Sample records for amino acid requirements

  1. AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN HUMAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Tankersley, Robert W.

    1964-01-01

    Tankersley, Robert W., Jr. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond). Amino acid requirements of herpes simplex virus in human cells. J. Bacteriol. 87:609–613. 1964.—Progressive infection of human cells minimally infected with herpes simplex virus requires 11 of the amino acids of Eagle's medium, and glutamine. Lysine is not required, but rather exerts a partially inhibitory effect upon virus multiplication. Infected cells deprived of arginine support neither cytopathogenic effects nor virus replication; when arginine is replaced, a prompt and extensive infection follows. The effect of nutritional deficiencies on virus infection is discussed. PMID:14127578

  2. Protein and amino acid requirements in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AV Kurpad; M Vaz

    2000-01-01

    Estimates of protein and amino acid requirements in this paper are proposed for healthy elderly people. The estimate of protein requirement was based on nitrogen (N) balance, as well as functional indicators such as immune function or muscle strength. Data suggest that the protein requirement for nitrogen equilibrium in the elderly, is greater than 0.8 gm\\/kg body weight\\/day. There do

  3. Plasma Amino Acid Response Curve and Amino Acid Requirements in Young Men: Valine and Lysine l\\/2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VERNON R. YOUNG; KRAISED TONTISIRIN; IMRAN Ã-ZALP

    A total of 14 young men were studied to determine the relation ships between the concentration of free valine or lysine in blood plasma, and the dietary intake and daily requirement for each of these amino acids. The diet, containing an L-amino acid mixture, which was patterned as in egg protein, supplied nitrogen equivalent to about 0.5 g egg protein

  4. Studies on the amino acid requirements of horses

    E-print Network

    Word, James Dewey

    1968-01-01

    , Best t al. (1952) showed tha' in n!cn ther, !ias a si?i!if cant diurnal cycle ir he ind! . dial. Fish? (1965) iias connie'cd that crea . I nine excre. in??!as !!oi. sonata;t i n 11 rats and varies with protein intake and amino acid intake. Most...

  5. Amino acid nutrition of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus): development of an improved test diet and determination of the total sulfur amino acid requirement 

    E-print Network

    Moon, Hae Young

    1990-01-01

    AMINO ACID NUTRITION OF THE RED DRUM (SCIAENOPS OCELLATUS): DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TEST DIET AND DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL SULFUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENT A Thesis by HAE YOUNG MOON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences AMINO ACID NUTRITION OF THE RED DRUM (SCIAENOPS OCELLATUS): DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TEST DIET...

  6. Extreme genetic code optimality from a molecular dynamics calculation of amino acid polar requirement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Butler; Nigel Goldenfeld; Damien Mathew; Zaida Luthey-Schulten

    2009-01-01

    A molecular dynamics calculation of the amino acid polar requirement is used to score the canonical genetic code. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this computational polar requirement has been optimized by the canonical genetic code, an order of magnitude more than any previously known measure, effectively ruling out a vertical evolution dynamics. The sensitivity of the optimization to the precise

  7. Studies on the amino acid requirements of horses 

    E-print Network

    Word, James Dewey

    1968-01-01

    . l her cxLI Bc? was Itn&i i'i r: gr!8 1 &lc lr& tlir';c. '1 . ?Lid I'ac& c&il, Ti'ie i:a L . or I. 's, . ' v i appal \\ i&'L!)' 1 a, Le + '&r ! !ie p !! .teri rati n, bu' rate of. 6 in s:iri ef f icieiir y of fe c utiliza- Lier& were r&nt sf ic ted... of csscnti . 1 to no zsscnt"'al a. -ii no acids iri ''. c plat. . . . a d c oi sed arid this . :. s assoc aced w th a bod!; ni trogcn loss (Si nd= ~ id e" a!. , 1966), '1'his work sup pi r s cbc fino!, . s of Sc cds, ' ' c (]Sri. '. ) iihn frundl a siml...

  8. Surgical Stress Resistance Induced by Single Amino Acid Deprivation Requires Gcn2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei; Robertson, Lauren; Gallinetti, Jordan; Mejia, Pedro; Vose, Sarah; Charlip, Allison; Chu, Timothy; Mitchell, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction, or reduced food intake without malnutrition, increases life span, health span, and acute stress resistance in model organisms from yeast to nonhuman primates. Although dietary restriction is beneficial for human health, this treatment is not widely used in the clinic. Here, we show that short-term, ad libitum feeding of diets lacking essential nutrients increased resistance to surgical stress in a mouse model of ischemia reperfusion injury. Dietary preconditioning by 6 to 14 days of total protein deprivation, or removal of the single essential amino acid tryptophan, protected against renal and hepatic ischemic injury, resulting in reduced inflammation and preserved organ function. Pharmacological treatment with halofuginone, which activated the amino acid starvation response within 3 days by mimicking proline deprivation, was also beneficial. Both dietary and pharmacological interventions required the amino acid sensor and eIF2? (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2?) kinase Gcn2 (general control nonderepressible 2), implicating the amino acid starvation response and translational control in stress protection. Thus, short-term dietary or pharmacological interventions that modulate amino acid sensing can confer stress resistance in models of surgical ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22277968

  9. Rumen-protected amino acids for dairy cattle: Progress towards determining lysine and methionine requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles G. Schwab

    1996-01-01

    Progress has been made in determining lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) requirements of the lactating dairy cow. Dose-response relationships for both amino acids (AA) have been obtained by increasing postruminal supplies of Lys and Met in graded fashion via abomasal infusion while production responses and AA flows to the duodenum are measured and by an indirect dose-response approach. From the

  10. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  11. Practical starter pig amino acid requirements in relation to immunity, gut health and growth performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Immune system activation begins a host of physiological responses. Infectious agents are recognized by monocytes and macrophages which in turn stimulate cytokine production. It is the hormone-like factors called cytokines that orchestrate the immune response. The classic responses observed with immune system activation and cytokine production include: anorexia, fever, lethargy, recruitment of other immune cells, and phagocytosis. While production of immune system components is known to require some amino acids, increases in amino acid requirements are more than offset by the associated decrease in protein accretion and increased muscle protein degradation that also accompanies immune system activation. However, the biggest impact of cytokine production is a decrease in feed intake. Therefore, as feed intake decreases, the energy needed to drive protein synthesis is also decreased. This suggests that diets should still be formulated on a similar calorie:lysine ratio as those formulated for non-immune challenged pigs. The evidence is sparse or equivocal for increasing nutrient requirements during an immune challenge. Nutritionists and swine producers should resist the pressure to alter the diet, limit feed, or add expensive feed additives during an immune challenge. While immune stimulation does not necessitate changes in diet formulation, when pigs are challenged with non-pathogenic diarrhea there are potential advantages on gut health with the increased use of crystalline amino acids rather than intact protein sources (i.e., soybean meal). This is because reducing crude protein decreases the quantity of fermentable protein entering the large intestine, which lowers post weaning diarrhea. It also lowers the requirement for expensive specialty protein sources or other protein sources such as soybean meal that present immunological challenges to the gut. The objective of this review is two-fold. The first is to discuss immunity by nutrition interactions, or lack thereof, and secondly, to review amino acid requirement estimates for nursery pigs. PMID:24533455

  12. Anaerobic Amino Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reggiani; A. Bertani

    2003-01-01

    Anoxic stress induces a strong change in sugar, protein, and amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Sugars are rapidly consumed through the anaerobic glycolysis to sustain energy production. Protein degradation under anoxia is a mechanism to release free amino acids contributing in this way to maintaining the osmotic potential of the tissue under stress. Among free amino acids, a particular

  13. Structural requirements of amino acids and related compounds for stimulation of receptors in crayfish walking leg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanns Hatt

    1984-01-01

    Previous recordings from single afferent neurons in the walking legs of the crayfish demonstrated the presence of amino acid sensitivity; several characteristics of this extracellularly recorded impulse discharge, such as responses to mixtures of effective amino acids and cross adaptation experiments, indicate that all such units represent a single type of receptor. Here the effectiveness of more than 100 systematically

  14. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  15. A conserved GTPase-containing complex is required for intracellular sorting of the general amino-acid permease in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minggeng Gao; Chris A. Kaiser

    2006-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae general amino-acid permease, Gap1p, is a model for membrane proteins that are regulated by intracellular sorting according to physiological cues set by the availability of amino acids. Here, we report the identification of a conserved sorting complex for Gap1p, named the GTPase-containing complex for Gap1p sorting in the endosomes (GSE complex), which is required for proper sorting

  16. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  17. Fed levels of amino acids are required for the somatotropin-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fiona A.; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S.; Gazzaneo, Maria C.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were maintained at fasting levels. This study aimed to determine whether the pST-induced increase in insulin promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis when amino acids are provided at fed levels and whether the response is associated with enhanced translation initiation factor activation. Growing pigs were treated with pST (0 or 180 ?g·kg?1·day?1) for 7 days, and then pancreatic-glucose-amino acid clamps were performed. Amino acids were raised to fed levels in the presence of either fasted or fed insulin concentrations; glucose was maintained at fasting throughout. Muscle protein synthesis was increased by pST treatment and by amino acids (with or without insulin) (P < 0.001). In pST-treated pigs, fed, but not fasting, amino acid concentrations further increased muscle protein synthesis rates irrespective of insulin level (P < 0.02). Fed amino acids, with or without raised insulin concentrations, increased the phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), decreased inactive 4EBP1·eIF4E complex association, and increased active eIF4E·eIF4G complex formation (P < 0.02). pST treatment did not alter translation initiation factor activation. We conclude that the pST-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis requires fed amino acid levels, but not fed insulin levels. However, under the current conditions, the response to amino acids is not mediated by the activation of translation initiation factors that regulate mRNA binding to the ribosomal complex. PMID:18682537

  18. Determination of the amino acid requirements for a protein hinge in triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J.; Sampson, N. S.

    1998-01-01

    We have determined the sequence requirements for a protein hinge in triosephosphate isomerase. The codons encoding the hinge at the C-terminus of the active-site lid of triosephosphate isomerase were replaced with a genetic library of all possible 8,000 amino acid combinations. The most active of these 8,000 mutants were selected using in vivo complementation of a triosephosphate isomerase deficient strain of E. coli, DF502. Approximately 3% of the mutants complement DF502 with an activity that is above 70% of wild-type activity. The sequences of these hinge mutants reveal that the solutions to the hinge flexibility problem are varied. Moreover, these preferences are sequence dependent; that is, certain pairs occur frequently. They fall into six families of similar sequences. In addition to the hinge sequences expected on the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we selected three new families of 3-amino-acid hinges: X(A/S)(L/K/M), X(aromatic/beta-branched)(L/K), and XP(S/N). The absence of these hinge families in the more than 60 known species of triosephosphate isomerase suggests that during evolution, not all of sequence space is sampled, perhaps because there is no neutral mutation pathway to access the other families. PMID:9684881

  19. Kidney amino acid transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

  20. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  1. Amino Acid Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a Permease-Like Sensor of External Amino Acids and F-Box Protein Grr1p Are Required for Transcriptional Induction of the AGP1 Gene, Which Encodes a Broad-Specificity Amino Acid Permease

    PubMed Central

    Iraqui, Ismaïl; Vissers, Stephan; Bernard, Florent; de Craene, Johan-Owen; Boles, Eckhard; Urrestarazu, Antonio; André, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    The SSY1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a member of a large family of amino acid permeases. Compared to the 17 other proteins of this family, however, Ssy1p displays unusual structural features reminiscent of those distinguishing the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors from the other proteins of the sugar transporter family. We show here that SSY1 is required for transcriptional induction, in response to multiple amino acids, of the AGP1 gene encoding a low-affinity, broad-specificity amino acid permease. Total noninduction of the AGP1 gene in the ssy1? mutant is not due to impaired incorporation of inducing amino acids. Conversely, AGP1 is strongly induced by tryptophan in a mutant strain largely deficient in tryptophan uptake, but it remains unexpressed in a mutant that accumulates high levels of tryptophan endogenously. Induction of AGP1 requires Uga35p(Dal81p/DurLp), a transcription factor of the Cys6-Zn2 family previously shown to participate in several nitrogen induction pathways. Induction of AGP1 by amino acids also requires Grr1p, the F-box protein of the SCFGrr1 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex also required for transduction of the glucose signal generated by the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors. Systematic analysis of amino acid permease genes showed that Ssy1p is involved in transcriptional induction of at least five genes in addition to AGP1. Our results show that the amino acid permease homologue Ssy1p is a sensor of external amino acids, coupling availability of amino acids to transcriptional events. The essential role of Grr1p in this amino acid signaling pathway lends further support to the hypothesis that this protein participates in integrating nutrient availability with the cell cycle. PMID:9891035

  2. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  3. Protein turnover, amino acid requirements and recommendations for athletes and active populations

    PubMed Central

    Poortmans, J.R.; Carpentier, A.; Pereira-Lancha, L.O.; Lancha, A.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers (13C-lysine, 15N-glycine, 2H5-phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2?g·kg?1·day?1 compared to 0.8?g·kg?1·day?1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20?g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30?g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1?h. PMID:22666780

  4. Piezoelectricity in protein amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    The piezoelectric activity of protein amino acids and their compounds has been measured using the pulse method at a frequency of 10 MHz. It has been established that, at room temperature, the piezoelectric effect is not observed in ?-glycine (achiral amino acid) and protein amino acids of the L modification, namely, methionine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. An assumption has been made that this phenomenon is associated with the enhanced damping of elastic vibrations excited in samples due to the piezoelectric effect.

