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1

Amino acid requirements of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

The amino acids required for growth and as energy sources by 10 strains of Legionella pneumophila were determined by using a chemically defined medium. All strains required arginine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine or tyrosine. Most strains (7 of 10) required serine, and two strains had to be supplied proline before growth could be established. All 10 strains used serine and, to a lesser extent, threonine as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The Y serine calculated was 94.9 +/- 8.5 g (dry weight) of cells/mol of serine. Assuming that the value of Y adenosine 5'-triphosphate is 10.5, these results indicate that oxidative catabolism of 1 mol of serine yielded approximately 9 mol of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. This high yield suggests that although serine was the major source of carbon, other amino acids may also be metabolized. PMID:6769947

George, J R; Pine, L; Reeves, M W; Harrell, W K

1980-03-01

2

Amino acid requirements in humans: with a special emphasis on the metabolic availability of amino acids.  

PubMed

Due to advances made in the development of stable isotope based carbon oxidation methods, the determination of amino acid requirements in humans has been an active area of research for the past 2 decades. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method developed in our laboratory for humans has been systematically applied to determine almost all indispensable amino acid requirements in adult humans. Nutritional application of experimentally derived amino acid requirement estimates depends upon the capacity of food proteins to meet the amino acid requirements in humans. Therefore, there is a need to know the proportion of dietary amino acids which are bioavailable, or metabolically available to the body for protein synthesis following digestion and absorption. Although this concept is widely applied in animal nutrition, it has not been applied to human nutrition due to lack of data. We developed a new in vivo method in growing pigs to identify the metabolic availability of amino acids in foods using the IAAO concept. This metabolic availability method has recently been adapted for use in humans. As this newly developed IAAO based method to determine metabolic availability of amino acids in foods is suitable for rapid and routine analysis in humans, it is a major step forward in defining the protein quality of food sources and integrating amino acid requirement data with dietary amino acid availability of foods. PMID:19156481

Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

2009-05-01

3

Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity  

SciTech Connect

The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

1985-04-01

4

Increasing dispensable amino acids in diets of kittens fed essential amino acids at or below their requirement increases the requirement for arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Kittens fed diets containing 0.75 × the NRC (1986) essential amino acid requirement (EAArq) and 210 to 560g crude protein(CP)\\/kg diet exhibited, with increasing CP: 1) decreasing weight gain, 2) decreasing plasma arginine concentrations, 3) increasing urinary orotic acid excretion, 4) increasing plasma glutamic acid concentrations, and 5) plasma isoleucine concentrations at levels that suggest a marginal isoleucine deficiency.

T. P. Taylor; J. G. Morris; P. H. Kass; Q. R. Rogers

1997-01-01

5

Models to Estimate Amino Acid Requirements for Broiler Chickens: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized growth models can be a useful tool to determine more profitable and accurate concentrations and balance of dietary amino acids and other nutrients for broiler chickens. The methodology of mathematical modeling can be rapidly accepted in poultry nutrition and research due to the complexity of nutrient requirement estimations in practical and economical terms, and the necessity to have some

E. O. Oviedo-Rondon

2002-01-01

6

Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge. PMID:24424080

Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A; Michaelsen, K F; Slater, C; Tomé, D; Weisell, R

2014-03-01

7

77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment...Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures must include a copy of the...

2012-10-29

8

Reevaluation of the protein requirement in young men with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Thecurrentestimatedproteinrequirementsarebased on the nitrogen balance method, which has many limitations. An alternate approach is needed to permit a reevaluation of protein requirements. Objective: The objective was to determine protein requirements in men by using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Design: Eight healthy men randomly received graded protein in- takes (0.10, 0.30, 0.60, 0.90, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 g kg1

Mohammad A Humayun; Rajavel Elango; Ronald O Ball; Paul B Pencharz

9

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

10

Practical starter pig amino acid requirements in relation to immunity, gut health and growth performance  

PubMed Central

Immune system activation begins a host of physiological responses. Infectious agents are recognized by monocytes and macrophages which in turn stimulate cytokine production. It is the hormone-like factors called cytokines that orchestrate the immune response. The classic responses observed with immune system activation and cytokine production include: anorexia, fever, lethargy, recruitment of other immune cells, and phagocytosis. While production of immune system components is known to require some amino acids, increases in amino acid requirements are more than offset by the associated decrease in protein accretion and increased muscle protein degradation that also accompanies immune system activation. However, the biggest impact of cytokine production is a decrease in feed intake. Therefore, as feed intake decreases, the energy needed to drive protein synthesis is also decreased. This suggests that diets should still be formulated on a similar calorie:lysine ratio as those formulated for non-immune challenged pigs. The evidence is sparse or equivocal for increasing nutrient requirements during an immune challenge. Nutritionists and swine producers should resist the pressure to alter the diet, limit feed, or add expensive feed additives during an immune challenge. While immune stimulation does not necessitate changes in diet formulation, when pigs are challenged with non-pathogenic diarrhea there are potential advantages on gut health with the increased use of crystalline amino acids rather than intact protein sources (i.e., soybean meal). This is because reducing crude protein decreases the quantity of fermentable protein entering the large intestine, which lowers post weaning diarrhea. It also lowers the requirement for expensive specialty protein sources or other protein sources such as soybean meal that present immunological challenges to the gut. The objective of this review is two-fold. The first is to discuss immunity by nutrition interactions, or lack thereof, and secondly, to review amino acid requirement estimates for nursery pigs. PMID:24533455

2014-01-01

11

Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

Serafin, J.A.

1977-01-01

12

Extreme genetic code optimality from a molecular dynamics calculation of amino acid polar requirement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular dynamics calculation of the amino acid polar requirement is used to score the canonical genetic code. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this computational polar requirement has been optimized by the canonical genetic code, an order of magnitude more than any previously known measure, effectively ruling out a vertical evolution dynamics. The sensitivity of the optimization to the precise metric used in code scoring is consistent with code evolution having proceeded through the communal dynamics of statistical proteins using horizontal gene transfer, as recently proposed. The extreme optimization of the genetic code therefore strongly supports the idea that the genetic code evolved from a communal state of life prior to the last universal common ancestor.

Butler, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Mathew, Damien; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

2009-06-01

13

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

14

Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition  

PubMed Central

Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the “nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)” were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the “ideal protein” concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University’s optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

2014-01-01

15

A simple amino acid dose-response method to quantify amino acid requirements of individual meal-fed pigs.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to develop a simplified dose-response technique to estimate the Lys requirement of individual, meal-fed growing pigs. In Exp. 1, we studied adaptation processes that occur during such a dose-response study in meal-fed pigs, and in Exp. 2, we studied the accuracy of this simplified technique to estimate changes in Lys requirement estimates of pigs following changes in energy intake. In Exp. 1, the effect of the Lys supply strategy on the Lys requirement was assessed in 14 barrows fed an increasing [low to high (LH)] or decreasing [high to low (HL)] total Lys supply, with total Lys levels varying from 0.36 to 1.06 g/MJ DE in 7 equidistant steps of 4 d each. Urinary urea and ammonia excretion and whole body N turnover were measured. In Exp. 2, the accuracy of the dose-response technique to determine a shift in Lys requirement was assessed in 20 barrows fed at either 2.2 [low energy (LE)] or 2.7 [high energy (HE)] times the energy requirements for maintenance, with total Lys supply decreasing from 1.10 to 0.37 g Lys/MJ DE in 9 equidistant steps of 3 d each. In Exp. 1, a lower increment in protein synthesis, breakdown, and whole body N turnover with increasing dietary Lys supply was observed in LH pigs than HL pigs (P < 0.01) and the estimated Lys requirement was 0.06 g/MJ DE greater (P = 0.01) in LH pigs than HL pigs. These results indicated that pigs at a decreasing Lys supply strategy require less time for metabolic adaptation to a change in Lys supply than those at an increasing Lys supply. In Exp. 2, the estimated Lys requirement was 2.6 g/d greater (P < 0.001) in HE pigs than LE pigs. The variation in AA requirement estimates between individual pigs was low (4.9% in LH pigs and 3.0% in HL pigs in Exp. 1 and 8.1% in LE pigs and 6.0% in HE pigs in Exp. 2). The present studies indicated that a dose-response technique with a decreasing Lys supply in time and a step length of 3 d with urinary N excretion as response criteria provides a simple, accurate technique to quantitatively estimate a change in AA requirements of individual meal-fed pigs. PMID:23942706

Kampman-van de Hoek, E; Gerrits, W J J; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Jansman, A J M; van den Borne, J J G C

2013-10-01

16

Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes  

SciTech Connect

The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of (1-13C)valine (and (2H3)leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1.

Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R. (Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1991-08-01

17

The nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human amino acid and protein requirements.  

PubMed

The adequacy of plant-based diets in developed and developing countries as sources of protein and amino acids for human subjects of all ages is examined. Protein quantity is shown not to be an issue. Digestibility is identified as a problem for some cereals (millet (Panicum miliaceum) and sorghum (Sorghum sp.)) and generally is poorly understood. Direct measurements of biological value in children are reviewed and scoring is considered. Various existing requirement values for amino acids and especially lysine are reviewed, and it is concluded that stable-isotope studies do not yet provide adequate alternative values of N balance data, which for lysine are robust after recalculation and adjustment. A new maintenance requirement pattern is developed, with higher values than those of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) but lower values than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pattern (Young et al. 1989). Calculations of age-related amino acid requirements are based on most recent estimates of human growth and maintenance protein requirements, a tissue amino acid pattern and the new maintenance amino acid pattern. These values appear valid when used to score plant proteins, since they indicate values similar to or less than the biological value measured directly in young children. When used to score plant-based diets in India, no marked deficiencies are identified. All regions score > 1 for adults, whilst for children scores range from > 1, (Tamil Nadhu) from 6 months of age to 0.78 (West Bengal), rising to 0.9 in the 2-5 year old, consistent with reports that high-lysine maize supports similar weight and height growth to that of casein. Inadequate amino acid supply is not an issue with most cereal-based diets. PMID:10466163

Millward, D J

1999-05-01

18

Pyrolysis products from amino acids and protein: Highest mutagenicity requires cytochrome P1-450  

PubMed Central

Pyrolysis products of proteins and amino acids are highly mutagenic, but metabolism of these chemicals by rat liver subcellular fractions is known to be required for production of the mutagenic intermediates. We examined the mutagenesis of seven purified pyrolysis products from tryptophan, lysine, glutamic acid, and soybean globulin with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of liver fractions from genetically “responsive” C57BL/6N and Ahb/Ahd or “nonresponsive” DBA/2N and Ahd/Ahd mice that had been pretreated in vivo with benzo[a]pyrene. For all pyrolysis products tested, mutagenesis is 2-fold to more than 1000-fold greater with C57BL/6N and Ahb/Ahd than with DBA/2N or Ahd/Ahd liver fractions. A sucrose density gradient assay for detecting the Ah regulatory gene product, the receptor, was studied with C57BL/6N hepatic cytosol. At levels 100 times in excess of [1,6-3H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, nonlabeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene, and ?-naphthoflavone (inducers of cytochrome P1-450) are able to displace the radioligand from its hepatic cytosolic receptor; four pyrolysates from tryptophan, glutamic acid, and soybean globulin did not have this capacity. These data indicate that the pyrolysis products tested, although not effective as inducers of cytochrome P1-450, are most mutagenic when metabolized by P1-450. Potent P1-450 inducers—present in pyrolysates during the combustion process—might be present in quantities insufficient to initiate mutagenesis or carcinogenesis but might have a synergistic action, or act as “comutagens” or “cocarcinogens,” with the N-containing heterocyclic pyrolysis products. A quantitative relationship between mutagenic and carcinogenic potency of these pyrolysis products remains, however, to be demonstrated. PMID:293693

Nebert, Daniel W.; Bigelow, Sanford W.; Okey, Allan B.; Yahagi, Takie; Mori, Yuko; Nagao, Minako; Sugimura, Takashi

1979-01-01

19

Specific amino acid substitutions are not required for transformation by v-myb of avian myeloblastosis virus.  

PubMed Central

The protein product of the v-myb oncogene of avian myeloblastosis virus, p48v-myb, differs structurally in several ways from its normal cellular homolog, p75c-myb. We demonstrated that the 11 specific amino acid substitutions found in two independent molecular clones of this virus were not required for the transformation of myeloblasts by v-myb. Images PMID:2828660

Stober-Grasser, U; Lipsick, J S

1988-01-01

20

Autophagy in Trypanosoma brucei: Amino Acid Requirement and Regulation during Different Growth Phases  

PubMed Central

Autophagy in the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, may be involved in differentiation between different life cycle forms and during growth in culture. We have generated multiple parasite cell lines stably expressing green fluorescent protein- or hemagglutinin-tagged forms of the autophagy marker proteins, TbAtg8.1 and TbAtg8.2, in T. brucei procyclic forms to establish a trypanosome system for quick and reliable determination of autophagy under different culture conditions using flow cytometry. We found that starvation-induced autophagy in T. brucei can be inhibited by addition of a single amino acid, histidine, to the incubation buffer. In addition, we show that autophagy is induced when parasites enter stationary growth phase in culture and that their capacity to undergo starvation-induced autophagy decreases with increasing cell density. PMID:24699810

Schmidt, Remo S.; Butikofer, Peter

2014-01-01

21

Switching from an esterase to a hydroxynitrile lyase mechanism requires only two amino acid substitutions.  

PubMed

The alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily contains mainly esterases, which catalyze hydrolysis, but also includes hydroxynitrile lyases, which catalyze addition of cyanide to aldehydes, a carbon-carbon bond formation. Here, we convert a plant esterase, SABP2, into a hydroxynitrile lyase using just two amino acid substitutions. Variant SABP2-G12T-M239K lost the ability to catalyze ester hydrolysis (<0.9 mU/mg) and gained the ability to catalyze the release of cyanide from mandelonitrile (20 mU/mg, k(cat)/K(M) = 70 min(-1)M(-1)). This variant also catalyzed the reverse reaction, formation of mandelonitrile with low enantioselectivity: 20% ee (S), E = 1.5. The specificity constant for the lysis of mandelontrile is 13,000-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction and only 1300-fold less efficient (k(cat/)K(M)) than hydroxynitrile lyase from rubber tree. PMID:20797615

Padhi, Santosh Kumar; Fujii, Ryota; Legatt, Graig A; Fossum, Sara L; Berchtold, Reto; Kazlauskas, Romas J

2010-08-27

22

Dietary amino acid l -threonine requirement of fingerling Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) estimated by growth and biochemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight-week feeding experiment was conducted to quantify the dietary threonine requirement of young catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (9.20 ± 0.85 cm, 3.60 ± 0.45 g) using isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets [40% crude protein (CP); 4.28 kcal g\\/100 g, gross\\u000a energy (GE)] containing casein, gelatin and l-crystalline amino acids. Six dietary treatments supplemented with graded levels of l-threonine (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 g per 100 g, dry diet),

Imtiaz Ahmed

2007-01-01

23

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

24

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

25

Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers ((13)C-lysine, (15)N-glycine, ²H5-phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g · kg(-1) · day(-1) compared to 0.8 g · kg(-1) · day(-1) in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h. PMID:22666780

Poortmans, J R; Carpentier, A; Pereira-Lancha, L O; Lancha Jr, A

2012-10-01

26

Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers (13C-lysine, 15N-glycine, 2H5-phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2?g·kg?1·day?1 compared to 0.8?g·kg?1·day?1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20?g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30?g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1?h. PMID:22666780

Poortmans, J.R.; Carpentier, A.; Pereira-Lancha, L.O.; Lancha, A.

2012-01-01

27

Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D\\/L) molecules. We calculate D\\/L ratios for seven biological, alpha-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization

Barbara A. Cohen; Christopher F. Chyba

2000-01-01

28

Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function  

PubMed Central

Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF) region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2) and non-canonical (B2 and C1422) HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF?AAA) and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN) were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that this highly conserved three amino acid VGF motif together with the acidic cluster and the proline-rich motif form a previously unrecognized amphipathic surface on Nef. This surface appears to be essential for the majority of Nef functions and thus represents a prime target for the pharmacological inhibition of Nef. PMID:22537596

2012-01-01

29

Branched-Chain Amino Acids Are Required for the Survival and Virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Swine?  

PubMed Central

In Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes porcine pleuropneumonia, ilvI was identified as an in vivo-induced (ivi) gene and encodes the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. ilvI and 7 of 32 additional ivi promoters were upregulated in vitro when grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) lacking BCAA. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that BCAA would be found at limiting concentrations in pulmonary secretions and that A. pleuropneumoniae mutants unable to synthesize BCAA would be attenuated in a porcine infection model. Quantitation of free amino acids in porcine pulmonary epithelial lining fluid showed concentrations of BCAA ranging from 8 to 30 ?mol/liter, which is 10 to 17% of the concentration in plasma. The expression of both ilvI and lrp, a global regulator that is required for ilvI expression, was strongly upregulated in CDM containing concentrations of BCAA similar to those found in pulmonary secretions. Deletion-disruption mutants of ilvI and lrp were both auxotrophic for BCAA in CDM and attenuated compared to wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae in competitive index experiments in a pig infection model. Wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae grew in CDM+BCAA but not in CDM?BCAA in the presence of sulfonylurea AHAS inhibitors. These results clearly demonstrate that BCAA availability is limited in the lungs and support the hypothesis that A. pleuropneumoniae, and potentially other pulmonary pathogens, uses limitation of BCAA as a cue to regulate the expression of genes required for survival and virulence. These results further suggest a potential role for AHAS inhibitors as antimicrobial agents against pulmonary pathogens. PMID:19703979

Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; LeVeque, Rhiannon M.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H.

2009-01-01

30

BIOCHEMISTRY: The 22nd Amino Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In their Perspective, Atkins and Gesteland discuss the discovery of the 22nd amino acid, pyrrolysine, in Archaea (Hao et al., Srinivasan et al.).

John F. Atkins (University of Utah;Department of Human Genetics); Ray Gesteland (University of Utah;Department of Human Genetics)

2002-05-24

31

Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Mendel, D. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1993-05-19

32

Modification of fetal plasma amino acid composition by placental amino acid exchangers in vitro.  

PubMed

Fetal growth is dependent on both the quantity and relative composition of amino acids delivered to the fetal circulation, and impaired placental amino acid supply is associated with restricted fetal growth. Amino acid exchangers can alter the composition, but not the quantity, of amino acids in the intra- and extracellular amino acid pools. In the placenta, exchangers may be important determinants of the amino acid composition in the fetal circulation. This study investigates the substrate specificity of exchange between the placenta and the feto-placental circulation. Maternal-fetal transfer of radiolabelled amino acids and creatinine were measured in the isolated perfused human placental cotyledon. Transfer of L-[14C]serine or L-[14C]leucine, and [3H]glycine, were measured in the absence of amino acids in the fetal circulation (transfer by non-exchange mechanisms) and following 10-20 micromol boluses of unlabelled amino acids into the fetal circulation to provide substrates for exchange (transfer by exchange and non-exchange mechanisms). The ability of fetal arterial boluses of L-alanine and L-leucine to stimulate release of amino acids from the placenta was also determined using HPLC in order to demonstrate the overall pattern of amino acid release. Experiments with radiolabelled amino acids demonstrated increased maternal-fetal transfer of L-serine and L-leucine, but not glycine, following boluses of specific amino acids into the fetal circulation. L-[14C]Leucine, but not L-[14C]serine or [3H]glycine, was transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation by non-exchange mechanisms also (P<0.01). HPLC analysis demonstrated that fetal amino acid boluses stimulated increased transport of a range of different amino acids by 4-7 micromol l(-1) (P<0.05). Amino acid exchange provides a mechanism to supply the fetus with amino acids that it requires for fetal growth. This study demonstrates that these transporters have the capacity to exchange micromolar amounts of specific amino acids, and suggests that they play an important role in regulating fetal plasma amino acid composition. PMID:17478537

Cleal, Jane K; Brownbill, Paul; Godfrey, Keith M; Jackson, John M; Jackson, Alan A; Sibley, Colin P; Hanson, Mark A; Lewis, Rohan M

2007-07-15

33

Amino acids in human and animal nutrition.  

PubMed

Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products. In the last 10 years there has been a marked move away from the extraction of amino acids from natural products, which has been replaced by efficient fermentation processes using nonanimal carbon sources. Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-tryptophan. DL-Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use principally by chemical synthesis, and a pharmaceutical grade is manufactured by enzymatic resolution. Amino acids play an important role in medical nutrition, particularly in parenteral nutrition, where there are high purity requirements for infusion grade products. Amino acids are also appearing more often in dietary supplements, initially for performance athletes, but increasingly for the general population. As the understanding of the effects of the individual amino acids on the human metabolism is deepened, more specialized product mixtures are being offered to improve athletic performance and for body-building. PMID:24676880

Karau, Andreas; Grayson, Ian

2014-01-01

34

FgIlv5 is required for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and full virulence in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

In this study, we characterized FgIlv5, a homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae keto-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) from the important wheat head scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. KARI is a key enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA, including leucine, isoleucine and valine) biosynthetic pathway that exists in a variety of organisms from bacteria to fungi and higher plants, but not in mammals. The FgILV5 deletion mutant ?FgIlv5-4 failed to grow when the culture medium was nutritionally limited for BCAAs. When grown on potato-dextrose agar plates, ?FgIlv5-4 exhibited a significant decrease in aerial hyphae formation and red pigmentation. Conidia formation was also blocked in ?FgIlv5-4. Exogenous addition of 1 mM isoleucine and valine was able to rescue the defects of mycelial growth and conidial morphogenesis. Cellular stress assays showed that ?FgIlv5-4 was more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stresses than the wild-type strain. In addition, virulence of ?FgIlv5-4 was dramatically reduced on wheat heads, and a low level of deoxynivalenol production was detected in ?FgIlv5-4 in wheat kernels. The results of this study indicate that FgIlv5 is involved in valine and isoleucine biosynthesis and is required for full virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:24493249

Liu, Xin; Wang, Jian; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

2014-04-01

35

Use of Plasma Amino Acid Concentration to Identify Limiting Amino Acids for Milk Production1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that an essential amino acid will accumulate in blood plasma only when supplied in excess of require- ment was the basis of an attempt to identify essential amino acids most likely limiting lactation. In a 5 X 5 Latin- square experiment, five lactating cows were fed a corn-based basal ration con- taining 9.070 crude protein. Casein treated with

G. A. Broderick; L. D. Satter; A. E. Harper

1974-01-01

36

Determination of the amino acid sequence requirements for catalysis by the highly proficient orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase.  

PubMed

Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate to uridine 5'-monophosphate during pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. This enzyme is one of the most proficient known, exhibiting a rate enhancement of over 17 orders of magnitude over the uncatalyzed rate. An interesting question is whether the high proficiency of ODCase is associated with a highly optimized sequence of active site residues. This question was addressed by randomizing 24 residue positions in and around the active site of the E. coli ODCase (pyrF) by site-directed mutagenesis. The libraries of mutants were selected for function from a multicopy plasmid or by single-copy replacement at the pyrF locus on the E. coli chromosome. Stringent sequence requirements for function were found for the mutants expressed from the chromosomal pyrF locus. Six positions were not tolerant of substitutions and several others accepted very limited substitutions. In contrast, all positions could be substituted to some extent when the library mutants were expressed from a multicopy plasmid. For the conserved quartet of charged residues Lys44-Asp71-Lys73-Asp76, a cysteine substitution was found to provide function at positions 71 and 76. A lower pK(a) for both cysteine mutants supports a mechanism whereby the thiolate group of cysteine substitutes for the negatively charged aspartate side chain. The partial function mutants such as D71C and D76C exhibit reduced catalytic efficiency relative to wild type but nevertheless provide a rate enhancement of 15 orders of magnitude over the uncatalyzed rate indicating the catalytic proficiency of the enzyme is robust and tolerant of mutation. PMID:21898650

Yuan, Ji; Cardenas, Ana Maria; Gilbert, Hiram F; Palzkill, Timothy

2011-11-01

37

BranchedChain Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are synthesized by bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and plants, but are essential for vertebrates including humans, who must receive them from their\\u000a diet. The interest to construct overproducing industrial strains therefore stems from the need to supplement\\u000a the food or feed with these amino acids to use them in medical treatment and as

Miroslav Pátek

38

Design and Characterization of Auxotrophy-Based Amino Acid Biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that – upon deletion – should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for

Felix Bertels; Holger Merker; Christian Kost

2012-01-01

39

Total branched-chain amino acids requirement in patients with maple syrup urine disease by use of indicator amino acid oxidation with L-[1-13C]phenylalanine.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the mitochondrial multienzyme complex branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD; EC 1.2.4.4), responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain ketoacids (BCKA) derived from the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, valine, and isoleucine. Deficiency of the enzyme results in increased concentrations of the BCAA and BCKA in body cells and fluids. The treatment of the disease is aimed at keeping the concentration of BCAA below the toxic concentrations, primarily by dietary restriction of BCAA intake. The objective of this study was to determine the total BCAA requirements of patients with classical MSUD caused by marked deficiency of BCKD by use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique. Five MSUD patients from the MSUD clinic of The Hospital for Sick Children participated in the study. Each was randomly assigned to different intakes of BCAA mixture (0, 20, 30, 50, 60, 70, 90, 110, and 130 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), in which the relative proportion of BCAA was the same as that in egg protein. Total BCAA requirement was determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO(2). The mean total BCAA requirement was estimated using a two-phase linear regression crossover analysis, which showed that the mean total BCAA requirement was 45 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), with the safe level of intake (upper 95% confidence interval) at 62 mg.kg(-1).day(-1). This is the first time BCAA requirements in patients with MSUD have been determined directly. PMID:14970005

Riazi, Roya; Rafii, Mahroukh; Clarke, Joe T R; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

2004-07-01

40

Biosensors for D-amino acid detection.  

PubMed

The presence of D-amino acids in foods is promoted by harsh technological processes (e.g., high temperature or extreme pH values) or can be the consequence of adulteration or microbial contamination (D-amino acids are major components of the bacterial cell wall). For this reason, quality control is becoming more and more important both for the industry (as a cost factor) and for consumer protection. For routine food analysis and quality control, simple and easily applicable analytical methods are needed: biosensors can often satisfy these requirements. The use of an enzymatic, stereospecific reaction could confer selectivity to a biosensor for detecting and quantifying D-amino acids in foodstuffs. The flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis is an ideal biocatalyst for this kind of application because of its absolute stereospecificity, very high turnover number with various substrates, tight binding with the FAD cofactor, and broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, alterations in the local brain concentrations of D-serine (predominantly D-amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system) have been related to several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Therefore, quantifying this neuromodulator represents an important task in biological, medical, and pharmaceutical research. Recently, an enzymatic microbiosensor, also using R. gracilis D-amino acid oxidase as biocatalyst, was developed for detecting D-serine in vivo. PMID:21956573

Sacchi, Silvia; Rosini, Elena; Caldinelli, Laura; Pollegioni, Loredano

2012-01-01

41

Enzymatic detection of D-amino acids.  

PubMed

D: -Amino acids play several key roles and are widely diffused in living organisms, from bacteria (in which D-alanine is a component of the cell wall) to mammals (where D-serine is involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system). The study of the biological processes involving D-amino acids and their use as clinical or biotechnological biomarkers requires reliable methods of quantifying them. Although "traditional" analytical techniques have been (and still are) employed for such tasks, enzymatic assays based on enzymes which possess a strict stereospecificity (i.e., that are only active on the D-enantiomers of amino acids) allowed the set-up of low-cost protocols with a high sensitivity and selectivity and suitable for determining the D-amino acid content of complex biological samples. The most exploited enzyme in these assays is D-amino acid oxidase, a flavoenzyme that exclusively oxidizes D-amino acids and possesses with a broad substrate specificity and a high kinetic efficiency. PMID:21956570

Molla, Gianluca; Piubelli, Luciano; Volontè, Federica; Pilone, Mirella S

2012-01-01

42

The Cpc1 regulator of the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis is required for pathogenicity of the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum is a causal agent of early senescence and ripening in cruciferous crops like Brassica napus. Verticillium wilts have become serious agricultural threats in recent decades. Verticillium species infect host plants through the roots and colonize xylem vessels of the host plant. The xylem fluid provides an environment with limited carbon sources and unbalanced amino acid supply, which requires V. longisporum to induce the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis. RNA-mediated gene silencing reduced the expression of the two CPC1 isogenes (VlCPC1-1 and VlCPC1-2) of the allodiploid V. longisporum up to 85%. VlCPC1 encodes the conserved transcription factor of the cross-pathway control. The silenced mutants were highly sensitive to amino-acid starvation, and the infected plants showed significantly fewer symptoms such as stunting or early senescence in oilseed rape plant infection assays. Consistently, deletion of single CPC1 of the haploid V. dahliae resulted in strains that are sensitive to amino-acid starvation and cause strongly reduced symptoms in the plant-host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The allodiploid V. longisporum and the haploid V. dahliae are the first phytopathogenic fungi that were shown to require CPC1 for infection and colonization of their respective host plants, oilseed rape and tomato. PMID:23883358

Timpner, Christian; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Tran, Van Tuan; Braus, Gerhard H

2013-11-01

43

Amino Acid-Derived Enaminones  

PubMed Central

A new reaction for the preparation of enaminones has been discovered. This method employs ?-amino acids as starting materials to allow diversification as well as incorporation of chirality. The ?-amino acids, once converted to ynones, are readily cyclized to the desired six membered enaminone via a two-step, one pot protocol. Although disguised as a 6-endo-dig cyclization, the reagents employed in the transformation play a direct role in bond making and bond breaking, thus changing the mode of addition. PMID:16819843

Turunen, Brandon J.; Georg, Gunda I.

2008-01-01

44

in amino-acid concentration enhanced amino-acid and glucose utilization for lipogenesis, with no  

E-print Network

in amino-acid concentration enhanced amino- acid and glucose utilization for lipogenesis more strongly amino-acid and glucose incorporation into cellular lipids, the glu- cose incorporation showed a synergistic effect between insulin and amino acids for up to 1.59 g/I amino acid in the medium

Boyer, Edmond

45

Quinone-Amino Acid Conjugates Targeting Leishmania Amino Acid Transporters  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1–15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

2014-01-01

46

D-Amino acid oxidase: new findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent research on D-amino acid oxidases and D-amino acid metabolism has revealed new, intriguing properties of flavoenzymes and enlighted novel biotechnological uses of this catalyst. Concerning the in vivo function of the enzyme, new findings on the physiological role of D-amino acid oxidase point to a detoxifying function of the enzyme in metabolizing exogenous D-amino acids in animals.

M. S. Pilone; J. H. Dunant

2000-01-01

47

Amino acids of the murchison meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Six of the seven chain isomers of six-carbon acyclic primarya-amino alkanoic acids (leucine isomers) have been either identified or confirmed in hot-water extracts of the Murchison meteorite using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion exchange chromatography. 2-Amino-2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyric acid, pseudoleucine, and 2-methylnorvaline were positively identified by GC-MS. These amino acids have not been previously reported to occur

J. R. Cronin; W. E. Gandy; S. Pizzarello

1981-01-01

48

Amino Acid Sequence Requirements in the Hinge of Human Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for Cleavage by Streptococcal IgA1 Proteases  

PubMed Central

The amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by IgA1 proteases of different species of Streptococcus were investigated. Recombinant IgA1 antibodies were generated with point mutations at proline 227 and threonine 228, the residues lying on either side of the peptide bond at which all streptococcal IgA1 proteases cleave wild-type human IgA1. The amino acid substitutions produced no major effect upon the structure of the mutant IgA1 antibodies or their functional ability to bind to Fc? receptors. However, the substitutions had a substantial effect upon sensitivity to cleavage with some streptococcal IgA1 proteases, with, in some cases, a single point mutation rendering the antibody resistant to a particular IgA1 protease. This effect was least marked with the IgA1 protease from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which showed no absolute requirement for either proline or threonine at residues 227 to 228. By contrast, the IgA1 proteases of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mitis had an absolute requirement for proline at 227 but not for threonine at 228, which could be replaced by valine. There was evidence in S. mitis that proteases from different strains may have different amino acid requirements for cleavage. Remarkably, some streptococcal proteases appeared able to cleave the hinge at a distant alternative site if substitution prevented efficient cleavage of the original site. Hence, this study has identified key residues required for the recognition of the IgA1 hinge as a substrate by streptococcal IgA1 proteases, and it marks a preliminary step towards development of specific enzyme inhibitors. PMID:12595464

Batten, Margaret R.; Senior, Bernard W.; Kilian, Mogens; Woof, Jenny M.

