nd, Sm or Yb; M' = Li or Na; L = OEt/sub 2/ or tmed) or (C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)/sub 2/MCl(thf) (M = Nd or Yb). These compounds undergo metathesis reactions. The interaction of NaC/sub 5/Me/sub 5/ with EuCl/sub 3/ yields only the divalent (C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)/sub 2/EuL (L = thf or OEt/sub 2/). Analogous compounds of ytterbium are obtained by reaction of YbI/sub 2/ with NaC/sub 5/Me/sub 5/ in thf or OEt/sub 2/. The ytterbium amine complexes are weakly paramagnetic, apparently due to charge transfer from ytterbium to the aromatic rings. The divalent phosphine complexes (C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)/sub 2/ML (M = Eu or Yb; L = dmpe or dmpm) are also described. Crystallographic data are summarized.

  13. Reaction products of amido-amine and epoxide useful as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H.F.

    1988-04-12

    A method for reducing engine deposits in an internal combustion engine is described comprising the addition of a detergent fuel additive package to a hydrocarbon fuel for the engine. The fuel detergent is added in an amount effective to reduce deposits and the hydrocarbon fuel is used with detergent additive as fuel in an internal combustion engine. The detergent fuel additive package comprises: (1) a fuel detergent additive that is the reaction product prepared by reacting (a) vegetable oil or (b) higher carboxylic acid chosen from (i) aliphatic fatty acids having 10-25 carbon atoms and (ii) aralkyl acids having 12-42 carbon atoms with (c) multiamine to obtain a fist product mixture with the first product mixture reacted with alklylene oxide to produce a second product mixture and (2) a fuel detergent additive solvent compatible with the fuels.

  14. Discovery of amido-benzisoxazoles as potent c-Kit inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Roxanne K.; Rumfelt, Shannon; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Tasker, Andrew S.; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Whittington, Douglas A.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Plant, Matthew; Tudor, Yanyan; Schrag, Michael; Xu, Yang; Ng, Gordon Y.; Hu, Essa

    2010-01-12

    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, including certain cancers and mast cell diseases. Interference of c-Kit signaling with multi-kinase inhibitors has been shown clinically to successfully treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Targeted therapy of c-Kit activity may provide therapeutic advantages against off-target effects for non-oncology applications. A new structural class of c-Kit inhibitors is described, including in vitro c-Kit potency, kinase selectivity, and the observed binding mode.

  15. Conformational Control of Chiral Amido-Thiourea Catalysts Enables Improved Activity and Enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Lehnherr, Dan; Ford, David D; Bendelsmith, Andrew J; Kennedy, C Rose; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2016-07-01

    While aryl pyrrolidinoamido-thioureas derived from α-amino acids are effective catalysts in a number of asymmetric transformations, they exist as mixtures of slowly interconverting amide rotamers. Herein, the compromising role of amide bond isomerism is analyzed experimentally and computationally. A modified catalyst structure that exists almost exclusively as a single amide rotamer is introduced. This modification is shown to result in improved reactivity and enantioselectivity by minimizing competing reaction pathways. PMID:27294369

  16. Visual observation and characterization of fluorescent poly(amido amine) dendrimer in film state.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Govindachetty; Imae, Toyoko

    2011-06-01

    The fluorescent property of PAMAM dendrimers were examined at film state rather than in solution. The O2-treated PAMAM dendrimer displayed strong blue fluorescence due to its conservation of luminance in the film state and diminished its intensity with degas. The fluorescent property of PAMAM dendrimers was utilized as a fluorescent probe on functional patterned substrates for visual observation by a fluorescence microscope. G4 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers having peripheral groups of functional amine and carboxylate, respectively, were adsorbed selectively by electrostatic interactions on patterned carboxylic acid and amine terminated surfaces, respectively resulting in strong fluorescent patterns. This suggests the possible application of fluorescent PAMAM dendrimers as a fluorophor for the visualizable reactions. It was confirmed from an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that O2 molecules interact with tertiary amine moiety in PAMAM dendrimers but not amide group. These results give us an important support for the principle of fluorescence phenomenon. PMID:21770112

  17. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  18. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  19. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  20. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  1. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  2. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  3. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  4. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  5. Epitope specificity of murine and human bactericidal antibodies against PorA P1.7,16 induced with experimental meningococcal group B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E M; Kuipers, B; Brugghe, H F; van Unen, L M; Timmermans, H A; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1997-03-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the predicted loops 1 and 4 of meningococcal PorA, sero-subtype P1.7,16, were used to study the epitope specificity of murine and human PorA P1.7,16 bactericidal antibodies. The predicted loops 1 and 4 are surface exposed and carry in their apices the sero-subtype epitopes P1.7 (loop 1) or P1.16 (loop 4), respectively. Peptides were synthesized as mono- and multimeric peptides. Murine monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were induced with meningococcal whole cell preparations. Polyclonal antibodies were evoked in volunteers after one immunization with 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms protein of a hexavalent meningococcal PorA vesicle vaccine. The induction of PorA antibodies was determined in ELISA using purified PorA P1.7,16. The epitope specificity of anti-PorA antibodies for both murine and human antibodies could be demonstrated by direct peptide ELISA using overlapping multimeric peptides almost spanning the entire loops 1 or 4 of the protein. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the bactericidal activity of murine and human antibodies was investigated using meningococcal strain H44/76 (B:15:P1.7,16) as a target strain. Bactericidal activities could be inhibited with both monomeric and multimeric peptides derived from epitopes P1.7 and P1.16. PMID:9093834

  6. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  8. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  9. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

  10. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  11. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  12. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  13. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention. PMID:11019766

  14. Cadmium amido alkoxide and alkoxide precursors for the synthesis of nanocrystalline CdE (E=S,Se, Te).

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Avilucea, Gabriel; Bunge, Scott D.; Alam, Todd Michael; Headley, Thomas Jeffrey; Holland, Gregory P.