  5. Growth requirements of hyperthermophilic sulfur-dependent heterotrophic archaea isolated from a shallow submarine geothermal system with reference to their essential amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hoaki, T; Nishijima, M; Kato, M; Adachi, K; Mizobuchi, S; Hanzawa, N; Maruyama, T

    1994-01-01

    Three hyperthermophilic sulfur-dependent heterotrophs were isolated from a shallow submarine hydrothermal system at an inlet of Kodakara-jima island, Kagoshima, Japan. The isolates grew at 60 to 97 degrees C, with the optimum temperatures at 85 to 90 degrees C. Sensitivity to rifampin and the existence of ether lipids indicated that the isolates are hyperthermophilic archaea. Partial sequencing of the genes coding for 16S rRNA showed that the three isolates are closely related to the genus Thermococcus. They grew on proteinaceous mixtures, such as yeast extract, Casamino Acids, and purified proteins (e.g., casein and gelatin), but not on carbohydrates or organic acids as sole carbon and energy sources. Nine amino acids were essential for growth of isolate KS-1 (Thr, Leu, Ile, Val, Met, Phe, His, Tyr, and Arg). Isolate KS-2 required Lys in addition to the nine amino acids, and KS-8 required Lys instead of Tyr. In comparative studies, it was shown that Thermococcus celer DSM 2476 required 10 amino acids (Thr, Leu, Ile, Val, Met, Phe, Tyr, Trp, Lys, and Arg) while Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 required only Ile and Val. The hyperthermophilic fermentative eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana DSM 4359 did not require any amino acids for growth. Images PMID:8085828

  6. Current Status of Amino Acid Requirement Models for Lactating Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Hanigan; J. Cyriac

    2006-01-01

    The lactating dairy cow is fairly inefficient at converting dietary nitrogen to milk protein. When cows are fed to National Research Council (NRC, 2001) requirements, they convert approximately 25% of dietary nitrogen to milk protein. There may be some inherent limitations to the efficiency that can be achieved by a ruminant; however, examination of the NRC model with respect to

  7. Fed levels of amino acids are required for the somatotropin-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were...

  8. The Lysine and Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements of Six- to Twelve-kilogram Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the Lys and TSAA requirement of 6- to 12-kg pigs. There were five replications of five or six pigs per pen (n = 150, 150, and 168 with initial BW of 6.3, 6.7, and 6.4 kg and final BW of 10.8, 11.7, and 11.2 kg for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). ...

  9. Transport and metabolism of amino acids in placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. H. Regnault; Barbra de Vrijer; Frederick C. Battaglia

    2002-01-01

    In all mammalian species, the 20 amino acids of the genetic code are required for net protein accretion. The nutritional supply\\u000a of amino acids for growth is defined as the net umbilical uptake of amino acids, representing the net transfer from maternal\\u000a circulation, through the placenta and then to the fetus, of essential and non-essential amino acids. In considering the

  10. Amino Acids and the Mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola King

    \\u000a This chapter describes some of the important physiological functions of amino acids in the mitochondria and the alterations\\u000a caused by specific pathologies. To some extent all of the featured items are dependent upon the movement of amino acids across\\u000a the highly selective permeability barrier that is the inner mitochondrial membrane. The performance of this transport by specific\\u000a carriers is the

  11. BranchedChain Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Pátek

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are synthesized by bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and plants, but are essential for vertebrates including humans, who must receive them from their\\u000a diet. The interest to construct overproducing industrial strains therefore stems from the need to supplement\\u000a the food or feed with these amino acids to use them in medical treatment and as

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    This study presents further evidence that amino acids can be synthesized rapidly in hydrothermal solutions from reactants that may have been present in primitive environments. Aqueous NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3] solutions were reacted with C[sub 2]H[sub 2], H[sub 2], and O[sub 2] (formed in situ from CaC[sub 2], Ca, and H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) at 200-275[degrees]C over 0.2-2 h periods to synthesize several amino acids and abundant amines. These amino acid and amine producing reactions were not observed to occur below 150[degrees]C. Amino acids and amines also were synthesized at 210[degrees]C from solutions of NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, NaCN, and H[sub 2]. When NH[sub 4]OH was replaced by NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3], the syntheses predominantly confirmed the recent results of Hennet et al. (1992). Additionally, amino acids and amines were observed to form by reactions among NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, and H[sub 2] at hydrothermal conditions, essentially confirming the results of Fox and Windsor (1970). Inclusion of both carbonate and O[sub 2] in these latter solutions greatly enhanced the production rate of amino acids. The amines synthesized hydrothermally could be significant if they are precursors in the amino acid syntheses either at hydrothermal or later at lower temperatures. These observations provide additional input to the current questions of synthesis, stability, and decomposition of amino acids at hydrothermal conditions, and their possible relevance to the origin of life.

  13. Amino acids and cell regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, R. P.; Goldstein, L.

    1979-01-01

    Free amino play an important role in regulating cell volume in fishes. Four tissues/cells (skeletal muscle, RBC, brain, and myocardium) of the little skate, Raja erinacea, were selected for detailed study because of their special importance or unique advantage as experimental models. Three particular amino acids, beta-alanine, taurine, and sarcosine play a predominant role in all four tissues. As in higher vertebrates, amino acid uptake in skate brain, heart, and RBC is mediated via a Na+-dependent process. Amino acids leave the skate brain rapidly in response to a sudden decrease in plasma osmolality and/or to a simultaneous drop in extracellular Na+ concentration. However, although amino acids are important for volume regulation in normal brain cells, they do not appear to be likely candidates for the unidentified "idiogenic" osmolytes in mammalian brain cells. The high concentration of taurine in skate myocardium is of special interest because of the special role of this amino acid in myocardial contractility. Thus, unlike beta-alanine and sarcosine, taurine may play a dual role in regulating both cell volume and contractility of myocardial cells. The isolated skate atrium is well suited for in vitro studies of these two processes. PMID:395764

  14. The Cpc1 regulator of the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis is required for pathogenicity of the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum.

    PubMed

    Timpner, Christian; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Tran, Van Tuan; Braus, Gerhard H

    2013-11-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum is a causal agent of early senescence and ripening in cruciferous crops like Brassica napus. Verticillium wilts have become serious agricultural threats in recent decades. Verticillium species infect host plants through the roots and colonize xylem vessels of the host plant. The xylem fluid provides an environment with limited carbon sources and unbalanced amino acid supply, which requires V. longisporum to induce the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis. RNA-mediated gene silencing reduced the expression of the two CPC1 isogenes (VlCPC1-1 and VlCPC1-2) of the allodiploid V. longisporum up to 85%. VlCPC1 encodes the conserved transcription factor of the cross-pathway control. The silenced mutants were highly sensitive to amino-acid starvation, and the infected plants showed significantly fewer symptoms such as stunting or early senescence in oilseed rape plant infection assays. Consistently, deletion of single CPC1 of the haploid V. dahliae resulted in strains that are sensitive to amino-acid starvation and cause strongly reduced symptoms in the plant-host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The allodiploid V. longisporum and the haploid V. dahliae are the first phytopathogenic fungi that were shown to require CPC1 for infection and colonization of their respective host plants, oilseed rape and tomato. PMID:23883358

  15. [A study of adequate energy, amino acid, and carbohydrate requirements in postoperative total parenteral nutrition--the effect of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) and carbohydrate mixture of glucose, fructose, and xylitol (GFX)].

    PubMed

    Hayashida, K; Mashima, Y; Tashiro, T; Yamamori, H; Okui, K

    1989-03-01

    This study was performed to elucidate adequate energy and amino acid (AA) requirements for TPN patients after abdominal surgery. The effects of AA formula, rich in BCAA (30% BCAA), as a nitrogen source and the carbohydrate mixture of glucose, fructose, and xylitol (GFX = 4:2:1), on nitrogen sparing were also studied. Forty-nine patients having undergone major abdominal surgeries, were divided into 5 groups. The regimens were as follows: G1: 40kcal/kg, standard amino acid (21% BCAA) 1.5g/kg. day, G2: 40kcal/kg, 30% BCAA 1.5g/kg.day, G3: 30kcal/kg, 21% BCAA 1.5g/kg.day, G4: 30kcal/kg, 30% BCAA 1.5g/kg.day, G5: 40kcal/kg, 21% BCAA 1.5g/kg.day. Glucose was the sole carbohydrate energy source in G1 through G4. In G5, GFX was used. (1) Accumulated nitrogen balances during the week immediately after operation were significantly higher in G1 and G2 where higher energy intakes were administered than G3 and G4. (2) The nitrogen balances during the 2nd or 3rd postoperative days in G2 or G4, using 30% BCAA as a nitrogen source, were higher than in G1 or G3 respectively. (3) The changes in serum rapid turnover proteins were not significantly different among these groups. (4) The accumulated nitrogen balance in G5 tended to be higher than that of G1. These results indicate that BCAA rich amino acid formula will induce a more favorable nitrogen sparing effect than a conventional AA formula on TPN patients under surgical stress. PMID:2505047

  16. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  17. Role of amino acid transporters in amino acid sensing1234

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) transporters may act as sensors, as well as carriers, of tissue nutrient supplies. This review considers recent advances in our understanding of the AA-sensing functions of AA transporters in both epithelial and nonepithelial cells. These transporters mediate AA exchanges between extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments, delivering substrates to intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters on endosomal (eg, lysosomal) membranes may themselves function as intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters at the cell surface, particularly those for large neutral AAs such as leucine, interact functionally with intracellular nutrient-signaling pathways that regulate metabolism: for example, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which promotes cell growth, and the general control non-derepressible (GCN) pathway, which is activated by AA starvation. Under some circumstances, upregulation of AA transporter expression [notably a leucine transporter, solute carrier 7A5 (SLC7A5)] is required to initiate AA-dependent activation of the mTORC1 pathway. Certain AA transporters may have dual receptor-transporter functions, operating as “transceptors” to sense extracellular (or intracellular) AA availability upstream of intracellular signaling pathways. New opportunities for nutritional therapy may include targeting of AA transporters (or mechanisms that upregulate their expression) to promote protein-anabolic signals for retention or recovery of lean tissue mass. PMID:24284439

  18. The cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus motif of the influenza A virus M2 protein is not required for virus replication but contributes to virulence

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Shaun M; Wu, Wai-Hong; Lalime, Erin N

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus particles assemble and bud from plasma membrane domains enriched with the viral glycoproteins but only a small fraction of the total M2 protein is incorporated into virus particles when compared to the other viral glycoproteins. A membrane proximal cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif was previously identified in M2 and suggested to play a role in protein function. We investigated the importance of the CRAC motif on virus replication by generating recombinant proteins and viruses containing amino acid substitutions in this motif. Alteration or completion of the M2 CRAC motif in two different virus strains caused no changes in virus replication in vitro. Viruses lacking an M2 CRAC motif had decreased morbidity and mortality in the mouse model of infection, suggesting that this motif is a virulence determinant which may facilitate virus replication in vivo but is not required for basic virus replication in tissue culture. PMID:20655564

  19. N-Benzoyl amino acids as LFA-1\\/ICAM inhibitors 1: amino acid structure–activity relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Burdick; Ken Paris; Kenneth Weese; Mark Stanley; Maureen Beresini; Kevin Clark; Robert S. McDowell; James C. Marsters; Thomas R. Gadek

    2003-01-01

    The association of ICAM-1 with LFA-1 plays a critical role in several autoimmune diseases. N-2-Bromobenzoyl l-tryptophan, compound 1, was identified as an inhibitor to the formation of the LFA-1\\/ICAM complex. The SAR of the amino acid indicates that the carboxylic acid is required for inhibition and that l-histidine is the most favored amino acid.