2003-01-01

49

Amino acids in earthworms: Are earthworms ecosystemivorous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid contents were studied in eight earthworm species (Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, Nicodrilus roseus, N. caliginosus, Dendrobaena octaedra, Eisenia nordenskioldi, Octolasium lacteum, Drawida ghilarovi), plant litter and soil. There are considerable differences in the content of essential amino acids between earthworms and their food (for most amino acids, one order of magnitude; for methionine, up to two orders of

Andrei D. Pokarzhevskii; Dmitrii P. Zaboyev; Gennadii N. Ganin; Stella A. Gordienko

1997-01-01

50

Amino Acid Composition of Rumen Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid analyses were made of 22 strains of rumen bacteria grown in pure culture. The organisms used were selected to represent some of the predominant or- ganisms found in the rumen when either concentrates or roughages are fed. The amino acid results expressed as grams per 100 g total amino acids showed very little variation over the entire range

D. B. Purser; Suzanne M. Buechler

1966-01-01

51

Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1972-01-01

52

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs...and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

2014-04-01

53

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2011-08-09

54

Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids

G. Kminek; O. Botta; D. P. Glavin; J. L. Bada

2002-01-01

55

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

2013-05-21

56

Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.  

PubMed

Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental conditions, we conclude that a systems approach is necessary to unravel the full effects of amino acid biosynthetic cost in complex biological systems. PMID:20808905

Barton, Michael D; Delneri, Daniela; Oliver, Stephen G; Rattray, Magnus; Bergman, Casey M

2010-01-01

57

Evolutionary Systems Biology of Amino Acid Biosynthetic Cost in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental conditions, we conclude that a systems approach is necessary to unravel the full effects of amino acid biosynthetic cost in complex biological systems. PMID:20808905

Barton, Michael D.; Delneri, Daniela; Oliver, Stephen G.; Rattray, Magnus; Bergman, Casey M.

2010-01-01

58

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2010-07-01

59

Characterization of a Pseudomonas putida ABC transporter (AatJMQP) required for acidic amino acid uptake: biochemical properties and regulation by the Aau two-component system  

Microsoft Academic Search

carbon and nitrogen, while a mutant lacking a functional nucleotide-binding domain (KTaatP) was able to adapt to growth on Glu after an extended lag phase. Uptake of Glu and Asp by either mutant was greatly impaired at both low and high amino acid concentrations. The purified solute-binding protein AatJ exhibited high affinity towards Glu and Asp (Kd50.4 and 1.3 mM,

Birendra Singh; Klaus-Heinrich Rohm

2008-01-01

60

NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as L-?-lysine-, L-valine-, L-leucine-, L-isoleucine-, L-methionine-, and L-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(?-l-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ?-PL synthetase and ?-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s. PMID:23817633

Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Arai, Toshinobu; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Kino, Kuniki

2013-08-01

61

Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Recent findings Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Summary Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:21076291

Yarandi, Shadi S.; Zhao, Vivian M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

62

Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus  

DOEpatents

A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

Hanson, Richard S. (Wayzata, MN); Flickinger, Michael C. (St. Paul, MN); Schendel, Frederick J. (Falcon Heights, MN); Guettler, Michael V. (Waconia, MN)

2001-07-17

63

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been

A. M. Skelley; J. R. Scherer; A. D. Aubrey; R. H. Ivester; P. Ehrenfreund; F. J. Grunthaner; J. L. Bada; R. A. Mathies

2004-01-01

64

Assays of D-amino acid oxidases.  

PubMed

D-Amino acid oxidase and D-aspartate oxidase are two well-known FAD-containing flavooxidases that catalyze the same reaction (the oxidative deamination) on different D-amino acids. D-aspartate oxidase is specific for acidic D-amino acids (i.e., D-aspartate and D-glutamate) and D-amino acid oxidase is active on neutral and polar D-amino acids (a low activity is also detected on basic D-amino acids). The assay of these flavoenzymes is of utmost importance in different fields because D-amino acids are common constituents of bacterial cell walls, are present in foods and because free D-serine and D-aspartic acid were identified in brain and peripheral tissues of mammals. In this chapter, we report on the most used methods employed to assay the activity of D-amino acid oxidase and D-aspartate oxidase. Interestingly, their activity can be followed using different assays, namely D-amino acid or oxygen consumption, ?-keto acid or ammonia production, or using artificial dyes as final indicator of the flavin redox reaction. PMID:21956578

Tedeschi, Gabriella; Pollegioni, Loredano; Negri, Armando

2012-01-01

65

A Stereodivergent Approach to Amino Acids, Amino Alcohols, or  

E-print Network

of r-amino acids, amino alcohols, or oxazolidinones. The sequence includes the SN2 displacement Society Published on Web 07/08/2004 #12;regioselective and stereospecific SN2 displacement of an allylic as a readily available and recyclable chiral auxiliary for a short sequence of reactions that includes as one

Spino, Claude

66

Design and Characterization of Auxotrophy-Based Amino Acid Biosensors  

PubMed Central

Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that – upon deletion – should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ?hisL and ?tdcC) both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used. PMID:22829942

Bertels, Felix; Merker, Holger; Kost, Christian

2012-01-01

67

The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase LOSS OF GDU2 Is Required for GLUTAMINE DUMPER1-Induced Amino Acid Secretion in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Amino acids serve as transport forms for organic nitrogen in the plant, and multiple transport steps are involved in cellular import and export. While the nature of the export mechanism is unknown, overexpression of GLUTAMINE DUMPER1 (GDU1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) led to increased amino acid export. To gain insight into GDU1’s role, we searched for ethyl-methanesulfonate suppressor mutants and performed yeast-two-hybrid screens. Both methods uncovered the same gene, LOSS OF GDU2 (LOG2), which encodes a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. The interaction between LOG2 and GDU1 was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down, in vitro ubiquitination, and in planta coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation indicated that LOG2 and GDU1 both localized to membranes and were enriched at the plasma membrane. LOG2 expression overlapped with GDU1 in the xylem and phloem tissues of Arabidopsis. The GDU1 protein encoded by the previously characterized intragenic suppressor mutant log1-1, with an arginine in place of a conserved glycine, failed to interact in the multiple assays, suggesting that the Gdu1D phenotype requires the interaction of GDU1 with LOG2. This hypothesis was supported by suppression of the Gdu1D phenotype after reduction of LOG2 expression using either artificial microRNAs or a LOG2 T-DNA insertion. Altogether, in accordance with the emerging bulk of data showing membrane protein regulation via ubiquitination, these data suggest that the interaction of GDU1 and the ubiquitin ligase LOG2 plays a significant role in the regulation of amino acid export from plant cells. PMID:22291198

Pratelli, Rejane; Guerra, Damian D.; Yu, Shi; Wogulis, Mark; Kraft, Edward; Frommer, Wolf B.; Callis, Judy; Pilot, Guillaume

2012-01-01

68

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

E-print Network

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these compounds. In addition, the relative abundances of alpha-AIB and beta-alanine in the Antarctic CR meteorites analyzed appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body.

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-03-05

69

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

E-print Network

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

2008-01-01

70

Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation. Thus, the amino acid requirements estimated by model are animal- and time-dependent and follow, in real time, the individual DFI and BW growth patterns. The proposed model can follow the average feed intake and feed weight trajectory of each individual pig in real time with good accuracy. Based on these trajectories and using classical factorial equations, the model makes it possible to estimate dynamically the AA requirements of each animal, taking into account the intake and growth changes of the animal. PMID:22287679

Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

2012-07-01

71

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate) Nucleotide Oligonucleotide Nucleic Acid Amino Acid Peptid e Polypeptide Protein #12;Table 5. Peptides contain relatively few amino acids linked by peptide bonds: dipeptide, tripeptide, tetrapeptide Structure (1°) sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds 2. Secondary Structure (2°) local

Frey, Terry

72

Influence of triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on renal amino acid handling in rats loaded with various amino acid mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult female rats, the influence of dexamethasone or triiodothyronine on renal amino acid handling was investigated in amino acid loaded animals. Amino acids were administered intravenously as two mixtures, each containing four amino acids to overload amino acid reabsorption capacity. Bolus injections of both mixtures were followed by temporary increase in fractional excretion of the administered amino acids as

Ch. Fleck; R.-P. Nußbaum

1996-01-01

73

Amino acids precursors in lunar finds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

1975-01-01

74

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-01-01

75

Characteristics of amino acid uptake in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have the ability to take up organic nitrogen (N) but this has not been thoroughly studied in agricultural plants. A\\u000a critical question is whether agricultural plants can acquire amino acids in a soil ecosystem. The aim of this study was to\\u000a characterize amino acid uptake capacity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from a mixture of amino acids at concentrations

Sandra Jämtgård; Torgny Näsholm; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2008-01-01

76

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we\\u000areport the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of\\u000awhich show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite.\\u000aEET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content\\u000ausing high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection\\u000a(HPLC-FD) and gas

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-01-01

77

Amino acid secondary transporters: toward a common transport mechanism.  

PubMed

Solute carriers (SLC) that transport amino acids are key players in health and diseases in humans. Their prokaryotic relatives are often involved in essential physiological processes in microorganisms, e.g. in homeostasis and acidic/osmotic stress response. High-resolution X-ray structures of the sequence-unrelated amino acid transporters unraveled a striking structural similarity between carriers, which were formerly assigned to different families. The highly conserved fold is characterized by two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices each and indicates common mechanistic transport concepts if not an evolutionary link among a large number of amino acid transporters. Therefore, these transporters are classified now into the structural amino acid-polyamine-organocation superfamily (APCS). The APCS includes among others the mammalian SLC6 transporters and the heterodimeric SLC7/SLC3 transporters. However, it has to be noted that the APCS is not limited entirely to amino acid transporters but contains also transporters for, e.g. amino acid derivatives and sugars. For instance, the betaine-choline-carnitine transporter family of bacterial activity-regulated Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled symporters for glycine betaine and choline is also part of this second largest structural superfamily. The APCS fold provides different possibilities to transport the same amino acid. Arginine can be transported by an H(+)-coupled symport or by antiport mechanism in exchange against agmatine for example. The convergence of the mechanistic concept of transport under comparable physiological conditions allows speculating if structurally unexplored amino acid transporters, e.g. the members of the SLC36 and SLC38 family, belong to the APCS, too. In the kidney, which is an organ that depends critically on the regulated amino acid transport, these different SLC transporters have to work together to account for proper function. Here, we will summarize the basic concepts of Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled amino acid symport and amino acid-product antiport in the light of the respective physiological requirements. PMID:23177982

Schweikhard, Eva S; Ziegler, Christine M

2012-01-01

78

Physiological role of d -amino acid- N -acetyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : detoxification of d -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sensitive to d-amino acids: those corresponding to almost all proteinous l-amino acids inhibit the growth of yeast even at low concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM). We have determined that d-amino acid-N-acetyltransferase (DNT) of the yeast is involved in the detoxification of d-amino acids on the basis of the following findings. When the DNT gene was disrupted, the resulting mutant

Geok-Yong Yow; Takuma Uo; Tohru Yoshimura; Nobuyoshi Esaki

2006-01-01

79

Fmoc/Trt-amino acids: comparison to Fmoc/tBu-amino acids in peptide synthesis.  

PubMed

Model peptides containing the nucleophilic amino acids Trp and Met have been synthesized with the application of Fmoc/Trt- and Fmoc/tBu-amino acids, for comparison. The deprotection of the peptides synthesized using Fmoc/Trt-amino acids in all cases leads to crude peptides of higher purity than that of the same peptides synthesized using Fmoc/tBu-amino acids. PMID:9531422

Barlos, K; Gatos, D; Koutsogianni, S

1998-03-01

80

Research for amino acids in lunar samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1972-01-01

81

The Apollo Program and Amino Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

Fox, Sidney W.

1973-01-01

82

Inhibitors of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will detail the biochemical mechanisms that are affected by herbicides which inhibit a plantâÂÂs ability to synthesize amino acids. The significance of amino acids and proteins will also be described. The herbicide glyphosate, will be studied at length, including the advances made by biotechnology.

83

Evolutionarily Conserved Optimization of Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

E-print Network

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract The ``cognate bias hypothesis'' states that early previously demonstrated reduced cognate bias in amino acid biosyn- thetic pathways. Here we show that cognate bias in amino acid biosynthesis is present in the other domains of life--Archaebacteria and Eukaryota

de Bivort, Benjamin

84

A Method for Preparation of Amino Acid Thiohydantoins from Free Amino Acids Activated by Acetyl Chloride for Development of Protein C-Terminal Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and efficient method to prepare amino acid thiohydantoins, which are required as reference standards for development of C-terminal protein sequencing, is reported. Amino acid thiohydantoins were prepared using a straightforward method involving reaction of 20 free amino acids with acetyl chloride as activating reagent and trimethylsilyl isothiocyanate (TMS-ITC) as derivatizing reagent. The products were characterized by HPLC, uv

Bilan Mo; Jiang Li; Songping Liang

1997-01-01

85

Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Brinton, K. L.; McDonald, G. D.

1999-01-01

86

Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.  

PubMed

In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. PMID:24238395

Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

2014-03-01

87

Amino acid transporters: roles in amino acid sensing and signalling in animal cells.  

PubMed Central

Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms. PMID:12879880

Hyde, Russell; Taylor, Peter M; Hundal, Harinder S

2003-01-01

88

Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

2014-01-01

89

Amino Acid Metabolism Conflicts with Protein Diversity  

PubMed Central

The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, David A.; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

2014-01-01

90

Amino Acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity.  

PubMed

The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G; Shub, David A; Ferreiro, Diego U; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E

2014-11-01

91

Amino acid biosynthesis in mixed rumen cultures.  

PubMed Central

Mixed rumen micro-organisms, maintained in continuous culture readily incorporated labelled HCO3- and acetate into amino acids. Labelled propionate, in contrast, was utilized only for isoleucine biosynthesis, but failed to label other amino acids to any significant extent. Evidence was obtained showing that in these mixed, i.e. symbiotic, cultures foward tricarboxylic acid-cycle reactions only proceed to 2-oxoglutarate. 14C distribution in amino acids clearly shows that 2-oxoglutarate is not oxidized further by tricarboxylic acid-cycle enzymes. Instead, acetate is carboxylated to pyruvate which is then carboxylated to oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate equilibrates with fumarate and thereby carbon atoms 1 and 4 as well as carbon atoms 2 and 3 are randomized. Evidence was also obtained for the carboxylation of propionate to 2-oxobutyrate, isovalerate to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, phenylacetate and hydroxyphentlacetate to the corresponding phenyl- and hydroxyphenyl-pyruvic acids and succinate to 2-oxoglutarate. Of the amino acid precursors investigated, only 3-hydroxypyruvate, the precursor of serine, appeared to be synthesized via an oxidative step, i.e. 3-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. Most 2-oxo precursors of amino acids in these organisms appear to be formed via reductive carboxylation of the precursor acid. PMID:1212197

Sauer, F D; Erfle, J D; Mahadevan, S

1975-01-01

92

An estimate of the methionine requirement and its variability in growing pigs using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique.  

PubMed

Although AA requirements for the mean of a population of growing pigs have been established using traditional methods, there are no estimates of the variability within the population and whether this variation differs among AA. With the increased use of supplemental Lys in pig diets, there will be an increased need to supplement Met, commonly the second or third limiting AA in corn-soybean diets. The indicator AA oxidation method allows repeated measurements in a short period of time so that the AA requirement can be determined for individual pigs at a similar physiological stage. The objective of this study was to determine the mean Met requirement in individual gilts and to estimate the related variability. Six individually housed female pigs (initial BW = 8.8 kg, SD 1.5) each received diets providing 6 levels of dl-Met. The isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets contained 0.187, 0.250, 0.290, 0.320, 0.350, and 0.377% Met (analyzed, as-fed basis). Cysteine (0.48%) and Lys (1.44%) concentrations were similar for all diets. Pigs were adapted for 6 d to the basal corn-soybean meal diet (0.187% Met), which was offered at 95 g/kg(0.75) of BW to ensure complete consumption of the test diets. During 4-h oxidation studies, 313.4 kBq, (SD 35.6) of L-[1-(14)C]Phe was mixed with each of 8 half-hourly meals, and expired CO(2) was collected. The breakpoint in Phe oxidation, representing the Met requirement, and its variability, was determined using 2-phase linear regression. Phenylalanine oxidation decreased as the Met content increased from 0.187 to 0.29%. Phenylalanine oxidation was not different (P > 0.2) for diets ranging from 0.320 to 0.377% Met. The dietary Met requirement varied from 0.320 to 0.373% for individual pigs. The mean Met requirement for individual pigs was determined to be 0.340% of diet (SD = 0.024%, CV= 7.1%), with 0.340, 0.364, and 0.388% covering the requirement of 50, 66, and 95% of the population, respectively. The present mean population estimate was similar to the recommended dietary Met concentration of 0.325% for pigs of this BW and feed intake. To maximize profitability, Met levels in starter pig diets should be determined, depending on the cost of crystalline Met and the fraction of the population whose requirement is to be met. PMID:17940153

Moehn, S; Shoveller, A K; Rademacher, M; Ball, R O

2008-02-01

93

Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 parts per billion, ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4,100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16,900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis, are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its three month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated from a different type of parent body than the CM's and CI's. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P or D- type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived from these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be re-evaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

2002-05-01

94

Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats  

E-print Network

NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN RATS A Thesis by JAMES DARRELL CROOKS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject...: Animal Nutrition O 4 0 E ? NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN RATS A Thesis by JAMES DARRELL CROOKS& JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head of Department) (Member) May 197 1 ABSTRACT Non...

Crooks, James Darrell

2012-06-07

95

Advances in protein–amino acid nutrition of poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal protein concept has allowed progress in defining requirements as well as the limiting order of amino acids in corn,\\u000a soybean meal, and a corn–soybean meal mixture for growth of young chicks. Recent evidence suggests that glycine (or serine)\\u000a is a key limiting amino acid in reduced protein [23% crude protein (CP) reduced to 16% CP] corn–soybean meal diets

David H. Baker

2009-01-01

96

TRYPTOPHAN REQUIREMENT OF GROWING SWINE AS DETERMINED BY THE OXIDATION OF AN INDICATOR AMINO ACID 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tryptophan requirement of growing swine was determined using tile oxidation of L-(1-~4Cl-phenylalanine as an indicator of the adequacy of the dietary tryptophan level. Forty crossbred boars (30 to 45 kg) were fed a basal diet containing 16% protein supplied by corn and gelatin. A series of experimental diets containing .05, .08, .10, .15, .20 and .25% L-tryptophan were prepared.

F. D. Lin; T. K. Smith; H. S. Bayley

2010-01-01

97

Landscape patterns of free amino acids in arctic tundra soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of free amino acids were measured in soils from four major ecosystem types in arctic Alaska. Total free amino acid concentrations were several-fold higher than ammonium (the major form of inorganic nitrogen) in water extracts of soils. The dominant free amino acids in these soils were glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and arginine. Concentrations of total amino acids

Knut Kielland

1995-01-01

98

Racemic Resolution of some dl Amino Acids using Aspergillus fumigatus l Amino Acid Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus\\u000a l-amino acid oxidase (l-aao) to cause the resolution of racemic mixtures of dl-amino acids was investigated with dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-tyrosine, and dl-aspartic acid. A chiral column, Crownpak CR+ was used for the analysis of the amino acids. The enzyme was able to cause the\\u000a resolution of the three dl-amino acids resulting in the production of

Susmita SinghBinod; Binod K. Gogoi; Rajib L. Bezbaruah

2011-01-01

99

Amino Acid Substitutions at Ambler Position Gly238 in the SHV-1 ?-Lactamase: Exploring Sequence Requirements for Resistance to Penicillins and Cephalosporins  

PubMed Central

Site saturation mutagenesis of the 238 position in the SHV ?-lactamase was performed to identify the complete sequence requirements needed for the extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) in an isogenic background, Escherichia coli DH10B, demonstrated that the Gly238Ala mutation conferred the most resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. The absolute increase in resistance was greatest against cefotaxime for the Gly238Ala mutant (0.06 to 8 ?g/ml). Except for the strain possessing the Gly238Pro ?-lactamase, ceftazidime MICs were also elevated. None of the mutant SHV ?-lactamases were expressed in as great an amount as the wild-type ?-lactamase. Kinetic analysis of the Gly238Ala mutant revealed that penicillin and cephalosporin substrates have a lower Km for the enzyme because of this mutation. Ampicillin and piperacillin MICs were inversely proportional to the side chain volume of the amino acid in cases larger than Ser, suggesting that steric considerations may be a primary requirement for penicillin resistance. Secondary structural effects explain increased resistance to oxyiminocephalosporins. Based upon this study, we anticipate that additional mutations of Gly238 in the SHV ?-lactamase will continue to be discovered with an ESBL (ceftazidime or cefotaxime resistant) phenotype. PMID:12435703

Hujer, Andrea M.; Hujer, Kristine M.; Helfand, Marion S.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Bonomo, Robert A.

2002-01-01

100

Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

Bromke, Mariusz A.

2013-01-01

101

The mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase ETHYLMALONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY PROTEIN1 is required for amino acid catabolism during carbohydrate starvation and embryo development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The sulfur dioxygenase ETHYLMALONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY PROTEIN1 (ETHE1) catalyzes the oxidation of persulfides in the mitochondrial matrix and is essential for early embryo development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We investigated the biochemical and physiological functions of ETHE1 in plant metabolism using recombinant Arabidopsis ETHE1 and three transfer DNA insertion lines with 50% to 99% decreased sulfur dioxygenase activity. Our results identified a new mitochondrial pathway catalyzing the detoxification of reduced sulfur species derived from cysteine catabolism by oxidation to thiosulfate. Knockdown of the sulfur dioxygenase impaired embryo development and produced phenotypes of starvation-induced chlorosis during short-day growth conditions and extended darkness, indicating that ETHE1 has a key function in situations of high protein turnover, such as seed production and the use of amino acids as alternative respiratory substrates during carbohydrate starvation. The amino acid profile of mutant plants was similar to that caused by defects in the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex and associated dehydrogenases. Thus, in addition to sulfur amino acid catabolism, ETHE1 also affects the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids and lysine. PMID:24692429

Krüßel, Lena; Junemann, Johannes; Wirtz, Markus; Birke, Hannah; Thornton, Jeremy D; Browning, Luke W; Poschet, Gernot; Hell, Rüdiger; Balk, Janneke; Braun, Hans-Peter; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M

2014-05-01

102

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR chondrites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites. Three CRs, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577, were analyzed for their amino acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our

Z. Martins; C. M. O. D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2007-01-01

103

Supporting Information Amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and resins were from Novabiochem. Gel filtration  

E-print Network

Supporting Information ­1­ Materials Amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and resins were from Analytical HPLC was performed with an Aligent C8 column or a Varian Dynamax C18 column with linear gradients with sinapinic acid (Fluka) as the matrix at the University of Wisconsin­Madison Biophysics Instrumentation

Raines, Ronald T.

104

Cloning a Plant Amino Acid Transporter by Functional Complementation of a Yeast Amino Acid Transport Mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are transported across the plasma membrane of plant cells by proton-amino acid symports. We report here the successful cloning of a neutral amino acid carrier by functional complementation. A histidine transport deletion mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library constructed in a yeast expression vector. Forty transformants, out of 10^5, allowed growth on

Li-Chu Hsu; Tzyy-Jen Chiou; Lishan Chen; Daniel R. Bush

1993-01-01

105

Protein and sulphur amino acid nutrition of hair fibre-producing Angora and Cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results from a number of studies are presented which investigated responses in fibre production of British Cashmere and Angora goats to variation in protein and sulphur amino acid nutrition under conditions of active fibre growth. Requirements for amino acids were considered in the context of the concentration of amino acids, including cysteine and methionine, in rumen microbial protein and

H. Galbraith

2000-01-01

106

An Evaluation of the FAO Amino Acid Reference Pattern in Human Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

each amino acid needed for nitrogen equi librium was determined using dietary con ditions wherein the essential amino acids were proportioned as in whole egg pro teins, with the exception of the amino acid under study, and the total nitrogen was maintained at a constant and ade quate level. It appears that the require ments of young women for at

MARIAN E. SWENDSEID; CHERYL L. HARRIS; ANDSTEWART G. TUTTLE

107

A five-amino-acid motif in the undefined region of the TLR8 ectodomain is required for species-specific ligand recognition.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors play important roles in regulating immunity against microbial infections. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) belongs to a subfamily comprising TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9. Human TLR8 mediates anti-viral immunity by recognizing ssRNA viruses, and triggers potent anti-viral and antitumor immune responses upon ligation by synthetic small molecular weight ligands. Interestingly, distinct from human TLR8, mouse TLR8 was not responsive to ligand stimulation in the absence of polyT-oligodeoxynucleotides (polyT-ODN). The molecular basis for this distinct ligand recognition is still unclear. In the present study, we compared the activation of TLR8 from different species including mouse, rat, human, bovine, porcine, horse, sheep, and cat by ligand ligations. Only the TLR8s from the rodent species (i.e., mouse and rat TLR8s) failed to respond to ligand stimulation in the absence of polyT-ODN. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that these two rodent TLR8s lack a five-amino-acid motif that is conserved in the non-rodent species with varied sequence. This small motif is located in an undefined region of the hTLR8 ectodomain, immediately following LRR-14. Deletion mutation analysis suggested that this motif is essential for the species-specific ligand recognition of hTLR8, whereas it is not required for self-dimerization and intracellular localization of this receptor. PMID:20004021

Liu, Jin; Xu, Congfeng; Hsu, Li-Chung; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien

2010-02-01

108

A five-amino-acid motif in the undefined region of the TLR8 ectodomain is required for species-specific ligand recognition  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors play important roles in regulating immunity against microbial infections. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) belongs to a subfamily comprising TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9. Human TLR8 mediates anti-viral immunity by recognizing ssRNA viruses, and triggers potent anti-viral and antitumor immune responses upon ligation by synthetic small molecular weight ligands. Interestingly, distinct from human TLR8, mouse TLR8 was not responsive to ligand stimulation in the absence of polyT-oligodeoxynucleotides (polyT-ODN). The molecular basis for this distinct ligand recognition is still unclear. In the present study, we compared activation of TLR8 from different species including mouse, rat, human, bovine, porcine, horse, sheep, and cat by ligand ligations. Only the TLR8s from the rodent species (i.e., mouse and rat TLR8s) failed to respond to ligand stimulation in the absence of polyT-ODN. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that these two rodent TLR8s lack a five-amino-acid motif that is conserved in the non-rodent species with varied sequence. This small motif is located in an undefined region of the hTLR8 ectodomain, immediately following LRR-14. Deletion mutation analysis suggested that this motif is essential for the species-specific ligand recognition of hTLR8, whereas it is not required for self-dimerization and intracellular localization of this receptor. PMID:20004021

Liu, Jin; Xu, Congfeng; Hsu, Li-Chung; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien

2009-01-01

109

Amino acids in the Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite from Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for the presence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite is presented. Hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed water-extracted amino acid samples from exterior, middle and interior portions of the meteorite were analyzed by an amino acid analyzer and by gas chromatography of N-TFA-isopropyl amino acid derivatives. Nine protein and six nonprotein amino acids were detected in the meteorite at abundances between 34 and less than one nmole/g, with equal amounts in interior and exterior portions. Nearly equal abundances of the D and L enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found, indicating the abiotic, therefore extraterrestrial, origin of the amino acids. The Antarctic environment and the uniformity of protein amino acid abundances are discussed as evidence against the racemization of terrestrially acquired amino acids, and similarities between Yamato amino acid compositions and the amino acid compositions of the Murchison and Murray type II carbonaceous chrondrites are indicated.

Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Yanai, K.

1979-01-01

110

Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. Six amino acid permeases (AAPs) from Arabidopsis mediating transport of a wide spectrum of amino acids were isolated. AAPs are distantly related to plasma membrane amino acid transport systems N and A and to vesicular transporters such as VGAT from mammals. A detailed comparison of

Wolf-N. Fischer; Donald D. F. Loo; Uwe Ludewig; Kathryn J. Boorer; Mechthild Tegeder; Doris Rentsch; Ernest M. Wright

2002-01-01

111

Amino acids derived from Titan tholins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

1986-01-01

112

Amino acids derived from Titan Tholins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An organic heteropolymer(Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N 2/0.1 CH 4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6 N HCI yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivazation to N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and ?- and ?-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was ˜ 10 -2, approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC 2CN, and (CN) 2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat; Schram, Karl H.; Arakawa, Edward T.

1986-10-01

113

Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

114

Role of specific dietary amino acids in clinical conditions.  