    2004-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a family of alternative precursors for the production of CdE nanoparticles (E = S, Se, and Te) is reported. The reaction of Cd(NR{sub 2}){sub 2} where NR{sub 2} = N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2} with n HOR led to the isolation of the following: n = 1 [Cd({mu}-OCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 3})(NR{sub 2})(py)]{sub 2} (1, py = pyridine), Cd[({mu}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(Me){sub 2}-2,6){sub 2}Cd(NR{sub 2})(py)]{sub 2} (2), [Cd({mu}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-2,6)(NR{sub 2})(py)]{sub 2} (3), [Cd({mu}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}-2,6)(NR{sub 2})(py)]{sub 2} (4), [Cd({mu}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 2}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}-2,4,6)(NR{sub 2})(py)]{sub 2} (5), and n = 2 [Cd({mu}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(Me){sub 2}-2,6)(OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(Me){sub 2}-2,6)(py){sub 2}]{sub 2} (6), and [Cd({mu}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}-2,6)(OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}-2,6)(THF)]{sub 2} (7). For all but 2, the X-ray crystal structures were solved as discrete dinuclear units bridged by alkoxide ligands and either terminal -NR{sub 2} or -OR ligands depending on the stoichiometry of the initial reaction. For 2, a trinuclear species was isolated using four {mu}-OR and two terminal -NR{sub 2} ligands. The coordination of the Cd metal center varied from 3 to 5 where the higher coordination numbers were achieved by binding Lewis basic solvents for the less sterically demanding ligands. These complexes were further characterized in solution by {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 113}Cd NMR along with solid-state {sup 113}Cd NMR spectroscopy. The utility of these complexes as 'alternative precursors' for the controlled preparation of nanocrystalline CdS, CdSe, and CdTe was explored. To synthesize CdE nanocrystals, select species from this family of compounds were individually heated in a coordinating solvent (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then injected with the appropriate chalcogenide stock solution. Transmission electron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to characterize the resultant particles.

  15. Chiral amino-phosphine and amido-phosphine complexes of Ir and Mg. Catalytic applications in olefin hydroamination.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Bernhard; Frieß, Sibylle; Herrera, Alberto; Linden, Anthony; Heinemann, Frank W; Locke, Harald; Harder, Sjoerd; Dorta, Romano

    2016-08-14

    The reactions of rac- and (S,S)-trans-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracene-11,12-diamine (ANDEN) with PClPh2 in the presence of NEt3 yield the chiral amino-phosphine ligands rac-6 and (S,S)-6, respectively, on multi-gram scales. Both forms of 6 react quantitatively with MgPh2 to afford the C2-symmetric, N-bound Mg amidophosphine complexes rac-7 and (S,S)-7. The former crystallizes as a racemic conglomerate, which is a rare occurrence. Mixing (S,S)- or rac-6 with [IrCl(COE)2]2 leads in both cases to the homochiral dinuclear chloro-bridged P-ligated aminophosphine iridium complexes (S,S,S,S)-9 and rac-9 in excellent yields. X-ray quality single crystals only grow as the racemic compound (or 'true racemate') rac-9 thanks to its lowered solubility. In the coordinating solvent CH3CN, rac-9 transforms in high yield into mononuclear Ir-complex rac-10. The crystal structures of compounds rac-6, (S,S)-7, rac-9, and rac-10 reveal the ambidentate nature of the P-N function: amide-coordination in the Mg-complex (S,S)-7 and P-chelation of the softer Ir(i) centres in complexes rac-9 and rac-10. Furthermore, the crystal structures show flexible, symmetry lowering seven-membered P-chelate rings in the Ir complexes and a surprising amount of deformation within the ANDEN backbone. The simulation of this deformation by DFT and SCF calculations indicates low energy barriers. (S,S)-7 and (S,S,S,S)-9 catalyze the intra- and intermolecular hydroamination of alkenes, respectively: 5 mol% of (S,S)-7 affords 2-methyl-4,4'-diphenylcyclopentyl amine quantitatively (7% ee), and 2.5 mol% of (S,S,S,S)-9 in the presence of 5.0 mol% co-catalyst (LDA, PhLi, or MgPh2) gives exo-(2-arylamino)bornanes in up to 68% yield and up to 16% ee. PMID:27397552

  16. 4-[3-(4-Methyl­piperidin-1-yl)propan­amido]­benzene­sulfonamide monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Türkmen, Hasan; Yalçın, Şerife Pınar; Durgun, Mustafa; Akkurt, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H23N3O3S·H2O, the piperidine ring has a chair conformation. In the crystal, the sulfonamide mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to (10-1). The layers are inter­connected via N—H⋯Ow, Ow—H⋯N and Ow—H⋯O (w = water) hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:23476289

  17. A terminal nickel(II) anilide complex featuring an unsymmetrically substituted amido pincer ligand: synthesis and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lan-Chang; Li, Chun-Wei; Lee, Pei-Ying; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Lee, Hon Man

    2011-09-21

    This work describes preparation and reaction chemistry of a terminal nickel(II) anilide complex supported by an unsymmetrically substituted diarylamido diphosphine ligand, [N(o-C(6)H(4)PPh(2))(o-C(6)H(4)P(i)Pr(2))](-) ([Ph-PNP-(i)Pr](-)). Treatment of NiCl(2)(DME) with H[Ph-PNP-(i)Pr] in THF at room temperature produced [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiCl as green crystals in 82% yield. Salt metathesis of [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiCl with LiNHPh(THF) in THF at -35 °C generated cleanly [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiNHPh as a greenish blue solid. The anilide complex deprotonates protic (e.g., PhOH and PhSH) and aprotic (e.g., trimethylsilylacetylene, phenylacetylene, and acetonitrile) acids in benzene at room temperature to give quantitatively [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiX (X = OPh, SPh, C≡CSiMe(3), C≡CPh, CH(2)CN). In addition, [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiNHPh also behaves as a nucleophile to react with acetyl chloride to yield [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiCl and N-phenylacetamide quantitatively. Carbonylation of [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiNHPh with carbon monoxide affords cleanly the carbamoyl derivative [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]Ni[C(O)NHPh]. The relative bond strengths of Ni-E in [Ph-PNP-(i)Pr]NiEPh (E = NH, O, S, C≡C) are assessed and discussed. PMID:21666917

  18. Room Temperature Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of New Sulfonamides Containing N,N-Diethyl-Substituted Amido Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, Olayinka O.; Familoni, Oluwole B.; Wu, Feipeng; Echeme, Johnbull O.; Sujiang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonamide drugs which have brought about an antibiotic revolution in medicine are associated with a wide range of biological activities. We have synthesized a series of α-tolylsulfonamide, 1–11 and their substituted N,N-diethyl-2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido) alkanamide derivatives, 12–22 in improved and excellent yields in aqueous medium at room temperature through highly economical synthetic routes. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds 1–22 were confirmed by analytical and spectral data such as IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and mass spectra. The in vitro antibacterial activity of these compounds along with standard clinical reference, streptomycin, was investigated on two key targeted organisms. It was observed that 1-(benzylsulfonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, 2 emerged as the most active compound against Staphylococcus aureus at MIC value of 1.8 μg/mL while 4-(3-(diethylamino)-3-oxo-2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido) propyl)phenyl phenylmethanesulfonate, 22 was the most active sulfonamide scaffold on Escherichia coli at MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL. PMID:25374686

  19. Preparation and crystal structure of the 1,2-dimethoxyethane complex of bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]dichlorouranium(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Laughlin G.; Turner, Howard W.; Andersen, Richard A.; Zalkin, Allan.; Templeton, David H.