  20. Anticonvulsant activity of cyclopentano amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Zand; Ivan Izquierdo

    1980-01-01

    The hypothesis that certain amino acid analogues possessing a five-membered ring structure or amino acid analogues that can be viewed as fragments derived from such a ring would have anticonvulsant activity was proposed and tested. The compounds 1-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid, 1-amino-3-methylcyclopentane carboxylic acid, 3-aminotetrahydrothiophene carboxylic acid, and a-aminoisobutyric acid were found to protect rats against seizures in the maximal electroshock

  1. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs...and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

  2. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs...and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

  3. Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

  4. Amino acids and gut function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Wang; S. Y. Qiao; D. F. Li

    2009-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for the absorption of nutrients, but also interacts with a complex external milieu. Most\\u000a foreign antigens enter the body through the digestive tract. Dietary amino acids are major fuels for the small intestinal\\u000a mucosa, as well as important substrates for syntheses of intestinal proteins, nitric oxide, polyamines, and other products\\u000a with enormous biological importance.

  5. Endothelial cell spreading on fibrin requires fibrinopeptide B cleavage and amino acid residues 15-42 of the beta chain.

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, L A; Sporn, L A; Francis, C W

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion and spreading of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells on fibrin surfaces of varying structure were characterized to understand better the interactions occurring between endothelium and fibrin at sites of vascular injury. Fibrin prepared with reptilase, which cleaves only fibrinopeptide A from fibrinogen, and fibrin prepared with thrombin, which cleaves both fibrinopeptide A and fibrinopeptide B, equally supported endothelial cell adhesion. In contrast, only fibrin made with thrombin mediated endothelial cell spreading, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy of cells stained with rhodamine phalloidin to identify actin stress fibers or by scanning electron microscopy. Fibrin prepared with reptilase failed to support cell spreading. To further investigate the role of the amino terminus of the fibrin beta chain after fibrinopeptide B cleavage in promoting cell spreading, protease III from Crotalus atrox venom was used to specifically cleave the amino-terminal 42 residues of the fibrinogen B beta chain. After clotting with thrombin, this fibrin derivative lacking B beta 1-42 failed to support significant cell spreading. Spreading on fibrin was unaffected by depletion of Weibel-Palade bodies from endothelial cells, indicating that the spreading was independent of stimulated von Willebrand factor release. We conclude that endothelial cell spreading on fibrin requires fibrinopeptide B cleavage and involves residues 15-42 of the fibrin beta chain. Images PMID:1541676

  6. TyrR, the regulator of aromatic amino acid metabolism, is required for mice infection of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhongliang; Liu, Zizhong; He, Junming; Wang, Jing; Yan, Yanfeng; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Yujun; Bi, Yujing; Du, Zongmin; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu; Han, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, poses a serious health threat to rodents and human beings. TyrR is a transcriptional regulator (TyrR) that controls the metabolism of aromatic amino acids in Escherichia coli. In this paper, TyrR played an important role in Y. pestis virulence. Inactivation of tyrR did not seem to affect the in vitro growth of this organism, but resulted in at least 10,000-fold attenuation compared with the wild-type (WT) strain upon subcutaneous infection to mice. In addition, loads of tyrR mutant within mice livers and spleens significantly decreased compared with the WT strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that TyrR, directly or indirectly, regulated 29 genes encoded on Y. pestis chromosome or plasmids under in vitro growth condition. Similar to the regulatory function of this protein in E. coli, five aromatic-pathway genes (aroF-tyrA, aroP, aroL, and tyrP) were significantly reduced upon deletion of the tyrR gene. Two genes (glnL and glnG) that encode sensory histidine kinase and regulator in a two-component regulatory system involved in nitrogen assimilation were downregulated in the tyrR mutant. Several genes encoding type III secretion proteins were transcribed by 2.0-4.2-fold in a tyrR mutant relative to the WT strain. Interestingly, the acid-stressed genes, hdeB and hdeD, were downregulated, and such downregulation partly accounted for the decrease in tolerance of the tyrR mutant under acidic conditions. In conclusion, regulation of TyrR in Y. pestis is similar to, but distinct from, that in E. coli. TyrR is a metabolic virulence determinant in Y. pestis that is important for extracellular survival and/or proliferation. PMID:25729381

  7. Dietary peptides increase endogenous amino acid losses from the gut in adults1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J Moughan; Christine A Butts; Angela M Rowan; Amélie Deglaire

    Background:Accurateestimatesofendogenousilealtotalnitrogen and amino acid flows are necessary to ascertain true dietary amino acid digestibility coefficients and for the factorial estimation of di- etary amino acid requirements. Objective: The objective was to ascertain endogenous amino acid lossesfromthesmallbowelinhumansubjectsconsumingaprotein- free diet or a diet with enzyme-hydrolyzed casein (EHC; MW 5000) as the sole source of nitrogen. Design: The subjects were 8 men and

  8. Amino Acid Properties Conserved in Molecular Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicki, Witold R.; Mroczek, Teresa; Cudek, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts – one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications. PMID:24967708

  9. Molecular Diversity of Novel Amino Acid Based Dendrimers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer

    1997-01-01

    We have expanded the recently introduced methodology for the preparation of a novel amino acid based dendrimer in order to be able to synthesize a diversity of dendrimers. For this purpose different hydroxybenzoic acids and amino alcohols were used to prepare the required monomers, necessary for construction of the respective dendrimers. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Amino acid residues Leu135 and Tyr236 are required for RNA binding activity of CFIm25 in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos A; Soto-Sanchez, Jacqueline; Ramirez-Moreno, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2015-08-01

    Pre-mRNA 3' end processing in the nucleus is essential for mRNA stability, efficient nuclear transport, and translation in eukaryotic cells. In Human, the cleavage/polyadenylation machinery contains the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25), which specifically recognizes two UGUA elements and regulates the assembly of polyadenylation factors, poly(A) site selection and polyadenylation. In Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, EhCFIm25 has been reported as a RNA binding protein that interacts with the Poly(A) Polymerase. Here, we follow-up with the study of EhCFIm25 to characterize its interaction with RNA. Using in silico strategy, we identified Leu135 and Tyr236 in EhCFIm25 as conserved amino acids among CFIm25 homologues. We therefore generated mutant EhCFIm25 proteins to investigate the role of these residues for RNA interaction. Results showed that RNA binding activity was totally abrogated when Leu135 and Tyr236 were replaced with Ala residue, and Tyr236 was changed for Phe. In contrast, RNA binding activity was less affected when Leu135 was substituted by Thr. Our data revealed for the first time -until we know-the functional relevance of the conserved Leu135 and Tyr236 in EhCFIm25 for RNA binding activity. They also gave some insights about the possible chemical groups that could be interacting with the RNA molecule. PMID:25941172

  11. Sugar amino acids in designing new molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Srinivasu, Pothukanuri; Tapadar, Subhasish; Mohan, Bajjuri Krishna

    2005-03-01

    Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. This article describes some of our works on various sugar amino acids and many other related building blocks, like furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. used in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies. PMID:16133829

  12. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  13. Characterization of Amino Acid Efflux from Isolated Soybean Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Jacob; Schrader, Larry E.

    1984-01-01

    Cells from reproductive soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants were isolated using a mechanical-enzymic technique that produced a high yield of uniform, physiologically active cells. Cells were incubated in a pH 6.0 buffered solution and subjected to various treatments in order to determine the nature of net amino acid efflux. Total net amino acid (ninhydrinreactive substances) efflux was not affected by the following conditions: (a) darkness, (b) aeration, (c) K+ concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 millimolar and (d) pH 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. The Q10 for net amino acid efflux between 10°C and 30°C was 1.6. Thus, it seems that net amino acid efflux requires neither current photosynthetic energy nor a pH/ion concentration gradient. Amino acid analyses of the intra-and extracellular fractions over time showed that each amino acid was exported linearly for at least 210 minutes, but that export rate was not necessarily related to internal amino acid pools. Amino acids that were exported fastest were alanine, lysine, leucine, and glycine. Addition of the inhibitor p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonic acid, 3(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, or carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone increased the rate of total amino acid efflux but had specific effects on the efflux of certain amino acids. For example, p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonic acid greatly enhanced efflux of ?-aminobutyric acid, which is not normally exported rapidly even though a high concentration normally exists within cells. The data suggest that net amino acid efflux is a selective diffusional process. Because net efflux is the result of simultaneous efflux and influx, we propose that efflux is a facilitated diffusion process whereas influx involves energy-dependent carrier proteins. PMID:16663380

  14. Nonprotein Amino Acids from Spark Discharges and Their Comparison with the Murchison Meteorite Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, Yecheskel; Haverland, William J.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1972-01-01

    All the nonprotein amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite are products of the action of electric discharge on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia. These amino acids include ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, norvaline, isovaline, pipecolic acid, ?-alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, sarcosine, N-ethylglycine, and N-methylalanine. In addition, norleucine, alloisoleucine, N-propylglycine, N-isopropylglycine, N-methyl-?-alanine, N-ethyl-?-alanine ?,?-diaminopropionic acid, isoserine, ?,?-diaminobutyric acid, and ?-hydroxy-?-aminobutyric acid are produced by the electric discharge, but have not been found in the meteorite. PMID:16591973

  15. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Alexander, C. M. O. D.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    CR chondrites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites. Three CRs, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577, were analyzed for their amino acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET 92042 and GRA 95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 ppm to 249 ppm. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET 92042 and GRA 95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ?13C values ranging from +31.6‰ to +50.5‰. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin for these compounds. Compared to Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 and GRA 95229, the more aqueously altered GRO 95577 is depleted in amino acids. In both CRs and CMs, the absolute amino acid abundances appear to be related to the degree of aqueous alteration in their parent bodies. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine in the Antarctic CRs also appear to depend on the degree of aqueous alteration.

  16. Amino acids precursors in lunar finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

    1975-01-01

    The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

  17. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A.

    PubMed

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins. PMID:18421168

  18. Supernovae, neutrinos and the chirality of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Richard N; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the (14)N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

  19. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

  20. Grr1p is required for transcriptional induction of amino acid permease genes and proper transcriptional regulation of genes in carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Eckert-Boulet; Birgitte Regenberg; Jens Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    The F-box protein Grr1p is involved in cell cycle regulation, glucose repression and transcriptional induction of the amino acid permease (AAP) gene AGP1. We investigated the role of Grr1p in amino acid-mediated induction of AAP genes by performing batch cultivations with a wild-type strain and a grr1? strain and adding citrulline in the exponential phase. Whole-genome transcription analyses were performed

  1. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  2. Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a n...

  3. Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Alp Ikizler; Paul J Flakoll; Robert A Parker; Raymond M Hakim

    1994-01-01

    Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis. Protein and calorie malnutrition are prevalent in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity in this patient population, Concern has been raised that the open pore structure of high flux membranes may induce the loss of more amino acids (AA) compared to low flux membranes. To address

  4. Manure amino acid compounds and their bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids (AA) have long been known to be present in animal manure. Amino acid compounds are widely presumed to be the primary pool of organic nitrogen (N) in soil, which provides nutrition for plant growth through N mineralization. Recent studies have also demonstrated some plants can directly ta...