PubMed

In a variety of chronic and acute disease states, alterations in protein synthesis, breakdown and protein turnover rates occur that are related to the loss of body protein and skeletal muscle wasting. A key observation is the stimulation of protein breakdown in muscle and the stimulation of protein synthesis in the splanchnic area; mainly liver. An altered splanchnic extraction of amino acids as well as an anabolic resistance to dietary protein, related to stress, disuse and aging play a key role in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in these conditions. To overcome these factors, specific dietary protein and amino acid diets have been introduced. The main focus of these diets is the quantity and quality of dietary proteins and whether a balanced mixture or solely dietary essential amino acids are required with or without higher intake levels of specific amino acids. Specifically in cancer patients, stimulated muscle protein synthesis has been obtained by increasing the amount of protein in a meal and by providing additional leucine. Also in other chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis, meals with specific dietary proteins and specific combinations of dietary essential amino acids are able to stimulate anabolism. In acute diseases, a special role for the amino acid arginine and its precursor citrulline as anabolic drivers has been observed. Thus, there is growing evidence that modifying the dietary amino acid composition of a meal will positively influence the net balance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown, leading to muscle protein anabolism in a variety of chronic and acute disease states. Specific amino acids with anabolic potential are leucine, arginine and citrulline. PMID:23107525

Jonker, Renate; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

2012-08-01

115

Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media  

SciTech Connect

An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 mx0.25 mm, 0.25 {mu}m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 deg. C, 1 min, 6 deg. C/min at 100 deg. C, 4 deg. C/min at 200 deg. C, 20 deg. C/min at 300 deg. C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 deg. C, the injector temperature 200 deg. C and ion source temperature 250 deg. C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 {mu}A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

Iordache, A. [National R and D Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea, 4 Uzinei St., Rm. Valcea, 240050 (Romania); Horj, E.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M. ['Babes-Bolyai' University, 1 M. Kogalniceanu St., Cluj-Napoca, 400084 (Romania); Ani, A. R. [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca-USAMV, 3-5 Manastur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mesaros, C. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 38 Gh. Marinescu St., 540000, Targu Mures (Romania)

2010-08-04

116

Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of

Pascale Ehrenfreund; Zita Martins; Conel Alexander; Grazyna Orzechowska; Marylin Fogel

2008-01-01

117

The amino acid composition of mammalian and bacterial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the amino acid composition of cells. A total of 17 amino acids was analyzed. This method was used to compare the amino acid compositions of the following combinations: primary culture and established cells, normal and transformed cells, mammalian and bacterial cells, andEscherichia coli andStaphylococcus aureus. The amino acid compositions of mammalian

T. Okayasu; M. Ikeda; K. Akimoto; K. Sorimachi

1997-01-01

118

Aspergillus nidulans CkiA is an essential casein kinase I required for delivery of amino acid transporters to the plasma membrane  

PubMed Central

Summary Type I casein kinases are highly conserved among Eukaryotes. Of the two Aspergillus nidulans casein kinases I, CkiA is related to the ?/? mammalian kinases and to Saccharomyces cerevisiæ Hrr25p. CkiA is essential. Three recessive ckiA mutations leading to single residue substitutions, and downregulation using a repressible promoter, result in partial loss-of-function, which leads to a pleiotropic defect in amino acid utilization and resistance to toxic amino acid analogues. These phenotypes correlate with miss-routing of the YAT plasma membrane transporters AgtA (glutamate) and PrnB (proline) to the vacuole under conditions that, in the wild type, result in their delivery to the plasma membrane. Miss-routing to the vacuole and subsequent transporter degradation results in a major deficiency in the uptake of the corresponding amino acids that underlies the inability of the mutant strains to catabolize them. Our findings may have important implications for understanding how CkiA, Hrr25p and other fungal orthologues regulate the directionality of transport at the ER-Golgi interface. PMID:22489878

Apostolaki, Angeliki; Harispe, Laura; Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana Maria; Vangelatos, Ioannis; Sophianopoulou, Vicky; Arst, Herbert N; Penalva, Miguel Angel; Amillis, Sotiris; Scazzocchio, Claudio

2012-01-01

119

Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: Mechanisms involved in translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only

A. C. Chakrabarti

1994-01-01

120

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the renal amino acid transport capacity in amino acid loaded rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In anaesthetized adult female rats, the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on renal amino acid handling was investigated in glutamine, arginine (both 50 mg\\/100 g b. wt. per hour), or alanine (90 mg\\/ 100 g b. wt. per hour) loaded animals. Continuous infusions of the three amino acids were followed by an increase in the fractional excretion (FE)

Christian Fleck; J. Pertsch

1998-01-01

121

Synthesis of ( S )-?-amino oleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient synthesis of (S)-?-amino oleic acid was developed. The fully protected FA derivative was obtained in four steps starting from methyl (2S)-2-[bis(tert-butoxycar-bonyl)amino]-5-oxopentanoate. These steps are (i) olefination of the starting aldehyde with the appropriate phosphonate\\u000a anion, (ii) hydrogenation of the double bonds, (iii) controlled reduction of ?-ethyl ester to an aldehyde in the presence\\u000a of ?-methyl ester, and (iv)

Victoria Magrioti; Violetta Constantinou-Kokotou

2002-01-01

122

Economic aspects of amino acids production.  

PubMed

Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised to exercise concepts of the management of complex systems in order to choose the right strategy towards gaining market leadership. PMID:12523391

Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

2003-01-01

123

Amino Acid Recycling in Relation to Protein Turnover 1  

PubMed Central

Methods of measuring amino acid recycling in Lemna minor are described. The extent to which the recycling of individual amino acids may underestimate protein turnover has been measured for a number of amino acids. The methods have been used to study the relationship between protein turnover and amino acid recycling during nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that following the removal of nitrate from the environment, protein turnover is enhanced, the partitioning of amino acids between protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism is relatively constant, but the total amount of amino acids recycling is increased. PMID:16660236

Davies, David D.; Humphrey, Thomas J.

1978-01-01

124

[Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids].  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9-43% of arylamide groups and 10-33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups. PMID:15787219

Ponedel'kina, I Iu; Odinokov, V N; Vakhrusheva, E S; Golikova, M T; Khalilov, L M; Dzhemilov, U M

2005-01-01

125

Probing protein stability with unnatural amino acids  

SciTech Connect

Unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, in combination with molecular modeling and simulation techniques, was used to probe the effect of side chain structure on protein stability. Specific replacements at position 133 in T4 lysozyme included (1) leucine (wt), norvaline, ethylglycine, and alanine to measure the cost of stepwise removal of methyl groups from the hydrophobic core, (2) norvaline and O-methyl serine to evaluate the effects of side chain solvation, and (3) leucine, S,S-2-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and S-2-amino-3-cyclopentylpropanoic acid to measure the influence of packing density and side chain conformational entropy on protein stability. All of these factors (hydrophobicity, packing, conformational entropy, and cavity formation) significantly influence protein stability and must be considered when analyzing any structural change to proteins.

Mendel, D.; Ellman, J.A.; Zhiyuh Chang; Veenstra, D.L.; Kollman, P.A.; Schultz, P.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-06-26

126

Inhibitors of Branched Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herbicides that inhibit the production of the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are used for total vegetation management and selective weed control in a wide variety of crops.  There are currently four different chemical families that share this MOA.  Before the development of glyphosate-tolerance crop technology, branched chain amino acid inhibitors were the mainstay for several major row crops.  While this is still a very important herbicide MOA, the major increase in herbicide resistance weeds since 1980 has been the direct result selection pressure from these herbicides.  There are currently more weed species resistant to branched chain amino acid inhibitors than any other herbicide MOA.

127

The Genetics of Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of a heavy (SLC3 family) and a light (SLC7 family) subunit. Mutations in system b0,+ (rBAT-b0,+AT) and in system y+L (4F2hc-y+LAT1) cause the primary inherited aminoacidurias (PIAs) cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, respectively. Recent developments [including the identification of the first Hartnup disorder gene (B0AT1; SLC6A19)] and knockout mouse models have begun to reveal the basis of renal and intestinal reabsorption of amino acids in mammals.

Manuel Palacín (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology); Virginia Nunes (Institut de Recerca Oncològica Centre de Genètica Mèdica i Molecular); Mariona Font-Llitjós (Institut de Recerca Oncològica Centre de Genètica Mèdica i Molecular); Maite Jiménez-Vidal (University of Barcelona,Institut de Recerca Oncològica Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Centre de Genètica Mèdica i Molecular); Joana Fort (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology); Emma Gasol (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

2005-04-01

128

Uric acid inhibits placental system A amino acid uptake.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0-7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S A; von Versen-Höynck, F; Roberts, J M

2009-02-01

129

Uric Acid Inhibits Placental System A Amino Acid Uptake?  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0?7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S.A.; von Versen-Hoynck, F.; Roberts, J.M.

2009-01-01

130

Hereditary folate malabsorption: A positively charged amino acid at position 113 of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) is required for folic acid binding  

SciTech Connect

The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate uptake at acidic pH. Some loss of folic acid (FA) transport mutations in PCFT from hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) patients cluster in R113, thereby suggesting a functional role for this residue. Herein, unlike non-conservative substitutions, an R113H mutant displayed 80-fold increase in the FA transport Km while retaining parental Vmax, hence indicating a major fall in folate substrate affinity. Furthermore, consistent with the preservation of 9% of parental transport activity, R113H transfectants displayed a substantial decrease in the FA growth requirement relative to mock transfectants. Homology modeling based on the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli transporter homologues EmrD and glycerol-3-phosphate transporter revealed that the R113H rotamer properly protrudes into the cytoplasmic face of the minor cleft normally occupied by R113. These findings constitute the first demonstration that a basic amino acid at position 113 is required for folate substrate binding.

Lasry, Inbal; Berman, Bluma [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Glaser, Fabian [Bioinformatics Knowledge Unit, The Lorry I. Lokey Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [Bioinformatics Knowledge Unit, The Lorry I. Lokey Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Jansen, Gerrit [Department of Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Assaraf, Yehuda G., E-mail: assaraf@tx.technion.ac.il [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2009-08-28

131

Amino acid metabolism of Lemna minor L  

SciTech Connect

A serious limitation to the use of N(O,S)-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl amino acid derivatives in the analysis of {sup 15}N-labeling kinetics of amino acids in plant tissues, is that the amides glutamine and asparagine undergo acid hydrolysis to glutamate and aspartate, respectively, during derivatization. This led us to consider an alternative procedure for derivatization of glutamine and asparagine with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide in pyridine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry yielded fragment ions (M-57) of mass 417 and 431 for the ({sup 14}N)asparagine and ({sup 14}N)glutamine derivatives, respectively, suitable for monitoring unlabeled, single-{sup 15}N- and double-{sup 15}N-labeled amide species from the ion clusters at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 415 to 423 for asparagine, and m/z 429 to 437 for glutamine. From separate analyses of the specific isotope abundance of the amino-N groups of asparagine and glutamine as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl derivatives, the specific amide-({sup 15}N) abundance of these amino acids was determined.

Rhodes, D.; Rich, P.J.; Brunk, D.G. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

1989-04-01

132

Origin of chirality in protein amino acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss the origin of the chirality of protein amino acids from the point of view of a phase transition from a racemic mixture into an optically pure state. We assume that Bose-Einstein condensation may act as an amplification mechanism. The originals ...

J. Chela Flores

1994-01-01

133

Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

Barcz, Aleksy; Szyma?ski, Zbigniew

134

Plasma amino acids: screening, quantitation, and interpretation\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the steady-state concen- tration of amino acids in human plasma has accumulated steadily in recent years, partly as the result of new methodology, but also because of the relevance of this information to human health and disease. There are two areas in particular that have both served and benefited from the growth and application of this knowledge. One

Charles R. Scriver; Carol L. Clow; Peter Lamin

135

D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

Fujii, Noriko

2002-04-01

136

Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

2012-01-01

137

Amino Acids in the Antarctic Martian Meteorite MIL03346  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report by McKay et al. that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains evidence for life on Mars remains controversial. Of central importance is whether ALH84001 and other Antarctic Martian meteorites contain endogenous organic compounds. In any investigation of organic compounds possibly derived from Mars it is important to focus on compounds that play an essential role in biochemistry as we know it and that have properties such as chirality which can be used to distinguish between biotic versus abiotic origins. Amino acids are one of the few compounds that fulfill these requirements. Previous analyses of the Antarctic Martian meteorites ALH84001 and EETA79001 have shown that these meteorites contain low levels of terrestrial amino acid contamination derived from Antarctic ice meltwater. Here we report preliminary amino acid investigations of a third Antarctic Martian meteorite MIL03346 which was discovered in Antarctica during the 2003-04 ANSMET season. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract

Glavin, D. P.; Aubrey, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Botta, O.; Bada, J. L.

2005-01-01

138

Thermal synthesis of amino acids and the origin of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent review by Marshall (1994) of the production of amino acids from the interstellar components, formaldehyde and ammonia, is placed in the larger context of the origin of life. Thermal energy, being ubiquitous in the Earth, emerges as the sole necessary form of energy. To appreciate the overview of the natural evolutionary sequence it is necessary to recognize stepwiseness in evolution, a principle that has however been often ignored. Since self organization of thermal protein to cells is instantaneous, but only one step in a geochemical ladder, individual steps may be regarded as instantaneous, while the sequence requires measurable time. Two steps indicated are extrusion of a hot, dry organic magma of amino acids ? peptides into an aqueous environment in which occurs a second step of self organization. In this paper, spinoffs of the defensible theory for the origin of life have been briefly reviewed as a fundamental consequence of nonrandom thermal copolymerization of amino acids.

Fox, Sidney W.

1995-03-01

139

Thermal synthesis of amino acids and the origin of life.  

PubMed

The recent review by Marshall (1994) of the production of amino acids from the interstellar components, formaldehyde and ammonia, is placed in the larger context of the origin of life. Thermal energy, being ubiquitous in the Earth, emerges as the sole necessary form of energy. To appreciate the overview of the natural evolutionary sequence it is necessary to recognize stepwiseness in evolution, a principle that has however been often ignored. Since self organization of thermal protein to cells is instantaneous, but only one step in a geochemical ladder, individual steps may be regarded as instantaneous, while the sequence requires measurable time. Two steps indicated are extrusion of a hot, dry organic magma of amino acids --> peptides into an aqueous environment in which occurs a second step of self organization. In this paper, spinoffs of the defensible theory for the origin of life have been briefly reviewed as a fundamental consequence of nonrandom thermal copolymerization of amino acids. PMID:11540049

Fox, S W

1995-03-01

140

Identification of Conserved Amino Acids in the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 UL8 Protein Required for DNA Synthesis and UL52 Primase Interaction in the Virus Replisome*  

PubMed Central

We have used oriS-dependent transient replication assays to search for species-specific interactions within the herpes simplex virus replisome. Hybrid replisomes derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) failed to support DNA replication in cells. Moreover, the replisomes showed a preference for their cognate origin of replication. The results demonstrate that the herpesvirus replisome behaves as a molecular machine relying on functionally important interactions. We then searched for functional interactions in the replisome context by subjecting HSV-1 UL8 protein to extensive mutagenesis. 52 mutants were made by replacing single or clustered charged amino acids with alanines. Four mutants showed severe replication defects. Mutant A23 exhibited a lethal phenotype, and mutants A49, A52 and A53 had temperature-sensitive phenotypes. Mutants A49 and A53 did not interact with UL52 primase as determined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Using GFP-tagged UL8, we demonstrate that all mutants were unable to support formation of ICP8-containing nuclear replication foci. Extended mutagenesis suggested that a highly conserved motif corresponding to mutant A49 serves an important role for establishing a physical contact between UL8 and UL52. The replication-defective mutations affected conserved amino acids, and similar phenotypes were observed when the corresponding mutations were introduced into EHV-1 UL8. PMID:22851167

Muylaert, Isabella; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Andersson, Torbjorn; Elias, Per

2012-01-01

141

The requirement for proteinase activity for human lymphocyte-mediated natural cytotoxicity (NK): evidence that the proteinase is serine dependent and has aromatic amino acid specificity of cleavage.  

PubMed

We used reagents specific for serine-dependent proteinases to verify that a proteinase of this class is necessary for natural cytotoxicity (NK). NK was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and by the plasma antiproteinase alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (alpha-1-X), all of which are specific for serine-dependent proteinases. Substrate specificity was then determined on the basis of the specificity of the plasma and fungal anti-proteinases and synthetic alternate substrates that affected NK. alpha-1-X, which inhibits only serine proteinases with aromatic amino acid specificity, blocked NK. Chymostatin, but not other fungal inhibitors, also blocked NK activity. Furthermore, the only synthetic substrates that effectively reduced NK were those derived from aromatic amino acids. The ester derivatives of these substrates inhibited NK better than the amides. NK inhibition with these alternate substrates was also stereospecific, with the L forms twofold more active than the D forms. These reagents did not block initial lymphocyte-target cell binding. Therefore we propose that the "NK-proteinase" is involved in either the initiation of cytolysis, perhaps as part of stimulus and secretion of cytolytic molecules, or in the cascade of events that may lead to the formation of final lytic substance. PMID:6384370

Hudig, D; Redelman, D; Minning, L L

1984-11-01

142

Criteria for distinguishing biogenic and abiogenic amino acids - Preliminary considerations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Criteria to determine the mode of origin of amino acids can be established by consideration of their structure, enantiometric distribution, composition, and relative abundance. A population of dominantly protein amino acids with one enantiomeric configuration most likely had a biological origin. Biological amino acids do racemize, however, so the absence of optical activity would not rule out the possibility that the amino acids in a racemic mixture were originally synthesized biologically. For racemic amino acids, therefore, structure, composition and relative abundance become important in ascertaining the origin of these compounds. Abiotically synthesized amino acids have a population composed of both protein and nonprotein structures present as racemic mixtures.

Kvenvolden, K. A.

1973-01-01

143

Evolution from amino acids - Lunar occurrence of their precursors.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the present state of experimentally based concepts of organic evolution from amino acids. Earlier studies of the synthesis of amino acid precursors from meteoritic material, lunar dust, and terrestrial lava are briefly summarized, and laboratory experiments in which polymers of amino acids were obtained either by direct heating of dry amino acids or by heating aqueous solutions of mixtures of amino acids are described. In particular, a process is described by which alpha-amino acids were made to react to form linear chains of proteinoids. It is concluded that a proteinoid microsystem was a common ancestor of all life on earth.

Fox, S. W.

1972-01-01

144

Using pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein subcellular location: approached with amino acid composition distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  In the Post Genome Age, there is an urgent need to develop the reliable and effective computational methods to predict the\\u000a subcellular localization for the explosion of newly found proteins. Here, a novel method of pseudo amino acid (PseAA) composition,\\u000a the so-called “amino acid composition distribution” (AACD), is introduced. First, a protein sequence is divided equally into\\u000a multiple segments. Then,

J.-Y. Shi; S.-W. Zhang; Q. Pan; G.-P. Zhou

2008-01-01

145

Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

146

AMINO ACIDS AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION IN ANEMIA  

PubMed Central

Certain individual amino acids when given to standard anemic dogs cause an increase in new hemoglobin production. Occasional negative experiments are recorded. Glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, phenylalanine, and proline when given in 1 gm. doses daily for 2 weeks, increase hemoglobin output on the average 23 to 25 gm. above the control level. This reaction amounts to 25 to 30 per cent of the new hemoglobin produced by the feeding of 300 gm. liver daily for 2 weeks—a standard liver test. Alanine, valine, isoleucine, and arginine in the same dosage increase the hemoglobin output on the average 13 to 17 gm. per 2 weeks over the control level. Leucine, methionine, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine fall in a middle group with hemoglobin output of about 20 gm. Isovaleric acid, ?-hydroxybutyric acid, glutaric acid, and asparagine have shown positive effects and the butyrate is unusually potent for hemoglobin production (Table 2). The isomeric and dl-synthetic forms of the amino acids are as effectively utilized in this reaction as are the natural forms. PMID:19870982

Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.

1940-01-01

147

Geochemistry of amino acids in some Florida peat accumulations—II. Amino acid distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of amino acids in some Florida peats have been compared with distributions in plants living now at the surface of the peats and in surface litter. Quantitative determinations were made by gas chromatography of volatile derivatives of both protein and non-protein amino acids. The latter. found also in mineral soils, are believed to represent bacterial cell constituents and/or anabolites. ?,?-diaminopimelic acid, a constituent of the mureide complex of bacterial cell walls, was found in peats and surface litter, as were other acids believed in soil ecosystems to result from the living processes of microorganisms. The protein amino acids in peats do not show a distinctive signature of any particular kind of organism, but the nature and concentrations of the non-protein acids support the inference that the higher plant constituents are extensively re-worked and that essentially all of the amino acid material in peats is microbial in proximate origin. Thus microbial amino acids appear to be quite significant participants in the input to coalification.

Casagrande, Daniel J.; Given, P. H.

1980-10-01

148

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

149

Regulation of intestinal mucosal growth by amino acids.  

PubMed

Amino acids, especially glutamine (GLN) have been known for many years to stimulate the growth of small intestinal mucosa. Polyamines are also required for optimal mucosal growth, and the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, blocks growth. Certain amino acids, primarily asparagine (ASN) and GLN stimulate ODC activity in a solution of physiological salts. More importantly, their presence is also required before growth factors and hormones such as epidermal growth factor and insulin are able to increase ODC activity. ODC activity is inhibited by antizyme-1 (AZ) whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines, thus, providing a negative feedback regulation of the enzyme. In the absence of amino acids mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is inhibited, whereas, mTORC2 is stimulated leading to the inhibition of global protein synthesis but increasing the synthesis of AZ via a cap-independent mechanism. These data, therefore, explain why ASN or GLN is essential for the activation of ODC. Interestingly, in a number of papers, AZ has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, stimulate apoptosis, or increase autophagy. Each of these activities results in decreased cellular growth. AZ binds to and accelerates the degradation of ODC and other proteins shown to regulate proliferation and cell death, such as Aurora-A, Cyclin D1, and Smad1. The correlation between the stimulation of ODC activity and the absence of AZ as influenced by amino acids is high. Not only do amino acids such as ASN and GLN stimulate ODC while inhibiting AZ synthesis, but also amino acids such as lysine, valine, and ornithine, which inhibit ODC activity, increase the synthesis of AZ. The question remaining to be answered is whether AZ inhibits growth directly or whether it acts by decreasing the availability of polyamines to the dividing cells. In either case, evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of AZ synthesis is the mechanism through which amino acids influence the growth of intestinal mucosa. This brief article reviews the experiments leading to the information presented above. We also present evidence from the literature that AZ acts directly to inhibit cell proliferation and increase the rate of apoptosis. Finally, we discuss future experiments that will determine the role of AZ in the regulation of intestinal mucosal growth by amino acids. PMID:23904095

Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

2014-03-01

150

Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-01-01

151

Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.  

PubMed

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-10-01

152

Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

2014-01-01

153

Amino acid composition of Lesquerella seed meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed meals from 14 species ofLesquerella, family Cruciferae, were analyzed for 18 amino acids. Lysine and methionine contents ranged, respectively, from 331 to 440,\\u000a and 72 to 94 mg. per g. of nitrogen. When compared with 9 species ofBrassica (rape, mustard),Lesquerella seeds were higher in lysine and lower in methionine. Thirteen unidentified substances were detected by the ion-exchange chromatographic\\u000a method

Roger Wayne Miller; C. H. Van Etten; I. A. Wolff

1962-01-01

154

Amino Acid Biosynthetic Cost and Protein Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein products of highly expressed genes tend to favor amino acids that have lower average biosynthetic costs (i.e., they\\u000a exhibit metabolic efficiency). While this trend has been observed in several studies, the specific sites where cost-reducing\\u000a substitutions accumulate have not been well characterized. Toward that end, weighted costs in conserved and variable positions\\u000a were evaluated across a total of 9,119

Esley M. Heizer Jr; Michael L. Raymer; Dan E. Krane

155

Creatinine Inhibits D-Amino Acid Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) activity by various uremic retention products and guanidino compounds was investigated. Creatinine (CTN) was found to inhibit DAO at a similar concentration in the sera of uremic patients. The inhibition was competitive and the Ki value was 2.7 mM. Moreover, CTN was shown to interact with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a coenzyme of DAO.

Y. Nohara; J. Suzuki; T. Kinoshita; M. Watanabe

2002-01-01

156

Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Valine, leucine and isoleucine form the small group of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) classified by their small branched hydrocarbon residues. Unlike animals, plants are able to de novo synthesize these amino acids from pyruvate, 2-oxobutanoate and acetyl-CoA. In plants, biosynthesis follows the typical reaction pathways established for the formation of these amino acids in microorganisms. Val and Ile are synthesized in two parallel pathways using a single set of enzymes. The pathway to Leu branches of from the final intermediate of Val biosynthesis. The formation of this amino acid requires a three-step pathway generating a 2-oxoacid elongated by a methylene group. In Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae, a homologous three-step pathway is also involved in Met chain elongation required for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, an important class of specialized metabolites in Brassicaceae. This is a prime example for the evolutionary relationship of pathways from primary and specialized metabolism. Similar to animals, plants also have the ability to degrade BCAAs. The importance of BCAA turnover has long been unclear, but now it seems apparent that the breakdown process might by relevant under certain environmental conditions. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge about BCAA metabolism, its regulation and its particular features in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22303262

Binder, Stefan

2010-01-01

157

A putative amino acid transporter of the SLC6 family is up-regulated by lithium and is required for resistance to lithium toxicity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Lithium is an efficacious drug for the treatment of mood disorders, and its application is also considered a potential therapy for brain damage. However, the mechanisms underlying lithium’s therapeutic action and toxic effects in the nervous system remain largely elusive. Here we report on the use of a versatile genetic model, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, to discover novel molecular components involved in the lithium-responsive neurobiological process. We previously identified CG15088, which encodes a putative nutrient amino acid transporter of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family, as one of the genes most significantly up-regulated in response to lithium treatment. This gene was the only SLC6 gene induced by lithium, and was thus designated as Lithium-inducible SLC6 transporter or List. Either RNAi-mediated knockdown or complete deletion of List resulted in a remarkable increase in the susceptibility of adult flies to lithium’s toxic effects, whereas transgenic expression of wild-type List significantly suppressed the lithium hypersensitive phenotype of List-deficient flies. Other ions such as sodium, potassium and chloride did not induce List up-regulation, nor did they affect the viability of flies with suppressed List expression. These results indicate that lithium’s biochemical or physical properties, rather than general osmotic responses, are responsible for the lithium-induced up-regulation of List, as well as for the lithium-susceptible phenotype observed in List knockdown flies. Interestingly, flies became significantly more susceptible to lithium toxicity when List RNAi was specifically expressed in glia than when it was expressed in neurons or muscles, which is consistent with potential glial expression of List. These results show that the List transporter confers resistance to lithium toxicity, possibly as a consequence of its amino acid transporter activity in CNS glia. Our results have provided a new avenue of investigation toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie lithium-responsive neurobiological process. PMID:19619614

Kasuya, Junko; Kaas, Garrett A.; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2009-01-01

158

Temperature dependence of amino acid transport in brain slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in amino acid influx and exit in incubated slices when the temperature was lowered from 37 to 20°C was observed with all 16 amino acids examined at two concentrations (1 mM and 10 µM). The temperature dependence of cellular amino acid influx observed in slices in vitro contrasts with the absence of temperature dependence of capillary amino acid

M. Banay-Schwartz; K. Lajtha; H. Sershen; A. Lajtha

1977-01-01

159

Structure and Function of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters (CATs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAT proteins (CAT for cationic amino acid transporter) are amongst the first mammalian amino acid transporters identified\\u000a on the molecular level and seem to be the major entry path for cationic amino acids in most cells. However, CAT proteins mediate\\u000a also efflux of their substrates and thus may also deplete cells from cationic amino acids under certain circumstances. The

E. I. Closs; J.-P. Boissel; A. Habermeier; A. Rotmann

2006-01-01

160

A Search for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) in the 100-400 ?m size range are the dominant mass fraction of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth today. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based technique exploited at the limits of sensitivity has been used to search for the extraterrestrial amino acids ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline in AMMs. Five samples, each containing about 30 to 35 grains, were analyzed. All the samples possess a terrestrial amino acid component, indicated by the excess of the L-enantiomers of common protein amino acids. In only one sample (A91) was AIB found to be present at a level significantly above the background blanks. The concentration of AIB (~280 ppm), and the AIB/isovaline ratio (>=10), in this sample are both much higher than in CM chondrites. The apparently large variation in the AIB concentrations of the samples suggests that AIB may be concentrated in rare subset of micrometeorites. Because the AIB/isovaline ratio in sample A91 is much larger than in CM chondrites, the synthesis of amino acids in the micrometeorite parent bodies might have involved a different process requiring an HCN-rich environment, such as that found in comets. If the present day characteristics of the meteorite and micrometeorite fluxes can be extrapolated back in time, then the flux of large carbonaceous micrometeorites could have contributed to the inventory of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth.

Brinton, Karen L. F.; Engrand, Cécile; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Maurette, Michel

1998-10-01

161

Acute effect of amino acid peritoneal dialysis solution on vascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oral ingestion of proteins or amino acids is associ- ated with endothelial dysfunction. The effect of commercial amino acid peritoneal dialysis solutions on vascular function is unknown. Objective: We compared the acute effect of intraperitoneal amino acid administration with that of intraperitoneal glucose adminis- tration on vascular function in peritoneal dialysis patients. Design: In an open-label randomized, controlled, crossover

Andreas Vychytil; Manuela Födinger; Johannes Pleiner; Marcus Mullner; Peter Konner; Sonja Skoupy; Claudia Röhrer; Michael Wolzt; Gere Sunder-Plassmann

162

Prediction of nuclear receptors with optimal pseudo amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors are involved in multiple cellular signaling pathways that affect and regulate processes such as organ development and maintenance, ion transport, homeostasis, and apoptosis. In this article, an optimal pseudo amino acid composition based on physicochemical characters of amino acids is suggested to represent proteins for predicting the subfamilies of nuclear receptors. Six physicochemical characters of amino acids were

Qing-Bin Gao; Zhi-Chao Jin; Xiao-Fei Ye; Cheng Wu; Jia He

2009-01-01

163

Genetic Engineering of Amino Acid Metabolism in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are not only building blocks of proteins but also participate in many metabolic networks that control growth and adaptation to the environment. In young plants, amino acid biosynthesis is regulated by a compound metabolic network that links nitrogen assimilation with carbon metabolism. This network is strongly regulated by the metabolism of four central amino acids, namely glutamine, glutamate,

Shmuel Galili; Rachel Amir; Gad Galili

2008-01-01

164

Protein structures uncovered Amino acids are molecules and are the  

E-print Network

Protein structures uncovered Lysozyme Amino acid Amino acids are molecules and are the building by various geometric shapes and colours. Primary Structure Amino acids link together in a specific sequence to form a chain. This chain is called the primary structure. If the protein chain doesn't occur

Rambaut, Andrew

165

Amino acids and osmolarity in honeybee drone haemolymph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the haemolymph of honeybee drones, concentrations of free amino acids were higher than in worker haemolymph, with different relative proportions of individual amino acids. The overall concentration of free amino acids reached its highest level at the 5th day after adult drone emergence, and after the 9th day only minor changes in the concentration and distribution of free

B. Leonhard; K. Crailsheim

1999-01-01

166

A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water

K. L. F. Brinton; J. L. Bada; J. R. Arnold

1993-01-01

167

Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates  

E-print Network

Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates Using HPLC with Automated synthesis may consume larger quantities of amino acids than other cell types. HPLC with precolumn. Experimental HPLC The ZORBAX Eclipse Plus amino acid analysis (AAA) method was performed using an Agilent 1100

Wikswo, John

168

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

169

Variation in competitive abilities of plants and microbes for specific amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes are assumed to possess strong competitive advantages over plants for uptake of nutrients from the soil. The finding\\u000a that non-mycorrhizal plants can obtain a significant fraction of their N requirement from soil amino acids contradicts this\\u000a assumption. The amino acid glycine (Gly) has been used as a model amino acid in many recent studies. Our preliminary studies\\u000a showed that

D. A. Lipson; T. K. Raab; S. K. Schmidt; R. K. Monson

1999-01-01

170

High affinity amino acid transporters specifically expressed in xylem parenchyma and developing seeds of Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis amino acid transporters (AAPs) show individual temporal and spatial expression patterns. A new amino acid transporter, AAP8 was isolated by reverse transcription-PCR. Growth and transport assays in comparison to AAP1-5 characterize AAP8 and AAP6 as high affinity amino acid transport systems from Arabidopsis. Histochemical promoter-beta- glucuronidase (GUS) studies identified AAP6 expression in xylem parenchyma, cells requiring high affinity transport

S. Okumoto; R. Schmidt; M. Tegeder; W. N. Fischer; D. Rentsch; W. B. Frommer; W. Koch

2002-01-01

171

Stimulation of renal amino acid reabsorption after treatment with triiodothyronine or dexamethasone in amino acid loaded rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In adult female anaestetized rats, the influence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone on renal amino acid handling was investigated in leucine (20mg\\/100g b.wt.) or glutamine (45mg\\/100g b.wt.) loaded animals. Bolus injections of both amino acids were followed by temporary increase in fractional excretion of the administered amino acids as well of the endogenous amino acids which were not administered.