    1981-09-01

    The complex [(Me3Si)2N]2UCl2(1,2-dimethoxyethane) has been prepared for this study from uranium tetrachloride and two molar equivalents of sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. It may also be prepared from uranium tetrachloride and two molar equivalents of sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in tetrahydrofuran followed by addition of 1,2-dimethyoxyethane. The green pentane-soluble complex crystallizes in space group Pbca with cell dimensions a = 15.207(4) Å, b= 12.021(3) Å, and c = 33.429(9) Å, Z = 8, and dx = 1.57 g cm-3. The uranium atom, which has approximate C2 symmetry, is coordinated to two nitrogen atoms from the amide groups, two oxygen atoms from the dimethoxyethane group, and two chlorine atoms. Lastly, the average U-N, U-O, and U-Cl distances are 2.23, 2.59, and 2.64 Å, respectively.

  20. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  1. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  2. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  3. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  4. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  5. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  6. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  7. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  8. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  9. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  10. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  11. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  12. [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ]: A Superatom Complex with a Chiral Metallic Core and High Potential for Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and structural determination of a silver nanocluster [Ag20 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ] (2), which contains an intrinsic chiral metallic core, is produced by reduction of one silver ion from the eight-electron superatom complex [Ag21 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ](PF6 ) (1) by borohydrides. Single-crystal X-ray analysis displays an Ag20 core of pseudo C3 symmetry comprising a silver-centered Ag13 icosahedron capped by seven silver atoms. Its n-propyl derivative, [Ag20 {S2 P(OnPr)2 }12 ] (3), can also be prepared by the treatment of silver(I) salts and dithiophosphates in a stoichiometric ratio in the presence of excess amount of [BH4 ](-) . Crystal structure analyses reveal that the capping silver-atom positions relative to their icosahedral core are distinctly different in 2 and 3 and generate isomeric, chiral Ag20 cores. Both Ag20 clusters display an emission maximum in the near IR region. DFT calculations are consistent with a description within the superatom model of an 8-electron [Ag13 ](5+) core protected by a [Ag7 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ](5-) external shell. Two additional structural variations are predicted by DFT, showing the potential for isomerism in such [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ] species. PMID:27189869

  13. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists. PMID:12189787

  14. Do Meio- and Macrobenthic Nematodes Differ in Community Composition and Body Weight Trends with Depth?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyotsna; Baguley, Jeffrey; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Rowe, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes occur regularly in macrobenthic samples but are rarely identified from them and are thus considered exclusively a part of the meiobenthos. Our study compares the generic composition of nematode communities and their individual body weight trends with water depth in macrobenthic (>250/300 µm) samples from the deep Arctic (Canada Basin), Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Bermuda slope with meiobenthic samples (<45 µm) from GOM. The dry weight per individual (µg) of all macrobenthic nematodes combined showed an increasing trend with increasing water depth, while the dry weight per individual of the meiobenthic GOM nematodes showed a trend to decrease with increasing depth. Multivariate analyses showed that the macrobenthic nematode community in the GOM was more similar to the macrobenthic nematodes of the Canada Basin than to the GOM meiobenthic nematodes. In particular, the genera Enoploides, Crenopharynx, Micoletzkyia, Phanodermella were dominant in the macrobenthos and accounted for most of the difference. Relative abundance of non-selective deposit feeders (1B) significantly decreased with depth in macrobenthos but remained dominant in the meiobenthic community. The occurrence of a distinct assemblage of bigger nematodes of high dry weight per individual in the macrobenthos suggests the need to include nematodes in macrobenthic studies. PMID:21253595

  15. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  16. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  17. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II) Complexes of Poly(amino)amido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Graham E.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II) with N,N′-di(aminoethylene)-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1), Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2), and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl)-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3) have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II) competes effectively against Ni(II), Zn(II), and Ca(II) for these ligands in vivo. PMID:25371660

  18. Transcript profiles of auxin efflux carrier and IAA-amido synthetase genes suggest the role of auxin on apple (Malus x domestica) fruit maturation patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth regulators are known to regulate fruit development at various stages including flowering, fruit growth, maturation and ripening. Recent transcriptome studies indicated that auxin might play an essential role in regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening beside the well-defined role...

  19. Design, synthesis, and anti-breast cancer evaluation of new triarylethylene analogs bearing short alkyl- and polar amino-/amido-ethyl chains.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurleen; Mahajan, Mohinder P; Pandey, Manoj K; Singh, Parvesh; Ramisetti, Srinivasa R; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis of novel triarylethylene analogs, designed based on well-known Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs), i.e., ospemifene and tamoxifen, as potential anti-breast cancer agents is described. The cytotoxic potential of these analogs against ER-positive (MCF-7) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines was determined and compared with the standards, ospemifene and tamoxifen. In initial screening, analogs 5, 14 and 15 were found to be much more effective than the standards against both the cell lines. The results showed that these novel analogs inhibit the expression of proteins involved in the migration and metastasis, compound 5 being most effective. Compound 5 inhibited the expression of MMP-9, c-Myc and Caveolin in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and suppressed the invasion of ER-negative cells in a dose dependent manner. Finally, in silico docking simulations of the representative compounds in the binding sites of the estrogen receptors (ERs) indicated a good binding affinity of the compounds with the ERs, and supported their experimental toxicity against MCF-7 cancer cell lines. PMID:26972118

  20. The synthesis, structure, topology and catalytic application of a novel cubane-based copper(II) metal-organic framework derived from a flexible amido tripodal acid.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Anirban; Oliver, Clive L; Roy, Somnath; Öhrström, Lars

    2015-06-14

    A novel chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu4(HL)2(H2O)4(MeO)4]n (), has been successfully synthesized from a tripodal flexible ligand (2S,2'S,2''S)-2,2',2''-(benzenetricarbonyltris(azanediyl))tripropanoic acid (H3L). Compound was characterized by IR and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The structure was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis revealing that possesses a 3D network, featuring a tetranuclear cubane-type secondary building block [Cu4(MeO)4](4+), formed via the connection of four metal ions to four methoxide ions. These secondary building blocks are linked by four different HL(2-) ligands to construct a porous three dimensional framework of the dia topology with one-dimensional channels. Compound also acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for the diastereoselective nitroaldol (Henry) reaction, providing high yields (up to 91%) and good diastereoselectivities under ambient conditions. This catalyst can be recycled without significant loss of activity. PMID:25645371

  1. 2,4-Diamino-5-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-6-ethyl­pyrimidin-1-ium 2-acet­amido­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sampath; Mathews, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C12H14ClN4 +·C9H8NO3 −, is a salt with a 1:1 ratio of cation and anion components inter­acting with each other forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The crystal structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonds (N—H⋯O) involving two different eight-membered rings. One of them is formed between the pyrimidine ring (donor) and the carboxylate group (acceptor) from the benzoate, whereas the other ring is formed by N—H⋯O interactions, which help to form a dimer between two symmetry-related salts in the unit cell. In addition, an intramolecular C—H⋯N and intermolecular C—H⋯Cl interactions help to control the molecules in the unit-cell packing. PMID:22065484

  2. Optical and electrochemical properties of heteroditopic ion receptors derived from crown ether-based calix[4]arene with amido-anthraquinone pendants.