  5. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide analogues with aza and indolizidinone amino acid residues reveal conformational requirements for antagonist activity at the human calcitonin gene-related peptide 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Boeglin, Damien; Hamdan, Fadi F; Melendez, Rosa E; Cluzeau, Jérôme; Laperriere, Andre; Héroux, Madeleine; Bouvier, Michel; Lubell, William D

    2007-03-22

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists have potential for the treatment and prevention of disease states such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, migraine headache, pain, and inflammation. To gain insight into the spatial requirements for CGRP antagonism, three strategies were employed to restrict the conformation of the potent undecapeptide antagonist, [D31,P34,F35]CGRP27-37. First, aza-amino acid scanning was performed, and ten aza-peptide analogues were synthesized and examined for biological activity. Second, (3S,6S,9S)-2-oxo-3-amino-indolizidin-2-one amino acid (I2aa) and (2S,6S,8S)-9-oxo-8-amino-indolizidin-9-one amino acid (I9aa) both were introduced at positions 31-32, 32-33, 33-34, and 34-35, regions of the backbone expected to adopt turns. Finally, the conformation of the backbone and side-chain of the C-terminal residue, Phe35-Ala36-Phe37-NH2, was explored employing (2S,4R,6R,8S)-9-oxo-8-amino-4-phenyl-indolizidin-9-one amino acid (4-Ph-I9aa) as a constrained phenylalanine mimic. The structure-activity relationships exhibited by our 26 analogues illustrate conformational requirements important for designing CGRP antagonists and highlight the importance of beta-turns centered at Gly33-Pro34 for potency. PMID:17319653

  7. Comparative analysis of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives in protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Optimal conditions for protein crystallization are difficult to determine because proteins tend to aggregate in saturated solutions. This study comprehensively evaluates amino acids and amino-acid derivatives as additives for crystallization. This fourth component of the solution increases the probability of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme in various precipitants owing to a decrease in aggregation. These results suggest that the addition of certain types of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives, such as Arg, Lys and esterified and amidated amino acids, is a simple method of improving the success rate of protein crystallization. PMID:20516615

  8. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Brinton, K. L.; McDonald, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  9. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. PMID:24238395

  10. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on protein turnover.

    PubMed

    May, M E; Buse, M G

    1989-05-01

    Amino acid availability rapidly regulates protein synthesis and degradation. Increasing amino acid concentrations above the levels found in post-absorptive plasma stimulates protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner at the level of mRNA translation-initiation and inhibits protein degradation by inhibiting lysosomal autophagy. The anabolic effects of insulin on protein synthesis and protein degradation are exerted at the same sites (i.e., peptide chain initiation and lysosomal stabilization) allowing for a rapid synergistic response when both amino acids and insulin increase after a protein-containing meal. In perfused liver preparations, protein anabolic effects are exerted by a group of amino acids acting in concert. The BCAA are among the amino acids required for stimulation of hepatic protein synthesis, but there is no evidence that BCAA or leucine alone are effective. Leucine alone is an important inhibitor of hepatic protein degradation, but maximal inhibition requires in addition several other regulatory amino acids. In heart and skeletal muscle in vitro, increasing the concentration of the three BCAA or of leucine alone reproduces the effects of increasing the supply of all amino acids in stimulating protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation. Skeletal muscle is the largest repository of metabolically active protein and a major contributor to total body nitrogen balance. Supplying energy alone (i.e., carbohydrate and lipids) cannot prevent negative nitrogen balance (net protein catabolism) in animals or humans; only provision of amino acids allows the attainment of nitrogen balance. In rats and in humans nourished parenterally, provision of balanced amino acid solutions or of only the three BCAA cause similar improvements in nitrogen balance for several days. There is some evidence that infusions of leucine alone can stimulate muscle protein synthesis in vivo; the effect may be transitory and was not observed by all investigators; provisions of excess leucine alone does not seem to affect total body or muscle protein degradation in vivo. In postabsorptive rats, in vivo, infusion of the three BCAA together stimulates muscle protein synthesis as much as the infusion of a complete amino acid mixture or of a mixture of essential amino acids; the in vivo effect requires coinfusion of glucose or of small (physiological) doses of insulin, suggesting synergism between insulin and amino acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2656154

  11. Amino Acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity.

    PubMed

    Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G; Shub, David A; Ferreiro, Diego U; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E

    2014-11-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

  12. Amino Acid Metabolism Conflicts with Protein Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, David A.; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

  13. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  14. Amino acid biosynthesis in mixed rumen cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, F D; Erfle, J D; Mahadevan, S

    1975-01-01

    Mixed rumen micro-organisms, maintained in continuous culture readily incorporated labelled HCO3- and acetate into amino acids. Labelled propionate, in contrast, was utilized only for isoleucine biosynthesis, but failed to label other amino acids to any significant extent. Evidence was obtained showing that in these mixed, i.e. symbiotic, cultures foward tricarboxylic acid-cycle reactions only proceed to 2-oxoglutarate. 14C distribution in amino acids clearly shows that 2-oxoglutarate is not oxidized further by tricarboxylic acid-cycle enzymes. Instead, acetate is carboxylated to pyruvate which is then carboxylated to oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate equilibrates with fumarate and thereby carbon atoms 1 and 4 as well as carbon atoms 2 and 3 are randomized. Evidence was also obtained for the carboxylation of propionate to 2-oxobutyrate, isovalerate to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, phenylacetate and hydroxyphentlacetate to the corresponding phenyl- and hydroxyphenyl-pyruvic acids and succinate to 2-oxoglutarate. Of the amino acid precursors investigated, only 3-hydroxypyruvate, the precursor of serine, appeared to be synthesized via an oxidative step, i.e. 3-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. Most 2-oxo precursors of amino acids in these organisms appear to be formed via reductive carboxylation of the precursor acid. PMID:1212197

  15. Polymers with complexing properties. Simple poly(amino acids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roque, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The free amino (0.3 equiv/residue) and carboxyl (0.5 equiv/residue) groups of thermal polylysine increased dramatically on treatment with distilled water. The total hydrolysis of such a polymer was abnormal in that only about 50% of the expected amino acids were recovered. Poly (lysine-co-alanine-co-glycine) under usual conditions hydrolyzed completely in 8 hours; whereas, when it was pretreated with diazomethane, a normal period of 24 hours was required to give (nearly) the same amounts of each free amino acid as compared with those obtained from the untreated polymer. The amino groups of the basic thermal poly(amino acids) were sterically hindered. The existence of nitrogen atoms linking two or three chains and reactive groups (anhydride, imine) were proposed.

  16. Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 parts per billion, ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4,100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16,900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis, are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its three month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated from a different type of parent body than the CM's and CI's. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P or D- type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived from these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be re-evaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

  17. Inhibitors of Branched Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Herbicides that inhibit the production of the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are used for total vegetation management and selective weed control in a wide variety of crops.  There are currently four different chemical families that share this MOA.  Before the development of glyphosate-tolerance crop technology, branched chain amino acid inhibitors were the mainstay for several major row crops.  While this is still a very important herbicide MOA, the major increase in herbicide resistance weeds since 1980 has been the direct result selection pressure from these herbicides.  There are currently more weed species resistant to branched chain amino acid inhibitors than any other herbicide MOA.

  18. Temperature dependence of amino acid hydrophobicities.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Richard; Lewis, Charles A; Yuan, Yang; Carter, Charles W

    2015-06-16

    The hydrophobicities of the 20 common amino acids are reflected in their tendencies to appear in interior positions in globular proteins and in deeply buried positions of membrane proteins. To determine whether these relationships might also have been valid in the warm surroundings where life may have originated, we examined the effect of temperature on the hydrophobicities of the amino acids as measured by the equilibrium constants for transfer of their side-chains from neutral solution to cyclohexane (Kw > c). The hydrophobicities of most amino acids were found to increase with increasing temperature. Because that effect is more pronounced for the more polar amino acids, the numerical range of Kw > c values decreases with increasing temperature. There are also modest changes in the ordering of the more polar amino acids. However, those changes are such that they would have tended to minimize the otherwise disruptive effects of a changing thermal environment on the evolution of protein structure. Earlier, the genetic code was found to be organized in such a way that-with a single exception (threonine)-the side-chain dichotomy polar/nonpolar matches the nucleic acid base dichotomy purine/pyrimidine at the second position of each coding triplet at 25 °C. That dichotomy is preserved at 100 °C. The accessible surface areas of amino acid side-chains in folded proteins are moderately correlated with hydrophobicity, but when free energies of vapor-to-cyclohexane transfer (corresponding to size) are taken into consideration, a closer relationship becomes apparent. PMID:26034278

  19. An Evaluation of the FAO Amino Acid Reference Pattern in Human Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIAN E. SWENDSEID; CHERYL L. HARRIS; ANDSTEWART G. TUTTLE

    each amino acid needed for nitrogen equi librium was determined using dietary con ditions wherein the essential amino acids were proportioned as in whole egg pro teins, with the exception of the amino acid under study, and the total nitrogen was maintained at a constant and ade quate level. It appears that the require ments of young women for at

  20. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Bromke, Mariusz A.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

  1. Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated ?-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Roberto; Jeanne-Julien, Louis; René, Adeline; Martinez, Jean; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-06-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated ?-amino acids was performed by asymmetric alkylation. Two methods were investigated and their enantiomeric excess measured and compared. The first route consisted of an enantioselective approach induced by the Corey-Lygo catalyst under chiral phase transfer conditions while the second one involved the hydroxypinanone chiral auxiliary, both implicating Schiff bases as substrate. In all cases, the use of a prochiral Schiff base gave higher enantiomeric excess and yield in the final desired amino acid. PMID:25715756

  2. The cholesterol recognition\\/interaction amino acid consensus motif of the influenza A virus M2 protein is not required for virus replication but contributes to virulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun M. Stewart; Wai-Hong Wu; Erin N. Lalime; Andrew Pekosz

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus particles assemble and bud from plasma membrane domains enriched with the viral glycoproteins but only a small fraction of the total M2 protein is incorporated into virus particles when compared to the other viral glycoproteins. A membrane proximal cholesterol recognition\\/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif was previously identified in M2 and suggested to play a role in

  3. Plasma amino acid levels and amino acid losses during continuous ambulatory peritoneal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel D Kopple; Michael J Blumenkrantz; Michael R Jones; John K Moran

    Free amino acid losses into dialysate during a 24-h collection period and postahsorptiveplasma amino acid concentrations were measured in 14 studiesin nine clinically stable men undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Patients ingested diets containing 97 ± 18 (SD) g\\/day of protein in a metabolic research unit. Total amino acid losses were 3.4 ± 1.2 g\\/24 h and represented 3.9 ±

  4. Amino acids in the Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Yanai, K.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite is presented. Hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed water-extracted amino acid samples from exterior, middle and interior portions of the meteorite were analyzed by an amino acid analyzer and by gas chromatography of N-TFA-isopropyl amino acid derivatives. Nine protein and six nonprotein amino acids were detected in the meteorite at abundances between 34 and less than one nmole/g, with equal amounts in interior and exterior portions. Nearly equal abundances of the D and L enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found, indicating the abiotic, therefore extraterrestrial, origin of the amino acids. The Antarctic environment and the uniformity of protein amino acid abundances are discussed as evidence against the racemization of terrestrially acquired amino acids, and similarities between Yamato amino acid compositions and the amino acid compositions of the Murchison and Murray type II carbonaceous chrondrites are indicated.

  5. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  6. Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

    Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

  7. Amino acid isotopic analysis in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new approach to stable isotopic analysis—referred to as compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA)—has emerged, centering on the measurement of 15N:14N ratios in amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). CSIA has recently been used to generate trophic position estimates among anima...

  8. Detection of non-protein amino acids in the presence of protein amino acids. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapshak, P.; Okaji, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies conducted with the JEOL 5AH amino acid analyzer are described. This instrument makes possible the programming of the chromatographic process. Data are presented showing the separations of seventeen non-protein amino acids in the presence of eighteen protein amino acids. It is pointed out that distinct separations could be obtained in the case of a number of chemically similar compounds, such as ornithine and lysine, N-amidino alanine and arginine, and iminodiacetic acid and S-carboxymethyl cysteine and aspartic acid.

  9. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on plasma amino acids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Gredal; S. E. Møller

    1996-01-01

    Although the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown, biological findings suggest that the excitatory amino acid glutamate contributes to the pathogenesis of ALS. In previous studies of ALS, the therapeutic effect of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, valine and isoleucine has been evaluated. The present study aimed at investigating the acute effect of BCAAs on plasma glutamate

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

  12. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

  13. Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yu. Ponedel’kina; V. N. Odinokov; E. S. Vakhrusheva; M. T. Golikova; L. M. Khalilov; U. M. Dzhemilev

    2005-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9–43% of arylamide groups and 10–33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups.

  14. Symmetrical and Thermodynamic Properties of Phenotypic Graphs of Amino Acids Encoded by the Primeval RNY Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Marco V.; Zamudio, Gabriel S.; Palacios-Pérez, Miryam; Bobadilla, Juan R.; de Farías, Sávio Torres

    2015-06-01

    The 12 different types of graphs of the 8 amino acids encoded by the presumably primeval RNY code are derived. The symmetry groups of these graphs are analyzed and coincide with the corresponding values of polar requirement for each amino acid. The symmetry groups at the codon level are partially carried over as a group or subgroup at the amino acid level. Measures of centrality of the 12 graphs indicate that all amino acids were equally relevant irrespective of its chronological order of its appearance. The elimination of any amino acid would be strongly selected against and therefore the genetic code at this stage was already frozen.