Ch. Fleck; M. Aurich; M. Schwertfeger

1997-01-01

172

Sublimation of natural amino acids and induction of asymmetry by meteoritic amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is believed that the homochirality of building blocks of life like amino acids (AAs) and sugars is a prerequisite requirement for the origin and evolution of life. Among different mechanisms that might have triggered the initial disparity in the enantiomeric ratio on the primitive Earth, the key roles were assigned to: (i) local chiral symmetry breaking and (ii) the inflow of extraterrestrial matter (eg the carbonaceous meteorites containing non-racemic AAs). Recently it has been revealed that sublimation, a subject almost completely neglected for a long time, gives a pathway to enantioenrichment of natural AAs (1,2 and references herein). Sublimation is however one of the key physical processes that occur on comets. Starting from a mixture with a low content of an enantiopure AA, a partial sublimation gives an important enrichment of the sublimate (1,2). The resulted disparity in the ratio between enantiomers of a partial sublimate is determined by the crystalline nature of the starting mixture: we observed a drastic difference in the behavior of (i) mixtures based on true racemic compounds and (ii) mechanical mixtures of two enantiopure solid phases. On the other hand, combination of crystallization and sublimation can lead to segregation of enantioenriched fractions starting from racemic composition of sublimable aliphatic AAs (Ala, Leu, Pro, Val) in mixtures with non-volatile enantiopure ones (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) (3). The resulted sense of chirality correlates with the handedness of the non-volatile AAs: the observed changes in enantiomeric ratios clearly demonstrate the preferential homochiral interactions and a tendency of natural amino acids to homochiral self-organization. It is noteworthy that just these 5 (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) out of 22 proteinogenic amino acids are able to local symmetry breaking. On the other hand, recent data on the enantiomeric composition of the Tagish Lake, a C2-type carbonaceous meteorite, revealed a large L-enantiomeric excess of Asp and Glu (4) that we used in our experiments. These experimental data may shed some light on one of the facets of complex and mysterious preobiotic processes that eventually could have led to the origin of life. References: 1. Bellec A, Guillemin JC. Chem Commun 2010, 46:1482-1484. 2. Tarasevych AV, Sorochinsky AE, Kukhar VP, Chollet A, Daniellou R, Guillemin JC. J Org Chem 2013, 78:10530-10533. 3. Tarasevych AV, Sorochinsky AE, Kukhar VP, Guillemin JC. Orig Life Evol Biosph 2013, 43:129-135. 4. Glavin DP, Elsila JE, Burton AS, Callahan MP, Dworkin JP, Hilts RW, Herd CDK. Meteor Planet Sci 2012, 47:1347-1364.

Tarasevych, Arkadii V.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

173

Hamster d -amino-acid oxidase cDNA: rodents lack the 27th amino acid residue in d -amino-acid oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The nucleotide sequence of cDNA that encodes hamster d-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) was determined. The cDNA consisted of 1,590 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail. It had an open reading\\u000a frame for a protein consisting of 346 amino acid residues. The number of the amino acid residues is the same as that of the\\u000a rat DAO. However, the hamster DAO has one

M. Tsuchiya; A. Kurabayashi; R. Konno

2003-01-01

174

Some of the amino acid chemistry going on in the Laboratory of Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Some of the chemistry of amino acids going on in our laboratory (Laboratoire des Amino acides Peptides et Protéines) is described as well as some mass spectrometry methodology for their characterization particularly on solid supports. Several aspects are presented including: (i) the stereoselective synthesis of natural and unnatural amino acids using 2-hydroxypinan-3-one as chiral auxiliary; (ii) the stereoselective synthesis

S. Bouifraden; C. Drouot; M. El Hadrami; F. Guenoun; L. Lecointe; N. Mai; C. Pothion; M. Sadoune; B. Sauvagnat; M. Amblard; J. L. Aubagnac; M. Calmes; P. Chevallet; J. Daunis; C. Enjalbal; J. A. Fehrentz; F. Lamaty; J. P. Lavergne; R. Lazaro; V. Rolland; M. L. Roumestant; Ph. Viallefont; Y. Vidal; J. Martinez

1999-01-01

175

Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog  

PubMed Central

Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues. PMID:25210846

Fu, Mingchuan; Huang, Zhuoran; Mao, Yuanhui; Tao, Shiheng

2014-01-01

176

Amino-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence of the Silkworm Prothoracicotropic Hormone: Homology with Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular forms of prothoracicotropic hormone were isolated from the head of the adult silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the amino acid sequence of 19 amino acid residues in the amino terminus of these prothoracicotropic hormones was determined. These residues exhibit significant homology with insulin and insulin-like growth factors.

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Hironori Ishizaki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki

1984-01-01

177

Different and overlapping functions of Arabidopsis LHT6 and AAP1 transporters in root amino acid uptake.  

PubMed

Plants acquire nitrogen in the form of amino acids from the soil, and transport proteins located in the plasma membrane of root cells are required for this process. It was found that the Arabidopsis lysine-histidine-like transporter LHT6 is expressed in root cells important for amino acid uptake, including the epidermis, root hairs, and cortex. Transport studies with lht6 mutants using high levels of amino acids demonstrated that LHT6 is in fact involved in amino acid uptake. To determine if LHT6 plays a role in nitrogen acquisition at soil amino acid concentrations, growth and uptake studies were performed with low levels of toxic amino acid analogues and radiolabelled amino acids, respectively. In addition, mutants of AAP1, another root amino acid transporter, and lht6/aap1 double mutants were examined. The results showed that LHT6 is involved in uptake of acidic amino acids, glutamine and alanine, and probably phenylalanine. LHT6 seems not to transport basic or other neutral amino acids, or, alternatively, other transporters might compensate for eliminated LHT6 function. Previous studies suggested that AAP1 only takes up amino acids at high concentrations; however, here it is demonstrated that the transporter functions in acquisition of glutamate and neutral amino acids when present at soil concentrations. When comparing the characterized root uptake systems, it appears that transporters both with overlapping substrate specificity and with preference for specific substrates are required to access the soil amino acid pool. PMID:25005136

Perchlik, Molly; Foster, Justin; Tegeder, Mechthild

2014-10-01

178

Amino Acid Export in Plants: A Missing Link in Nitrogen Cycling  

PubMed Central

The export of nutrients from source organs to parts of the body where they are required (e.g. sink organs) is a fundamental biological process. Export of amino acids, one of the most abundant nitrogen species in plant long-distance transport tissues (i.e. xylem and phloem), is an essential process for the proper distribution of nitrogen in the plant. Physiological studies have detected the presence of multiple amino acid export systems in plant cell membranes. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the molecular identity of amino acid exporters, partially due to the technical difficulties hampering the identification of exporter proteins. In this short review, we will summarize our current knowledge about amino acid export systems in plants. Several studies have described plant amino acid transporters capable of bi-directional, facilitative transport, reminiscent of activities identified by earlier physiological studies. Moreover, recent expansion in the number of available amino acid transporter sequences have revealed evolutionary relationships between amino acid exporters from other organisms with a number of uncharacterized plant proteins, some of which might also function as amino acid exporters. In addition, genes that may regulate export of amino acids have been discovered. Studies of these putative transporter and regulator proteins may help in understanding the elusive molecular mechanisms of amino acid export in plants. PMID:21324969

Okumoto, Sakiko; Pilot, Guillaume

2011-01-01

179

Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

1985-01-01

180

Biosynthesis of amino acids in Clostridium pasteurianum  

PubMed Central

1. Clostridium pasteurianum was grown on a synthetic medium with the following carbon sources: (a) 14C-labelled glucose, alone or with unlabelled aspartate or glutamate, or (b) unlabelled glucose plus 14C-labelled aspartate, glutamate, threonine, serine or glycine. The incorporation of 14C into the amino acids of the cell protein was examined. 2. In both series of experiments carbon from exogenous glutamate was incorporated into proline and arginine; carbon from aspartate was incorporated into glutamate, proline, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, glycine and serine. Incorporations from the other exogenous amino acids indicated the metabolic sequence: aspartate ? threonine ? glycine ? serine. 3. The following activities were demonstrated in cell-free extracts of the organism: (a) the formation of aspartate by carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate or pyruvate, followed by transamination; (b) the individual reactions of the tricarboxylic acid route to 2-oxoglutarate from oxaloacetate; glutamate dehydrogenase was not detected; (c) the conversion of aspartate into threonine via homoserine; (d) the conversion of threonine into glycine by a constitutive threonine aldolase; (e) serine transaminase, phosphoserine transaminase, glycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. This last activity was abnormally high. 4. The combined evidence indicates that in C. pasteurianum the biosynthetic role of aspartate and glutamate is generally similar to that in aerobic and facultatively aerobic organisms, but that glycine is synthesized from glucose via aspartate and threonine. PMID:5419750

Dainty, R. H.; Peel, J. L.

1970-01-01

181

Amino acids, precursors for cationic and anionic intercalation synthesis and characterization of amino acid pillared materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and characterization of amino acid pillared materials are reported in this contribution. Host substances were Na-montmorillonite for cationic and hydrotalcite for anionic pillaring. Guest molecules were L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. The pillared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, BET measurements and FT-IR spectroscopy. Pillaring was successful: the layers propped open and the basal distances increased significantly. For hydrotalcite this increase was always significantly larger than for montmorillonite. This fact indicated that the spatial arrangement of the amino acid moieties is widely different. A model for this arrangement is given.

Fudala, Á.; Pálinkó, I.; Kiricsi, I.

1999-05-01

182

From one amino acid to another: tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smal- ler number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the tRNA, which is then converted to the cognate

Kelly Sheppard; Jing Yuan; Michael J. Hohn; Brian Jester; Kevin M. Devine; Dieter Soll

2008-01-01

183

Review: Taurine: A "very essential" amino acid  

PubMed Central

Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

Shen, Wen

2012-01-01

184

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

185

The high amino-acid content of sputum from cystic fibrosis patients promotes growth of auxotrophic Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are auxotrophic and require amino acids for growth. A quantitative assay was used to determine the total content of free amino acids of sputum sol-phase extracts from CF and non-CF patients to assess the presence of amino acids in the airway. CF patients colonised with auxotrophic I? aeruginosa had a

A. L. BARTH; T. L. PITT

1996-01-01

186

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

187

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the snythesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

188

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

189

Subtilisin-like proprotein convertase paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme 4 is required for chondrogenic differentiation in ATDC5 cells.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in the regulation of multiple stages of endochondral bone development. BMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors, and activated by removal of the propeptide. The subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family comprises seven members [furin/SPC1, PC2/SPC2, PC1/PC3/SPC3, paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4)/SPC4, PC4/SPC5, PC6/PC5/SPC6, and PC8/PC7/LPC/SPC7], and activates various signaling molecules, including BMPs. In this study, we analyzed the role of this family in chondrogenic differentiation by using the mouse embryonal carcinoma-derived clonal cell line ATDC5. Both SPC-specific inhibitors, decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone and ?1-antitrypsin Portland variant, suppressed chondrogenic differentiation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that PACE4 mRNA levels increased markedly during chondrogenic differentiation, whereas furin expression remained unchanged. Knockdown of PACE4 expression significantly reduced chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, proBMP6, which shows an expression pattern similar to that of PACE4, was efficiently processed into its mature form by PACE4, whereas furin could not process proBMP6. These results suggest that PACE4 may regulate the rate of hypertrophic conversion of ATDC5 cells through activation of proBMP6. PMID:22925071

Yuasa, Keizo; Futamatsu, Go; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Muroshita, Masaki; Kageyama, Yoko; Taichi, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nagahama, Masami; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Tsuji, Akihiko

2012-11-01

190

Requirement for Asn298 on D1 protein for oxygen evolution: analyses by exhaustive amino acid substitution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

PSII generates strong oxidants used for water oxidation. The secondary electron donor, Y(Z), is Tyr161 on PSII reaction center D1 protein and mediates electron transfer from the oxygen-evolving Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster to the primary electron donor, P680. The latest PSII crystal structure revealed the presence of a hydrogen bond network around Y(Z), which is anticipated to play important roles in the electron and proton transfer reactions. Y(Z) forms a hydrogen bond with His190 which in turn forms a hydrogen bond with Asn298 on D1 protein. Although functional roles of Y(Z) and His190 have already been characterized, little is known about the functional role of Asn298. Here we have generated 19 mutants from a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in which the Asn298 has been substituted by each of the other 19 amino acid residues. All mutants showed significantly impaired or no photosynthetic growth. Seven mutants capable of photosynthetic growth showed oxygen-evolving activity although at a significantly reduced rate. Interestingly the oxygen-evolving activity of these mutants was markedly photosensitive. The 19 mutants accumulated PSII at variable levels and showed a light-induced electron transfer reaction from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP), suggesting that Asn298 is important for the function and photoprotection of the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster. PMID:24853102

Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kodama, Natsumi; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Ozawa, Shin-ichiro; Takahashi, Yuichiro

2014-07-01

191

Quantitative amino acid profiling and stable isotopically labeled amino acid tracer enrichment used for in vivo human systemic and tissue kinetics measurements.  

PubMed

An important area within clinical functional metabolomics is in vivo amino acid metabolism and protein turnover measurements for which accurate amino acid concentrations and stable isotopically labeled amino acid enrichments are mandatory not the least when tissue metabolomics is determined. The present study describes a new sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method quantifying 20 amino acids and their tracer(s) ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) in human plasma and skeletal muscle specimens. Before analysis amino acids were extracted and purified via deprotonization/ion exchange, derivatized using a phenylisothiocyanate reagent and each amino acid was quantitated with its own stable isotopically labeled internal standard (uniformly labeled-(13)C/(15)N). The method was validated according to general recommendations for chromatographic analytical methods. The calibration curve correlations for amino acids were on average; r(2)=0.998. Interday accuracy for amino acids determined in spiked plasma was on average 97.3% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 2.6%. The ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) enrichment CV's for machine reproducibility in muscle tissue fluid and plasma were 4.4 and 0.8%, and the interday variability was 3.4% and the recovery was 90.5%, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a method for quantitative amino acid profiling that meets the requirements for systemic and tissue human in vivo amino acid and protein turnover kinetics measurements. Moreover, citrulline, ornithine, ?-methyl-histidine, ?-methyl-l-histidine, hydroxy-proline and carnitine were analysed but when similar precision and accuray are required an additional stable istopically labeled internal standard for these meatablites should be be added. PMID:24513911

Bornø, Andreas; van Hall, Gerrit

2014-03-01

192

Advances in protein-amino acid nutrition of poultry.  

PubMed

The ideal protein concept has allowed progress in defining requirements as well as the limiting order of amino acids in corn, soybean meal, and a corn-soybean meal mixture for growth of young chicks. Recent evidence suggests that glycine (or serine) is a key limiting amino acid in reduced protein [23% crude protein (CP) reduced to 16% CP] corn-soybean meal diets for broiler chicks. Research with sulfur amino acids has revealed that small excesses of cysteine are growth depressing in chicks fed methionine-deficient diets. Moreover, high ratios of cysteine:methionine impair utilization of the hydroxy analog of methionine, but not of methionine itself. A high level of dietary L: -cysteine (2.5% or higher) is lethal for young chicks, but a similar level of DL: -methionine, L: -cystine or N-acetyl-L: -cysteine causes no mortality. A supplemental dietary level of 3.0% L: -cysteine (7x requirement) causes acute metabolic acidosis that is characterized by a striking increase in plasma sulfate and decrease in plasma bicarbonate. S-Methylmethionine, an analog of S-adenosylmethionine, has been shown to have choline-sparing activity, but it only spares methionine when diets are deficient in choline and(or) betaine. Creatine, or its precursor guanidinoacetic acid, can spare dietary arginine in chicks. PMID:19009229

Baker, David H

2009-05-01

193

Organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of ?(3)-amino acid derivatives.  

PubMed

?(3)-Amino acid derivatives are an essential resource for pharmaceutical production, medicinal chemistry, and biochemistry. In this article, recent developments in versatile organocatalysis, i.e., Brønsted acid catalysis, Brønsted base catalysis, Lewis acid catalysis, Lewis base catalysis, and phase-transfer catalysis, for the asymmetric synthesis of ?(3)-amino acid derivatives will be presented. PMID:23748260

Kim, Sun Min; Yang, Jung Woon

2013-08-01

194

The Central Enzymes of the Aspartate Family of Amino Acid  

E-print Network

, and dipicolinic acid, important for sporulation in Gram-positive bacteria. During evolution members of the animalThe Central Enzymes of the Aspartate Family of Amino Acid Biosynthesis RONALD E. VIOLA* Department The aspartate pathway (Figure 1) uses L-aspartic acid as the precursor for the biosynthesis of the amino acids

Viola, Ronald

195

Role of amino acids and vitamins in nutrition of mesophilic Methanococcus spp  

SciTech Connect

In this study the authors found that autotrophic methanococci similar to Methanococcus maripaludis obtained up to 57% of their cellular carbon from exogeneous amino acids. About 85% of the incorporation was into protein. Primarily nonpolar and basic amino acids and glycine were incorporated; only small amounts of acidic and some polar amino acids were taken up. An additional 10% of the incorporation was into the nucleic acid fraction. Because little /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was formed from the /sup 14/C-amino acids, little metabolism of the amino acids occurred. Therefore, the growth stimulation by amino acids was probably due to the sparing of anabolic energy requirements. Of the amino acids incorporated, only alanine was also a sole nitrogen source for these methanococci. In contrast, Methanococcus vannielii and Methanococcus aeolicus are autotrophic methanococci which did not incorporate amino acids and did not utilize alanine as a sole nitrogen source. Although glutamine served as a sole nitrogen source for the autotrophic methanococci and Methanococcus voltae, a heterotrophic methanococcus, growth was due to chemical deamination in the medium. M. voltae requires leucine and isoleucine for growth. However, these amino acids were not significant nitrogen sources, and alanine was not a sole nitrogen source for the growth of M. voltae. The branched-chain amino acids were not extensively metabolized by M. voltae. Pantoyl lactone and pantoic acid were readily incorporated by M. voltae. The intact vitamin pantothenate was neither stimulatory to growth nor incorporated. In conclusion, although amino acids and vitamins are nutritionally important to both autotrophic and heterotrophic methanococci, generally they are not subject to extensive catabolism.

Whitman, W.B.; Sohn, S.; Kuk, S.; Xing, R.

1987-10-01

196

Role of Amino Acids and Vitamins in Nutrition of Mesophilic Methanococcus spp.  

PubMed

In this study we found that autotrophic methanococci similar to Methanococcus maripaludis obtained up to 57% of their cellular carbon from exogenous amino acids. About 85% of the incorporation was into protein. Primarily nonpolar and basic amino acids and glycine were incorporated; only small amounts of acidic and some polar amino acids were taken up. An additional 10% of the incorporation was into the nucleic acid fraction. Because little CO(2) was formed from the C-amino acids, little metabolism of the amino acids occurred. Therefore the growth stimulation by amino acids was probably due to the sparing of anabolic energy requirements. Of the amino acids incorporated, only alanine was also a sole nitrogen source for these methanococci. In contrast, Methanococcus vannielii and "Methanococcus aeolicus" are autotrophic methanococci which did not incorporate amino acids and did not utilize alanine as a sole nitrogen source. Although glutamine served as a sole nitrogen source for the autotrophic methanococci and Methanococcus voltae, a heterotrophic methanococcus, growth was due to chemical deamination in the medium. M. voltae requires leucine and isoleucine for growth. However, these amino acids were not significant nitrogen sources, and alanine was not a sole nitrogen source for the growth of M. voltae. The branched-chain amino acids were not extensively metabolized by M. voltae. Pantoyl lactone and pantoic acid were readily incorporated by M. voltae. The intact vitamin pantothenate was neither stimulatory to growth nor incorporated. In conclusion, although amino acids and vitamins are nutritionally important to both autotrophic and heterotrophic methanococci, generally they are not subject to extensive catabolism. PMID:16347458

Whitman, W B; Sohn, S; Kuk, S; Xing, R

1987-10-01

197

Amino acid biodegradation and its potential effects on organic nitrogen capture by plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that plant roots can directly utilise soil organic-N in the form of amino acids without prior mineralisation by the soil's microbial biomass. To critically assess this, however, requires a knowledge of microbial amino acid-N turnover times in soil. The effects of soil type, depth and temperature on the uptake and partitioning of a mixture of 15

D. L Jones

1999-01-01

198

Amino-acid-transport mutant of Nicotiana tabacum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake rates of 16 amino acids were measured in leaf discs from Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Xanthi (wild type) and from two valine-resistant mutants, Valr-1 and Valr-2. For all amino acids tested the uptake rates in Valr-1 were similar to those in the wild type. The Valr-2 mutant showed a reduced uptake of neutral and acidic amino acids, but

A. C. Borstlap; J. Schuurmans; J.-P. Bourgin

1985-01-01

199

Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline,

E. J. Crapster-Pregont; H. J. Cleaves; R. M. Hazen

2008-01-01

200

Formation and transformation of amino acids and amino acid precursors by high-velocity impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in extraterrestrial bodies such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites. It is plausible that these extraterrestrial bodies carried organic compounds such as amino acids or their precursors to the early Earth. It is claimed, however, that these extraterrestrial organics were destroyed during impacts to the Earth. We therefore examined possible transformation of amino acids and their precursors during high-velocity impacts by using a rail gun "HYPAC" in ISAS. Starting materials used in the impact experiments were (i) aqueous solution of glycine (10 mM or 1.0 M), and (ii) a mixture of ammonia, methanol and water. The target materials were sealed in stainless steel capsules, and shocked by impact with a polycarbonate projectile accelerated with "HYPAC" to the velocities of 2.5 - 7.0 km/s. A part of the products was acid-hydrolyzed. Both hydrolyzed an unhydrolyzed products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. When an aqueous solution containing ammonia, methanol and water was shocked by impact at the velocity of 6.4 km/s, a number of amino acids (e.g., serine and glycine) were detected after hydrolysis. The present results suggest that amino acid precursors could be formed during cometary impacts. When glycine solution was used as a starting material, about 40 % of glycine was recovered even after 6 km/s impact. Methylamine and ammonia, which are known as pyrolytic products of glycine, were detected, besides them, diketopiperazine and an unidentified product whose molecular weight was 134, were detected, while no glycine peptides were identified in them. It was shown that the impact processes resulted in the formation of amino acid condensates. Thermal stability of glycine precursor is comparable with glycine. The present results suggest that organic material could survive and/or formed during an impact process. Most of organic compounds in comets and carbonaceous chondrites were complex organic compounds. Laboratory simulations suggest that they contain precursors of amino acids. We are examining possible alteration of such complex precursors of amino acids by high-velocity impacts.

Kaneko, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamori, A.

201

Fatty Acid Production from Amino Acids and ?-Keto Acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2†  

PubMed Central

Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and ?-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of ?-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and ?-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from ?-keto acids only. BL2 also converted ?-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and ?-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event. PMID:15528496

Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C.

2004-01-01

202

Correlations of Amino Acids with Secondary Structure Types: Connection with Amino Acid Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlations of primary and secondary structures were analyzed using\\u000aproteins with known structure from Protein Data Bank. The correlation values of\\u000aamino acid type and the eight secondary structure types at distant position\\u000awere calculated for distances between -25 and 25. Shapes of the diagrams\\u000aindicate that amino acids polarity and capability for hydrogen bonding have\\u000ainfluence on the

Miodrag V. ivkovi?; V. Beljanski; Milos V. Beljanski; Snezana D. Zaric

2005-01-01

203

A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

1993-01-01

204

Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.  

PubMed Central

Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

1997-01-01

205

Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces  

E-print Network

Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) Langmuir monolayers...

Yang, Dengliang

2005-11-01

206

Interactive Hangman teaches amino acid structures and abbreviations.  

PubMed

We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying structures, hints to the answers were written in "amino acid sentences" for the students to translate. Students were required to draw the structure of the corresponding letter they wished to guess on a whiteboard. Each student received a reference sheet of the structures and abbreviations, but was required to draw from memory when guessing a letter. Preassessments and postassessments revealed a drastic improvement in the students' ability to recognize and draw structures from memory. This activity provides a fun, educational game to play in biochemistry discussion sections or during long incubations in biochemistry laboratories. © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(6):495-500, 2014. PMID:25345852

Pennington, Britney O; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O

2014-11-12

207

Determination of ?-aminonitriles, ?-amino acid amides and ?-amino acids by means of HPLC, post-column reaction and fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous assay of intermediate (?-aminonitrile and ?-amino acid amide) and end products\\u000a (?-amino acid) in process streams of ?-amino acid synthesis. Applications are given for Ala, Val and Leu. ?-Aminonitriles\\u000a were stable in a phosphate buffer pH 3, which was subsequently used for sample handling and chromatography. The ?-aminonitrile,\\u000a the corresponding acid amide

A. L. L. Duchateau; M. G. Crombach

1987-01-01

208

Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (<1 ppm). The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ? 13 C values ranging from +31.6% to +50.5%. The highly enriched carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

209

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

210

Geochemistry of amino acids in shells of the clam Saxidomus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of amino acids and their corresponding d l enantiomeric ratios have been measured in shells of the bivalve mollusk Saxidomus from eleven localities, ranging in age from modern to probably more than 500,000 yr, along the Pacific coast of North America. Natural logarithms of amino acid concentrations correlate well with d l ratios, and the relationship provides a possible guide to the selection of fossils for use in amino acid dating. The relative order of the extents of racemization of amino acids at any given time appears to change with increasing sample age. Application of the amino acid dating method to shells from Whidbey Island, Washington, yields an age of about 80,000 yr, in contrast to the previously determined radiocarbon age of 36,000 yr which was measured on some shell carbonate and considered a minimum age. The amino acid age is compatible with the geologic record in the area. ?? 1980.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; McMenamin, M.A.; Straham, S.E.

1980-01-01

211

Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approx. 150 C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures less than 550 C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. Key Words: Amino acids-Exogenous delivery-Micrometeorites-Sublimation.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

212

Diagnosis in bile acid-CoA: Amino acid N-acyltransferase deficiency  

PubMed Central

Cholate-CoA ligase (CCL) and bile acid-CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) sequentially mediate bile-acid amidation. Defects can cause intrahepatic cholestasis. Distinction has required gene sequencing. We assessed potential clinical utility of immunostaining of liver for CCL and BAAT. Using commercially available antibodies against BAAT and CCL, we immunostained liver from an infant with jaundice, deficiency of amidated bile acids, and transcription-terminating mutation in BAAT. CCL was normally expressed. BAAT expression was not detected. Immunostaining may facilitate diagnosis in bile-acid amidation defects. PMID:22783059

Hadzic, Nedim; Bull, Laura N; Clayton, Peter T; Knisely, AS

2012-01-01

213

Peptidology: short amino acid modules in cell biology and immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Short amino acid motifs, either linear sequences or discontinuous amino acid groupings, can interact with specific protein\\u000a domains, so exerting a central role in cell adhesion, signal transduction, hormone activity, regulation of transcript expression,\\u000a enzyme activity, and antigen-antibody interaction. Here, we analyze the literature for such critical short amino acid motifs\\u000a to determine the minimal peptide length involved in biologically

G. Lucchese; A. Stufano; B. Trost; A. Kusalik; D. Kanduc

2007-01-01

214

Amino acid sequence of the human fibronectin receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequence deduced from eDNA of the human placental fibronectin receptor is reported. The receptor is composed of two subunits: an 0t subunit of 1,008 amino acids which is processed into two polypeptides disulfide bonded to one another, and a 13 subunit of 778 amino acids. Each subunit has near its COOH terminus a hydrophobic segment. This and

W. Scott Argraves; Shintaro Suzuki; Hiroharu Arai; Katie Thompson; Michael D. Pierschbacher; Erkki Ruoslahti

1987-01-01

215

Simplifying pyridoxal: practical methods for amino acid dynamic kinetic resolution.  

PubMed

Metal complexes of picolinaldehyde are identified as low-cost and environmentally benign catalysts, providing high reaction rates and turnovers for the racemization of amino acids. These pyridoxal surrogates demonstrate activity toward a variety of amino acid esters. Applications to chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolutions provide access to amino acids in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities, demonstrating their compatibility with protease-mediated transformations. PMID:20364829

Felten, Albert E; Zhu, Gangguo; Aron, Zachary D

2010-05-01

216

BAT1, a bidirectional amino acid transporter in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis thaliana At2g01170 gene is annotated as a putative gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) permease based on its sequence similarity to a\\u000a yeast GABA transporting gene (UGA4). A cDNA of At2g01170 was expressed in yeast and analyzed for amino acid transport activity. Both direct measurement of amino\\u000a acid transport and yeast growth experiments demonstrated that the At2g01170 encoded-protein exhibits

Ekrem Dündar; Daniel R. Bush

2009-01-01

217

Which Amino Acids Should Be Used in Prebiotic Chemistry Studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of amino acids on minerals and their condensation under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic earth is\\u000a a well studied subject. However, which amino acids should be used in these experiments is still an open question. The main\\u000a goal of this review is to attempt to answer this question. There were two sources of amino acids for the

Dimas A. M. Zaia; Cássia Thaïs B. V. Zaia; Henrique De Santana

2008-01-01

218

STEREOSELECTIVE WAY TO DERIVATIVES OF N-PHOSPHORYLATED AMINO ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereoselective synthesis of the N-phosphor (V) substituted amino acids (2, 3) via the N-phosphor (III) derivatives of amino acids (1) are described. The diastereoisomers of N-phosphor (V) amino acids are separated by crystallization or column chromatography and used as starting compounds for preparation of chiral N-chloroamides. The prepared compounds have been characterized by NMR spectra and HPLC.

Oleg I. Kolodiazhnyi; Evgen V. Grishkun; Sergei V. Galushko; Oleg R. Golovatyi

1995-01-01

219

[Amino acid loss during dialysis treatment].  

PubMed

Protein-calorie malnutrition is a widespread complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with increased mortality. The pathogenesis of malnutrition is multifactorial. Intradialytic amino acid (AA) loss is considered one of the cofactors in the complex mechanisms that lead to malnutrition in HD patients. It has been documented that in each dialysis session there is a 6-8 gram loss of AA into the dialysate, which worsens with the use of high-flux membranes. The intradialytic AA loss is variably compensated by reduction of liver synthesis and increased AA release from muscle stores. In malnourished HD patients the serum AA concentration, especially branched-chain AA (BCAA), is correlated with nutritional status and anorexia, whereas BCAA supplementation improves the nutritional parameters and increases appetite. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of alterations of AA metabolism in the pathogenesis of malnutrition and the potential beneficial effects of BCAA supplementation or alternative treatments in malnourished patients. PMID:21341242

Borrelli, Silvio; De Nicola, Luca; Sagliocca, Adelia; Liberti, Maria Elena; Santangelo, Sara; Donnarumma, Gerardo; Garofalo, Carlo; Pacilio, Mario; Zamboli, Pasquale; Minutolo, Roberto; Conte, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

220

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method is described for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(OSOCl)CN, R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(Cl)CN and [R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(CN)O][sub 2]SO wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art. No Drawings

Davis, J.W. Jr.

1983-01-25

221

Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats  

PubMed Central

Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

Nijveen, Harm

2014-01-01

222

Which Amino Acids Should Be Used in Prebiotic Chemistry Studies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of amino acids on minerals and their condensation under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic earth is a well studied subject. However, which amino acids should be used in these experiments is still an open question. The main goal of this review is to attempt to answer this question. There were two sources of amino acids for the prebiotic earth: (1) exogenous—meaning that the amino acids were synthesized outside the earth and delivered to our planet by interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), meteorites, comets, etc. and (2) endogenous—meaning that they were synthesized on earth in atmospheric mixtures, hydrothermal vents, etc. For prebiotic chemistry studies, the use of a mixture of amino acids from both endogenous and exogenous sources is suggested. The exogenous contribution of amino acids to this mixture is very different from the average composition of proteins, and contains several non-protein amino acids. On the other hand, the mixture of amino acids from endogenous sources is seems to more closely resemble the amino acid composition of terrestrial proteins.