    PubMed

    Chailap, Benjamat; Tuntulani, Thawatchai

    2012-05-14

    Two heteroditopic receptors based on a calix[4]arene crown ether containing amidoanthraquinone pendants in cone and 1,3-alternate conformations (1 and 2, respectively) were synthesized. Photophysical properties of 1 and 2 were studied by UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry in dried CH(3)CN. Both 1 and 2 showed the highest sensitivity towards F(-) through the appearance of a new charge transfer band at 500 nm and the enhancement of the emission spectra at λ(em) = 542 nm and 528 nm respectively. Interestingly, in the presence of K(+), the fluorescence intensity of 1 at 542 nm increased around 2 fold compared to that in the absence of K(+) upon addition of F(-), while this phenomenon was not observed in the case of receptor 2. Cyclic voltammograms of receptors 1 and 2 showed two consecutive one-electron reversible waves in 40% v/v CH(3)CN in CH(2)Cl(2), corresponding to two single-electron reductions to give mono- and dianions species at E(1/2)I = -1.21 V and E(1/2)II = -1.66 V as well as E(1/2)I = -1.25 V and E(1/2)II = -1.71 V, respectively. H(2)PO(4)(-) gave remarkable potential shifts (ca. 200 mV) of the second reduction waves (E(1/2)II) of both free 1 and 2. In the presence of K(+), only receptor 1 gave remarkable potential shifts in its redox wave II upon adding F(-) and AcO(-). Therefore, receptors 1 and 2 exhibited dual sensing modes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry. The topology of ligands also played an important role in cooperative binding properties of heteroditopic receptor 1 possessing a closer distance between a cation and an anion binding. On the other hand, the two ion binding sites of receptor 2 were separated by a longer distance and did not support the cooperative binding. This resulted in the abstraction of K(+) from receptor 2 upon addition of anions. PMID:22469902

  3. 3D QSAR and docking studies of various amido and benzyl-substituted 3-amino-4-(2-cyanopyrrolidide)pyrrolidinyl analogs as DPP-IV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Jain, Pratima; Dikshit, Subodh Narayan; Jain, Sourabh

    2013-09-01

    The article describes the development of a robust pharmacophore model and the investigation of structure activity relationship analysis of 3-amino-4-(2-cyanopyrrolidide)pyrrolidinyl analogs reported for DPP-IV inhibition using PHASE module of Schrodinger software. The present works also encompass molecular interaction study of 3-amino-4-(2- cyanopyrrolidide)pyrrolidinyl analogs on maestro 8.5 workstation. The Phase study module comprises the five points pharmacophore model (AAHPR.617), consisting two hydrogen bond acceptor (A), one Hydrophobic (H), one Positive(P) and one aromatic ring (R) and with discrete geometries as pharmacophoric feature. The developed pharmacophore model was used to derive a predictive atom-based 3D QSAR model. The obtained 3D QSAR model has an excellent correlation coefficient value (r2=0.9926) along with good statistical significance as shown by high Fisher ratio (F=671.7). The model also exhibits good predictive power, which is confirmed by high value of cross validated correlation coefficient (q2 = 0.7311). The QSAR model suggests that hydrophobic and aromatic characters are crucial for the DPP-IV inhibitory activity. The QSAR model also suggests that the inclusion of hydrophobic substituents would enhance the DPP-IV inhibition. In addition to the hydrogen bond acceptor, hydrophobic character, electro withdrawing character positively contributes to the DPP-IV inhibition. This study provides a set of guidelines for designing compounds with better DPP-IV inhibitory potency. PMID:23607811

  4. Reactions of vinyl amido ligands in Tp`(CO){sub 2}W[N(R`)CH=CHR] complexes prepared from addition of primary amines to coordinated alkynes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S.G.; White, P.S.; Templeton, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Reaction of the ytterbium-benzophenone dianion complex (1), which was formed by reaction of Yb metal with benzophenone in THF/HMPA, with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, yielded the ytterbium(II) aryloxide complex Yb(OAr){sub 2}(HMPA){sub 2} (2, Ar= C{sub 6}H{sub 2} -{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-2,6-Me-4) as a major product (80%) and the ytterbium(III) enolate complex (3) as a minor one (ca. 5% yield). The mechanisms of these reactions are discussed. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that 3, 4a, and 7b are isostructural, and so are 5a and 6. The central metal ions in these complexes are all five-coordinated in a trigonal bipyramid form (highly distorted in the case of 5a and 6) with two HMPA ligands at the apical and three anionic oxygen ligands at the equatorial positions. 20 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  6. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  7. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  8. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  9. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  10. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  11. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  12. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and Sequence Type in Group B Meningococcal Case Isolates Collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and Potential Coverage of an Investigational Group B Meningococcal Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%. PMID:20375242

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  14. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of alpha- and beta-6-amido derivatives of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3, 14beta-dihydroxy-4, 5alpha-epoxymorphinan: potential alcohol-cessation agents.

    PubMed

    Ghirmai, Senait; Azar, Marc R; Polgar, Wilma E; Berzetei-Gurske, Ilona; Cashman, John R

    2008-03-27

    Substituted aryl and aliphatic amide analogues of 6-naltrexamine were synthesized and used to characterize the binding to and functional activity of human mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors. Competition binding assays showed 11-25 and 27-31 bound to the mu (K(i) = 0.05-1.2 nM) and kappa (K(i) = 0.06-2.4 nM) opioid receptors. Compounds 11-18 possessed significant binding affinity for the delta receptor (K(i) = 0.8-12.4 nM). Functional assays showed several compounds acted as partial or full agonists of delta or kappa receptors while retaining an antagonist profile at the mu receptor. Structure-activity relationship for aryl amides showed that potent compounds possessed lipophilic groups or substituents capable of hydrogen bonding. Metabolic stability studies showed that 11, 12, and 14 possessed considerable stability in the presence of rat, mouse, or human liver preparations. The ED 50 of inhibition of 10% ethanol self-administration in trained rats, using operant techniques for 11, was 0.5 mg/kg. PMID:18298057

  16. Uranium Metalla-Allenes with Carbene Imido R2 C=U(IV) =NR' Units (R=Ph2 PNSiMe3 ; R'=CPh3 ): Alkali-Metal-Mediated Push-Pull Effects with an Amido Auxiliary.