  15. Symmetrical and Thermodynamic Properties of Phenotypic Graphs of Amino Acids Encoded by the Primeval RNY Code.

    PubMed

    José, Marco V; Zamudio, Gabriel S; Palacios-Pérez, Miryam; Bobadilla, Juan R; de Farías, Sávio Torres

    2015-06-01

    The 12 different types of graphs of the 8 amino acids encoded by the presumably primeval RNY code are derived. The symmetry groups of these graphs are analyzed and coincide with the corresponding values of polar requirement for each amino acid. The symmetry groups at the codon level are partially carried over as a group or subgroup at the amino acid level. Measures of centrality of the 12 graphs indicate that all amino acids were equally relevant irrespective of its chronological order of its appearance. The elimination of any amino acid would be strongly selected against and therefore the genetic code at this stage was already frozen. PMID:25796391

  16. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  17. Terahertz broadband spectroscopic investigations of amino acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, De-chong; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2011-08-01

    We present an experimental terahertz (THz) spectroscopic investigation of amino acid using an air-breakdown-coherent detection (ABCD) system. The strong and ultra-broadband (0.1 to 10THz) terahertz radiations generated by two-color laser induced air plasma and measured by coherent heterodyne detection. The broadband THz reflection spectra of L-Lysine (C6H14N2O2) and L-Arginine (C6H14N2O2) are obtained. To solve the phase-retrieval problem in RTDS, the absorption signatures of the materials are extracted directly from the first derivative of the relative reflectance with respect to frequency. The absorption features of the two amino acids are characterized in the 0.5~6 THz region. It is found that both the two amino acids have an absorption peak at 1.10 THz.

  18. New Glycoprotein-Associated Amino Acid Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Verrey; D. L. Jack; I. T. Paulsen; R. Pfeiffer

    1999-01-01

    .   The L-type amino acid transporter LAT1 has recently been identified as being a disulfide-linked ``light chain'' of the ubiquitously\\u000a expressed glycoprotein 4F2hc\\/CD98. Several LAT1-related transporters have been identified, which share the same putative 12-transmembrane\\u000a segment topology and also associate with the single transmembrane domain 4F2hc protein. They display differing amino acid\\u000a substrate specificities, transport kinetics and localizations such as,

  19. The Genetics of Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Manuel Palacín (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

    2005-04-01

    Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of a heavy (SLC3 family) and a light (SLC7 family) subunit. Mutations in system b0,+ (rBAT-b0,+AT) and in system y+L (4F2hc-y+LAT1) cause the primary inherited aminoacidurias (PIAs) cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, respectively. Recent developments [including the identification of the first Hartnup disorder gene (B0AT1; SLC6A19)] and knockout mouse models have begun to reveal the basis of renal and intestinal reabsorption of amino acids in mammals.

  20. GCN2 protein kinase is required to activate amino acid deprivation responses in mice treated with the anti-cancer agent L-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Dudley, Allison; Cundiff, Judy K; Cavener, Douglas R; Wek, Ronald C; Anthony, Tracy G

    2009-11-20

    Asparaginase depletes circulating asparagine and glutamine, activating amino acid deprivation responses (AADR) such as phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) leading to increased mRNA levels of asparagine synthetase and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta homologous protein (CHOP) and decreased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of the eIF2 kinases and protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum resident kinase (PERK) in controlling AADR to asparaginase and to compare the effects of asparaginase on mTORC1 to that of rapamycin. In experiment 1, asparaginase increased hepatic p-eIF2 in wild-type mice and mice with a liver-specific PERK deletion but not in GCN2 null mice nor in GCN2-PERK double null livers. In experiment 2, wild-type and GCN2 null mice were treated with asparaginase (3 IU per g of body weight), rapamycin (2 mg per kg of body weight), or both. In wild-type mice, asparaginase but not rapamycin increased p-eIF2, p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, and mRNA levels of asparagine synthetase and CHOP in liver. Asparaginase and rapamycin each inhibited mTORC1 signaling in liver and pancreas but maximally together. In GCN2 null livers, all responses to asparaginase were precluded except CHOP mRNA expression, which remained partially elevated. Interestingly, rapamycin blocked CHOP induction by asparaginase in both wild-type and GCN2 null livers. These results indicate that GCN2 is required for activation of AADR to asparaginase in liver. Rapamycin modifies the hepatic AADR to asparaginase by preventing CHOP induction while maximizing inhibition of mTORC1. PMID:19783659

  1. GCN2 Protein Kinase Is Required to Activate Amino Acid Deprivation Responses in Mice Treated with the Anti-cancer Agent l-Asparaginase*

    PubMed Central

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Dudley, Allison; Cundiff, Judy K.; Cavener, Douglas R.; Wek, Ronald C.; Anthony, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Asparaginase depletes circulating asparagine and glutamine, activating amino acid deprivation responses (AADR) such as phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) leading to increased mRNA levels of asparagine synthetase and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? homologous protein (CHOP) and decreased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of the eIF2 kinases and protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum resident kinase (PERK) in controlling AADR to asparaginase and to compare the effects of asparaginase on mTORC1 to that of rapamycin. In experiment 1, asparaginase increased hepatic p-eIF2 in wild-type mice and mice with a liver-specific PERK deletion but not in GCN2 null mice nor in GCN2-PERK double null livers. In experiment 2, wild-type and GCN2 null mice were treated with asparaginase (3 IU per g of body weight), rapamycin (2 mg per kg of body weight), or both. In wild-type mice, asparaginase but not rapamycin increased p-eIF2, p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, and mRNA levels of asparagine synthetase and CHOP in liver. Asparaginase and rapamycin each inhibited mTORC1 signaling in liver and pancreas but maximally together. In GCN2 null livers, all responses to asparaginase were precluded except CHOP mRNA expression, which remained partially elevated. Interestingly, rapamycin blocked CHOP induction by asparaginase in both wild-type and GCN2 null livers. These results indicate that GCN2 is required for activation of AADR to asparaginase in liver. Rapamycin modifies the hepatic AADR to asparaginase by preventing CHOP induction while maximizing inhibition of mTORC1. PMID:19783659

  2. Amino acid composition of humic substances in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral amino acid fragments of humic and fulvic acid molecules from tundra soils have been identified and quantified. A significant weight fraction of amino acids has been found in humic acid preparations, which exceeds their content in fulvic acids. Features of the amino acid composition of humic substances along the soil profile and depending on the degree of hydromorphism and the proportions of different (neutral, basic, acidic, cyclic) groups in amino acids have been revealed. The molar ratio between the hydroxy and heterocyclic amino acids reflects the degree of humification of the soil.

  3. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, outlining a new possibility for selective targeting of essential amino acid absorption mechanisms to control medically and economically important arthropods and other invertebrate organisms. PMID:22230793

  4. Indole Amines and Amino Acids in Various Brain Regions after Infusion of Branched Chain Amino Acids into Hepatectomized Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jonung; A. Ramzy; P. Herlin; J. H. James; L. Edwards; J. E. Fischer

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine regional changes of amino acids and indole amines in the brain and possible interactions between amino acids and indole amines 18 h after hepatectomy in rats. Hepatectomy and glucose infusion alone resulted in a profound increase of most large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in plasma and in the brain except for the branched-chain amino

  5. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  6. Hereditary folate malabsorption: A positively charged amino acid at position 113 of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) is required for folic acid binding

    SciTech Connect

    Lasry, Inbal; Berman, Bluma [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Glaser, Fabian [Bioinformatics Knowledge Unit, The Lorry I. Lokey Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [Bioinformatics Knowledge Unit, The Lorry I. Lokey Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Jansen, Gerrit [Department of Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Assaraf, Yehuda G., E-mail: assaraf@tx.technion.ac.il [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2009-08-28

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate uptake at acidic pH. Some loss of folic acid (FA) transport mutations in PCFT from hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) patients cluster in R113, thereby suggesting a functional role for this residue. Herein, unlike non-conservative substitutions, an R113H mutant displayed 80-fold increase in the FA transport Km while retaining parental Vmax, hence indicating a major fall in folate substrate affinity. Furthermore, consistent with the preservation of 9% of parental transport activity, R113H transfectants displayed a substantial decrease in the FA growth requirement relative to mock transfectants. Homology modeling based on the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli transporter homologues EmrD and glycerol-3-phosphate transporter revealed that the R113H rotamer properly protrudes into the cytoplasmic face of the minor cleft normally occupied by R113. These findings constitute the first demonstration that a basic amino acid at position 113 is required for folate substrate binding.

  7. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  8. Formation Mechanism of Coamorphous Drug-Amino Acid Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Katrine Tarp; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Cornett, Claus; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Two coamorphous drug-amino acid systems, indomethacin-tryptophan (Ind-Trp) and furosemide-tryptophan (Fur-Trp), were analyzed toward their ease of amorphization and mechanism of coamorphization during ball milling. The two mixtures were compared to the corresponding amorphization of the pure drug without amino acid. Powder blends at a 1:1 molar ratio were milled for varying times, and their physicochemical properties were investigated using XRPD, (13)C solid state NMR (ssNMR), and DSC. Comilling the drug with the amino acid reduced the milling time required to obtain an amorphous powder from more than 90 min in the case of the pure drugs to 30 min for the coamorphous powders. Amorphization was observed as reductions in XRPD reflections and was additionally quantified based on normalized principal component analysis (PCA) scores of the ssNMR spectra. Furthermore, the evolution in the glass temperature (Tg) of the coamorphous systems over time indicated complete coamorphization after 30 min of milling. Based on the DSC data it was possible to identify the formation mechanism of the two coamorphous systems. The Tg position of the samples suggested that coamorphous Ind-Trp was formed by the amino acid being dissolved in the amorphous drug, whereas coamorphous Fur-Trp was formed by the drug being dissolved in the amorphous amino acid. PMID:26057950

  9. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  10. Structual comparison of dermatopontin amino acid sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2010-01-01

    Dermatopontin is a tyrosine-rich acidic extracellular matrix protein of 22 kD with possible functions in cellmatrix interactions\\u000a and matrix assembly. Database of GenBank+EMBL+DDBJ sequences from Nucleotide, Gene, and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Divisions\\u000a was searched with a keyword “dermatopontin” or mouse dermatopontin amino acid sequence. In addition to five mammals previously\\u000a described, five mammalian, two bird, one fish dermatopontin genes

  11. Dialysance of Amino Acids and Related Substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aviram; J. Peters; F. Gulyassy

    1971-01-01

    Summary The losses of amino acids and related compounds have been studied during hemodialysis of patients with the Kiil dialyzer and the Dow Hollow Fiber Artificial Kidney (HFAK). There was a linear relationship with close correlation for both direct dialysance (Dd) and indirect dialysance (Dp) between the two dialyzers, the HFAK being 31–46% more efficient than the Kiil dialyzer in

  12. Manganese alters rat brain amino acids levels

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, M. Camila; Almeida, Isabel; Ramos, Ruben; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M.; Aschner, Michael; Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated with alterations in amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed whole rat brain amino acid content subsequent to 4 or 8 intraperitoneal (ip) injections, with 25 mg MnCl2/kg/day, at 48-hour (h) intervals. We noted a significant increase in glycine brain levels after 4 or 8 Mn injections (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and arginine also after 4 or 8 injections (p<0.001). Significant increases were also noted in brain proline (p<0.01), cysteine (p<0.05), phenylalanine (p<0.01) and tyrosine (p<0.01) levels after 8 Mn injections vs. the control group. These findings suggest that Mn-induced alterations in amino acid levels secondary to Mn affect the neurochemical milieu. PMID:22971893

  13. Amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Vol'pin; Z. N. Parnes; V. S. Romanova

    1998-01-01

    A general method for the synthesis of amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene (ADF) was developed, and the physicochemical\\u000a properties of the compounds obtained were studied. ADF were shown to penetrate into liposomes and to exhibit adjuvant properties\\u000a and antiviral activity.