Zaia, Dimas A. M.; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs B. V.; de Santana, Henrique

2008-12-01

223

Utilization of sorghum grain protein and amino acids by cattle  

E-print Network

' 52. 01 values Eol all observations on the grain. a TABLE 16. TRUE DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS FOR THE TEST GRAINS. Amino Acids TE I~14 626 7078 8-398 3197 608 610 625 Ration A Asp. Thr. Sor. Glu. Pro. Gly. Ala. Val. Cys. Met. Iles... ' 52. 01 values Eol all observations on the grain. a TABLE 16. TRUE DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS FOR THE TEST GRAINS. Amino Acids TE I~14 626 7078 8-398 3197 608 610 625 Ration A Asp. Thr. Sor. Glu. Pro. Gly. Ala. Val. Cys. Met. Iles...

Henderson, Glen Ray

2012-06-07

224

The amino acid sequence of wood duck lysozyme.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of wood duck (Aix sponsa) lysozyme was analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had the highest similarity to duck III lysozyme with four amino acid substitutions, and had eighteen amino acid substitutions from chicken lysozyme. The valine at position 75 was newly detected in chicken-type lysozymes. In the active site, Tyr34 and Glu57 were found at subsites F and D, respectively, when compared with chicken lysozyme. PMID:10052146

Araki, T; Torikata, T

1999-01-01

225

Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease  

E-print Network

Intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by amino acid abundance. When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino ...

Cain, Natalie Elaine

226

Amino acids regulate the transcription, internal sorting, and intrinsic activity of the general amino acid permease (GAP1) in S. cerevisiae  

E-print Network

The high capacity general amino acid permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GAP1) is regulated such that it actively imports amino acids into the cell from the extracellular medium only when internal amino acid levels are ...

Risinger, April L. (April Lynn)

2007-01-01

227

Tracing hybrid incompatibilities to single amino acid substitutions.  

PubMed

Deleterious interactions among genes cause reductions in fitness of interpopulation hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Identifying genes involved in hybrid breakdown has proven difficult, and few studies have addressed the molecular basis of this widespread phenomenon. Because proper function of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) requires a coadapted set of nuclear and mitochondrial gene products, ETS genes present an attractive system for studying the evolution of coadapted gene complexes within isolated populations and the loss of fitness in interpopulation hybrids. Here we show the effects of single amino acid substitutions in cytochrome c (CYC) on its functional interaction with another ETS protein, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. The individual and pairwise consequences of three naturally occurring amino acid substitutions in CYC are examined by site-directed mutagenesis and found to differentially effect the rates of CYC oxidation by COX variants from different source populations. In one case, we show that interpopulation hybrid breakdown in COX activity can be attributed to a single naturally occurring amino acid substitution in CYC. PMID:16280539

Harrison, J Scott; Burton, Ronald S

2006-03-01

228

Na+ interactions with the neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1.  

PubMed

The alanine, serine, cysteine transporters (ASCTs) belong to the solute carrier family 1A (SLC1A), which also includes the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the prokaryotic aspartate transporter GltPh. Acidic amino acid transport by the EAATs is coupled to the co-transport of three Na(+) ions and one proton, and the counter-transport of one K(+) ion. In contrast, neutral amino acid exchange by the ASCTs does not require protons or the counter-transport of K(+) ions and the number of Na(+) ions required is not well established. One property common to SLC1A family members is a substrate-activated anion conductance. We have investigated the number and location of Na(+) ions required by ASCT1 by mutating residues in ASCT1 that correspond to residues in the EAATs and GltPh that are involved in Na(+) binding. Mutations to all three proposed Na(+) sites influence the binding of substrate and/or Na(+), or the rate of substrate exchange. A G422S mutation near the Na2 site reduced Na(+) affinity, without affecting the rate of exchange. D467T and D467A mutations in the Na1 site reduce Na(+) and substrate affinity and also the rate of substrate exchange. T124A and D380A mutations in the Na3 site selectively reduce the affinity for Na(+) and the rate of substrate exchange without affecting substrate affinity. In many of the mutants that reduce the rate of substrate transport the amplitudes of the substrate-activated anion conductances are not substantially affected indicating altered ion dependence for channel activation compared with substrate exchange. PMID:24808181

Scopelliti, Amanda J; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar; Ryan, Renae M; Vandenberg, Robert J

2014-06-20

229

Affinity of antineoplastic amino acid drugs for the large neutral amino acid transporter of the blood-brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative affinity of six anticancer amino acid drugs for the neutral amino acid carrier of the blood-brain barrier was examined in rats using an in situ brain perfusion technique. Affinity was evaluated from the concentration-dependent inhibition ofl-[14C]-leucine uptake into rat brain during perfusion at tracer leucine concentrations and in the absence of competing amino acids. Of the six drugs

Yoshiaki Takada; Nigel H. Greig; David T. Vistica; Stanley I. Rapoport; Quentin R. Smith

1991-01-01

230

Lineage-Specific Differences in the Amino Acid Substitution Process  

PubMed Central

In Darwinian evolution, mutations occur approximately at random in a gene, turned into amino acid mutations by the genetic code. Some mutations are fixed to become substitutions and some are eliminated from the population. Partitioning pairs of closely related species with complete genome sequences by average population size of each pair, we looked at the substitution matrices generated for these partitions and compared the substitution patterns between species. We estimated a population genetic model that relates the relative fixation probabilities of different types of mutations to the selective pressure and population size. Parameterizations of the average and distribution of selective pressures for different amino acid substitution types in different population size comparisons were generated with a Bayesian framework. We found that partitions in population size as well as in substitution type are required to explain the substitution data. Selection coefficients were found to decrease with increasingly radical amino acid substitution and with increasing effective population size. To further explore the role of underlying processes in amino acid substitution, we analyzed embryophyte (plant) gene families from TAED (The Adaptive Evolution Database), where solved structures for at least one member exist in the Protein Data Bank. Using PAML, we assigned branches to three categories: strong negative selection, moderate negative selection/ neutrality, and positive diversifying selection. Focusing on the first and third categories, we identified sites changing along gene family lineages and observed the spatial patterns of substitution. Selective sweeps were expected to create primary sequence clustering under positive diversifying selection. Co-evolution through direct physical interaction was expected to cause tertiary structural clustering. Under both positive and negative selection, the substitution patterns were found to be nonrandom. Under positive diversifying selection, significant independent signals were found for primary and tertiary sequence clustering, suggesting roles for both selective sweeps and direct physical interaction. Under strong negative selection, the signals were not found to be independent. All together, a complex interplay of population genetic and protein thermodynamics forces is suggested. PMID:20004669

Huzurbazar, Snehalata; Kolesov, Grigory; Massey, Steven E.; Harris, Katherine C.; Churbanov, Alexander; Liberles, David A.

2009-01-01

231

Lineage-specific differences in the amino acid substitution process.  

PubMed

In Darwinian evolution, mutations occur approximately at random in a gene, turned into amino acid mutations by the genetic code. Some mutations are fixed to become substitutions and some are eliminated from the population. Partitioning pairs of closely related species with complete genome sequences by average population size of each pair, we looked at the substitution matrices generated for these partitions and compared the substitution patterns between species. We estimated a population genetic model that relates the relative fixation probabilities of different types of mutations to the selective pressure and population size. Parameterizations of the average and distribution of selective pressures for different amino acid substitution types in different population size comparisons were generated with a Bayesian framework. We found that partitions in population size as well as in substitution type are required to explain the substitution data. Selection coefficients were found to decrease with increasingly radical amino acid substitution and with increasing effective population size. To further explore the role of underlying processes in amino acid substitution, we analyzed embryophyte (plant) gene families from TAED (The Adaptive Evolution Database), where solved structures for at least one member exist in the Protein Data Bank. Using PAML, we assigned branches to three categories: strong negative selection, moderate negative selection/neutrality, and positive diversifying selection. Focusing on the first and third categories, we identified sites changing along gene family lineages and observed the spatial patterns of substitution. Selective sweeps were expected to create primary sequence clustering under positive diversifying selection. Co-evolution through direct physical interaction was expected to cause tertiary structural clustering. Under both positive and negative selection, the substitution patterns were found to be nonrandom. Under positive diversifying selection, significant independent signals were found for primary and tertiary sequence clustering, suggesting roles for both selective sweeps and direct physical interaction. Under strong negative selection, the signals were not found to be independent. All together, a complex interplay of population genetic and protein thermodynamics forces is suggested. PMID:20004669

Huzurbazar, Snehalata; Kolesov, Grigory; Massey, Steven E; Harris, Katherine C; Churbanov, Alexander; Liberles, David A

2010-03-12

232

Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. PMID:22325238

de Vladar, Harold P

2012-01-01

233

Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Prof. William Martin, Prof. Eörs Szathmáry (nominated by Dr. Gáspár Jékely) and Dr. Ádám Kun (nominated by Dr. Sandor Pongor) PMID:22325238

2012-01-01

234

Utilization of acidic ?-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto ?-amino acids and their derivatives.  

PubMed

Aryl-keto-containing ?-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl ?-amino acids, nonproteinogenic ?-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing ?-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic ?-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts. PMID:24840903

Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

2014-01-01

235

Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells  

PubMed Central

Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jorn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, Francois

2014-01-01

236

The biosynthetic gene cluster for coronamic acid, an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid, contains genes homologous to amino acid-activating enzymes and thioesterases.  

PubMed Central

Coronamic acid (CMA), an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid derived from isoleucine, functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of coronatine, a chlorosis-inducing phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180. The DNA required for CMA biosynthesis (6.9 kb) was sequenced, revealing three distinct open reading frames (ORFs) which share a common orientation for transcription. The deduced amino acid sequence of a 2.7-kb ORF designated cmaA contained six core sequences and two conserved motifs which are present in a variety of amino acid-activating enzymes, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Furthermore, CmaA contained a spatial arrangement of histidine, aspartate, and arginine residues which are conserved in the ferrous active site of some nonheme iron(II) enzymes which catalyze oxidative cyclizations. The deduced amino acid sequence of a 1.2-kb ORF designated cmaT was related to thioesterases of both procaryotic and eucaryotic origins. These data suggest that CMA assembly is similar to the thiotemplate mechanism of nonribosomal peptide synthesis. No significant similarities between a 0.9-kb ORF designated cmaU and other database entries were found. The start sites of two transcripts required for CMA biosynthesis were identified in the present study. pRG960sd, a vector containing a promoterless glucuronidase gene, was used to localize and study the promoter regions upstream of the two transcripts. Data obtained in the present study indicate that CMA biosynthesis is regulated at the transcriptional level by temperature. Images PMID:8002582

Ullrich, M; Bender, C L

1994-01-01

237

Amino acid efflux in the isolated perfused rat pancreas: trans-stimulation by extracellular amino acids.  

PubMed Central

1. Epithelial uptake and efflux of the non-metabolized system A analogue 2-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) and L-serine were studied in the isolated perfused rat pancreas using a dual tracer loading and wash-out technique. Uptakes of 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine were measured relative to D-[3H or 14C]mannitol (extracellular tracer) during a 20 min cell loading period. Maximal uptake for MeAIB (34 +/- 2%, n = 6) occurred within 2-3 min and decreased to 14 +/- 2% after 20 min tracer loading. Uptake for L-serine reached a maximum (62 +/- 4%, n = 7) within 1 min and decreased to 19 +/- 2% after 20 min tracer loading. 2. When tracer wash-out was monitored during subsequent perfusion of the preloaded pancreas with an isotope-free solution, D-mannitol predominantly cleared from a fast exchanging compartment (0.54 +/- 0.05 ml g-1, n = 9) with a time constant (Tfast) of 0.68 +/- 0.04 min. Although MeAIB and L-serine exhibited similar fast phases of wash-out, a much larger efflux occurred from a slowly exchanging pool with respective time constants (Tslow) of 15.47 +/- 0.45 min (n = 6) and 5.98 +/- 0.46 min (n = 7). 3. A rapid vascular challenge of the pancreas with 100 mM-L-serine transiently accelerated cellular efflux of 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine without affecting wash-out of D-[14C]mannitol. Tracer efflux following cell loading with 2-[14C]MeAIB or L-[3H]serine was not stimulated by a challenge with 100 mM-MeAIB. 4. The time course of amino acid evoked 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine efflux paralleled the extracellular dilution profile of a vascular stimulus, suggesting that the acceleration of efflux was due to trans-stimulation. 5. Trans-stimulation of 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine efflux by a further twenty-two naturally occurring and three synthetic amino acids was then examined. L-Proline, N-methyl-DL-alanine, L-lysine and D-lysine selectively stimulated MeAIB efflux. Efflux of both tracer amino acids was accelerated by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), L-serine, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, glycine, branched-chain and large neutral amino acids, but affected negligibly by D-alanine, beta-alanine, MeAIB, L-arginine, L-aspartate, L-glutamate, taurine or D-mannitol. 6. In summary, we have characterized amino acid exchange mechanisms in the isolated pancreas and conclude that efflux of intracellular amino acids from pancreatic acinar cells may be mediated by at least two transporters with differing specificity for extracellular amino acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2514260

Mann, G E; Norman, P S; Smith, I C

1989-01-01

238

Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550°C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached ~150°C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550°C. ?-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures >550°C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2001-09-01

239

Effects of dietary protein and amino acid levels on the expression of selected cationic amino acid transporters and serum amino acid concentration in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The absorption of lysine is facilitated by leucine, but there is no information regarding the effect of crude protein, lysine and leucine levels on the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with 20 pigs (14.9 +/- 0.62 kg initial body weight) to evaluate the effect of two protein levels, and the content of lysine, threonine, methionine and leucine in low crude protein diets on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles and serum concentration of amino acids. Treatments were as follows: (i) wheat-soybean meal diet, 20% crude protein (Control); (ii) wheat diet deficient in lysine, threonine and methionine (Basal diet); (iii) Basal diet plus 0.70% L-lysine, 0.27% L-threonine, 0.10% DL-methionine (Diet LTM); (iv) Diet LTM plus 0.80% L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu). Despite the Basal diet, all diets were formulated to meet the requirements of lysine, threonine and methionine; Diet LTM + Leu supplied 60% excess of leucine. The addition of lysine, threonine and methionine in Diet LTM increased the expression of b(0,+) in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles and decreased CAT-1 in jejunum; the serum concentration of lysine was also increased (p < 0.01). Further addition of L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu) decreased the b(0,+) expression in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (p < 0.05), increased the serum concentration ofleucine and arginine and decreased the concentration of isoleucine (p < 0.05). Pigs fed the Control diet expressed less b(0,+) in jejunum, and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles expressed more CAT-1 in jejunum (p < 0.05) and had lower serum concentration ofisoleucine, leucine and valine (p < 0.05), but higher lysine concentrations (p < 0.01) than those fed Diet LTM. These results indicated that both, the level and the source of dietary amino acids, affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs fed wheat-based diets. PMID:22924173

García-Villalobos, Héctor; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Araiza-Piña, Benedicto A; Htoo, John K; Cervantes-Ramírez, Miguel

2012-08-01

240

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2009-04-28

241

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring

Xenia Amashukeli; Christine C. Pelletier; James P. Kirby; Frank J. Grunthaner

2007-01-01

242

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the

Xenia Amashukeli; Christine C. Pelletier; James P. Kirby; Frank J. Grunthaner

2007-01-01

243

Amino Acid Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Ageing Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, considerable scientific interest has been devoted to amino acid supplementation and its role in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism in health, ageing and disease. This interest has, in part, stemmed from clinical evidence that traditional nutritional supplementation in patients is largely ineffective. In particular, this knowledge has prompted extensive research into the mechanisms responsible for amino acid stimulation

Melinda Sheffield-Moore; Douglas Paddon-Jones; Randall J. Urban

2006-01-01

244

A modular synthesis of dithiocarbamate pendant unnatural ?-amino acids.  

PubMed

Unnatural ?-amino acids containing dithiocarbamate side chains were synthesized by a one-pot reaction of in situ generated dithiocarbamate anions with sulfamidates. A wide range of these anions participated in the highly regio- and stereo-selective ring opening of sulfamidates to produce the corresponding dithiocarbamate pendant ?-amino acids in high yields. PMID:22814637

Saha, Amit; Baig, R B Nasir; Leazer, John; Varma, Rajender S

2012-09-14

245

INBORN ERRORS OF AMINO ACID AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

nafeeskhan50@yahoo.com Objectives: This study was conducted with two objects in mind. Firstly, to screen children who were under two years of age for detection of inborn errors of Amino Acid and Carbohydrate metabolism. Secondly, a group of cases of proved mental deficiency were screened to find out whether the inborn errors of Amino Acid and Carbohydrate metabolism are a significant

MUHAMMAD MUAZZAM

2007-01-01

246

EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

247

Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks  

E-print Network

Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks O. GACI LITIS are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the inter- actions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we identify a number of properties of these networks. Some of them are common to all proteins, while

Boyer, Edmond

248

Neutral amino acid transport across brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) possess an amino acid carrier specific for large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The carrier is important for facilitating the delivery of nutrient LNAA's and centrally acting drugs that are LNAA's, to the brain. Bovine BMEC's were isolated and grown up to complete monolayers on regenerated cellulose-membranes in primary culture.

K. L. Audus; R. T. Borchardt

1986-01-01

249

Multiplexed amino acid array utilizing bioluminescent Escherichia coli auxotrophs.  

PubMed

We describe a novel multiplex "amino acid array" for simultaneously quantifying different amino acids based on the rapid growth of amino acid auxotrophic E. coli. First, we constructed genetically engineered amino acid auxotrophs of E. coli containing a bioluminescence reporter gene, yielding concomitant luminescence as a response to cell growth, and then immobilized the reporter cells within individual agarose of respective wells in a 96-well plate serving as a mimic of a biochip. Using the amino acid array, we were able to determine quantitatively the concentrations of 16 amino acids in biological fluid by simply measuring bioluminescent signals from the immobilized cells within 4 h without pre- and post-treatment. The clinical utility of this method was verified by quantifying different amino acids in dried blood spot specimens from clinical samples for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases of newborn babies. This method serves as a convenient route to the rapid and simultaneous analysis of multiple amino acids from complex biological fluids and represents a new analytical paradigm that can replace conventional, yet laborious methods currently in use. PMID:20405822

Kim, Moon Il; Yu, Byung Jo; Woo, Min-Ah; Cho, Daeyeon; Dordick, Jonathan S; Cho, June Hyoung; Choi, Byung-Ok; Park, Hyun Gyu

2010-05-15

250

ASTROCHEMISTRY Radiolysis and radioracemization of 20 amino acids  

E-print Network

ASTROCHEMISTRY Radiolysis and radioracemization of 20 amino acids from the beginning of the Solar ``Astrochemistry: molecules in space and time'' (Rome, 4­5 November 2010), sponsored by Fondazione ``Guido Donegani in enantiomeric enrichment in meteorites. Keywords Astrochemistry Á Amino acids Á Radiolysis Á Racemization Á

251

Evolution of free amino acids during Idiazábal cheese ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a contribution to knowledge of ripening ewe's cheese, the evolution of free amino acids was studied over a year of the ripening period by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total free amino acid content during Idiazábal cheese ripening varied between 140 mg\\/100 g dry matter the first day and 1500 mg\\/100 g dry matter at one year.

Y. Barcina; F. C. Ibáñez; A. I. Ordóñez

1995-01-01

252

Targets of Amino Acid Restriction in Prostate Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The objective of this application is to identify the molecular target(s) by which specific amino acid dependency modulates the viability and invasiveness of human androgen-independent prostate cancer calls. We hypothesize that specific amino acid-regulated invasion is dependent on the inhibition of FAK and its binding partners.

253

Amino acid sequences of stomach and nonstomach lysozymes of ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Complete amino acid sequences are presented for lysozymesc from camel and goat stomachs and compared to sequences of other lysozymesc. Tree analysis suggests that the rate of amino acid replacement went up as soon as lysozyme was recruited for the stomach function in early ruminants. The two lysozymes from goat stomach are the products of a gene duplication that

Jacqueline Jollès; Ellen M. Prager; Emad S. Alnemri; Pierre Jollès; Ibrahim M. Ibrahimi; Allan C. Wilson

1990-01-01

254

Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

2011-03-09

255

Synthesis of amino acids by arc-discharge experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge was performed against ammonia water using a graphite rod as the anode and a silver thread as the cathode under an Ar atmosphere. HPLC and thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analyses showed that three kinds of amino acids were produced in the reaction mixture. As the graphite anode is the solitary source of carbon in the system, it is considered that amino acids have been produced by synthetic reaction between graphite and ammonia water. Thus, our results provide a possible way of formation of amino acids from elemental carbon on the primitive earth. In addition, the mechanism for the production of amino acids is discussed and the yields of different amino acids are presented.

Huaibin, Shi; Chunlin, Shao; Zengliang, Yu

2001-10-01

256

[Complications due to receiving incorrect amino acid preparations].  

PubMed

Due to improved diagnostics and care there is an increasing number of adults with inherited metabolic diseases. The best-known example is phenylketonuria. Treatment consists of a disease-specific diet, for example protein restriction supplemented with essential amino acids. However, like prescription drugs, diet preparations can have side effects. This implies that a description of the indications and contra-indications, an assessment of the efficacy and a definition of the desired duration of treatment are required. Mistakes in the delivery of these disease-specific diet preparations by the pharmacy can have severe consequences, as illustrated by three case reports. PMID:23328017

van der Wiel, Adoree M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Hollack, Carla E M; Langendonk, Janneke G

2013-01-01

257

Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

2001-01-01

258

Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many carbonaceous chondrites contain alteration products from water-rock interactions at low temperature and organic compounds. A fascinating fact known for decades is the presence in some of them of an assortment of organic compounds, including amino acids, sometimes called the building blocks of life. Murchison and other CM carbonaceous chondrites contain hundreds of amino acids. Early measurements indicated that the amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites had equal proportions of L- and D-structures, a situation called racemic. This was in sharp contrast to life on Earth, which heavily favors L- forms. However, beginning in 1997, John Cronin and Sandra Pizzarello (Arizona State University) found L- excesses in isovaline and several other amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. In 2009, Daniel Glavin and Jason Dworkin (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center) reported the first independent confirmation of L-isovaline excesses in Murchison using a different analytical technique than employed by Cronin and Pizzarello. Inspired by this work, Daniel Glavin, Michael Callahan, Jason Dworkin, and Jamie Elsila (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center), have done an extensive study of the abundance and symmetry of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites that experienced a range of alteration by water in their parent asteroids. The results show that amino acids are more abundant in the less altered meteorites, implying that aqueous processing changes the mix of amino acids. They also confirmed the enrichment in L-structures of some amino acids, especially isovaline, confirming earlier work. The authors suggest that aqueously-altered planetesimals might have seeded the early Earth with nonracemic amino acids, perhaps explaining why life from microorganisms to people use only L- forms to make proteins. The initial imbalance caused by non-biologic processes in wet asteroids might have been amplified by life on Earth. Alternatively, the same processes that produced the L-amino acid excesses in carbonaceous asteroids also operated on the early Earth.

Taylor, G. J.

2011-04-01

259

Amino Acid Challenge in Patients with Cirrhosis and Control Subjects: Ammonia, Plasma Amino Acid and EEG Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aims: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is controversial. We have therefore studied the effect of induced hyperammonaemia in man. Patients and methods: 108 g of an amino acid mixture was given orally to 18 cirrhotics and 11 control subjects and changes in blood ammonia, EEG and plasma amino acids were observed. Results: Basal (39±6 versus 14±2 ?mol\\/l) and 120-min post amino

Hanan Al Mardini; Andrew Douglass; Christopher Record

2006-01-01

260

Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product ?-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with increased sediment depth and age (up to 288-year-old) reaching up to 59%. Independent estimates based on D-amino acid concentrations in selected laboratory strains, bacterial counts and the sedimentary concentrations of D-amino acids indicate that a large fraction of the measured D-amino acids (>47 to >97%) originated from cell wall residues rather than from enumerated cells.

Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

2006-06-01

261

Supervised learning method for the prediction of subcellular localization of proteins using amino acid and amino acid pair composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of protein in the cell is an important step in understanding its function. It is highly desirable to predict a protein's subcellular locations automatically from its sequence. Most studied methods for prediction of subcellular localization of proteins are signal peptides, the location by sequence homology, and the correlation between the total amino acid compositions of proteins. Taking amino-acid

Tanwir Habib; Chaoyang Zhang; Jack Y Yang; Mary Qu Yang; Youping Deng

2008-01-01

262

D-Amino acids in the brain and mutant rodents lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity.  

PubMed

D-Amino acids are stereoisomers of L-amino acids. They are often called unnatural amino acids, but several D-amino acids have been found in mammalian brains. Among them, D-serine is abundant in the forebrain and functions as a co-agonist of NMDA receptors to enhance neurotransmission. D-Amino-acid oxidase (DAO), which degrades neutral and basic D-amino acids, is mainly present in the hindbrain. DAO catabolizes D-serine and, therefore, modulates neurotransmission. In the brains of mutant mice and rats lacking DAO activity, the amounts of D-serine and other D-amino acids are markedly increased. Mutant mice manifested behavioral changes characteristic of altered NMDA receptor activity, likely due to increased levels of D-serine. D-Serine and DAO have been demonstrated to play important roles in cerebellar development and synaptic plasticity. They have also implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pain response. There have also been several lines of evidence correlating DAO with schizophrenia. Taken together, the experiments indicate that D-amino acids and DAO have pivotal functions in the central nervous system. PMID:22892863

Yamanaka, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Yurika; Ohide, Hiroko; Hamase, Kenji; Konno, Ryuichi

2012-11-01

263

Analysis of Neuroactive Amino Acids Using UHPLC and Electochemical Detection Analysis of Neuroactive Amino Acids Using UHPLC and Electochemical Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are the essential building blocks of proteins and peptides. They can also take part in intermediary metabolism and act as precur- sors to common biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Certain amino acids act as neurotransmitters and are the major excitatory (aspartate and glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA and taurine) commands in the central nervous system. The measurement of the profile of

Bruce Bailey; Marc Plante; Chris Crafts; Paul Gamache; John Waraska; Ian Acworth

264

Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee.  

PubMed

Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body's nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee's nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1M sucrose or 1M sucrose containing 100mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

Simcock, Nicola K; Gray, Helen E; Wright, Geraldine A

2014-10-01

265

Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee  

PubMed Central

Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body’s nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee’s nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1 M sucrose or 1 M sucrose containing 100 mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24 h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

Simcock, Nicola K.; Gray, Helen E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

2014-01-01

266

The immunosuppressant FK506 inhibits amino acid import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The immunosuppressants cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin inhibit growth of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms and also block activation of T lymphocytes from multicellular eukaryotes. In vitro, these compounds bind and inhibit two different types of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. Cyclosporin A binds cyclophilins, whereas FK506 and rapamycin bind FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs). Cyclophilins and FKBPs are ubiquitous, abundant, and targeted to multiple cellular compartments, and they may fold proteins in vivo. Previously, a 12-kDa cytoplasmic FKBP was shown to be only one of at least two FK506-sensitive targets in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that a second FK506-sensitive target is required for amino acid import. Amino acid-auxotrophic yeast strains (trp1 his4 leu2) are FK506 sensitive, whereas prototrophic strains (TRP1 his4 leu2, trp1 HIS4 leu2, and trp1 his4 LEU2) are FK506 resistant. Amino acids added exogenously to the growth medium mitigate FK506 toxicity. FK506 induces GCN4 expression, which is normally induced by amino acid starvation. FK506 inhibits transport of tryptophan, histidine, and leucine into yeast cells. Lastly, several genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid import or biosynthesis confer FK506 resistance. These findings demonstrate that FK506 inhibits amino acid import in yeast cells, most likely by inhibiting amino acid transporters. Amino acid transporters are integral membrane proteins which import extracellular amino acids and constitute a protein family sharing 30 to 35% identity, including eight invariant prolines. Thus, the second FK506-sensitive target in yeast cells may be a proline isomerase that plays a role in folding amino acid transporters during transit through the secretory pathway. Images PMID:7687745

Heitman, J; Koller, A; Kunz, J; Henriquez, R; Schmidt, A; Movva, N R; Hall, M N

1993-01-01

267

Extraterrestrial amino acids identified in metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites from Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondrites but are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675 (CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The ?13C/12C ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (13-16 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.2-2 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of ?-, ?-, and ?-amino acids compared to the corresponding ?-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

2013-03-01

268

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

2013-01-01

269

Evaluation of Nitrogen Balance of Young Women Fed Amino Acids Proportioned as in the FAO Provisional Pattern and as in Egg, Oats, Milk and Peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

T HE Food and Agricultural Organization Committee on Protein Requirements' has suggested that the nutritive value of proteins in single foods and in food combinations might be appraised by comparing their amino acid corn- position with that of a provisional amino acid pattern based on the requirements of adult men and women and of infants for essential amino acids. To

HELEN G. OLDIIAM; FRANK N. DICKINSON

270

Effects of dietary supplement of essential amino acids on mortality rate, liver traits and blood parameters in mink (mustela vison) fed low?protein diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low?protein diet supplemented with essential amino acids to meet the estimated requirements for essential amino acids in growing mini and with a total amino acid nitrogen content of 65–75% of the requirement, was fed to male mink kits during the growing period from weaning to pelting. The effects on mortality rate, liver fat content, liver weights, growth performance, plasma

Birthe M. Damgaard; Tove N. Clausen; Christian F. Borsting

1998-01-01

271

An increase in essential amino acid availability upregulates amino acid transporter expression in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate skeletal muscle mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and protein synthesis. It has recently been reported that an increase in amino acid (AA) transporter expression during anabolic conditions is rapamycin-sensitive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an increase in EAA availability increases AA transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of seven young adult subjects (3 male, 4 female) before and 1–3 h after EAA ingestion (10 g). Blood and muscle samples were analyzed for leucine kinetics using stable isotopic techniques. Quantitative RT-PCR, and immunoblotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression, respectively, of AA transporters and members of the general AA control pathway [general control nonrepressed (GCN2), activating transcription factor (ATF4), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2) ?-subunit (Ser52)]. EAA ingestion increased blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle, intracellular muscle leucine concentration, ribosomal protein S6 (Ser240/244) phosphorylation, and muscle protein synthesis. This was followed with increased L-type AA transporter (LAT1), CD98, sodium-coupled neutral AA transporter (SNAT2), and proton-coupled amino acid transporter (PAT1) mRNA expression at 1 h (P < 0.05) and modest increases in LAT1 protein expression (3 h post-EAA) and SNAT2 protein expression (2 and 3 h post-EAA, P < 0.05). Although there were no changes in GCN2 expression and eIF2? phosphorylation, ATF4 protein expression reached significance by 2 h post-EAA (P < 0.05). We conclude that an increase in EAA availability upregulates human skeletal muscle AA transporter expression, perhaps in an mTORC1-dependent manner, which may be an adaptive response necessary for improved AA intracellular delivery. PMID:20304764

Drummond, Micah J.; Glynn, Erin L.; Fry, Christopher S.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Volpi, Elena

2010-01-01

272

37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. (a) The computer readable form required by §...

2012-07-01

273

37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. (a) The computer readable form required by §...

2011-07-01

274

37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. (a) The computer readable form required by §...

2010-07-01

275

37 CFR 1.824 - Form and format for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. 1.824 Section 1.824...and/or amino acid sequence submissions in computer readable form. (a) The computer readable form required by §...