    PubMed

    Lu, Erli; Tuna, Floriana; Lewis, William; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T

    2016-08-01

    We report uranium(IV)-carbene-imido-amide metalla-allene complexes [U(BIPM(TMS) )(NCPh3 )(NHCPh3 )(M)] (BIPM(TMS) =C(PPh2 NSiMe3 )2 ; M=Li or K) that can be described as R2 C=U=NR' push-pull metalla-allene units, as organometallic counterparts of the well-known push-pull organic allenes. The solid-state structures reveal that the R2 C=U=NR' units adopt highly unusual cis-arrangements, which are also reproduced by gas-phase theoretical studies conducted without the alkali metals to remove their potential structure-directing roles. Computational studies confirm the double-bond nature of the U=NR' and U=CR2 interactions, the latter increasingly attenuated by potassium then lithium when compared to the hypothetical alkali-metal-free anion. Combined experimental and theoretical data show that the push-pull effect induced by the alkali metal cations and amide auxiliary gives a fundamental and tunable structural influence over the C=U(IV) =N units. PMID:27403746

  17. {2-[(η5-Cyclo­penta­dien­yl)diphenyl­meth­yl]-1H-imidazolido-κN}bis­(N,N-diethyl­amido)­titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xianfeng; Xu, Yingying; Nie, Wanli; Borzov, Maxim V.

    2011-01-01

    The chemically achiral title mol­ecule, [Ti(C4H10N)2(C21H16N2)], crystallizes in the chiral space group P21. All three N atoms coordinating to the TiIV atom adopt planar environments [sums of valence angles = 359.5 (6), 360.0 (7) and 360.0 (6)°], which is indicative of pπ–dπ donation from all of these N atoms to the metal and, thus, of the formal 18 e− nature of the complex. The overall coordination about the TiIV atom is distorted tetra­hedral, assuming the cyclo­penta­dienyl ring occupies one coordination site. The Ti—Nimidazole amide-type bond is longer by approximately 0.16 Å than the other two Ti—Namide bonds. PMID:21754286

  18. Crystal structure of bis-{4-bromo-2-[(carb-amim-id-amido-imino)-meth-yl]phenolato-κ(3) N,N',O}cobalt(III) nitrate di-methyl-formamide monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Kasyanova, Katerina A; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Co(C8H8BrN4O)2]NO3·C3H7NO, is formed of discrete [CoL 2](+) cations, nitrate anions and di-methyl-formamide (DMF) mol-ecules of crystallization. The cation has no crystallographically imposed symmetry. The ligand mol-ecules are deprotonated at the phenol O atom and octa-hedrally coordinate the Co(III) atoms through the azomethine N and phenolate O atoms in a mer configuration. The deprotonated ligand mol-ecules adopt an almost planar conformation. In the crystal lattice, the cations are arranged in layers in the ab plane divided by the nitrate anions and solvent mol-ecules. No π-π stacking is observed. All of the amine H atoms are involved in hydrogen bonding to nitrate, DMF or ligand O atoms or to one of the Br atoms, forming two-dimensional networks parallel to (100). PMID:27555929

  19. 2-{4-Methyl-N-[(2,3,4,9-tetra­hydro-1H-carbazol-3-yl)meth­yl]benzene­sulfon­amido}­ethyl 4-methyl­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Göçmentürk, Mustafa; Ergün, Yavuz; Mougang-Soume, Berline; Çaylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C29H32N2O5S2, the indole ring system is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.013 (2) Å, and the cyclo­hexenone ring has an envelope conformation with the methine C atom as the flap. The two methyl­benzene rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a chain running along the a-axis direction, and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions are observed between the chains. PMID:24454234

  20. Crystal structure of bis­{4-bromo-2-[(carb­amim­id­amido­imino)­meth­yl]phenolato-κ3 N,N′,O}cobalt(III) nitrate di­methyl­formamide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Buvaylo, Elena A.; Kasyanova, Katerina A.; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu.; Skelton, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C8H8BrN4O)2]NO3·C3H7NO, is formed of discrete [CoL 2]+ cations, nitrate anions and di­methyl­formamide (DMF) mol­ecules of crystallization. The cation has no crystallographically imposed symmetry. The ligand mol­ecules are deprotonated at the phenol O atom and octa­hedrally coordinate the CoIII atoms through the azomethine N and phenolate O atoms in a mer configuration. The deprotonated ligand mol­ecules adopt an almost planar conformation. In the crystal lattice, the cations are arranged in layers in the ab plane divided by the nitrate anions and solvent mol­ecules. No π–π stacking is observed. All of the amine H atoms are involved in hydrogen bonding to nitrate, DMF or ligand O atoms or to one of the Br atoms, forming two-dimensional networks parallel to (100). PMID:27555929

  1. 2-({[(Pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmeth-yl)carbamo-yl]form-amido}-meth-yl)pyridin-1-ium bis-(3,5-di-carb-oxy-benzoate): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Jotani, Mukesh M; Syed, Sabrina; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-02-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C14H16N4O2 (2+)·2C9H5O6 (-), comprises half a dication, being located about a centre of inversion, and one anion, in a general position. The central C4N2O2 group of atoms in the dication are almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.009 Å), and the carbonyl groups lie in an anti disposition to enable the formation of intra-molecular amide-N-H⋯O(carbon-yl) hydrogen bonds. To a first approximation, the pyridinium and amide N atoms lie to the same side of the mol-ecule [Npy-C-C-Namide torsion angle = 34.8 (2)°], and the anti pyridinium rings are approximately perpendicular to the central part of the mol-ecule [dihedral angle = 68.21 (8)°]. In the anion, one carboxyl-ate group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is connected [Cben-Cben-Cq-O torsion angle = 2.0 (3)°], whereas the other carboxyl-ate and carb-oxy-lic acid groups are twisted out of the plane [torsion angles = 16.4 (3) and 15.3 (3)°, respectively]. In the crystal, anions assemble into layers parallel to (10-4) via hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(carbon-yl) and charge-assisted hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonds. The dications are linked into supra-molecular tapes by amide-N-H⋯O(amide) hydrogen bonds, and thread through the voids in the anionic layers, being connected by charge-assisted pyridinium-N-O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonds, so that a three-dimensional architecture ensues. An analysis of the Hirshfeld surface points to the importance of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure. PMID:26958398