  14. Industrial Applications of Amino-acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Sadovnikova; Vasilii M. Belikov

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of the use of amino-acids in various branches of industry --- as food additives and surface-active agents, in the production of polymeric materials, in electrochemical manufacture, etc. --- are surveyed on the basis of works of reference and the patent literature up to 1975. A list of 273 references is included. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for

  15. The Stringent Response Is Required for Amino Acid and Nitrate Utilization, Nod Factor Regulation, Nodulation, and Nitrogen Fixation in Rhizobium etli†

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Flores, Arturo; Du Pont, Gisela; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Servín-González, Luis; Durán, Socorro

    2005-01-01

    A Rhizobium etli Tn5 insertion mutant, LM01, was selected for its inability to use glutamine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The Tn5 insertion in LM01 was localized to the rsh gene, which encodes a member of the RelA/SpoT family of proteins. The LM01 mutant was affected in the ability to use amino acids and nitrate as nitrogen sources and was unable to accumulate (p)ppGpp when grown under carbon and nitrogen starvation, as opposed to the wild-type strain, which accumulated (p)ppGpp under these conditions. The R. etli rsh gene was found to restore (p)ppGpp accumulation to a ?relA ?spoT mutant of Escherichia coli. The R. etli Rsh protein consists of 744 amino acids, and the Tn5 insertion in LM01 results in the synthesis of a truncated protein of 329 amino acids; complementation experiments indicate that this truncated protein is still capable of (p)ppGpp hydrolysis. A second rsh mutant of R. etli, strain AC1, was constructed by inserting an ? element at the beginning of the rsh gene, resulting in a null allele. Both AC1 and LM01 were affected in Nod factor production, which was constitutive in both strains, and in nodulation; nodules produced by the rsh mutants in Phaseolus vulgaris were smaller than those produced by the wild-type strain and did not fix nitrogen. In addition, electron microscopy revealed that the mutant bacteroids lacked poly-?-hydroxybutyrate granules. These results indicate a central role for the stringent response in symbiosis. PMID:16030199

  16. Synthesis of a conformationally constrained ?-amino acid building block.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Elaine; Pes, Lara; Ortin, Yannick; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Paradisi, Francesca

    2013-02-01

    Conformationally restricted amino acids are important components in peptidomimetics and drug design. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a novel, non-proteinogenic constrained delta amino acid containing a cyclobutane ring, cis-3(aminomethyl)cyclobutane carboxylic acid (ACCA). The synthesis of the target amino acid was achieved in seven steps, with the key reaction being a base induced intramolecular nucleophilic substitution. A small library of dipeptides was prepared through the coupling of ACCA with proteinogenic amino acids. PMID:22851051

  17. Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

  18. Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  19. Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  20. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. I - Six carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Gandy, W. E.; Pizzarello, S.

    1981-01-01

    Six of the seven chain isomers of six-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids (leucine isomers) have been either identified or confirmed in hot-water extracts of the Murchison meteorite using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion exchange chromatography. 2-Amino-2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyric acid, pseudoleucine, and 2-methylnorvaline were positively identified by GC-MS. These amino acids have not been previously reported to occur in natural materials and may be uniquely meteoritic in origin. The presence of leucine and isoleucine (including the diastereoisomer, alloisoleucine) was confirmed. Peaks corresponding to norleucine were seen by ion-exchange and gas chromatography but characteristic mass spectra were not obtained. The alpha-branched chain isomers in this series are quantitatively the most significant. These results are compared with literature data on amino acid synthesis by electrical discharge and Fischer-Tropsch-type catalysis. Neither model system produces an amino acid suite that is completely comparable to that found in the Murchison meteorite.

  1. Allied Health Chemistry Laboratory: Amino Acids, Insulin, Proteins, and Skin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, David F.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment specifically designed for allied health students. The students construct molecular models of amino acids, extract amino acids from their skin with hot water, and chromatographically analyze the skin extract and hydrolyzed insulin. (MLH)

  2. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  3. Branched chain amino acid aminotransferase isoenzymes of Pseudomonas cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Wong; T. G. Lessie

    1979-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia grew rapidly using a mixture of all three branched chain amino acids as carbon source, but failed to use individual branched chain amino acids as sole carbon source. Extracts of bacteria grown on branched chain amino acids had between 2- and 3-fold higher levels of a-ketoglutarate-dependent branched chain amino acid aminotransferase activity than extracts of glucose-grown bacteria. The

  4. Expanded Cellular Amino Acid Pools Containing Phosphoserine, Phosphothreonine, and Phosphotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adding nonstandard amino acids to the genetic code of E. coli expands the chemical and biological functional space for proteins. This is accomplished with engineered, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA pairs that require a nonstandard amino acid in sufficient intracellular quantities to support protein synthesis. While cotranslational insertion of phosphoserine into proteins has been accomplished, conditions that modulate intracellular phosphoamino acid concentrations are still poorly understood. Here we used genetic and metabolic engineering to increase the free intracellular levels of phosphoserine in E. coli. We show that deletion of the phosphoserine phosphatase serB elevates the intracellular levels of phosphoserine within ranges comparable to those of standard amino acids. These new conditions improved insertion of phosphoserine into recombinant proteins. Surprisingly, we also observed dramatic increases in intracellular levels of phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine when WT cells were grown in LB with supplemented phosphothreonine and serB deficient cells were grown in low phosphate media with supplemented phosphotyrosine, respectively. These findings remove a major barrier for further expansion of the genetic code with additional phosphorylated amino acids. PMID:24646179

  5. A Search for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Engrand, Cécile; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Maurette, Michel

    1998-10-01

    Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) in the 100-400 ?m size range are the dominant mass fraction of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth today. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based technique exploited at the limits of sensitivity has been used to search for the extraterrestrial amino acids ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline in AMMs. Five samples, each containing about 30 to 35 grains, were analyzed. All the samples possess a terrestrial amino acid component, indicated by the excess of the L-enantiomers of common protein amino acids. In only one sample (A91) was AIB found to be present at a level significantly above the background blanks. The concentration of AIB (~280 ppm), and the AIB/isovaline ratio (>=10), in this sample are both much higher than in CM chondrites. The apparently large variation in the AIB concentrations of the samples suggests that AIB may be concentrated in rare subset of micrometeorites. Because the AIB/isovaline ratio in sample A91 is much larger than in CM chondrites, the synthesis of amino acids in the micrometeorite parent bodies might have involved a different process requiring an HCN-rich environment, such as that found in comets. If the present day characteristics of the meteorite and micrometeorite fluxes can be extrapolated back in time, then the flux of large carbonaceous micrometeorites could have contributed to the inventory of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth.

  6. A search for extraterrestrial amino acids in carbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites.

    PubMed

    Brinton, K L; Engrand, C; Glavin, D P; Bada, J L; Maurette, M

    1998-10-01

    Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) in the 100-400 microns size range are the dominant mass fraction of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth today. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based technique exploited at the limits of sensitivity has been used to search for the extraterrestrial amino acids alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline in AMMs. Five samples, each containing about 30 to 35 grains, were analyzed. All the samples possess a terrestrial amino acid component, indicated by the excess of the L-enantiomers of common protein amino acids. In only one sample (A91) was AIB found to be present at a level significantly above the background blanks. The concentration of AIB (approximately 280 ppm), and the AIB/isovaline ratio (> or = 10), in this sample are both much higher than in CM chondrites. The apparently large variation in the AIB concentrations of the samples suggests that AIB may be concentrated in rare subset of micrometeorites. Because the AIB/isovaline ratio in sample A91 is much larger than in CM chondrites, the synthesis of amino acids in the micrometeorite parent bodies might have involved a different process requiring an HCN-rich environment, such as that found in comets. If the present day characteristics of the meteorite and micrometeorite fluxes can be extrapolated back in time, then the flux of large carbonaceous micrometeorites could have contributed to the inventory of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth. PMID:9742723

  7. Do anticodons of misacylated tRNAs preferentially mismatch codons coding for the misloaded amino acid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Seligmann

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate amino acid insertion during peptide elongation requires tRNAs loaded by cognate amino acids and that anticodons match codons. However, tRNA misloading does not necessarily cause misinsertions: misinsertion is avoided when anticodons mismatch codons coding for misloaded amino acids. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Occasional compensation of misacylation by codon-anticodon mismatch necessarily occurs. Putatively, occasional error compensation may be enhanced

  8. Ozonation of Amino Acids: Ozone Demand and Aldehyde Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hureki; J. P. Croué; B. Legube; M. Doré

    1998-01-01

    This study is related to the ozonation of free and combined amino acids, which present a high reactivity with ozone. Amino acids reactivities studied in the presence or absence of tert-butyl alcohol as radical scavenger were found to be related to their structures. Amino acid side chains seem to be the main sites that are responsible for the high ozone

  9. Protein structures uncovered Amino acids are molecules and are the

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Protein structures uncovered Lysozyme Amino acid Amino acids are molecules and are the building blocks of proteins. Human proteins contain 20 different kinds of amino acids, which are represented below to form a chain. This chain is called the primary structure. If the protein chain doesn't occur

  10. Characteristics of amino acids in soil humic substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangwei Ding; Jingdong Mao; Baoshan Xing

    2001-01-01

    Humic substances are vital environmental materials. However, their size, shape, molecular weight, and structure are still unclear. In order to better understand the factors regulating the dynamics of soil organic matter, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of amino acids in humic substances was determined after 6 M HCl hydrolysis. Amino acids were determined using an amino-acid analyzer coupled with chromatographic techniques.

  11. Regulatory Roles of Amino Acids in Immune Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junya Yoneda; Ayatoshi Andou; Kenji Takehana

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins but are also key regulators of various pathological and physiological processes, including immune responses, in living cells. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects of amino acids are largely unknown. The regulatory roles of amino acids in the immune system can be considered from two perspectives, namely, the enhancement of

  12. Simultaneous Uptake of Multiple Amino Acids by Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El-Naggar; A. de Neergaard; A. El-Araby; H. Høgh-Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has proven that higher plants can utilize amino acids as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) sources. Most studies have focused on single amino acids with or without inorganic N, but a range of amino acids may be expected under conditions where the main N input derives from turnover of organic N sources. This study investigated the uptake of

  13. Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

  14. Unnatural amino acids in novel antibody conjugates.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Trevor J; Smider, Vaughn V

    2014-07-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are an important and emerging drug class for the treatment of cancer. Recent evidence strongly suggests that site-specific drug conjugation results in a homogenous population of molecules with more favorable activity and pharmacokinetic properties than randomly conjugated antibodies. Unnatural amino acids (uAAs) can be incorporated in recombinant proteins to enable unique orthogonal chemistries in comparison to the side chains of the natural 20 amino acids. Thus, uAAs present a novel platform for which to create next-generation antibody-drug conjugates. Furthermore, site-specific conjugation through uAAs can also enpower unique small molecule, bispecific, multispecific and other conjugates that could be important constructs for therapeutics, diagnostics and research reagents. Here, we review the progress in uAA incorporation and conjugate construction through both cell-based and -free approaches. PMID:25163001

  15. Different and overlapping functions of Arabidopsis LHT6 and AAP1 transporters in root amino acid uptake.

    PubMed

    Perchlik, Molly; Foster, Justin; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2014-10-01

    Plants acquire nitrogen in the form of amino acids from the soil, and transport proteins located in the plasma membrane of root cells are required for this process. It was found that the Arabidopsis lysine-histidine-like transporter LHT6 is expressed in root cells important for amino acid uptake, including the epidermis, root hairs, and cortex. Transport studies with lht6 mutants using high levels of amino acids demonstrated that LHT6 is in fact involved in amino acid uptake. To determine if LHT6 plays a role in nitrogen acquisition at soil amino acid concentrations, growth and uptake studies were performed with low levels of toxic amino acid analogues and radiolabelled amino acids, respectively. In addition, mutants of AAP1, another root amino acid transporter, and lht6/aap1 double mutants were examined. The results showed that LHT6 is involved in uptake of acidic amino acids, glutamine and alanine, and probably phenylalanine. LHT6 seems not to transport basic or other neutral amino acids, or, alternatively, other transporters might compensate for eliminated LHT6 function. Previous studies suggested that AAP1 only takes up amino acids at high concentrations; however, here it is demonstrated that the transporter functions in acquisition of glutamate and neutral amino acids when present at soil concentrations. When comparing the characterized root uptake systems, it appears that transporters both with overlapping substrate specificity and with preference for specific substrates are required to access the soil amino acid pool. PMID:25005136

  16. Different and overlapping functions of Arabidopsis LHT6 and AAP1 transporters in root amino acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Perchlik, Molly; Foster, Justin; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2014-01-01