2013-07-01

276

HPLC analysis of methylated amino acids: Methylated amino acids on HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various naturally occuring, methylated amino acid derivatives were resolved on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),\\u000a usingo-phthaldialdehyde as a fluorogenic reagent.\\u000a \\u000a We separated ?-N-monomethyllysine, ?-N-dimethyllysine, and ?-N-acetyllysine from lysine derivatives. NG-Monomethylarginine and NG-dimethylarginine were separated from arginine derivatives. However, ?-N-monomethyllysine and ?-N-trimethyllysine, NG, NG-dimethylarginine and NG, NG-dimethylarginine were not resolved under the conditions employed. S-Methylmethionine, S-methylcysteine, and 1-N-methylhistidine\\u000a or 3-N-methylhistidine were

Kwang Sook Park; Sung-Youl Hong; Hyang Woo Lee; Sangduk Kim; Woon Ki Paik

1986-01-01

277

Amino acid sequence of ovine 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of the NADP+-dependent enzyme ovine 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase has been determined by conventional direct protein sequence analysis of peptides resulting from digestion of the protein with trypsin and chemical cleavages with cyanogen bromide, hydroxylamine, and iodosobenzoic acid. The polypeptide contains 466 amino acids and its NH2 terminus is acetylated. The Candida utilis enzyme is inactivated by reaction of pyridoxal phosphate with two lysine residues (Minchiotti, L., Ronchi, S., and Rippa, M. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 657, 232-242). These residues are conserved in the ovine enzyme. In contrast to NAD+ dehydrogenases which have weakly related sequences and spatially related folds in their nucleotide-binding sites, no significant sequence homologies were detected between 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and any of three other NADP+-requiring enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, and dihydrofolate reductase. This is in accord with structural data that show no spatial relationship between NADP+-binding sites in these enzymes. PMID:6685125

Carne, A; Walker, J E

1983-11-10

278

Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32?  

PubMed Central

The conversion of amino acids into volatile and nonvolatile compounds by lactic acid bacteria in cheese is thought to represent the rate-limiting step in the development of mature flavor and aroma. Because amino acid breakdown by microbes often entails the reversible action of enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways, our group investigated the genetics of amino acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, a commercial cheese flavor adjunct that reduces bitterness and intensifies flavor notes. Most lactic acid bacteria are auxotrophic for several amino acids, and L. helveticus CNRZ 32 requires 14 amino acids. The reconstruction of amino acid biosynthetic pathways from a draft-quality genome sequence for L. helveticus CNRZ 32 revealed that amino acid auxotrophy in this species was due primarily to gene absence rather than point mutations, insertions, or small deletions, with good agreement between gene content and phenotypic amino acid requirements. One exception involved the phenotypic requirement for Asp (or Asn), which genome predictions suggested could be alleviated by citrate catabolism. This prediction was confirmed by the growth of L. helveticus CNRZ 32 after the addition of citrate to a chemically defined medium that lacked Asp and Asn. Genome analysis also predicted that L. helveticus CNRZ 32 possessed ornithine decarboxylase activity and would therefore catalyze the conversion of ornithine to putrescine, a volatile biogenic amine. However, experiments to confirm ornithine decarboxylase activity in L. helveticus CNRZ 32 by the use of several methods were unsuccessful, which indicated that this bacterium likely does not contribute to putrescine production in cheese. PMID:17993552

Christiansen, Jason K.; Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Rodríguez, Beatriz T.; Steele, James L.; Broadbent, Jeff R.

2008-01-01

279

Mutant mice and rats lacking D-amino acid oxidase.  

PubMed

D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) catalyzes oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. Since D-amino acids are considered to be rare in eukaryotes, physiological function of this enzyme has been enigmatic for a long time. Mutant mice lacking DAO were found, and their strain was established. The urine of the mutant mice contained large amounts of D-amino acids. D-Amino acids were also present in their organs and blood. The origin of these D-amino acids was pursued. The results indicate that one of the physiological functions of DAO is the metabolism of D-amino acids of internal and external origin. A large amount of D-serine is shown to exist in the brain of mammals. It binds to the coagonist-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors and enhances the neurotransmission. DAO metabolizes this D-serine and, therefore, modulates neurotransmission. Mutant mice displayed phenotypes resulting from the enhanced NMDA receptor function. Recent studies have shown that DAO is associated with schizophrenia. Mutant mice were resistant to the drugs which act on NMDA receptors and elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms. Recently, mutant rats lacking DAO have also been found. They were free from D-serine-induced nephrotoxicity, indicating involvement of DAO in this toxicity. The mutant mice and rats lacking DAO would be useful for the elucidation of the physiological functions of DAO and the etiology of neuronal diseases associated with DAO. PMID:20564563

Konno, Ryuichi; Hamase, Kenji; Maruyama, Rindo; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi

2010-06-01

280

The fate of amino acids during simulated meteoritic impact.  

PubMed

Delivery of prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids and peptides, in meteoritic/micrometeoritic materials to early Earth during the first 500 million years is considered to be one of the main processes by which the building blocks of life arrived on Earth. In this context, we present a study in which the effects of impact shock on amino acids and a peptide in artificial meteorites composed of saponite clay were investigated. The samples were subjected to pressures ranging from 12-28.9 GPa, which simulated impact velocities of 2.4-5.8 km/s for typical silicate-silicate impacts on Earth. Volatilization was determined by weight loss measurement, and the amino acid and peptide response was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For all compounds, degradation increased with peak pressure. At the highest shock pressures, amino acids with an alkyl side chain were more resistant than those with functional side chains. The peptide cleaved into its two primary amino acids. Some chiral amino acids experienced partial racemization during the course of the experiment. Our data indicate that impact shock may act as a selective filter to the delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids via carbonaceous chondrites. PMID:20041747

Bertrand, Marylène; van der Gaast, Sjerry; Vilas, Faith; Hörz, Friedrich; Haynes, Gerald; Chabin, Annie; Brack, Andre; Westall, Frances

2009-12-01

281

Mating frequency influences nectar amino acid preference of Pieris napi.  

PubMed Central

It is generally assumed that butterflies, as is the case with many holometabolous insects, rely primarily on nutrients gathered by larval feeding for somatic maintenance and fecundity. These reserves can be supplemented by adult feeding and in some cases by nuptial gifts passed from the males to the females during mating. Recent findings indicate that female butterflies detect and prefer nectar with high levels of amino acids, thus calling new attention to this nutritive source. Polyandrous species can further supplement their larval stores with additional nuptial gifts. This study examined how mating frequency of the polyandrous butterfly Pieris napi affects the female's preference for nectar amino acids. Females of this species generally detect and prefer nectar mimics containing amino acids. However, nectar amino acid preference is significantly lower in mated females. Furthermore, nectar amino acid preference increases when females are not allowed to remate, whereas the preference of twice-mated females remains constant at a lower level. These results indicate a versatile response of females to nectar amino acids, depending on their nutritional status; they may even switch their source of amino acids between adult feeding and nuptial gifts. PMID:15058391

Mevi-Schutz, Jovanne; Erhardt, Andreas

2004-01-01

282

Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Protein and calorie malnutrition are prevalent in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity in this patient population. Concern has been raised that the open pore structure of high flux membranes may induce the loss of more amino acids (AA) compared to low flux membranes. To address this issue, we prospectively analyzed pre- and post-HD plasma AA profiles with three different membranes in nine patients. Simultaneously, we measured dialysate AA losses during HD. The membranes studied were: cellulosic (cuprophane-CU), low flux polymethylmethacrylate (LF-PMMA), and high flux polysulfone (HF-PS) during their first use. Our results show that pre-HD plasma AA profiles were abnormal compared to controls and decreased significantly during HD with all dialyzers. The use of HF-PS membranes resulted in significantly more AA losses into the dialysate when compared to LF-PMMA membranes (mean +/- SD; 8.0 +/- 2.8 g/dialysis for HF-PS, 6.1 +/- 1.5 g/dialysis for LF-PMMA, p < 0.05, and 7.2 +/- 2.6 g/dialysis for CU membranes, P = NS). When adjusted for surface area and blood flow, AA losses were not different between any of the dialyzers. We also measured dialysate AA losses during the sixth reuse of the HF-PS membrane. Losses of total AA increased by 50% during the sixth reuse of HF-PS membrane compared to its first use. In addition, albumin was detected in the dialysate during the sixth reuse of HF-PS membrane. We therefore measured albumin losses in all patients dialyzed with HF-PS membranes as a function of reuse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7996804

Ikizler, T A; Flakoll, P J; Parker, R A; Hakim, R M

1994-09-01

283

Amino acid signatures in the developing mouse retina.  

PubMed

This study characterizes the developmental patterns of seven key amino acids: glutamate, ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), glycine, glutamine, aspartate, alanine and taurine in the mouse retina. We analyze amino acids in specific bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cell sub-populations (i.e. GABAergic vs. glycinergic amacrine cells) and anatomically distinct regions of photoreceptors and Müller cells (i.e. cell bodies vs. endfeet) by extracting data from previously described pattern recognition analysis. Pattern recognition statistically classifies all cells in the retina based on their neurochemical profile and surpasses the previous limitations of anatomical and morphological identification of cells in the immature retina. We found that the GABA and glycine cellular content reached adult-like levels in most neurons before glutamate. The metabolic amino acids glutamine, aspartate and alanine also reached maturity in most retinal cells before eye opening. When the overall amino acid profiles were considered for each cell group, ganglion cells and GABAergic amacrine cells matured first, followed by glycinergic amacrine cells and finally bipolar cells. Photoreceptor cell bodies reached adult-like amino acid profiles at P7 whilst Müller cells acquired typical amino acid profiles in their cell bodies at P7 and in their endfeet by P14. We further compared the amino acid profiles of the C57Bl/6J mouse with the transgenic X-inactivation mouse carrying the lacZ gene on the X chromosome and validated this animal model for the study of normal retinal development. This study provides valuable insight into normal retinal neurochemical maturation and metabolism and benchmark amino acid values for comparison with retinal disease, particularly those which occur during development. PMID:24368173

Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Chua, Jacqueline; Tan, Seong-Seng; Kalloniatis, Michael

2014-04-01

284

Synthesis and chirality of amino acids under interstellar conditions.  

PubMed

Amino acids are the fundamental building blocks of proteins, the biomolecules that provide cellular structure and function in all living organisms. A majority of amino acids utilized within living systems possess pre-specified orientation geometry (chirality); however the original source for this specific orientation remains uncertain. In order to trace the chemical evolution of life, an appreciation of the synthetic and evolutional origins of the first chiral amino acids must first be gained. Given that the amino acids in our universe are likely to have been synthesized in molecular clouds in interstellar space, it is necessary to understand where and how the first synthesis might have occurred. The asymmetry of the original amino acid synthesis was probably the result of exposure to chiral photons in the form of circularly polarized light (CPL), which has been detected in interstellar molecular clouds. This chirality transfer event, from photons to amino acids, has been successfully recreated experimentally and is likely a combination of both asymmetric synthesis and enantioselective photolysis. A series of innovative studies have reported successful simulation of these environments and afforded production of chiral amino acids under realistic circumstellar and interstellar conditions: irradiation of interstellar ice analogues (CO, CO2, NH3, CH3OH, and H2O) with circularly polarized ultraviolet photons at low temperatures does result in enantiomer enriched amino acid structures (up to 1.3% ee). This topical review summarizes current knowledge and recent discoveries about the simulated interstellar environments within which amino acids were probably formed. A synopsis of the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission ROSETTA concludes this review: the ROSETTA mission will soft-land on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014, anticipating the first in situ detection of asymmetric organic molecules in cometary ices. PMID:22976459

Giri, Chaitanya; Goesmann, Fred; Meinert, Cornelia; Evans, Amanda C; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

2013-01-01

285

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

286

Exhaustive Database Searching for Amino Acid Mutations in Proteomes  

SciTech Connect

Amino acid mutations in proteins can be found by searching tandem mass spectra acquired in shotgun proteomics experiments against protein sequences predicted from genomes. Traditionally, unconstrained searches for amino acid mutations have been accomplished by using a sequence tagging approach that combines de novo sequencing with database searching. However, this approach is limited by the performance of de novo sequencing. The Sipros algorithm v2.0 was developed to perform unconstrained database searching using high-resolution tandem mass spectra by exhaustively enumerating all single non-isobaric mutations for every residue in a protein database. The performance of Sipros for amino acid mutation identification exceeded that of an established sequence tagging algorithm, Inspect, based on benchmarking results from a Rhodopseudomonas palustris proteomics dataset. To demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for meta-proteomics, Sipros was used to identify amino acid mutations in a natural microbial community in acid mine drainage.

Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

2012-01-01

287

Evolution of a Genome-Encoded Bias in Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Is a Potential Indicator of Amino Acid Dynamics in the Environment  

PubMed Central

Overcoming the stress of starvation is one of an organism’s most challenging phenotypic responses. Those organisms that frequently survive the challenge, by virtue of their fitness, will have evolved genomes that are shaped by their specific environments. Understanding this genotype–environment–phenotype relationship at a deep level will require quantitative predictive models of the complex molecular systems that link these aspects of an organism’s existence. Here, we treat one of the most fundamental molecular systems, protein synthesis, and the amino acid biosynthetic pathways involved in the stringent response to starvation. These systems face an inherent logical dilemma: Building an amino acid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize its product—the cognate amino acid of the pathway—may require that very amino acid when it is no longer available. To study this potential “catch-22,” we have created a generic model of amino acid biosynthesis in response to sudden starvation. Our mathematical analysis and computational results indicate that there are two distinctly different outcomes: Partial recovery to a new steady state, or full system failure. Moreover, the cell’s fate is dictated by the cognate bias, the number of cognate amino acids in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway relative to the average number of that amino acid in the proteome. We test these implications by analyzing the proteomes of over 1,800 sequenced microbes, which reveals statistically significant evidence of low cognate bias, a genetic trait that would avoid the biosynthetic quandary. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pattern of cognate bias, which is readily derived by genome sequencing, may provide evolutionary clues to an organism’s natural environment. PMID:25118252

Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

2014-01-01

288

Evolution of a genome-encoded bias in amino Acid biosynthetic pathways is a potential indicator of amino Acid dynamics in the environment.  

PubMed

Overcoming the stress of starvation is one of an organism's most challenging phenotypic responses. Those organisms that frequently survive the challenge, by virtue of their fitness, will have evolved genomes that are shaped by their specific environments. Understanding this genotype-environment-phenotype relationship at a deep level will require quantitative predictive models of the complex molecular systems that link these aspects of an organism's existence. Here, we treat one of the most fundamental molecular systems, protein synthesis, and the amino acid biosynthetic pathways involved in the stringent response to starvation. These systems face an inherent logical dilemma: Building an amino acid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize its product-the cognate amino acid of the pathway-may require that very amino acid when it is no longer available. To study this potential "catch-22," we have created a generic model of amino acid biosynthesis in response to sudden starvation. Our mathematical analysis and computational results indicate that there are two distinctly different outcomes: Partial recovery to a new steady state, or full system failure. Moreover, the cell's fate is dictated by the cognate bias, the number of cognate amino acids in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway relative to the average number of that amino acid in the proteome. We test these implications by analyzing the proteomes of over 1,800 sequenced microbes, which reveals statistically significant evidence of low cognate bias, a genetic trait that would avoid the biosynthetic quandary. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pattern of cognate bias, which is readily derived by genome sequencing, may provide evolutionary clues to an organism's natural environment. PMID:25118252

Fasani, Rick A; Savageau, Michael A

2014-11-01

289

Low-protein amino acid supplemented sorghum-based diets for finishing swine  

E-print Network

LOW-PROTEIN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTED SORGHUM-BASED DIETS FOR FINISHING SWINE A Thesis by JEROME JEAN FRANCOIS PHILIPPE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition LOW-PROTEIN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTED SORGHUM-BASED DIETS FOR FINISHING SWINE A Thesis by JEROME JEAN FRANCOIS PHILIPPE Approved as to style and content by Darrell A. Knabe (Chair...

Philippe, Jerome Jean Francois

2012-06-07

290

Transgenic maize endosperm containing a milk protein has improved amino acid balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the protein nutrition needs of the world population, greater reliance on plant protein sources will become\\u000a necessary. The amino acid balance of most plant protein sources does not match the nutritional requirements of monogastric\\u000a animals, limiting their nutritional value. In cereals, the essential amino acid lysine is deficient. Maize is a major component\\u000a of human and

Earl H. Bicar; Wendy Woodman-Clikeman; Varaporn Sangtong; Joan M. Peterson; S. Samuel Yang; Michael Lee; M. Paul Scott

2008-01-01

291

Free amino acids, nitrate, and nitrate reductase in nitrogen fixation by soybean nodules  

E-print Network

FREE AMINO ACIDS, NITRATE, AND NITRATE REDUCTASE IN NITROGEN FIXATION BY SOYBEAN NODULES A Thesis by PAUL CLAYTON MADTES, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Biophysics FREE AMINO ACIDS, NITRATE, AND NITRATE REDUCTASE IN NITROGEN FIXATION BY SOYBEAN NPDULES A Thesis by PAUL CLAYTON MADTES, JR. Approved as to style and content by: g jap (Chairman...

Madtes, Paul Clayton

2012-06-07

292

40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). ...identified generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN...

2013-07-01

293

40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

2010-07-01

294

40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

2010-07-01

295

An amino acid substitution-selection model adjusts residue fitness to improve phylogenetic estimation.  

PubMed

Standard protein phylogenetic models use fixed rate matrices of amino acid interchange derived from analyses of large databases. Differences between the stationary amino acid frequencies of these rate matrices from those of a data set of interest are typically adjusted for by matrix multiplication that converts the empirical rate matrix to an exchangeability matrix which is then postmultiplied by the amino acid frequencies in the alignment. The result is a time-reversible rate matrix with stationary amino acid frequencies equal to the data set frequencies. On the basis of population genetics principles, we develop an amino acid substitution-selection model that parameterizes the fitness of an amino acid as the logarithm of the ratio of the frequency of the amino acid to the frequency of the same amino acid under no selection. The model gives rise to a different sequence of matrix multiplications to convert an empirical rate matrix to one that has stationary amino acid frequencies equal to the data set frequencies. We incorporated the substitution-selection model with an improved amino acid class frequency mixture (cF) model to partially take into account site-specific amino acid frequencies in the phylogenetic models. We show that 1) the selection models fit data significantly better than corresponding models without selection for most of the 21 test data sets; 2) both cF and cF selection models favored the phylogenetic trees that were inferred under current sophisticated models and methods for three difficult phylogenetic problems (the positions of microsporidia and breviates in eukaryote phylogeny and the position of the root of the angiosperm tree); and 3) for data simulated under site-specific residue frequencies, the cF selection models estimated trees closer to the generating trees than a standard ? model or cF without selection. We also explored several ways of estimating amino acid frequencies under neutral evolution that are required for these selection models. By better modeling the amino acid substitution process, the cF selection models will be valuable for phylogenetic inference and evolutionary studies. PMID:24441033

Wang, Huai-Chun; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J

2014-04-01

296

Uncharged tRNA-phosphofructokinase interaction in amino acid deficiency.  

PubMed

When the tRNA of mammalian cells is incompletely charged due to amino acid deficiency or by analogs which cannot be activated, many metabolic events become limited. This rapid demise of cell function appears to be due to the inhibition of phosphofructokinase (PFK) by uncharged tRNA (FEBS Lett 302: 113 (1992)). Charged tRNA has been shown to be "sequestered within the protein synthetic machinery", (Negrutskii, B. S. and Deutscher, M. P. (1992) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 3601) and would therefore be removed from an inhibitory role. Besides the direct demonstration that tRNA inhibits PFK in an assay regarded as indicative of its control mechanism, several reports in the literature support this model. These include 1) The rapid onset of inhibition of glycolysis and glucose uptake by intact cells upon amino acid deficiency and the similar lesion at the 43S ribosomal subunit on glucose or amino acid deprivation. 2) The recognition that unusually high concentrations of cAMP required to stimulate protein synthesis in energy depleted or gel filtered lysates correlates with its action on PFK as an analog of the positive effector, adenosine-5'-monophosphate. 3) The often repeated observation that the product of PFK activity, fructose-1,6-diphosphate, is a stimulant of protein synthesis (see Jackson, R. J., et al. (1983) Eur J Biochem 131: 289). This diphosphate has been shown to be the proximate effector binding to eIF-2B, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Singh, L. P. Arror, A. R. and Wahba, A. J. (1994), FASEB J. 8: 279) which by releasing GDP bound to the inactive GDP: eIF-2 complex, permits the factor to initiate a new peptide chain. The above information supports the view that the block at the G1 restriction point in the cell cycle of normal cells brought about by amino acid deprivation is a result of inhibition of protein synthesis through the phosphofructokinase-uncharged tRNA mechanism. This is consistent with observations in the literature that tumor and transformed cells, which are more resistant to this block (Pardee, A. B., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 1286-1291 (1974)) have a higher phosphofructokinase activity or higher levels of fructose-1,6-diphosphate. PMID:24178472

Rabinovitz, M

1996-06-01

297

Bidirectional modulation of insulin action by amino acids.  

PubMed Central

Amino acids have been shown to stimulate protein synthesis, inhibit proteolysis, and decrease whole-body and forearm glucose disposal. Using cultured hepatoma and myotube cells, we demonstrate that amino acids act as novel signaling elements in insulin target tissues. Exposure of cells to high physiologic concentrations of amino acids activates intermediates important in the initiation of protein synthesis, including p70 S6 kinase and PHAS-I, in synergy with insulin. This stimulatory effect is largely due to branched chain amino acids, particularly leucine, and can be reproduced by its transamination product, ketoisocaproic acid. Concurrently, amino acids inhibit early steps in insulin action critical for glucose transport and inhibition of gluconeogenesis, including decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, decreased binding of grb 2 and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to IRS-1 and IRS-2, and a marked inhibition of insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that amino acids act as specific positive signals for maintenance of protein stores, while inhibiting other actions of insulin at multiple levels. This bidirectional modulation of insulin action indicates crosstalk between hormonal and nutritional signals and demonstrates a novel mechanism by which nutritional factors contribute to insulin resistance. PMID:9525995

Patti, M E; Brambilla, E; Luzi, L; Landaker, E J; Kahn, C R

1998-01-01

298

Alterations in D -amino acid levels in the brains of mice and rats after the administration of D -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  To mutant ddY\\/DAO? mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity and normal ddY\\/DAO+ mice, five D-amino acids (D-Asp, D-Ser, D-Ala, D-Leu and D-Pro) were orally administered for two weeks, and the D-amino acid levels were examined in seven brain regions. The levels of D-Asp markedly increased in the pituitary and pineal glands in both strains. In the ddY\\/DAO+ mice, the levels of

A. Morikawa; K. Hamase; T. Inoue; R. Konno; K. Zaitsu

2007-01-01

299

Enantiomeric resolution of N-methyl-?-amino acids and ?-alkyl-?-amino acids by ligand-exchange chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The enantiomeric resolution of N-methyl-DL-?-amino acids (NMe-AA) and DL-?-alkyl-?-amino acids (AAA) was achieved by ligand-exchange\\u000a (LE) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using silica bonded L-amino acids as the chiral selector (Chiral ProCu,\\u000a Chiral HyproCu, Chiral ValCu, Nucleosil Chiral-1). Using aqueous solutions of copper sulfate or acetate adjusted to pH 4–6\\u000a and the addition of acetonitrile (10–20%) or methanol (10–40%), baseline

H. Brtickner

1987-01-01

300

Cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics, parallel catalyst screening for aziridination  

E-print Network

This thesis describes two projects: (i) syntheses and conformational studies of cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics; and, (ii) parallel screening of catalysts for asymmetric aziridination. Syntheses and conformational studies of nonnatural...

Li, Shih-ming

2012-06-07

301

Amino acids from the moon - Notes on meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contributions of lunar and meteorite composition studies to present understandings of chemical evolution and the origin of life are discussed. The discovery of amino acids in lunar fines, when properly extracted, hydrolyzed and examined by ion-exchange chromatography, is shown to have confirmed the extraterrestrial nature of the amino acids previously found in meteorites. Differences in analysis and sample preparation methods are considered as sources for the initial disagreements in lunar sample data, and possibilities of biological or chemical contamination of the lunar samples are discounted. The possible sources of lunar and meteoritic amino acids by solar wind implantation are considered. Problems remaining concerning the nature of amino acid precursors, the relations of lunar to meteoritic compounds and the prevalence of cyanide oligomers as evolutionary intermediates are indicated.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

302

THE RADITION SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some radiation-chemical modes of formation of amino acids and related ; compounds were investigated by combination of two simpler molecule types. The ; radiation chemical equilibria are described. (J.S.R.);

K. Dose; K. Ettre

1958-01-01

303

Amino acid utilization by Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

A considerable amount of work has been done on the growth of A. aerogenes and E. coli in synthetic media, but little work has been undertaken on the utilization by these organisms of amino acids as comparative sources of ...

Herrera, Rodolfo Eduardo

1938-01-01

304

Isotopic analyses of amino acids from the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the results of H-2, C-13 isotopic analyses of the Murchison meteorite incorporating an ultrafiltration step to exclude the possibility of fine particulate contaminants. The meteorite's amino acids were chromatographically separated in order to preclude isotopic enrichment by basic compounds other than the amino acids. The results indicate that the Murchison amino acids are isotopically highly unusual; delta-C-13 is elevated by about 40 percent, and delta-D by fully 2500 percent. This high D content of the meteorite's alpha-amino acids may be due to the synthesis of their molecular precursors by low-temperature ion-molecule reactions in an interstellar cloud.

Pizzarello, S.; Cronin, J. R.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.

1991-01-01

305

Guanine- Formation During the Thermal Polymerization of Amino Acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The action of heat on a mixture of amino acids was studied as a possible abiological pathway for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Guanine was detected. This result is significant in the context of chemical evolution.

Mc Caw, B. K.; Munoz, E. F.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Young, R. S.

1964-01-01

306

Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

2000-02-01

307

Effects of divalent amino acids on iron absorption  

SciTech Connect

Solutions of each of 10 amino acids or ascorbic acid were mixed with iron and orally administered to rats. Iron was absorbed to a statistically significantly greater extent when mixed with asparagine, glycine, serine, or ascorbic acid as compared with a control solution of iron. The largest effects were for asparagine and glycine, which also increased iron absorption to a significantly greater extent than did serine or ascorbic acid. No statistically significant increase in iron absorption occurred when any of the other amino acids was mixed with iron. The extent of iron absorption from each test solution, as measured by area under the concentration of iron-59 in the blood-time curve (r2 . 0.0002), and the initial rate of iron absorption for each test solution (r2 . 0.01) showed no correlation with the stability constant of the amino acid-iron complex.

Christensen, J.M.; Ghannam, M.; Ayres, J.W.

1984-09-01

308

Uptake and conversion of d -amino acids in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The d-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids fulfill essential functions in bacteria, fungi and animals. Just in the plant kingdom,\\u000a the metabolism and role of d-amino acids (d-AAs) still remains unclear, although plants have to cope with significant amounts of these compounds from microbial decay\\u000a in the rhizosphere. To fill this gap of knowledge, we tested the inhibitory effects of d-AAs

Dirk Gördes; Üner Kolukisaoglu; Kerstin Thurow

2011-01-01

309

Experimental methods for scanning unnatural amino acid mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo relies on the genetic reassignment of nonsense or quadruplet codons. Here, we describe a general procedure for the random introduction of these codons into open reading frames resulting in protein libraries that are scanned with unnatural amino acid residues. These libraries can enable large-scale mutagenesis experiments aimed at understanding and improving protein function. PMID:21956563

Liu, Jia; Cropp, T. Ashton

2014-01-01

310

Neuropeptide Y: Complete Amino Acid Sequence of the Brain Peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequence of neuropeptide Y, a 36-residue peptide recently isolated from porcine brain, has been determined by using high performance liquid chromatography for separation of its tryptic and chymotryptic fragments and subsequent sequence analysis of the isolated fragments by an improved dansyl Edman subtractive technique. The amino acid sequence of neuropeptide Y has been found to be: Tyr-Pro-Ser-Lys-Pro-Asp-Asn-Pro-Gly-Glu-Asp-Ala-Pro-Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu-Ala-

Kazuhiko Tatemoto

1982-01-01

311

Preparation of 1-benzyl-1-methylethoxycarbonyl derivatives of amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized a number of Pboc derivatives of amino acids in order to investigate more fully the properties of the Pboc protective group and the possibility of using these derivatives in peptide synthesis. The introduction of the Pboc grouping into the amino acid was effected with the aid of l-benzyl-l-methylethyl pyrocarbonate (I) which was obtained from sodium l-benzyl-l-methylethyl carbonate

V. F. Pozdnev; E. A. Smirnova

1978-01-01

312

Production of Amino Acids: Physiological and Genetic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale fermentative production of l-amino acids is still an important goal of modern biotechnology. Very large amounts of l-glutamate and l-lysine, as well as significant quantities of l-threonine and l-phenylalanine and other amino acids for the application in food, feed, and for pharmaceutical purposes are currently produced by fermentation using mainly the two organisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli.

Reinhard Krämer

2005-01-01

313

Expression and transcriptional regulation of amino acid transporters in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Recent studies have shown that there are more than 50 amino acid transporter genes in the Arabidopsis genome. This abundance of amino acid transporters implies that they play a multitude of fundamental roles in plant growth\\u000a and development. Current research on the expression and regulation (i.e., tissue-specific expression and regulation of expression\\u000a in response to nutrient and environmental changes) of

X. Liu; D. R. Bush

2006-01-01

314

Genomic Regions Associated with Amino Acid Composition in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the single largest source of protein in animal feed. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate\\u000a genomic regions controlling amino acid composition in soybean. It is important to study the genetics of amino acid composition\\u000a to achieve improvements through breeding. The objectives of this study were to determine the ratios between essential to

D. R. Panthee; V. R. Pantalone; A. M. Saxton; D. R. West; C. E. Sams

2006-01-01

315

Amino acid uptake in deciduous and coniferous taiga ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured in situ uptake of amino acids and ammonium across deciduous and coniferous taiga forest ecosystems in interior Alaska to examine the idea that late successional (coniferous) forests rely more heavily on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), than do early successional (deciduous) ecosystems. We traced 15N-NH4+ and 13C-15N-amino acids from the soil solution into plant roots and soil pools over

Knut Kielland; Jack McFarland; Karl Olson

2006-01-01

316

Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes. PMID:22303247

Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

2009-01-01

317

Amino acid analysis using core-shell particle column.  

PubMed

In this study, the separation efficiency of a core-shell particle column was compared with particle-packed and monolithic silica columns, which showed that the core-shell particle column had a smaller theoretical plate height and that its separation efficiency was not affected significantly by the increase in flow rate. A fast HPLC method using a core-shell particle column was developed for the determination of amino acids. 4-Fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) was used as a fluorescence derivatization reagent for amino acids, followed by separation on a core-shell Kinetex C18 column. The analysis time for 21 NBD-amino acids was within 7min, which was faster than that in our previous studies with conventional particle-packed columns or monolithic silica columns. The linearities of the calibration curves for all the amino acids were found to be good over a range of injection amounts from 40fmol to 40pmol. The accuracies for the amino acid determinations were 90.9-107%. The method was proved to have potential for the fast determination of amino acids in biological samples. PMID:23022276

Song, Yanting; Funatsu, Takashi; Tsunoda, Makoto

2013-05-15

318

The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits  

PubMed Central

Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino acids. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino acid balance close to that required for egg protein formation laid significantly larger clutches (18% greater) than control birds, whereas birds receiving an otherwise identical supplementary diet but without a favourable amino acid balance did not increase egg production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary amino acid composition may limit egg production in free-living birds.

Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.