  2. fac-(2-Amido­ethyl-κ2 C 1,O)aqua­tri­chlorido­tin(IV) 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa­oxacyclo­octa­decane (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Harrison, William T. A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; de Lima, Geraldo M.; Wardell, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Sn(C3H6NO)Cl3(H2O)]2·C12H24O6, comprises a six-coordinate tin complex and a 18-crown-6 mol­ecule, the latter disposed about a centre of inversion. The tin atom is coordinated by three Cl atoms, that define a facial arrangement, a chelating C-,O- ligand, and a water mol­ecule. The resulting CCl3O2 donor set defines a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The tin-bound aqua ligand forms O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the centrosymmetric 18-crown-6 mol­ecule, resulting in a tri-mol­ecular aggregate. These assemble into a supra­molecular chain along the a axis being connected by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21580253

  3. Novel potent and highly selective human A(3) adenosine receptor antagonists belonging to the 4-amido-2-arylpyrazolo[3,4-c]quinoline series: molecular docking analysis and pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Colotta, Vittoria; Capelli, Francesca; Lenzi, Ombretta; Catarzi, Daniela; Varano, Flavia; Poli, Daniela; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea; Dal Ben, Diego; Volpini, Rosaria; Cristalli, Gloria; Filacchioni, Guido

    2009-01-01

    The study of novel 2-arylpyrazolo[3,4-c]quinolin-4-(hetero)arylamides, designed as human (h) A(3) adenosine receptor antagonists, is reported. The new derivatives are endowed with nanomolar hA(3) receptor affinity and high selectivity versus hA(1), hA(2A) and hA(2B) receptors. Among the (hetero)aroyl residues introduced on the 4-amino group, the 2-furyl and 4-pyridyl rings turned out to be the most beneficial for hA(3) affinity (K(i)=3.4 and 5.0nM, respectively). An intensive molecular docking study to a rhodopsin-based homology model of the hA(3) receptor was carried out to obtain a 'structure-based pharmacophore model' that proved to be helpful for the interpretation of the observed affinities of the new hA(3) pyrazoloquinoline antagonists. PMID:18996701

  4. Bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)[N,N′-o-phenyl­enebis(pyridine-2-carbox­amido)-κ4 N]manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Zaki N.; Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Mn(C18H12N4O2)(C4H6N2)2], belongs to the family of 1,2-bis­(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzene (H2bpb) ligated metal complexes. The manganese center is octa­hedrally coordinated by a bpb ligand and two axial 1-methyl­imidazole mol­ecules. The axial N—Mn—N group is bent with a bond angle of 151.79 (7)°. PMID:21581541

  5. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 4-(5-dimethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfon-amido)-3-(4-iodophenyl)butanoic acid as a novel molecular probe for apoptosis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Wenbin; Miao, Weimin; Le Puil, Michael; Shi, Guangqing; Biggerstaff, John; Kabalka, George W.; Townsend, David

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Annexin V is the gold standard probe for imaging apoptosis. {yields} Unfavorable profiles of Annexin V make it difficult to apply in the clinic. {yields} A novel small-molecular probe DNSBA was designed as an alternative to Annexin V. {yields} DNSBA specifically and selectively detect apoptotic cancer cells at all stages. {yields} DNSBA is a potential SPECT and PET agent when labeled with radioiodine. -- Abstract: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many disorders, thus the detection of apoptotic cells can provide the physician with important information to further therapeutic strategies and would substantially advance patient care. A small molecule, 4-(5-dimethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfonamido)-3-(4-iodo-phenyl)butanoic acid (DNSBA), was designed as a novel probe for imaging apoptosis and synthesized with good yield. The biological characterization demonstrated that DNSBA can be used to specifically and selectively detect apoptotic cancer cells at all stages. DNSBA is also designed as a potential SPECT and PET probe when labeled with radioiodine (I-123, -124, and -131).

  6. Crystal structures of μ-oxalato-bis­[azido­(hista­mine)­copper(II)] and μ-oxalato-bis­[(dicyan­amido)(hista­mine)­copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Abboud, Khalil A.

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds, μ-oxalato-κ4 O 1,O 2:O 1′,O 2′-bis­[[4-(2-amino­eth­yl)-1H-imid­azole-κ2 N 3,N 4](azido-κN 1)copper(II)], [Cu2(C2O4)(N3)2(C5H9N3)2], (I), and μ-ox­al­ato-κ4 O 1,O 2:O 1′,O 2′-bis­[[4-(2-amino­eth­yl)-1H-imidazole-κ2 N 3,N 4](dicyanamido-κN 1)copper(II)], [Cu2(C2O4)(C2N3)2(C5H9N3)2], (II), are two oxalate-bridged dinuclear copper complexes. Each CuII ion adopts a five-coordinate square-pyramidal coordination sphere where the basal N2O2 plane is formed by two O atoms of the oxalate ligand and two N atoms of a bidentate chelating histamine mol­ecule. The apical coordination site in compound (I) is occupied by a monodentate azide anion through one of its terminal N atoms. The apical coordination site in compound (II) is occupied by a monodentate dicyanamide anion through one of its terminal N atoms. The mol­ecules in both structures are centrosymmetric. In the crystals of compounds (I) and (II), the dinuclear complexes are linked through N—H⋯X and C—H⋯X (X = N, O) hydrogen bonds where the donors are provided by the histamine ligand and the acceptor atoms are provided by the azide, dicyanamide, and oxalate ligands. In compound (I), the coordinatively unsaturated copper ions inter­act with the histamine ligand via a C—H⋯Cu inter­action. The coordinatively unsaturated copper ions in compound (II) inter­act via a weak N⋯Cu inter­action with the dicyanamide ligand of a neighboring mol­ecule. The side chain of the histamine ligand is disordered over three sets of sites in (II). PMID:26594515