    Plants acquire nitrogen in the form of amino acids from the soil, and transport proteins located in the plasma membrane of root cells are required for this process. It was found that the Arabidopsis lysine-histidine-like transporter LHT6 is expressed in root cells important for amino acid uptake, including the epidermis, root hairs, and cortex. Transport studies with lht6 mutants using high levels of amino acids demonstrated that LHT6 is in fact involved in amino acid uptake. To determine if LHT6 plays a role in nitrogen acquisition at soil amino acid concentrations, growth and uptake studies were performed with low levels of toxic amino acid analogues and radiolabelled amino acids, respectively. In addition, mutants of AAP1, another root amino acid transporter, and lht6/aap1 double mutants were examined. The results showed that LHT6 is involved in uptake of acidic amino acids, glutamine and alanine, and probably phenylalanine. LHT6 seems not to transport basic or other neutral amino acids, or, alternatively, other transporters might compensate for eliminated LHT6 function. Previous studies suggested that AAP1 only takes up amino acids at high concentrations; however, here it is demonstrated that the transporter functions in acquisition of glutamate and neutral amino acids when present at soil concentrations. When comparing the characterized root uptake systems, it appears that transporters both with overlapping substrate specificity and with preference for specific substrates are required to access the soil amino acid pool. PMID:25005136

  17. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoyao Wu

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators\\u000a of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones\\u000a and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations\\u000a of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione,

  18. Secondary Transport of Amino Acids in Prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jung; T. Pirch; D. Hilger

    2006-01-01

    Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon\\u000a and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction\\u000a and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully\\u000a used as model systems for exploration of transporter structure and

  19. Selection on Amino Acid Substitutions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Foxe, John Paul; Dar, Vaqaar-un-Nisa; Zheng, Honggang; Nordborg, Magnus; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of nucleotide diversity have found an excess of low-frequency amino acid polymorphisms segregating in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting a predominance of weak purifying selection acting on amino acid polymorphism in this inbreeding species. Here, we investigate levels of diversity and divergence at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in 6 circumpolar populations of the outbreeding Arabidopsis lyrata and compare these results with A. thaliana, to test for differences in mutation and selection parameters across genes, populations, and species. We find that A. lyrata shows an excess of low-frequency nonsynonymous polymorphisms both within populations and species wide, consistent with weak purifying selection similar to the patterns observed in A. thaliana. Furthermore, nonsynonymous polymorphisms tend to be more restricted in their population distribution in A. lyrata, consistent with purifying selection preventing their geographic spread. Highly expressed genes show a reduced ratio of amino acid to synonymous change for both polymorphism and fixed differences, suggesting a general pattern of stronger purifying selection on high-expression proteins. PMID:18390851

  20. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains. PMID:24480298

  1. Branched-chain Amino Acid Metabolon

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R. Max; Mobley, James A.; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain ?-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain ?-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5?-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5?-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5?-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate. PMID:19858196

  2. Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats 

    E-print Network

    Crooks, James Darrell

    1971-01-01

    . These relationships were studied in rats fed diets containing either 0/, 2/, or 4% glutsmic acid. Eight uniformly-14C-labeled amino acids and glucose were injected intraperitoneally, and their relative metabolic activities and distribution into free and protein... of dietary glutamic acid on endogenous pool size;, of the free amino acids were studied. No consistent patterns were observed. The pool sizes of all but four of the free amino acids increased after the ingestion of a meal. Glucose levels decreased...

  3. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations. PMID:24809066

  4. Amino acid compositional shifts during streptophyte transitions to terrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Richard W; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Across the streptophyte lineage, which includes charophycean algae and embryophytic plants, there have been at least four independent transitions to the terrestrial habitat. One of these involved the evolution of embryophytes (bryophytes and tracheophytes) from a charophycean ancestor, while others involved the earliest branching lineages, containing the monotypic genera Mesostigma and Chlorokybus, and within the Klebsormidiales and Zygnematales lineages. To overcome heat, water stress, and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which must have accompanied these transitions, adaptive mechanisms would have been required. During periods of dehydration and/or desiccation, proteomes struggle to maintain adequate cytoplasmic solute concentrations. The increased usage of charged amino acids (DEHKR) may be one way of maintaining protein hydration, while increased use of aromatic residues (FHWY) protects proteins and nucleic acids by absorbing damaging UV, with both groups of residues thought to be important for the stabilization of protein structures. To test these hypotheses we examined amino acid sequences of orthologous proteins representing both mitochondrion- and plastid-encoded proteomes across streptophytic lineages. We compared relative differences within categories of amino acid residues and found consistent patterns of amino acid compositional fluxuation in extra-membranous regions that correspond with episodes of terrestrialization: positive change in usage frequency for residues with charged side-chains, and aromatic residues of the light-capturing chloroplast proteomes. We also found a general decrease in the usage frequency of hydrophobic, aliphatic, and small residues. These results suggest that amino acid compositional shifts in extra-membrane regions of plastid and mitochondrial proteins may represent biochemical adaptations that allowed green plants to colonize the land. PMID:21153633

  5. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  6. Evolutionary Conservation of Amino Acid Composition in Paralogous Insect Vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of paralogous vitellogenins in 10 insect species representing six orders showed a remarkable degree of conservation of amino acid composition in spite of sequence differences. For example, the correlation between the percentages of the 20 amino acids in two vitellogenins from the beetle Tribolium castaneum was 0.975, even though the two amino acid sequences differed from each other at 49.4% of sites. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrence of reciprocal pairs of amino acids in more distantly related paralogs, and this correlation was generally strongest when both of the amino acids in the pair were nutritionally essential. These results imply that conservation of amino acid composition occurs through amino acid replacements that result in a balanced loss and gain of each amino acid each amino acid residue. Thus insect vitellogenins seem to be subject to an unusual kind of purifying selection, where the amino acid content is conserved rather than the sequence per se, selection apparently arising from the nutritional needs of the developing embryo appears to be responsible for maintaining the balance of amino acids. PMID:20655995

  7. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  8. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The ?13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  9. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  10. Metabolic Engineering for Microbial Production of Aromatic Amino Acids and Derived Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Bongaerts; Marco Krämer; Ulrike Müller; Leon Raeven; Marcel Wubbolts

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic engineering to design and construct microorganisms suitable for the production of aromatic amino acids and derivatives thereof requires control of a complicated network of metabolic reactions that partly act in parallel and frequently are in rapid equilibrium. Engineering the regulatory circuits, the uptake of carbon, the glycolytic pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the common aromatic amino acid pathway

  11. Stringency without guanosine-3'-diphosphate-5'-diphosphate accumulation during amino acid starvation in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    E-print Network

    Martinez de Acosta, Maria Ruth Guadalupe

    1985-01-01

    STRINGENCY WITHOUT GUANOSINE-3'-DIPHOSPHATE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE ACCUMULATION DURING AMINO ACID STARVATION IN RHODOPSEUDOMONAS SPHAEROIDES A Thesis by MARIA RUTH GUADALUPE MARTINEZ DE ACOSTA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Microbiology STRINGENCY WITHOUT GUANOSINE-3'-DIPHOSPHATE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE ACCUMULATION DURING AMINO ACID STARVATION...

  12. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

  13. Amino acids of the Nogoya and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Amino acids were found in acid hydrolyzed, hot water extracts of the Nogoya (C2) and Mokoia (C3V) chondrites. About 40 n moles/g of amino acids were found in the Nogoya extract while Mokoia contained less than 1 n mole/g. The amino acid composition of Nogoya differs from that of other C2 chondrites studied earlier. The results from Mokoia are similar to previous data obtained from the C3V chondrite Allende.

  14. Effect of Dipeptides on the Growth of Oenococcus oeni in Synthetic Medium Deprived of Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro A. Aredes Fernández; Fabiana M. Saguir; María C. Manca de Nadra

    2004-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni has numerous amino acid requirements for growth and dipeptides could be important for its nutrition. In this paper the individual or combined effect of dipeptides on growth of O. oeni X 2L in synthetic media deficient in one or more amino acids with L-malic acid was investigated. Utilization of dipeptides, glucose, and L-malic acid was also analyzed. Dipeptides

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Hydrophobic and Protein Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ring, David; Wolman, Yecheskel; Friedmann, Nadav; Miller, Stanley L.

    1972-01-01

    The formation of amino acids by the action of electric discharges on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia was studied in detail. The presence of glycine, alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, isovaline, leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, norleucine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, allothreonine, ?-hydroxy-?-aminobutyric acid, and ?,?-diaminobutyric acid was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All of the primary ?-amino acids found in the Murchison Meteorite have been synthesized by this electric discharge experiment. PMID:4501592

  16. Amino acid substitution matrices from protein blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Henikoff, S; Henikoff, J G

    1992-01-01

    Methods for alignment of protein sequences typically measure similarity by using a substitution matrix with scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another. The most widely used matrices are based on the Dayhoff model of evolutionary rates. Using a different approach, we have derived substitution matrices from about 2000 blocks of aligned sequence segments characterizing more than 500 groups of related proteins. This led to marked improvements in alignments and in searches using queries from each of the groups. PMID:1438297

  17. Intercalating amino acid guests into montmorillonite host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, T.; Pálinkó, I.; Kónya, Z.; Kiricsi, I.

    2003-06-01

    The protonated forms of six amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-tryptophane, L-histidine, L-methionine and L-lysine) were ion-exchanged into Na-montmorillonite. A comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the host, the guests and host-guest substances revealed that the guest ions were intercalated successfully. It was verified by X-ray diffractometry and surface measurements as well. The spatial arrangement of the guest ions was modeled by semiempirical quantum chemical method. The intercalated organic ions provide chiral environment within the layers of the host material.

  18. Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids

    E-print Network

    Chambers, James Richard

    1958-01-01

    with ninhydrine. Some Other Methods Tried 24Fromm reported the preparation of silver a-phthalimido carboxylate salts from a-amino carboxylic acids. The silver salts (XXVIII) were then decarboxylated with bromine to yield the bromide? The bromides (XXIX) were... not isolated but were converted to the cyanide. The decarboxylation of a silver salt with bromine is known as the Hunsdiecker-Simonini reaction, H O H R - A - C - OAg + Br2 --? R - A - Br + AgBr + C02 A A/ \\ / \\ o=q p=o o=c__c=o w XVIII XXIX...

  19. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

  20. Improving amino acid nutrition to prevent intrauterine growth restriction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Guoyao; Feng, Cuiping; Zhou, Huaijun; Li, Defa; Wang, Junjun

    2014-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common concerns in human obstetrics and domestic animal production. It is usually caused by placental insufficiency, which decreases fetal uptake of nutrients (especially amino acids) from the placenta. Amino acids are not only building blocks for protein but also key regulators of metabolic pathways in fetoplacental development. The enhanced demands of amino acids by the developing conceptus must be met via active transport systems across the placenta as normal pregnancy advances. Growing evidence indicates that IUGR is associated with a reduction in placental amino acid transport capacity and metabolic pathways within the embryonic/fetal development. The positive relationships between amino acid concentrations in circulating maternal blood and placental amino acid transport into fetus encourage designing new therapies to prevent or treat IUGR by enhancing amino acid availability in maternal diets or maternal circulation. Despite the positive effects of available dietary interventions, nutritional therapy for IUGR is still in its infancy. Based on understanding of the underlying mechanisms whereby amino acids promote fetal growth and of their dietary requirements by IUGR, supplementation with functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) hold great promise for preventing fetal growth restriction and improving health and growth of IUGR offspring. PMID:24658999

  1. Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

    1997-02-15

    Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

  2. Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

    1997-01-01

    Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

  3. Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces

    E-print Network

    Yang, Dengliang

    2005-11-01

    Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) Langmuir monolayers...

  4. Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Dengliang

    2005-11-01

    Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) ...

  5. Synthesis of lipid A monosaccharide analogues containing acidic amino acid: Exploring the structural basis for the endotoxic and antagonistic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Akamatsu; Yukari Fujimoto; Mikayo Kataoka; Yasuo Suda; Shoichi Kusumoto; Koichi Fukase

    2006-01-01

    For elucidation of the structural and conformational requirements on the endotoxic and antagonistic activity of lipid A derivatives, we designed and synthesized lipid A analogues containing acidic amino acid residues in place of the non-reducing end phosphorylated glucosamine. Definite switching of the endotoxic or antagonistic activity was observed depending on the difference of the acidic groups (phosphoric acid or carboxylic

  6. Nutrient Metabolism Amino Acid Availability Affects Amino Acid Flux and Protein Metabolism

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    growth rate decreased (P 0.05) in sows fed the LD diet. Model estimates of mammary protein synthesis (PS: amino acid uptake protein turnover lactation compartmental kinetic model mammary gland pigs/soybean meal­based diets fed to sows nursing large litters (1,2). When synthetic lysine is provided to meet its

  7. Amino acid substitutions of cysteine residues near the amino terminus of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro abolishes virus transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amino-terminal half of HC-Pro of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is required for semi-persistent transmission by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The amino-proximal region of WSMV HC-Pro is cysteine-rich with a zinc finger-like motif. Amino acid substitutions were made in this re...