1998-01-01

319

Volume and Lipid, Fatty Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Golden Shiner Eggs during a Spawning Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkansas baitfish industry leads the nation in production of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas. To determine nutritional requirements for golden shiner broodstock diets, we examined the volume and lipid, fatty acid, and amino acid composition of the eggs produced by a group of captive broodstock over a spawning season. Egg volume was 0.67 ± 0.117 mm (mean ± SD); egg

S. E. Lochmann; K. J. Goodwin; R. T. Lochmann; N. M. Stone; T. Clemment

2007-01-01

320

Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases, the transcription activation function of Met4 is prevented by Met30p, which binds to the Met4 inhibitory region. In addition to the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex, transcriptional regulation involves two zinc finger-containing proteins, Met31p and Met32p. The AdoMet-mediated control of the sulfur amino acid pathway illustrates the molecular strategies used by eucaryotic cells to couple gene expression to metabolic changes. PMID:9409150

Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

1997-01-01

321

Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of dissolved organic matter leached from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil and soil solution include mainly amino acids, carboxylic acids, and carbohydrates. Due to their high bioavailability they play a crucial role in the cycles of C and nutrients in soils. The variety of soil processes that involve LMWOS requires identifying their composition to elucidate reactions and transformations. In most studies, LMWOS are

Holger Fischer; Axel Meyer; Klaus Fischer; Yakov Kuzyakov

2007-01-01

322

The potency of dietary amino acids in elevating plasma cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in cats is related to amino acid hydrophobicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete agreement exists on the relative potency of amino acids in stimulating endocrine secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK). Species and methodological variations have been suggested to account for the apparent inconsistencies. In the present research, the CCK-releasing potency of dietary amino acids was evaluated in cats using plasma CCK-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) as an indicator of CCK secretion rather than pancreatic protein

Robert C Backus; Kim A Howard; Quinton R Rogers

1997-01-01

323

Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

2011-03-01

324

Olfactory imprinting of amino acids in lacustrine sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Juvenile salmon have an olfactory ability to imprint their natal stream odors, but neither the odor properties of natal stream water nor the imprinting timing and duration have been clarified as yet. Here we show, using electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, that one-year-old lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) can be imprinted around the stage of parr-smolt transformation (PST) by a single amino acid, 1 microM L-proline (Pro), or L-glutamic acid (Glu). We also show by real-time PCR that changes occur in mRNA levels of the salmon olfactory imprinting-related gene (SOIG) around PST. The electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses of test fish exposed to Pro in March (before PST) and April-June (during PST) for 2 weeks were significantly (1.7-fold) greater than those of non-exposed control fish, but not those of test fish exposed in July (after PST). When Pro and control water were added to the water inlets of a two-choice test tank during the spawning season 2 years after the test water exposure, 80% of maturing and matured test fish exposed before and during PST showed a preference for Pro, whereas those exposed after PST did not. The EOG response of test fish exposed to Pro or Glu for 1 hour, 6 hours, 1 day, 7 days, or 14 days in May revealed that only the response after 14 days of exposure was significantly (1.8-fold) greater than the control. The expression levels of SOIG mRNA increased before and during PST, and decreased after PST. We conclude that one-year-old lacustrine sockeye salmon can be imprinted by a single amino acid before and during PST, and that imprinting requires exposure for at least 14 days. PMID:20062811

Yamamoto, Yuzo; Hino, Hiroshi; Ueda, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

325

Olfactory Imprinting of Amino Acids in Lacustrine Sockeye Salmon  

PubMed Central

Juvenile salmon have an olfactory ability to imprint their natal stream odors, but neither the odor properties of natal stream water nor the imprinting timing and duration have been clarified as yet. Here we show, using electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, that one-year-old lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) can be imprinted around the stage of parr-smolt transformation (PST) by a single amino acid, 1 µM L-proline (Pro), or L-glutamic acid (Glu). We also show by real-time PCR that changes occur in mRNA levels of the salmon olfactory imprinting-related gene (SOIG) around PST. The electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses of test fish exposed to Pro in March (before PST) and April–June (during PST) for 2 weeks were significantly (1.7-fold) greater than those of non-exposed control fish, but not those of test fish exposed in July (after PST). When Pro and control water were added to the water inlets of a two-choice test tank during the spawning season 2 years after the test water exposure, 80% of maturing and matured test fish exposed before and during PST showed a preference for Pro, whereas those exposed after PST did not. The EOG response of test fish exposed to Pro or Glu for 1 hour, 6 hours, 1 day, 7 days, or 14 days in May revealed that only the response after 14 days of exposure was significantly (1.8-fold) greater than the control. The expression levels of SOIG mRNA increased before and during PST, and decreased after PST. We conclude that one-year-old lacustrine sockeye salmon can be imprinted by a single amino acid before and during PST, and that imprinting requires exposure for at least 14 days. PMID:20062811

Yamamoto, Yuzo; Hino, Hiroshi; Ueda, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

326

Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids  

E-print Network

-(bromomethyl)- phthalimide (I) to get diethyl phthalimidomethylphospho- nate (IV), 5 i + L IBRAY*?C ( Q ^ > ^ ( ? c 2h 5 )2 a IV The diethyl ester (IV) hydrolyzes in the same way as does the dibutyl ester (II) above to give aminomethylphosphonic acid (III). 4... 'T vi ? *> RGY *PRPTNRYANLBSA VII the phosphonyl dichloride (VII) and water react readily to yield N-benzoylaminomethylphosphonic acid (V)0 5 Kabachnik and Medved^ obtained aminomethylphosphonic acid (III) by causing diethyl...

Chambers, James Richard

2013-10-04

327

Amino acid transport inhibition: brain and behavioral correlates.  

PubMed

In vivo inhibition of uptake 14C-L-valine by brain following subcutaneous administration of either of two gamma-glutamyl cycle enzyme inhibitors, 2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid (ICA), or, L-methionine-S-sulfoximine (MSO) is documented in C57BL/6J mice. Dose related decrease in exploratory activity, impairment of memory for foot shock, and reduced operant responding for food reinforcement parallels the time course for interference with uptake of a large neutral amino acid by these two compounds previously shown to inhibit different enzymes in the gamma-glutamyl cycle subserving active amino acid transport. PMID:981286

Randt, C T; Samuels, S; Fish, I

1976-06-01

328

Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms. PMID:23826175

Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

329

Fish Oil and the Pan-PPAR Agonist Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Affect the Amino Acid and Carnitine Metabolism in Rats  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms. PMID:23826175

Bj?rndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevag; Svardal, Asbj?rn; Nygard, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

330

Amino acid sequence of a carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of a 37 residue carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit has been determined. The amino terminus was shown to be 2-oxopyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid by digestion of reduced and S-carboxymethylated inhibitor with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase. The remainder of the sequence was assigned by analysis of peptides which had been generated by specific cleavage at the Asp4-Pro5 bond under acid conditions and by treatment with trypsin. The amino acid sequence of this inhibitor is identical with that of an analogous inhibitor from potatoes in 26 positions, and two of the replacements are highly conservative. The identification of the nonconservative replacements has been used to better define regions of the inhibitor which are not believed to contribute significantly to the free energy of association of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. PMID:7236596

Hass, G M; Hermodson, M A

1981-04-14

331

Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces I?B? expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 ?M), OA (100 ?M), or PA (100 ?M). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced I?B? expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus. PMID:25143349

Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

2014-01-01

332

Identification of a Novel Amino Acid Response Pathway Triggering ATF2 Phosphorylation in Mammals? †  

PubMed Central

It has been well established that amino acid availability can control gene expression. Previous studies have shown that amino acid depletion induces transcription of the ATF3 (activation transcription factor 3) gene through an amino acid response element (AARE) located in its promoter. This event requires phosphorylation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), a constitutive AARE-bound factor. To identify the signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of ATF2 in response to amino acid starvation, we used an individual gene knockdown approach by small interfering RNA transfection. We identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) module MEKK1/MKK7/JNK2 as the pathway responsible for ATF2 phosphorylation on the threonine 69 (Thr69) and Thr71 residues. Then, we progressed backwards up the signal transduction pathway and showed that the GTPase Rac1/Cdc42 and the protein G?12 control the MAPK module, ATF2 phosphorylation, and AARE-dependent transcription. Taken together, our data reveal a new signaling pathway activated by amino acid starvation leading to ATF2 phosphorylation and subsequently positively affecting the transcription of amino acid-regulated genes. PMID:19822663

Chaveroux, Cedric; Jousse, Celine; Cherasse, Yoan; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Parry, Laurent; Carraro, Valerie; Derijard, Benoit; Bruhat, Alain; Fafournoux, Pierre

2009-01-01

333

Isotopic evidence for extraterrestrial non-racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite.  

PubMed

Many amino acids contain an asymmetric centre, occurring as laevorotatory, L, or dextrorotatory, D, compounds. It is generally assumed that abiotic synthesis of amino acids on the early Earth resulted in racemic mixtures (L- and D-enantiomers in equal abundance). But the origin of life required, owing to conformational constraints, the almost exclusive selection of either L- or D-enantiomers, and the question of why living systems on the Earth consist of L-enantiomers rather than D-enantiomers is unresolved. A substantial fraction of the organic compounds on the early Earth may have been derived from comet and meteorite impacts. It has been reported previously that amino acids in the Murchison meteorite exhibit an excess of L-enantiomers, raising the possibility that a similar excess was present in the initial inventory of organic compounds on the Earth. The stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids in Murchison support an extraterrestrial origin -- rather than a terrestrial overprint of biological amino acids-although reservations have persisted. Here we show that individual amino-acid enantiomers from Murchison are enriched in 15N relative to their terrestrial counterparts, so confirming an extraterrestrial source for an L-enantiomer excess in the Solar System that may predate the origin of life on the Earth. PMID:9305838

Engel, M H; Macko, S A

1997-09-18

334

Impact of dietary aromatic amino acids on osteoclastic activity.  

PubMed

We had shown that aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) supplementation prevented bone loss in an aging C57BL/6 mice model. In vivo results from the markers of bone breakdown suggested an inhibition of osteoclastic activity or differentiation. To assess osteoclastic differentiation, we examined the effects of aromatic amino acids on early /structural markers as vitronectin receptor, calcitonin receptor, and carbonic anhydrase II as well as, late/functional differentiation markers; cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Our data demonstrate that the aromatic amino acids down-regulated early and late osteoclastic differentiation markers as measured by real time PCR. Our data also suggest a link between the vitronectin receptor and the secreted cathepsin K that both showed consistent effects to the aromatic amino acid treatment. However, the non-attachment related proteins, calcitonin receptor, and carbonic anhydrase II, demonstrated less consistent effects in response to treatment. Our data are consistent with aromatic amino acids down-regulating osteoclastic differentiation by suppressing remodeling gene expression thus contributing initially to the net increase in bone mass seen in vivo. PMID:25000990

Refaey, Mona El; Zhong, Qing; Ding, Ke-Hong; Shi, Xing-Ming; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Wendy B; Hill, William D; Chutkan, Norman; Robbins, Richard; Nadeau, Hugh; Johnson, Maribeth; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M

2014-08-01

335

Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.  

PubMed

Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion. PMID:25114014

Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

2014-10-01

336

Plasma amino-acid patterns in liver disease.  

PubMed Central

Plasma amino-acid concentrations were measured in 167 patients with liver disease of varying aetiology and severity, all free of encephalopathy, and the results compared with those in 57 control subjects matched for age and sex. In the four groups of patients with chronic liver disease (26 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 23 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 11 with cryptogenic cirrhosis, and 48 with alcoholic hepatitis +/- cirrhosis) plasma concentrations of methionine were significantly increased, while concentrations of the three branched chain amino-acids were significantly reduced. In the first three groups of patients plasma concentrations of aspartate, serine, and one or both of the aromatic amino-acids tyrosine and phenylalanine were also significantly increased, while in the patients with alcoholic hepatitis +/- cirrhosis plasma concentrations of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine were significantly reduced. In the three groups of patients with minimal, potentially reversible liver disease (31 patients with alcoholic fatty liver, 10 with viral hepatitis, and 18 with biliary disease) plasma concentrations of proline and the three branched chain amino-acids were significantly reduced. Patients with alcoholic fatty liver also showed significantly reduced plasma phenylalanine values. Most changes in plasma amino-acid concentrations in patients with chronic liver disease may be explained on the basis of impaired hepatic function, portal-systemic shunting of blood, and hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglucagonaemia. The changes in patients with minimal liver disease are less easily explained. PMID:7076013

Morgan, M Y; Marshall, A W; Milsom, J P; Sherlock, S

1982-01-01

337

Heat shock factor 1 is inactivated by amino acid deprivation.  

PubMed

Mammalian cells respond to a lack of amino acids by activating a transcriptional program with the transcription factor ATF4 as one of the main actors. When cells are faced with cytoplasmic proteotoxic stress, a quite different transcriptional response is mounted, the heat shock response, which is mediated by HSF1. Here, we show that amino acid deprivation results in the inactivation of HSF1. In amino acid deprived cells, active HSF1 loses its DNA binding activity as demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP. A sharp decrease in the transcript level of HSF1 target genes such as HSPA1A (Hsp70), DNAJB1 (Hsp40), and HSP90AA1 is also seen. HSPA1A mRNA, but not DNAJB1 mRNA, was also destabilized. In cells cultured with limiting leucine, HSF1 activity also declined. Lack of amino acids thus could lead to a lower chaperoning capacity and cellular frailty. We show that the nutrient sensing response unit of the ASNS gene contains an HSF1 binding site, but we could not detect binding of HSF1 to this site in vivo. Expression of either an HSF1 mutant lacking the activation domain (HSF379) or an HSF1 mutant unable to bind DNA (K80Q) had only a minor effect on the transcript levels of amino acid deprivation responsive genes. PMID:22797943

Hensen, Sanne M M; Heldens, Lonneke; van Enckevort, Chrissy M W; van Genesen, Siebe T; Pruijn, Ger J M; Lubsen, Nicolette H

2012-11-01

338

Imbalance between neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory amino acids causes craving for ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term exposure to ethanol leads to an imbalance in different excitatory and inhibitory amino acids. When ethanol consumption is reduced or completely stopped, these imbalances in different amino acids and neurotransmitters are behaviorally expressed in the form of ethanol withdrawal. Glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid, and GABA, a major inhibitory amino acid, are responsible, at least partly, for ethanol

Philippe De Witte

2004-01-01

339

2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings  

E-print Network

2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 2Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 3Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;2/17/05 4Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from

Narasimhan, Giri

340

INTEGUMENTARY AMINO ACID TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN THE APODOUS SEA CUCUMBER, CHIRIDOTA RIGIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The apodous sea cucumber, Ckiridota rigida, was found to transport exogenous amino acids to intracellular free amino acid pools in the integu- ment, the gastrointestinal epithelium making only a minimal contribution to total animal uptake. 2. Amino acids entering the integumentary free amino acid pool were either completely catabohzed to CO2, incorporated into large molecular weight compounds, such

GREGORY A. AHEARN; SIDNEY J. TOWNSLEY

341

Closed-system behaviour of the intra-crystalline fraction of amino acids in mollusc shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

When mollusc shells are analysed conventionally for amino acid geochronology, the entire population of amino acids is included, both inter- and intra-crystalline. This study investigates the utility of removing the amino acids that are most susceptible to environmental effects by isolating the fraction of amino acids encapsulated within mineral crystals of mollusc shells (intra-crystalline fraction). Bleaching, heating and leaching (diffusive

K. E. H. Penkman; D. S. Kaufman; D. Maddy; M. J. Collins

2008-01-01

342

Study of glycated amino acid elimination reaction for an improved enzymatic glycated albumin measurement method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In order to improve enzymatic glycated albumin measurement, we studied the endogenous glycated amino acid elimination reaction and the new bromocresolpurple (BCP) method for albumin measurement. Methods: In the assay, endogenous glycated amino acids are first eliminated by oxidation by ketoamine oxidase. Second, glycated albumin is hydrolyzed to glycated amino acids by proteinase digestion, and glycated amino acids are

Takuji Kouzuma; Yumiko Uemastu; Tomomi Usami; Shigeyuki Imamura

2004-01-01

343

The quantitative determination of amino acids by microbiological assay  

E-print Network

' b1Mslla. . . , . . . . . . . 11 Tests for Amino Acids Contaminated with Valine 15 Relative Growth hffeot of g- and, 1 Valine for Li Arabinosus. . . . . ~ . 18 V. Assay for Va1ine in Casein VI i VII, Assay for Valine in Gelatin . Recovery..., proline, phenylalanine, serlne, and tyrosine. Arginine and citrulline are interchangeable; one or the other stimulates growth. Thus the sum total of amino aoids either essential or stimulating to I . ~ht 1 1V. Tests showed that the following vitamins...

Norman, William Harvey

2012-06-07

344

N-nitrosations of basic amino acid residues in polypeptide.  

PubMed

Changes in the electrophoretic pattern were noted in the products of polypeptides of identical basic amino acids preincubated with reactive or degraded PN, suggesting the occurrence of N-nitrosation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine, the guanido group of arginine and the imidazole group of histidine. Additionally, increase in the N-nitroso immunoreactivity of preincubated histones H2A and H2B was detected by Western blot analysis. PMID:15353346

Kuo, Wu-Nan; Ivy, Dynisha; Guruvadoo, Luvina; White, Atavia; Graham, Latia

2004-09-01

345

Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.  

PubMed

Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

2014-03-01

346

Amino acid utilization by marine phytoplankton: A novel mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme on the cell surface of some marine phytoplankton, particularly the genus Pleurochrysis (ffyrnenomonas), oxidizes many L-amino acids to produce H,O,, NH,, and an ol-keto acid extra- cellularly. The NH,+ is subsequently taken up and used for growth. The enzyme synthesized by Pleurochrysis carterue (clone CoccoII) has a half-saturation constant of 0.25 PM assayed with L-W aminobutyric acid as

B. PALENIK; F. M. M. MOREL

1990-01-01

347

Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

1998-01-01

348

Survivability of biomolecules during extraterrestrial delivery: new results on pyrolysis of amino acids and poly-amino acids.  

PubMed

The hypothesis on exogenous origin of organic matter on the early Earth is strongly supported by the detection of a large variety of organic compounds (including amino acids and nucleobases) in carbonaceous chondrites. Whether such complex species can be successively delivered by other space bodies (comets, asteroids and interplanetary dust particles) is unclear and depends primarily on capability of the biomolecules to survive high temperatures during atmospheric deceleration and impacts to the terrestrial surface. Recent simulation experiments on amino acid and nucleic acid base pyrolysis under oxygen-free atmosphere demonstrated that simple representatives of these (considered thermally unstable) compounds can survive at 1-10% level a rapid heating at 500-600 degrees C. In the present work, we report on new data on the pyrolysis of amino acids and their homopolymers and discuss implications of their thermal behavior for extraterrestrial delivery. PMID:11605637

Basiuk, V A; Douda, J

2001-01-01

349

Essential amino acids interacting with flavonoids: A theoretical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of two flavonoid species (resorcinolic and fluoroglucinolic) with the 20 essential amino acids was studied by the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) procedures, through the AM1 and PM3 semiempirical methods. Remarkable thermodynamic data related to the properties of the molecular association of these compounds were obtained, which will be of great utility for future investigations concerning the interaction of flavonoids with proteins. These results are compared with experimental and classical force field results reported in the available literature, and new evidences and criteria are shown. The hydrophilic amino acids demonstrated high affinity in the interaction with flavonoid molecules; the complexes with lysine are especially extremely stable. An affinity order for the interaction of both flavonoid species with the essential amino acids is suggested. Our theoretical results are compared with experimental evidence on flavonoid interactions with proteins of biomedical interest.

Codorniu-Hernández, Edelsys; Mesa-Ibirico, Ariel; Hernández-Santiesteban, Richel; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.; Martínez-Luzardo, Francisco; Santana-Romero, Jorge L.; Borrmann, Tobias; Stohrer, Wolf-D.

350

Amino acids in a Fischer Tropsch type synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One postulation is described for the presence of organic compounds in meteorites which states that they were formed during the condensation of the solar nebula. A viable laboratory simulation of these conditions can be modeled after the industrial Fischer Tropsch reaction, which is known to produce organic compounds called hydrocarbons. In this simulation, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and ammonia is heated in the presence of iron meteorite. The reaction products for amino acids, a class of organic compounds important to life, were examined. A large number of these compounds is found in meteorites and other chemical evolution experiments, but only small quantities of a few amino acids were found in the present simulation work. These results are at odds with the existing literature in which many amino acids were reported.

Brown, D. L.; Lawless, J. G.

1974-01-01

351

An amino acid model for latent fingerprints on porous surfaces.  

PubMed

Analytical standards are needed in latent fingerprint detection for research and development as well as for quality control in routine work because normal fingerprints are too varied for comparison studies and tests. One way is to create latent fingerprints. For the amino acid sensitive detection method this can be achieved by coating test items with an amino acid solution using a modified commercial office bubble jet printer. Besides low costs, fast and easy preparation, the main advantage of a bubble jet printer is that the amino acid loading per area on the test item can be calculated by weighing the cartridge on a balance. This opens the possibility to determine the deviation for every printing series. The reproducibility of prints in a printing series made by one cartridge has a deviation of 2-16% and of prints made by different cartridges 20-25%. PMID:19804528

Schwarz, Lothar

2009-11-01

352

tRNAs: cellular barcodes for amino acids  

PubMed Central

The role of tRNA in translating the genetic code has received considerable attention over the last 50 years, and we now know in great detail how particular amino acids are specifically selected and brought to the ribosome in response to the corresponding mRNA codon. Over the same period, it has also become increasingly clear that the ribosome is not the only destination to which tRNAs deliver amino acids, with processes ranging from lipid modification to antibiotic biosynthesis all using aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates. Here we review examples of alternative functions for tRNA beyond translation, which together suggest that the role of tRNA is to deliver amino acids for a variety of processes that includes, but is not limited to, protein synthesis. PMID:19903480

Banerjee, Rajat; Chen, Shawn; Dare, Kiley; Gilreath, Marla; Praetorius-Ibba, Mette; Raina, Medha; Reynolds, Noah M.; Rogers, Theresa; Roy, Herve; Yadavalli, Srujana S.; Ibba, Michael

2009-01-01

353

Use of an Amino Acid Mixture in Treatment of Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Twelve children with phenylketonuria diagnosed and treated from the first few weeks of life were grouped into pairs. Before the trial all of them were receiving a commercial preparation containing a protein hydrolysate low in phenylalanine (Cymogran, Allen and Hanburys Ltd.) as a substitute for natural protein. One of each pair was given an amino acid mixture instead of Cymogran for about 6 months. Use of the mixture involved considerable modification of the diet, and in particular the inclusion of greater amounts of phenylalanine-free foods. All six accepted the new mixture without difficulty, food problems were greatly reduced, parents welcomed the new preparation, and the quality of family life improved. Normal growth was maintained and with a mixture of l amino acids the plasma and urinary amino acid levels were normal. Further studies are needed before the mixture can be recommended for children under 20 months of age. PMID:5477678

Bentovim, A.; Clayton, Barbara E.; Francis, Dorothy E. M.; Shepherd, Jean; Wolff, O. H.

1970-01-01

354

Amino acid regions 572-579 and 657-666 of the spacer domain of ADAMTS 13 provide a common antigenic core required for binding of antibodies in patients with acquired TTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies directed against ADAMTS13 have been detected in the majority of patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We have previously localized a major antigenic determinant within the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. To identify the amino acid residues of the spacer domain that are involved in binding of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies, we constructed a series of fifteen hybrids (designated A-O) in

Brenda M. Luken; Ellen A. M. Turenhout; Paul H. P. Kaijen; Mascha J. Greuter; Wouter Pos; Mourik van J. A; Rob Fijnheer; Jan Voorberg

2006-01-01

355

Prebiotic synthesis in atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. I. Amino acids.  

PubMed

The prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds using a spark discharge on various simulated primitive earth atmospheres at 25 degrees C has been studied. Methane mixtures contained H2 + CH4 + H2O + N2 + NH3 with H2/CH4 molar ratios from 0 to 4 and pNH3 = 0.1 torr. A similar set of experiments without added NH3 was performed. The yields of amino acids (1.2 to 4.7% based on the carbon) are approximately independent of the H2/CH4 ratio and whether NH3 was present, and a wide variety of amino acids are obtained. Mixtures of H2 + CO + H2O + N2 and H2 + CO2 + H2O + N2, with and without added NH3, all gave about 2% yields of amino acids at H2/CO and H2/CO2 ratios of 2 to 4. For a H2/CO2 ratio of 0, the yield of amino acids is extremely low (10(-3)%). Glycine is almost the only amino acid produced from CO and CO2 model atmospheres. These results show that the maximum yield is about the same for the three carbon sources at high H2/carbon ratios, but that CH4 is superior at low H2/carbon ratios. In addition, CH4 gives a much greater variety of amino acids than either CO or CO2. If it is assumed that an abundance of amino acids more complex than glycine was required for the origin of life, then these results indicate the requirement for CH4 in the primitive atmosphere. PMID:6417344

Schlesinger, G; Miller, S L

1983-01-01

356

Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T1/2 for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6×109 years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6×109 years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant krac.

Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Manchado, Arturo

2011-01-01

357

Enantiomeric Excesses of Acid Labile Amino Acid Precursors of the Murchison Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids present in carbonaceous chondrite are extracted in water in part as free compounds and in approximately equal part as acid labile precursors. On the assumption that they would be free of contamination, the precursors of two Murchison amino acids that have terrestrial occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, have been targeted for analysis of their enantiomeric ratios. Pyroglutamic acid, the precursor of glutamic acid, was found with an L-enantiomeric excess comparable to that of the free acid, while alanine's precursor, N-acetyl alanine, appears approximately racemic. Also alpha-imino propioacetic acid, a proposed end product of alanine synthesis in the meteorite, was analyzed and found racemic.

Pizzarello, Sandra

1998-01-01

358

Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the roots of the common names of organic compounds most likely to be encountered by undergraduate organic chemistry students. Includes information for 19 amino acids, 17 aromatic compounds, and 21 carboxylic acids. (WRM)

Leung, Sam H.

2000-01-01

359

Partitioning of acidic, basic and neutral amino acids into imidazolium-based ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, partitioning behaviors of typical neutral (Alanine), acidic (Glutamic acid) and basic (Lysine) amino acids\\u000a into imidazolium-based ionic liquids [C4mim][PF6], [C6mim][PF6], [C8mim][PF6], [C6mim][BF4] and [C8mim][BF4] as extracting solvents were examined. [C6mim][BF4] showed the best efficiency for partitioning of amino acids. The partition coefficients of amino acids in ionic liquids were\\u000a found to depend strongly on pH of the

Ghodratollah AbsalanMorteza Akhond; Morteza Akhond; Leila Sheikhian

2010-01-01

360

Ripening of Ossau-Iraty cheese: determination of free amino acids by RP-HPLC and of total free amino acids by the TNBS method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free amino acids and sulphosalicylic acid-soluble N fraction in the French ewes’-milk cheese, Ossau-Iraty, were determined to evaluate the degree of proteolysis during ripening of the cheese. RP-HPLC was used to assess the free amino acids, the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid method to assess the sulphosalicylic acid-soluble N fraction. The total free amino acids content as determined by RP-HPLC ranged from

J. M Izco; P Torre; Y Barcina

2000-01-01

361

Freeze-drying of proteins in glass solids formed by basic amino acids and dicarboxylic acids.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to produce and characterize glass-state amorphous solids containing amino acids and organic acids that protect co-lyophilized proteins. Thermal analysis of frozen solutions containing a basic amino acid (e.g., L-arginine, L-lysine, L-histidine) and a hydroxy di- or tricarboxylic acid (e.g., citric acid, L-tartaric acid, DL-malic acid) showed glass transition of maximally freeze-concentrated solute at temperatures (T'g) significantly higher than those of the individual solute solutions. Mixing of the amino acid with some dicarboxylic acids (e.g., oxalic acid) also suggested an upward shift of the transition temperature. Contrarily, combinations of the amino acid with monocarboxylic acids (e.g., acetic acid) had T'gs between those of the individual solute solutions. Co-lyophilization of the basic amino acids and citric acid or L-tartaric acid resulted in amorphous solids that have glass transition temperatures (Tg) higher than the individual components. Mid- and near-infrared analysis indicated altered environment around the functional groups of the consisting molecules. Some of the glass-state excipient combinations protected an enzyme (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) from inactivation during freeze-drying. The glass-state excipient combinations formed by hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interaction network would be potent alternative to stabilize therapeutic proteins in freeze-dried formulations. PMID:19122314

Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Kadoya, Saori; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

2009-01-01

362

Effect of the Ratio Between Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids in the Diet on Utilization of Nitrogen and Amino Acids by Growing Pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 36 growing pigs (30 to 60 kg), N balance and amino acid (AA) composition of weight gain were measured to evaluate the interactive effect of the ratio between N from essential amino acids (EAAN) to nonessential amino acids (NEAAN) and total N level ( T N) in the diet on N retention and utilization of N, EAAN, NEAAN, and

Nico P. Lenis; Hans T. M. van Diepen; Paul Bikker; Age W. Jongbloed; Jan van der Meulen

2010-01-01

363

[Separation of amino acid enantiomers by high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

Enantiomeric forms of the target analytes can be separated using chiral stationary phases based on cyclodextrins, macrocyclic polyethers and antibiotics, and derivatized polysaccharides and cyclofructans. The polar-organic, reverse-phase and normal-phase separation system of the mobile phase can be used for chromatographic separation of racemic mixtures of amino acids, depending on the type of the chiral stationary phase. In addition to the direct method of separation, the possibility of derivatization with a chiral derivatization agent is used. The conventional detection techniques, circular dichroism and laser polarimetry detection can be used to detect amino acids after HPLC separation. PMID:24568331

Morav?ík, Jakub; Hrobo?ová, Katarína

2014-02-01

364

Peptidomimetics via modifications of amino acids and peptide bonds.  

PubMed

Peptidomimetics represent an important field in chemistry, pharmacology and material science as they circumvent the limitations of traditional peptides used in therapy. Self-structural organizations such as turns, helices, sheets and loops can be accessed by chemical modifications of amino acids or peptides. In-depth structural and conformational analysis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) offer a way to establish peptidomimetic libraries. Herein, we review recent developments in peptidomimetics that are formed via heteroatom replacement within the native amino acid backbone. Each sub-section describes structural features, utility and preparative methods. PMID:24626261

Avan, Ilker; Hall, C Dennis; Katritzky, Alan R

2014-05-21

365

Amino acid adsorption on single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate and discuss the adsorption of a few amino acids on (3,3) carbon nanotubes and on graphite sheets through calculations within density functional theory. Results show weak binding of the biomolecules on both substrates, but through generally favourable adsorption pathways. Zwitterion adsorption through the charged amine and carboxylate groups are bound stronger to the nanotube surface in comparison to their nonionic counterparts, as well as on histidine, phenylalanine, and cysteine side chain groups fixed in specific orientations. Binding strengths on graphite suggest dissimilar trends for amino acid interactions with increasing nanotube diameter.

Roman, T.; Diño, W. A.; Nakanishi, H.; Kasai, H.

2006-04-01

366

Treatment with amino acids in serine deficiency disorders.  

PubMed

Serine deficiency disorders are rare defects in the biosynthesis of the amino acid L-serine. At present two disorders have been reported: 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency and 3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency. These enzyme defects lead to severe neurological symptoms such as congenital microcephaly and severe psychomotor retardation and in addition in patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency to intractable seizures. These symptoms respond to a variable degree to treatment with L-serine, sometimes combined with glycine. In this paper the current practice of amino acid treatment with L-serine and glycine in serine deficiency is reviewed. PMID:16763900

de Koning, T J

2006-01-01

367

Quantitative analysis of amino acid mixtures by mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

combination of the gas c'nromatrograph with the mass socctrometer has been used to analyze mixtures of trifluoroacetyl (TFA) amino acid esters (15) Even wi h incomplete GC resolution reliable quali ta- tive ana. lyses can be achieved with the direct GC... combination of the gas c'nromatrograph with the mass socctrometer has been used to analyze mixtures of trifluoroacetyl (TFA) amino acid esters (15) Even wi h incomplete GC resolution reliable quali ta- tive ana. lyses can be achieved with the direct GC...