  7. Meio- and Macrofaunal Communities in Artificial Water-Filled Tree Holes: Effects of Seasonality, Physical and Chemical Parameters, and Availability of Food Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ptatscheck, Christoph; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study we investigated the dynamics of meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities in artificial water-filled tree holes. The abundances and, for the first time, biomasses and secondary production rates of these communities were examined. The experimental set-up consisted of 300 brown plastic cups placed in temperate mixed forests and sampled five times over a period of 16 months to determine the impact of (i) seasonal events, (ii) physicochemical parameters, and (iii) food resources on the tree hole metazoans. Outcomes Metazoan organisms, especially the meiofauna (rotifers and nematodes) occupied nearly all of the cups (> 99%) throughout the year. Between 55% and 99% of the metazoan community was represented by rotifers (max. 557,000 individuals 100 cm-2) and nematodes (max. 58,000 individuals 100 cm-2). Diptera taxa, particularly Dasyhelea sp. (max. 256 individuals 100 cm-2) dominated the macrofaunal community. Macrofauna accounted for the majority of the metazoan biomass, with a mean dry weight of 5,800 μg 100 cm-2 and an annual production rate of 20,400 μg C 100 cm-2, whereas for meiofauna mean biomass and annual production were 100 μg 100 cm-2 and 5,300 μg C 100 cm-2, respectively. The macrofaunal taxa tended to show more fluctuating population dynamic while the meiofaunal dynamic was rather low with partly asynchronous development. Seasonality (average temperature and rain intervals) had a significant impact on both meiofauna and macrofauna. Furthermore, bottom-up control (chlorophyll-a and organic carbon), mainly attributable to algae, was a significant factor that shaped the metazoan communities. In contrast, physicochemical water parameters had no evident influence. 23.7% of organism density distribution was explained by redundancy analysis (RDA) indicating a high dynamic and asynchrony of the systems. PMID:26284811

  8. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  9. 77 FR 64984 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... (G) Aromatic additive. amido-amine- modified aliphatic hydrocarbon resin. P-12-0546 9/7/2012 12/5/2012 CBI (G) Lubricant (G) Aromatic additive. amido-amine- modified aliphatic hydrocarbon resin. P-12... alkane. P-12-0549 9/13/2012 12/11/2012 CBI (G) Binder fibers (G) Modified polyester. P-12-0550...

  10. Novel chloride-centered discrete CuI8 cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands. Syntheses and structures of [Cu8(mu8-Cl)[Se2P(OR)2](6)](PF6) (R = Et, Pr, iPr)1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Hsueh, Hsin-Hsueh; Wang, Ju-Chung

    2003-05-19

    Three clusters 1-3, Cu(8)(mu8-Cl)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R= Et, Pr, (i)Pr), were synthesized in high yield from the reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NCl in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in diethyl ether. FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2218.10 for 1, 2386.10 for 2, and 2387.34 for 3 which are due to molecular cations, [1-PF(6)]+, [2-PF(6)]+, and [3-PF(6)]+, respectively. (31)P NMR spectra of 1-3 display a singlet at delta 76.48, 76.73, and 69.32 ppm with satellites (J(PSe) = 652, 653, and 648 Hz), respectively. The (77)Se NMR spectra of 1-3 exhibit a doublet peak at -21.7, -16.42, and 2.3 ppm, respectively (J(SeP) = 652 Hz for 1, 653 Hz for 2, and 648 Hz for 3). The X-ray structure (1-3) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight copper ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central mu8-Cl ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a chloride-centered distorted Cu(8) cube in clusters 1 and 2 and a near perfect Cu(8) cube for cluster 3. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2, mu2)) coordination pattern, and each occupies a square face of the cube. Each copper atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms with a strong interaction with the central chloride ion. The observed Cu-Cl distances lie in the range 2.649-2.878 A. PMID:12739962

  11. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  13. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  14. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  15. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use. PMID:12337558

  16. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  17. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  18. 2-({[(Pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmeth­yl)carbamo­yl]form­amido}­meth­yl)pyridin-1-ium bis­(3,5-di­carb­oxy­benzoate): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jotani, Mukesh M.; Syed, Sabrina; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C14H16N4O2 2+·2C9H5O6 −, comprises half a dication, being located about a centre of inversion, and one anion, in a general position. The central C4N2O2 group of atoms in the dication are almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.009 Å), and the carbonyl groups lie in an anti disposition to enable the formation of intra­molecular amide-N—H⋯O(carbon­yl) hydrogen bonds. To a first approximation, the pyridinium and amide N atoms lie to the same side of the mol­ecule [Npy—C—C—Namide torsion angle = 34.8 (2)°], and the anti pyridinium rings are approximately perpendicular to the central part of the mol­ecule [dihedral angle = 68.21 (8)°]. In the anion, one carboxyl­ate group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is connected [Cben—Cben—Cq—O torsion angle = 2.0 (3)°], whereas the other carboxyl­ate and carb­oxy­lic acid groups are twisted out of the plane [torsion angles = 16.4 (3) and 15.3 (3)°, respectively]. In the crystal, anions assemble into layers parallel to (10-4) via hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(carbon­yl) and charge-assisted hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(carboxyl­ate) hydrogen bonds. The dications are linked into supra­molecular tapes by amide-N—H⋯O(amide) hydrogen bonds, and thread through the voids in the anionic layers, being connected by charge-assisted pyridinium-N—O(carboxyl­ate) hydrogen bonds, so that a three-dimensional architecture ensues. An analysis of the Hirshfeld surface points to the importance of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure. PMID:26958398

  19. (S)-N-[(4-{(S)-1-[2-(4-Meth-oxy-benz-amido)-2-methyl-propano-yl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido}-3,4,5,6-tetra-hydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)carbon-yl]proline dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate (4-MeBz-Aib-Pro-Thp-Pro-OH).

    PubMed

    Stoykova, Svetlana A; Linden, Anthony; Heimgartner, Heinz

    2013-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H38N4O8·C2H6OS, contains one tetra-peptide and one disordered dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mol-ecule. The central five-membered ring (Pro(2)) of the peptide mol-ecule has a disordered envelope conformation [occupancy ratio 0.879 (2):0.121 (2)] with the envelope flap atom, the central C atom of the three ring methylene groups, lying on alternate sides of the mean ring plane. The terminal five-membered ring (Pro(4)) also adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom of the methylene group closest to the carboxylic acid function as the envelope flap, and the six-membered tetra-hydro-pyrane ring shows a chair conformation. The tetra-peptide exists in a helical conformation, stabilized by an intra-molecular hydrogen bond between the amide N-H group of the heterocyclic α-amino acid Thp and the amide O atom of the 4-meth-oxy-benzoyl group. This inter-action has a graph set motif of S(10) and serves to maintain a fairly rigid β-turn structure. In the crystal, the terminal hy-droxy group forms a hydrogen bond with the amide O atom of Thp of a neighbouring mol-ecule, and the amide N-H group at the opposite end of the mol-ecule forms a hydrogen bond with the amide O atom of Thp of another neighbouring mol-ecule. The combination of both inter-molecular inter-actions links the mol-ecules into an extended three-dimensional framework. PMID:23476594

  20. Crystal structure of the inverse crown ether tetra­kis­[μ2-bis­(tri­methyl­sil­yl)amido]-μ4-oxido-dicobalt(II)disodium, [Co2Na2{μ2-N(SiMe3)2}4](μ4-O)

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Christopher B.; Filatov, Alexander S.; Hillhouse, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Co2Na2{μ2-N(SiMe3)2}4](μ4-O), (I), represents a new entry in the class of inverse crown ethers. In the mol­ecule, each Co atom is formally in the oxidation state +II. The structure contains one half of a unique mol­ecule per asymmetric unit with the central μ4-oxido ligand residing on an inversion center, leading to a planar coordination to the Na and Co atoms. In the crystal, bulky tri­methyl­silyl substituents prevent additional inter­actions with cobalt. However, weak inter­molecular Na⋯H3C—Si inter­actions form an infinite chain along [010]. The structure is isotypic with its Mg, Mn and Zn analogues. PMID:27308041

  1. Crystal structure of the inverse crown ether tetra-kis-[μ2-bis-(tri-methyl-sil-yl)amido]-μ4-oxido-dicobalt(II)disodium, [Co2Na2{μ2-N(SiMe3)2}4](μ4-O).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher B; Filatov, Alexander S; Hillhouse, Gregory L

    2016-06-01

    The title compound, [Co2Na2{μ2-N(SiMe3)2}4](μ4-O), (I), represents a new entry in the class of inverse crown ethers. In the mol-ecule, each Co atom is formally in the oxidation state +II. The structure contains one half of a unique mol-ecule per asymmetric unit with the central μ4-oxido ligand residing on an inversion center, leading to a planar coordination to the Na and Co atoms. In the crystal, bulky tri-methyl-silyl substituents prevent additional inter-actions with cobalt. However, weak inter-molecular Na⋯H3C-Si inter-actions form an infinite chain along [010]. The structure is isotypic with its Mg, Mn and Zn analogues. PMID:27308041

  2. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  3. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  4. Mechanism of action of ferrocene derivatives on the catalytic activity of topoisomerase IIalpha and beta--distinct mode of action of two derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sai Krishna, A D; Panda, Gayatri; Kondapi, Anand K

    2005-06-15

    Topoisomerase II is found to be present in two isoforms alpha and beta, and both the isoforms are regulated in cancerous tissue. Development of isoform-specific topoisomerase II poisons has been of great interest for cancer-specific drug targeting. In the present investigation using quantitative structure-activity analysis of ferrocene derivatives, we show that two derivatives of ferrocene, azalactone ferrocene and thiomorpholide amido methyl ferrocene, can preferentially inhibit topoisomerase IIbeta activity. Thiomorpholide amido methyl ferrocene shows higher inhibition of catalytic activity (IC(50) = 50 microM) against topoisomerase IIbeta compared to azalactone ferrocene (IC(50) = 100 microM). The analysis of protein DNA intermediates formed in the presence of these two compounds suggests that azalactone ferrocene readily induces formation of cleavable complex in a dose-dependent manner, in comparison with thiomorpholide amido methyl ferrocene. Both the compounds show significant inhibition of DNA-dependent ATPase activity of enzyme. These results suggest that azalactone ferrocene inhibits DNA passage activity of enzyme leading to the formation of cleavable complex, while thiomorpholide amido methyl ferrocene competes with ATP binding resulting in the inhibition of catalytic activity of enzyme. In summary, thiomorpholide amido methyl ferrocene and azalactone ferrocene show distinctly different mechanisms in inhibition of catalytic activity of topoisomerase IIbeta. PMID:15907782

  5. On sopro do magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. P.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    Magnetares sao estrelas de nêutrons com campos magnéticos acima do limiar quântico de 4,4´1013 G. Por causa desse intenso campo magnético, que exige período de rotação inicial da ordem de 1 ms, o torque eletromagnético é capaz de injetar 2´1052 erg, em menos de um dia, no Remanescente de Supernova (RSN) formado por ocasião da formação do magnetar. A energia injetada acelera a expansão do RSN, de modo que estimativas de idade do RSN feitas sem considerar a injeção de energia superestimarão a idade verdadeira. Além do cenário usual de formação de magnetares em colapsos gravitacionais de estrelas massivas, estudamos a possibilidade de formação dos mesmos através do Colapso Induzido por Acresção em anãs brancas. Estudamos, através de simulação numérica unidimensional, com diversas massas ejetadas e diversas densidades de meio interestelar local, as associações propostas entre candidatos a magnetar e RSNs, incluindo a injeção de energia. Concluímos que aproximadamente metade delas podem ser verdadeiras, e determinamos a faixa de velocidades e idades possíveis de cada associação. As incertezas observacionais a respeito do tamanho e densidade do meio interestelar local limitam a acurácia da análise.

  6. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  7. Chemical enhancement of fingermark in blood on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungwook; Seo, Jin Yi

    2015-12-01

    Chemical enhancement methods for fingermark in blood deposited on the surface of a thermal paper substrate were examined. The blood-sensitive reagents compared were LCV (leuco crystal violet), Amido black and Hungarian red. Fingermark in blood on the surface of thermal paper can be fixed with 2% 5-sulfosalicylic acid solution. LCV was found as an inadequate blood staining reagent because of bubbling, diffusion, and blurring on the surface of thermal paper. Hungarian red was also an inadequate blood staining reagent because excess Hungarian red on the surface of thermal paper was not washed away in the de-staining procedure. Amido black was the best staining reagent among three staining reagents compared. The maximum dilution ratio visible to the naked eye after Amido black staining was 1 in 80 for the thermally sensitive surface and 1 in 20 for the thermally non-sensitive surface. PMID:26540182

  8. Lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts followed by chemical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Sarena; Izraeli, Elad; Shor, Yaron; Domb, Avi

    2013-05-01

    A method for lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts and enhancing the lifted impressions with amido black is presented. On rough or dark substrates, background interferences may conceal significant details of footwear impressions. Illumination with alternative light sources and chemically enhancing the bloody footwear impressions may reveal additional details, but sometimes, lifting footwear impressions prior to enhancing is the only way to expose hidden details (by using blood reagents not adequate on the original). Several cast formulations were tested for lifting the footwear impressions. The best results were achieved using Aroma fine®. Enhancement of the footwear impressions was attempted with several reagents prior to lifting, during the casting process, and on the lifted footwear impressions. Applying amido black to footwear impressions lifted with alginate produced the sharpest and most detailed footwear impressions. Alginate castings followed by chemical enhancement with amido black may produce high-quality footwear impressions for comparison. PMID:23488772

  9. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  10. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…