Bird, James Spencer

2012-06-07

368

Transport of acidic amino acids by human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the transport of radiolabeled acidic amino acids into brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from human jejunum. The uptakes of L-glutamic, L-aspartic, and D-aspartic acids were stimulated by a Na\\/sup +\\/ gradient. Concentrative uptake (resulting in an overshoot phenomenon) of these dicarboxylic amino acids occurred when there was an outward K\\/sup +\\/ gradient. In addition, increasing K\\/sup +\\/ gradients

V. M. Rajendran; J. M. Harig; M. B. Adams; K. Ramaswamy

1987-01-01

369

?-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.  

PubMed

Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "?-crystalline phase" or "?-gel". In this study, we have characterized ?-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the ?-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated ?-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated ?-gels in the order 12-Glu <12-G8G-12 < 12-G5G-12 < 12-G2G-12. In the three gemini surfactant systems, the decreased spacer chain length resulted in the increased maximum viscosity and elastic modulus of the saturated ?-gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the ?-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of ?-gel in gemini surfactant systems. PMID:24912111

Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

2014-07-01

370

AMINO ACID UTILIZATION BY ALCALIGENES VISCOLACTIS FOR GROWTH AND SLIME PRODUCTION.  

PubMed

Punch, J. D. (University of Minnesota, St. Paul), J. C. Olson, Jr., and J. V. Scaletti. Amino acid utilization by Alcaligenes viscolactis for growth and slime production. J. Bacteriol. 89:1521-1525. 1965.-The ability of Alcaligenes viscolactis to utilize amino acids in a basal salts solution (K(2)HPO(4), KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), MnSO(4), FeSO(4), NaCl) was studied. Of 27 amino acids, only l-asparagine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, l-glutamine, l-proline, and l-tyrosine supported growth sufficient to give a viscous supernatant solution. l-Proline and l-tyrosine, singly or combined, fulfilled the carbon, nitrogen, and energy requirements for growth and slime production. None of eight inorganic nitrogenous compounds supported growth with lactose as the carbon source. The addition of l-asparagine, l-aspartic acid, or l-glutamine to l-tyrosine or l-proline, singly or combined, did not increase growth or slime production, indicating no nutritional interactions among these amino acids. Neither lactose nor glucose was found to be required or utilized by A. viscolactis in a medium containing basal salts, l-proline, l-tyrosine, and lactose or glucose. This was established by the fact that total carbohydrate and total reducing activity remained constant during growth and slime production. PMID:14291591

PUNCH, J D; OLSON, J C; SCALETTI, J V

1965-06-01

371

Amino Acid Utilization by Alcaligenes viscolactis for Growth and Slime Production1  

PubMed Central

Punch, J. D. (University of Minnesota, St. Paul), J. C. Olson, Jr., and J. V. Scaletti. Amino acid utilization by Alcaligenes viscolactis for growth and slime production. J. Bacteriol. 89:1521–1525. 1965.—The ability of Alcaligenes viscolactis to utilize amino acids in a basal salts solution (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, MgSO4, MnSO4, FeSO4, NaCl) was studied. Of 27 amino acids, only l-asparagine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, l-glutamine, l-proline, and l-tyrosine supported growth sufficient to give a viscous supernatant solution. l-Proline and l-tyrosine, singly or combined, fulfilled the carbon, nitrogen, and energy requirements for growth and slime production. None of eight inorganic nitrogenous compounds supported growth with lactose as the carbon source. The addition of l-asparagine, l-aspartic acid, or l-glutamine to l-tyrosine or l-proline, singly or combined, did not increase growth or slime production, indicating no nutritional interactions among these amino acids. Neither lactose nor glucose was found to be required or utilized by A. viscolactis in a medium containing basal salts, l-proline, l-tyrosine, and lactose or glucose. This was established by the fact that total carbohydrate and total reducing activity remained constant during growth and slime production. PMID:14291591

Punch, J. D.; Olson, J. C.; Scaletti, J. V.

1965-01-01

372

Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain.  

PubMed

Complete diallel crosses with five parents of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted to analyse inheritance of 17 amino acid contents by using the genetic model including seed, cytoplasmic, maternal and environment interaction effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops. The results showed that inheritance of 17 amino acid contents, except tyrosine, was controlled by several genetic systems including seed, cytoplasmic, and maternal effects, and by significant gene x environment interaction effects. Seed-direct additive and maternal effects constituted a major part of genetic effects for lysine, tyrosine, arginine, methionine, and glutamic acid content. Seed-direct additive effect formed main part in inheritance of isoleucine and serine contents. Threonine content was mainly governed by maternal additive effect. The other nine amino acid contents were almost entirely controlled by dominance effects. High general heritability of tyrosine (36.3%), arginine (45.8%), lysine (24.7%) and threonine (21.4%) contents, revealed that it could be effective to improve them by direct selection in progenies from appropriate crosses. Interaction heritability for phenylalanine, proline, and histidine content, which was 36.1%, 39.5% and 25.7%, respectively, was higher than for the other amino acids. PMID:25189240

Jiang, Xiaoling; Wu, Peng; Tian, Jichun

2014-08-01

373

Defects in amino acid catabolism and the urea cycle.  

PubMed

Symptoms in patients with defects in amino acid catabolism and the urea cycle usually develop because of intoxication of accumulating metabolites. The cumulative prevalence of these disorders is considerable (at least>1:2000 newborns). Timely and correct intervention during the initial presentation and during later episodes is most important. Evaluation of metabolic parameters should be performed on an emergency basis in every patient with symptoms of unexplained metabolic crisis, intoxication, and/or unexplained encephalopathy. A substantial number of patients develop acute encephalopathy or chronic and fluctuating progressive neurological disease. The so-called cerebral organic acid disorders present with (progressive) neurological symptoms: ataxia, myoclonus, extrapyramidal symptoms, and "metabolic stroke." Important diagnostic clues, such as white matter abnormalities, cortical or cerebellar atrophy, and injury of the basal ganglia can be derived from cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Long-term neurological disease is common, particularly in untreated patients, and the manifestations are varied, the most frequent being (1) mental defect, (2) epilepsy, and (3) movement disorders. Successful treatment strategies are becoming increasingly available. They mostly require an experienced interdisciplinary team including a neuropediatrician and/or later on a neurologist. PMID:23622399

Hoffmann, Georg F; Kölker, Stefan

2013-01-01

374

Amino-acid sequence of equine renal metallothionein-1B.  

PubMed Central

The amino-acid sequence of a metallothionein is reported. Metallothionein is a widely distributed, extremely cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight protein containing large amounts of cadmium and/or zinc. Metallothionein-1B is one of the two prinicipal variants occurring in equine kidney cortex. The single-chain protein contains 61 amino acids and has the composition Cys20 Ser8Lys7Arg1Ala7Gly5Val3Asp2Asn1-Glu1Gln2Pro2Thr1Met1(Cd + Zn)7. Its amino-terminal residue is N-acetylmethionine. The sequence shows distinct clustering of the twenty cysteinyl residues into seven groups separated by stretches of at least three other residues. Within these groups the cysteines occur seven times in alternating Cys-X-Cys sequences and three times each in Cys-Cys and Cys-X-X-Cys sequences, where X is an amino acid other than cysteine. Another unique feature is the close association of serine and the basic amino acids with cysteine, as manifested by the occurrence of seven Ser-Cys, four Cys-Lys, one Cys-Arg, and three Lys-Cys sequences. These findings are in agreement with the previous suggestion that metallothionein has structurally defined metal-binding sites, most of which contain three cysteinyl residues as the principal metal-binding ligands. The charge difference between the metal-free and the metal-containing protein is consistent with the formation of negatively charged trimercaptide complexes with cadmium and/or zinc ions. The possible additional involvement of serine and the basic amino acids in metal binding is discussed. Images PMID:1068454

Kojima, Y; Berger, C; Vallee, B L; Kagi, J H

1976-01-01

375

The multifaceted role of aspartate-family amino acids in plant metabolism.  

PubMed

Plants represent the major sources of human foods and livestock feeds, worldwide. However, the limited content of the essential amino acid lysine in cereal grains represents a major nutritional problem for human and for livestock feeding in developed countries. Optimizing the level of lysine in cereal grains requires extensive knowledge on the biological processes regulating the homeostasis of this essential amino acid as well as the biological consequences of this homeostasis. Manipulating biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of lysine metabolism enabled an enhanced accumulation of this essential amino acid in seeds. However, this approach had a major effect on the levels of various metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, revealing a strong interaction between lysine metabolism and cellular energy metabolism. Recent studies discussed here have shed new light on the metabolic processes responsible for the catabolism of lysine, as well as isoleucine, another amino acid of the aspartate-family pathway, into the TCA cycle. Here we discuss progress being made to understand biological processes associated with the catabolism of amino acids of the aspartate-family pathway and its importance for optimal improvement of the nutritional quality of plants. PMID:22516796

Kirma, Menny; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Galili, Gad

2012-09-01

376

The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of ( S )-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids, ( S )-glutamic acid being used as a flavor-enhancing additive (MSG)

Addison Ault; George B. Kauffman

2004-01-01

377

Enhanced amino acid selection in fully evolved tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, relative to its urzyme, requires domain motion sensed by the D1 switch, a remote dynamic packing motif.  

PubMed

We previously showed (Li, L., and Carter, C. W., Jr. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 34736-34745) that increased specificity for tryptophan versus tyrosine by contemporary Bacillus stearothermophilus tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) over that of TrpRS Urzyme results entirely from coupling between the anticodon-binding domain and an insertion into the Rossmann-fold known as Connecting Peptide 1. We show that this effect is closely related to a long range catalytic effect, in which side chain repacking in a region called the D1 Switch, accounts fully for the entire catalytic contribution of the catalytic Mg(2+) ion. We report intrinsic and higher order interaction effects on the specificity ratio, (kcat/Km)Trp/(kcat/Km)Tyr, of 15 combinatorial mutants from a previous study (Weinreb, V., Li, L., and Carter, C. W., Jr. (2012) Structure 20, 128-138) of the catalytic role of the D1 Switch. Unexpectedly, the same four-way interaction both activates catalytic assist by Mg(2+) ion and contributes -4.4 kcal/mol to the free energy of the specificity ratio. A minimum action path computed for the induced-fit and catalytic conformation changes shows that repacking of the four residues precedes a decrease in the volume of the tryptophan-binding pocket. We suggest that previous efforts to alter amino acid specificities of TrpRS and glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) by mutagenesis without extensive, modular substitution failed because mutations were incompatible with interdomain motions required for catalysis. PMID:24394410

Weinreb, Violetta; Li, Li; Chandrasekaran, Srinivas Niranj; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc; Carter, Charles W

2014-02-14

378

Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.  

PubMed

A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed. PMID:3429129

Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

1987-10-01

379

Polymerization on the rocks: beta-amino acids and arginine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have studied the accumulation of long oligomers of beta-amino acids on the surface of minerals using the 'polymerization on the rocks' protocol. We find that long oligopeptides of beta-glutamic acid which cannot be formed in homogeneous aqueous solution are accumulated efficiently on the surface of hydroxylapatite using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as condensing agent. The EDAC-induced oligomerization of aspartic acid on hydroxylapatite proceeds even more efficiently. Hydroxylapatite can also facilitate the ligation of the tripeptide (glu)3. The 'polymerization on the rocks' scenario is not restricted to negatively-charged amino acids. Oligoarginines are accumulated on the surface of illite using carbonyldiimidizole (CDI) as condensing agent. We find that FeS2 catalyzes the CDI-induced oligomerization of arginine, although it does not adsorb oligoarginines. These results are relevant to the formation of polypeptides on the primitive earth.

Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

380

Polymerization on the rocks: beta-amino acids and arginine.  

PubMed

We have studied the accumulation of long oligomers of beta-amino acids on the surface of minerals using the 'polymerization on the rocks' protocol. We find that long oligopeptides of beta-glutamic acid which cannot be formed in homogeneous aqueous solution are accumulated efficiently on the surface of hydroxylapatite using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as condensing agent. The EDAC-induced oligomerization of aspartic acid on hydroxylapatite proceeds even more efficiently. Hydroxylapatite can also facilitate the ligation of the tripeptide (glu)3. The 'polymerization on the rocks' scenario is not restricted to negatively-charged amino acids. Oligoarginines are accumulated on the surface of illite using carbonyldiimidizole (CDI) as condensing agent. We find that FeS2 catalyzes the CDI-induced oligomerization of arginine, although it does not adsorb oligoarginines. These results are relevant to the formation of polypeptides on the primitive earth. PMID:9611765

Liu, R; Orgel, L E

1998-06-01

381

Synthesis of P,N-Heterocycles from ?-Amino-H-Phosphinates: Conformationally Restricted ?-Amino Acid Analogs  

PubMed Central

P,N-Heterocycles (3-hydroxy-1,3-azaphospholane and 3-hydroxy-1,3-azaphosphorinane-3-oxide) are synthesized in moderate yield from readily available ?-amino-H-phosphinates and aldehydes or ketones via an intramolecular Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The products are conformationally restricted phosphinic analogs of ?-amino acids. The multi-gram scale syntheses of the H2N(CH2)nPO2H2 phosphinic precursors (n = 1, 2, 3) and some derivatives are also described. PMID:18855477

Queffelec, Clemence; Ribiere, Patrice; Montchamp, Jean-Luc

2009-01-01

382

An amino acid mixture mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.  

PubMed

Electrolyte and nutrient absorption occur in villous epithelial cells. Radiation often results in reduced electrolyte and nutrient absorption, which leads to gastrointestinal toxicity. Therefore, the authors studied: (1) radiation-induced changes in glucose and amino acid absorption across ileal tissues and (2) the effect of amino acid mixtures on absorptive capacity. NIH Swiss mice were irradiated (0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 Gy) using a ¹³?Cs source at 0.9 Gy min?¹. Transepithelial short circuit current (I(sc)), dilution potential, and isotope flux determinations were made in Ussing chamber studies and correlated to plasma endotoxin and IL-1? levels. Amino acids that increased electrolyte absorption and improved mucosal barrier functions were used to create a mitigating amino acid mixture (MAAM). The MAAM was given to mice via gastric gavage; thereafter, body weight and survival were recorded. A significant decrease in basal and glucose-stimulated sodium absorption occurred after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 Gy irradiation. Ussing chamber studies showed that paracellular permeability increased following irradiation and that the addition of glucose resulted in a further increase in permeability. Following irradiation, certain amino acids manifested decreased absorption, whereas others were associated with increased absorption. Lysine, aspartic acid, glycine, isoleucine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, tryptophan, and serine decreased plasma endotoxins were selected for the MAAM. Mice treated with the MAAM showed increased electrolyte absorption and decreased paracellular permeability, IL-1? levels, and plasma endotoxin levels. Mice treated with MAAM also had increased weight gain and better survival following irradiation. The MAAM has immediate potential for use in mitigating radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. PMID:24776907

Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; Menon, Rejeesh; Vaught, Lauren A; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

2014-06-01

383

Amino acid residues modulating the activities of staphylococcal glutamyl endopeptidases.  

PubMed

The glutamyl endopeptidase family of enzymes from staphylococci has been shown to be important virulence determinants of pathogenic family members, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Previous studies have identified the N-terminus and residues from positions 185-195 as potentially important regions that determine the activity of three members of the family. Cloning and sequencing of the new family members from Staphylococcus caprae (GluScpr) and Staphylococcus cohnii (GluScoh) revealed that the N-terminal Val residue is maintained in all family members. Mutants of the GluV8 enzyme from S. aureus with altered N-terminal residues, including amino acids with similar properties, were inactive, indicating that the Val residue is specifically required at the N-terminus of this enzyme family in order for them to function correctly. Recombinant GluScpr was found to have peptidase activity intermediate between GluV8 and GluSE from Staphylococcus epidermis and to be somewhat less specific in its substrate requirements than other family members. The 185-195 region was found to contribute to the activity of GluScpr, although other regions of the enzyme must also play a role in defining the activity. Our results strongly indicate the importance of the N-terminal and the 185-195 region in the activity of the glutamyl endopeptidases of staphylococci. PMID:20707600

Ono, Toshio; Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Shimoyama, Yu; Okawara, Hisami; Kobayakawa, Takeshi; Baba, Tomomi T; Kimura, Shigenobu; Nemoto, Takayuki K

2010-10-01

384

Amino Acids in Schizophrenia – Glycine, Serine and Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, there has been increased interest in the possible role of amino acids in the etiology and pharmacotherapy\\u000a of schizophrenia. Much of this research has focused on glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and these are the subjects\\u000a of other chapters in this book. However, there have also been interesting findings reported with glycine, serine (particularly\\u000a D-serine) and arginine,

Glen B. Baker; Jaime E. C. Hallak; Alexandria F. Dilullo; Lisa Burback; Serdar M. Dursun

385

Effects of exaggerated amino acid and protein supply in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A general update review of the dynamic aspect of protein metabolism is presented. The effect of excess protein level on protein metabolism has been the object of a limited number of studies in man. From the information available, it appears that the primary regulatory pathway for body protein homeostasis is the process of amino acid (protein) oxidation.

E. B. Fern; R. N. Bielinski; Y. Schutz

1991-01-01

386

Ontogenic changes of amino acid composition in planktonic crustacean species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in amino acid composition (AAC) during ontogeny of some planktonic crustacean species commonly found in fresh and brackish coastal waters were compared. For these comparisons two calanoid copepods (Eurytemora velox and Calanipeda aquae-dulcis), two cyclopoid copepods (Diacyclops bicuspidatus odessanus and Acanthocyclops robustus) and two Daphnia (Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia magna) species were selected. A discriminant analysis was performed to

Sandra Brucet; Dani Boix; Rocìo López-Flores; Anna Badosa; Xavier D. Quintana

2005-01-01

387

Amino acid composition of some Tanzanian wild mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen known amino acids, including the essential ones except isoleucine, were identified in the Tanzanian wild mushroom species Boletus pruinatus (Fr. & HÖK), Boletinus cavipes (Opat.) Kalchbr., Cantharellus cibarius (Fr.) Fr., Inonotus sp. cf. obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil., Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst, Agaricus sp. (L. ex Fr.), Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing., Lactarius sp. aff. pseudovolemus Heim., Russula hiemisilvae

Stephen J. M. Mdachi; Mayunga H. H. Nkunya; Vitus A. Nyigo; Isai T. Urasa

2004-01-01

388

Enzymatic aminoacylation of tRNA with unnatural amino acids  

PubMed Central

The biochemical flexibility of the cellular translation apparatus offers, in principle, a simple route to the synthesis of drug-like modified peptides and novel biopolymers. However, only ?75 unnatural building blocks are known to be fully compatible with enzymatic tRNA acylation and subsequent ribosomal synthesis of modified peptides. Although the translation system can reject substrate analogs at several steps along the pathway to peptide synthesis, much of the specificity resides at the level of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) enzymes that are responsible for charging tRNAs with amino acids. We have developed an AARS assay based on mass spectrometry that can be used to rapidly identify unnatural monomers that can be enzymatically charged onto tRNA. By using this assay, we have found 59 previously unknown AARS substrates. These include numerous side-chain analogs with useful functional properties. Remarkably, many ?-amino acids, N-methyl amino acids, and ?,?-disubstituted amino acids are also AARS substrates. These previously unidentified AARS substrates will be useful in studies of the specificity of subsequent steps in translation and may significantly expand the number of analogs that can be used for the ribosomal synthesis of modified peptides. PMID:16537388

Hartman, Matthew C. T.; Josephson, Kristopher; Szostak, Jack W.

2006-01-01

389

Novel methoxypropylimmidazolium ?-cyclodextrin for improved enantioseparation of amino acids.  

PubMed

A new single-isomer cationic cyclodextrin, mono-6(A)-[3-(3-methoxypropyl)imidazol-1-ium]-6(A)-?-cyclodextrin chloride, has been synthesized and successfully used for the chiral separation of dansyl amino acids in capillary electrophoresis. With methoxy functionality, the new cationic cyclodextrin exhibits significantly improved enantioselectivities. Excellent enantioseparations for amino acids are obtained in chiral selector concentration range between 2.5mM to 15 mM at pH 6.0. Chiral resolution as high as 7.3 was achieved for Dns-Aca with 5mM chiral selector. Comparison study and theoretical calculation with Wren's model attribute the enhanced enantioseparation to the stronger inclusion complexation between amino acids and cyclodextrin. The binding constants for dansyl amino acids and the cationic cyclodextrins are calculated to be 173-253 M(-1), while the optimum cyclodextrin concentrations were estimated to be 4.1-7.6 mM. PMID:25059186

Tang, Jian; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Yiying; Zhou, Jie; Tang, Weihua

2014-10-01

390

PHOTOLYSIS OF COPPER(II)-AMINO ACID COMPLEXES IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of the photolysis of Cu2+-amino acid complexes were investigated under sunlight or monochromatic radiation. nder sunlight (latitude 40 degrees N) in the absence of dioxygen, the mean half-lives estimated for the photoreduction of the bis-Cu2+ complexes (CuL2) at pH 8.0 a...

391

Release of amino acids by zinc in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Zinc exists in the synaptic vesicles of hippocampal mossy fibers in high concentrations. On the basis of inhibitory zinc action against glutamate release in the hippocampus, the role of zinc in release of several amino acids were studied in rat hippocampus by using in vivo microdialysis. When the hippocampal CA3 region was perfused with 10 microM ZnCl(2), the concentrations of glutamine, serine, arginine, aspartate, and glycine in the perfusate were significantly increased, whereas the concentrations of amino acids except for glycine were not increased by perfusion with 30 microM ZnCl(2). Chelation of endogenous zinc with 50 microM CaEDTA significantly decreased the concentrations of amino acids in the perfusate except for glycine. In the CA1 region, on the other hand, the concentrations of these five amino acids were not increased by perfusion with 10 microM ZnCl(2) and the concentrations of glutamine and glycine were decreased significantly. The present study suggests that zinc enhances release of glutamine, serine, arginine, and aspartate in the CA3 region and attenuates release of glutamine and glycine in the CA1 region. Zinc seems to modulate glutamatergic synapses multifunctionally in the hippocampus, because glutamine, serine, aspartate, and glycine are involved in synaptic neurotransmission. PMID:15145144

Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Seki, Yumiko; Nakajima, Satoko; Oku, Naoto

2004-04-30

392

Efficient Synthesis of Enantiopure -Amino--Keto Acids from  

E-print Network

natural products, including bestatin, cryptophycin, and taxol. In addition, many -amino acids unique properties relative to their natural R-peptide counterparts.3 The biologi- cal applications of these -peptides are numerous. For instance, certain -peptides have shown antimicrobial activ- ity;4 others can

Hergenrother, Paul J.

393

Amino acid encoding schemes for machine learning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the efficiency of a number of commonly used amino acid encodings by using artificial neural networks and substitution scoring matrices. An important step in many machine learning techniques applied in computational biology is encoding the symbolic data of protein sequences reasonably efficient in numeric vector representations. This encoding can be achieved by either considering the

Masood Zamani; Stefan C. Kremer

2011-01-01

394

Amino acids in health and disease: New perspectives  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 33 selections. Some of the titles are: Regulation of Adrenal Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression During Cold Stress; The Molecular Genetics of Phenylketonuria; Prospects for Somatic Gene Therapy of Phenylketonuria; Behavioral Effects of Sugar; Effects of Tyrosine and Tryptophan on Blood Pressure in the Rat; and The Enzymology of the Aromatic Amino Acid Hydroxylases.

Kaufman, S.

1987-01-01

395

Intrinsic backbone preferences are fully present in blocked amino acids  

PubMed Central

The preferences of amino acid residues for ?,? backbone angles vary strikingly among the amino acids, as shown by the backbone angle ? found from the 3J(H?,HN) coupling constant for short peptides in water. New data for the 3J(H?,HN) values of blocked amino acids (dipeptides) are given here. Dipeptides exhibit the full range of coupling constants shown by longer peptides such as GGXGG and dipeptides present the simplest system for analyzing backbone preferences. The dipeptide coupling constants are surprisingly close to values computed from the coil library (conformations of residues not in helices and not in sheets). Published coupling constants for GGXGG peptides agree closely with dipeptide values for all nonpolar residues and for some polar residues but not for X = D, N, T, and Y, which are probably affected by polar side chain–backbone interactions in GGXGG peptides. Thus, intrinsic backbone preferences are already determined at the dipeptide level and remain almost unchanged in GGXGG peptides and are strikingly similar in the coil library of conformations from protein structures. The simplest explanation for the backbone preferences is that backbone conformations are strongly affected by electrostatic dipole–dipole interactions in the peptide backbone and by screening of these interactions with water, which depends on nearby side chains. Strong backbone electrostatic interactions occur in dipeptides. This is shown by calculations both of backbone electrostatic energy for different conformers of the alanine dipeptide in the gas phase and by electrostatic solvation free energies of amino acid dipeptides. PMID:16423894

Avbelj, Franc; Grdadolnik, Simona Golic; Grdadolnik, Joze; Baldwin, Robert L.

2006-01-01

396

DEGRADATION OF AMINO ACIDS BY PURE CULTURES OF RUMEN BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Amino Acid (AA) degradation profiles of five major genera of rumen bacteria were determined using physiological levels of AA under in vitro conditions. The results indicated that (1) not all AA are degraded by all strains of rumen bacteria and (2) degradation occurs at different rates. The genera Megaspbaera, Eubacterium and Streptococcus isolate 19D degraded all 14 AA tested.

Curtis Scheifinger; Neville Russell; William Chalupa

397

Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

2001-01-01

398

Pyrazinamide Effects on Cartilage Type II Collagen Amino Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Current therapeutic regimens with first-line antitubercular agents are associated to a high rate of adverse effects which could cause pronounced changes in collagen's contents and structure. Investigation of these changes is very important for optimization of antitubercular therapy and minimization of treatment-caused harm. The aim of present paper was to investigate potential effect of pyrazinamide on male rats' cartilage type II collagen amino acid composition. Materials and Methods. Wistar albino male rats (160–200?g?b.w.) were divided into three groups: I—received pyrazinamide per os at a dose of 1000?mg/kg?b.w./day; II—at a dose of 2000?mg/kg?b.w./day, in both groups it was given for 60 days; III—control. After 60 days of the experiment, rats of the experimental (groups I and II) and control groups were sacrificed and the amino acids contents of male rat cartilage type II collagens were determined using amino acid analyzer. Results and Discussion. The study of pyrazinamide effects (administered in different doses) on rat cartilage type II collagen amino acid contents demonstrated presence of dose-dependent pyrazinamide-mediated quantitative and qualitative changes in these rat extracellular matrix proteins in comparison with control. PMID:22611417

Bondarenko, Larysa B.; Kovalenko, Valentina M.

2012-01-01

399

Proteomic Signatures: Amino Acid and Oligopeptide Compositions Differentiate Among Phyla  

E-print Network

Proteomic Signatures: Amino Acid and Oligopeptide Compositions Differentiate Among Phyla Itsik Pe of single- residue and oligopeptide compositions of the corre- sponding proteomes. We have used principal even extend to subsets of the entire proteome, such as proteins pertaining to individual yeast chro

Sussman, Joel L.

400

Original article Proximate and amino acid composition of seeds of  

E-print Network

to be very similar to that of Faba bean seeds. The crude protein content (31.3% dry matter, DM) of CE shouldOriginal article Proximate and amino acid composition of seeds of Canavalia ensiformis le 10 septembre 1989) Summary — A proximate analysis of Canavalia ensiformis seeds (CE) appears

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

New insight of amino acid-based dialysis solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Daily losses of proteins and amino acids (AAs) into dialysate contribute to this problem. Previous metabolic balance study demonstrated that treatment with 1.1% AA-based dialysis solution is safe and may improve protein malnutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients ingesting low protein

M S Park; S R Choi; Y S Song; S Y Yoon; S Y Lee; D S Han

2006-01-01

402

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.  

PubMed

Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. PMID:24927904

Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

2015-01-01

403

Gamma-radiation-induced interactions between amino acids and glucagon  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of glucagon and phenylalanine mediated by the OH. radical causes formation of higher molecular weight products of glucagon and phenylalnine, loss of amino acid residues in glucagon, and formation of adducts of glucagon and phenylalanine. The relative yields of these products depend upon the molar ratio of phenylalanine to glucagon in solution. At low ratios, glucagon aggregation and loss of amino acid residues predominate; at high ratios, the formation of phenylalanine dimers (and possible trimers and tetramers) predominates. The formation of adducts reaches a maximum at a phenylalanine:glucagon molar ratio of 3-4, and then decreases gradually, as the molar ratio increases, but is still discernible even at high molar ratios. Mechanisms for the formation of adducts are suggested. The influence of the primary aqueous radical intermediates, OH., H., and e/sup -//sub aq/, on adduct formation has been evaluated for several different amino acids by irradiating in the presence of specific radical scavengers. For the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine), OH. is considerably more effective than e/sup -//sub aq/ for mediating adduct formation, whereas for histidine and methionine, these primary radicals are equally effective.

Mee, L.K. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Kim, H.J.; Adelstein, S.J.; Taub, I.A.

1984-01-01

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The Application of Electrodialysis to Desalting an Amino Acid Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main difficulties in preparing pharmaceutical products is isolating them from aqueous solutions of high salt concentration, as a high purity must be obtained. Several methods that employ organic solvents are normally used. In this paper, a novel method, electrodialysis, is presented together with its application to the desalting of an industrial effluent comprising an amino acid (p-hydroxyphenylglycine) with a high salt content (ammonium sulfate and sodium dihydrogenphosphate). It was possible to remove more than 70% of the initial salt content. From this solution with a low salt content, it is possible to isolate the amino acid with a higher purity. This experiment will enable the student to gain a useful knowledge of this technique and to work with typical figures of merit of electrodialysis such as current efficiency, electrical energy consumption, production of the process, removal of salt, and loss of amino acid. In addition the student learns the use of chromatographic techniques applied to the analysis of amino acids (HPLC) and salts (IC).

García-García, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente; González-García, José; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; Bonete, Pedro; Inglés, Marina

2000-11-01

405

Individual response of growing pigs to sulphur amino acid intake.  

PubMed

Two N balance experiments were conducted to study the individual response of growing pigs to limiting amino acid (AA) intake. Series of fifteen diets with increasing concentration of sulphur amino acids (SAA, Expt 1) or methionine in the presence of excess cystine (Expt 2) were fed sequentially to nine pigs during a 15-day experimental period. The concentration of the AA under test ranged from 50% to 140% of the requirement while other essential AA were given in a 25% excess relative to the limiting AA. N retention was related to the limiting AA intake using rectilinear and curvilinear models. In Expt 1, the quadratic-plateau model fitted the individual data significantly better (p = 0.01) than the linear-plateau model. No difference was found between the two models in Expt. 2, presumably due to the sparing effect of excess cystine on methionine utilization. Exponential, saturation kinetics or four-parameter logistic models fitted to data for all pigs showed that their goodness of fit was similar to those of quadratic-plateau or linear-plateau models. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between individual plateau values for N retention within each experiment while the slopes of the regression lines did not significantly differ either in Expt 1 (p = 0.07) or Expt 2 (p = 0.45). There was a positive correlation between the slope and plateau values of the linear-plateau model in Expt 1 (r = 0.74, p = 0.02) but no significant correlation was found in Expt 2 (r = -0.48, p = 0.13). Marginal efficiencies of SAA and methionine utilization derived from the linear-plateau model were 0.43 and 0.65 respectively. Based on linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models, daily requirements of SAA and methionine for a 50 kg pig were estimated to be 13.0 and 5.9 g and 14.3 and 6.1 g respectively. PMID:18184376

Heger, J; Krízová, L; Sustala, M; Nitrayová, S; Patrás, P; Hampel, D

2008-02-01

406