  8. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

  9. Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (<1 ppm). The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ? 13 C values ranging from +31.6% to +50.5%. The highly enriched carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

  10. From interstellar amino acids to prebiotic catalytic peptides: a review.

    PubMed

    Brack, André

    2007-04-01

    Amino acids were most likely available on the primitive Earth, produced in the primitive atmosphere or in hydrothermal vents. Import of extraterrestrial amino acids may have represented the major supply, as suggested by micrometeorite collections and simulation experiments in space and in the laboratory. Selective condensation of amino acids in water has been achieved via N-carboxy anydrides. Homochiral peptides with an alternating sequence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids adopt stereoselective and thermostable beta-pleated sheet structures. Some of the homochiral beta-sheets strongly accelerate the hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides. The beta-sheet-forming peptides have also been shown to protect their amino acids from racemization. Even if peptides are not able to self-replicate, i.e., to replicate a complete sequence from the mixture of amino acids, the accumulation of chemically active peptides on the primitive Earth appears plausible via thermostable and stereoselective beta-sheets made of alternating sequences. PMID:17443882

  11. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  12. Trophic spectra under the lens of amino acid isotopic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in compound specific isotopic ratio analysis (CSIRA) have allowed researchers to measure trophic fractionation of 15N in specific amino acids, namely glutamic acid and phenylalanine. These amino acids have proven useful in food web studies because of the wide and consistent disparity...

  13. Salt stress-induced proline transporters and salt stress-repressed broad specificity amino acid permeases identified by suppression of a yeast amino acid permease-targeting mutant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris Rentsch; B. Hirner; W. B. Frommer

    1996-01-01

    A yeast mutant lacking SHR3, a protein specifically required for correct targeting of plasma membrane amino acid permeases, was used to study the targeting of plant transporters and as a tool to isolate new SHR3-independent amino acid transporters. For this purpose, an shr3 mutant was transformed with an Arabidopsis cDNA library. Thirty-four clones were capable of growth under selective conditions,

  14. Effects of hypoxia on plasma amino acids of fetal sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Walker; A. J. Gentry; L. R. Green; M. A. Hanson; L. Bennet

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   Secondary amino acid disturbances from circulatory responses during hypoxia may cause problems in interpreting plasma amino\\u000a acid profiles of sick babies investigated for possible inherited defects. Systematic studies to characterise them are difficult\\u000a in man. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on plasma amino acids by studying 9 late gestation fetal sheep in utero during 11 one hour episodes

  15. Amino acid sequence of the human fibronectin receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Scott Argraves; Shintaro Suzuki; Hiroharu Arai; Katie Thompson; Michael D. Pierschbacher; Erkki Ruoslahti

    1987-01-01

    The amino acid sequence deduced from eDNA of the human placental fibronectin receptor is reported. The receptor is composed of two subunits: an 0t subunit of 1,008 amino acids which is processed into two polypeptides disulfide bonded to one another, and a 13 subunit of 778 amino acids. Each subunit has near its COOH terminus a hydrophobic segment. This and

  16. Biotechnology applications of amino acids in protein purification and formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arakawa; K. Tsumoto; Y. Kita; B. Chang; D. Ejima

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Amino acids are widely used in biotechnology applications. Since amino acids are natural compounds, they can be safely used\\u000a in pharmaceutical applications, e.g., as a solvent additive for protein purification and as an excipient for protein formulations.\\u000a At high concentrations, certain amino acids are found to raise intra-cellular osmotic pressure and adjust to the high salt\\u000a concentrations of the surrounding

  17. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on placental amino acid transfer and insulin and glucagon release in the ovine fetus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Józwik; Cecilia Teng; Randall B. Wilkening; Giacomo Meschia; Janet Tooze; Misoo Chung; Frederick C. Battaglia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Competition for placental amino acid transporters can affect the fetal supply of amino acids. Specifically, the branched-chain amino acids—isoleucine, leucine, and valine—may inhibit the transfer of other amino acids. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of branched-chain amino acids on the umbilical uptake of amino acids. Study Design: Six late-gestation ewes were infused sequentially for 2 hours

  18. Pseudoephedrine-Directed Asymmetric ?-Arylation of ?-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Rachel C; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Mas Roselló, Josep; Clayden, Jonathan

    2015-07-27

    Available ?-amino acids undergo arylation at their ??position in an enantioselective manner on treatment with base of N'-aryl urea derivatives ligated to pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary. In?situ silylation and enolization induces diastereoselective migration of the N'-aryl group to the ??position of the amino acid, followed by ring closure to a hydantoin with concomitant explulsion of the recyclable auxiliary. The hydrolysis of the hydantoin products provides derivatives of quaternary amino acids. The arylation avoids the use of heavy-metal additives, and is successful with a range of amino acids and with aryl rings of varying electronic character. PMID:26083236

  19. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters, the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters-intermediates capable of forming peptides. A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  20. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose Substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-06-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded ?-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters - intermediates capable of forming peptides (Weber and Orgel 1979). A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40°C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  1. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  2. Identification of a novel amino acid racemase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 induced by D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohmori, Taketo; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    To date, there have been few reports analyzing the amino acid requirement for growth of hyperthermophilic archaea. We here found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 requires Thr, Leu, Val, Phe, Tyr, Trp, His and Arg in the medium for growth, and shows slow growth in medium lacking Met or Ile. This largely corresponds to the presence, or absence, of genes related to amino acid biosynthesis in its genome, though there are exceptions. The amino acid requirements were dramatically lost by addition of D-isomers of Met, Leu, Val, allo-Ile, Phe, Tyr, Trp and Arg. Tracer analysis using (14)C-labeled D-Trp showed that D-Trp in the medium was used as a protein component in the cells, suggesting the presence of D-amino acid metabolic enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent racemase activity toward Met, Leu and Phe was detected in crude extract of P. horikoshii and was enhanced in cells grown in the medium supplemented with D-amino acids, especially D-allo-Ile. The gene encoding the racemase was narrowed down to one open reading frame on the basis of enzyme purification from P. horikoshii cells, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited PLP-dependent racemase activity toward several amino acids, including Met, Leu and Phe, but not Pro, Asp or Glu. This is the first report showing the presence in a hyperthermophilic archaeon of a PLP-dependent amino acid racemase with broad substrate specificity that is likely responsible for utilization of D-amino acids for growth. PMID:25963389

  3. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Pellett, P L

    1994-05-01

    Plant protein foods contribute approximately 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis and approximately 32% in the North American region. These sources of protein are discussed in relation to their amino acid content, human amino acid requirements, and dietary protein quality. Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. This short review ends with a list of series of myths and realities concerning the relationship between plant protein and human nutrition and a list of some nutritional issues of concern to the health professional and informed consumer. PMID:8172124

  4. Dielectric and vibrational properties of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tulip, P R; Clark, S J

    2004-09-15

    We calculate polarizability tensors and normal mode frequencies for the amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine using density functional perturbation theory implemented within the plane wave pseudopotential framework. It is found that the behavior of the electron density under external fields depends to a large extent on the geometrical structure of the molecule in question, rather than simply on the constituent functional groups. The normal modes are able to help distinguish between the different types of intramolecular hydrogen bonding present, and help to explain why leucine is found in the zwitterionic form for the gaseous phase. Calculated IR spectra show a marked difference between those obtained for zwitterionic and nonzwitterionic molecules. These differences can be attributed to the different chemical and hydrogen bonds present. Effective dynamical charges are calculated, and compared to atomic charges obtained from Mulliken population analysis. It is found that disagreement exists, largely due to the differing origins of these quantities. PMID:15352813

  5. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Prof. William Martin, Prof. Eörs Szathmáry (nominated by Dr. Gáspár Jékely) and Dr. Ádám Kun (nominated by Dr. Sandor Pongor) PMID:22325238

  6. Evaluation of various sulphur amino acid compounds in the diet of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus 

    E-print Network

    Goff, Jonathan B

    2003-01-01

    Refinement of diet formulations to enhance the efficiency of red drum production continues to be pursued. Based on previous studies, the sulfur amino acid (SAA) requirement of red drum for methionine plus cystine appears to be most limiting, which...

  7. Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong; Nijveen, Harm

    2014-07-01

    Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

  8. Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  9. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  10. Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-09-01

    The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550°C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached ~150°C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550°C. ?-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures >550°C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed.

  11. Survival of amino acids in micrometeorites during atmospheric entry.

    PubMed

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L

    2001-01-01

    The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 degrees C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approximately 150 degrees C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 degrees C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures > 550 degrees C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. PMID:12448989

  12. Ugi reactions with trifunctional ?-amino acids, aldehydes, isocyanides and alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivar Ugi; Anton Demharter; Werner Hörl; Thomas Schmid

    1996-01-01

    1,1?-iminodicarboxylic acid derivatives, which are similar to many natural substances can be synthesized in excellent yields and with high stereoselectivity by a one-pot reaction of ?-amino acids, aldehydes, isocyanides and alcohols.

  13. Terrestrial evolution of polymerization of amino acids - Heat to ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sets of amino acids containing sufficient trifunctional monomer are thermally polymerized at temperatures such as 65 deg; the amino acids order themselves. Various polymers have diverse catalytic activities. The polymers aggregate, in aqueous solution, to cell-like structures having those activities plus emergent properties, e.g. proliferatability. Polyamino acids containing sufficient lysine catalyze conversion of free amino acids, by ATP, to small peptides and a high molecular weight fraction. The lysine-rich proteinoid is active in solution, within suspensions of cell-like particles, or in other particles composed of lysine-rich proteinoid and homopolyribonucleotide. Selectivities are observed. An archaic polyamino acid prelude to coded protein synthesis is indicated.

  14. Amino-acid-based peritoneal dialysis solution improves amino-acid transport into skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Asola; K Virtanen; K Någren; S Helin; M Taittonen; H Kastarinen; B Anderstam; J Knuuti; K Metsärinne; P Nuutila

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities of amino-acid (AA) and protein metabolism are known to occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein malnutrition may contribute to impaired prognosis of dialysis patients. A crucial step in protein metabolism is AA transport into the cells. We compared the effects of an AA-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution to glucose-based solutions on skeletal muscle AA uptake. Thirteen nondiabetic PD

  15. Effects of dietary protein and amino acid levels on the expression of selected cationic amino acid transporters and serum amino acid concentration in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    García-Villalobos, Héctor; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Araiza-Piña, Benedicto A; Htoo, John K; Cervantes-Ramírez, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    The absorption of lysine is facilitated by leucine, but there is no information regarding the effect of crude protein, lysine and leucine levels on the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with 20 pigs (14.9 +/- 0.62 kg initial body weight) to evaluate the effect of two protein levels, and the content of lysine, threonine, methionine and leucine in low crude protein diets on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles and serum concentration of amino acids. Treatments were as follows: (i) wheat-soybean meal diet, 20% crude protein (Control); (ii) wheat diet deficient in lysine, threonine and methionine (Basal diet); (iii) Basal diet plus 0.70% L-lysine, 0.27% L-threonine, 0.10% DL-methionine (Diet LTM); (iv) Diet LTM plus 0.80% L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu). Despite the Basal diet, all diets were formulated to meet the requirements of lysine, threonine and methionine; Diet LTM + Leu supplied 60% excess of leucine. The addition of lysine, threonine and methionine in Diet LTM increased the expression of b(0,+) in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles and decreased CAT-1 in jejunum; the serum concentration of lysine was also increased (p < 0.01). Further addition of L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu) decreased the b(0,+) expression in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (p < 0.05), increased the serum concentration ofleucine and arginine and decreased the concentration of isoleucine (p < 0.05). Pigs fed the Control diet expressed less b(0,+) in jejunum, and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles expressed more CAT-1 in jejunum (p < 0.05) and had lower serum concentration ofisoleucine, leucine and valine (p < 0.05), but higher lysine concentrations (p < 0.01) than those fed Diet LTM. These results indicated that both, the level and the source of dietary amino acids, affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs fed wheat-based diets. PMID:22924173

  16. Amino Acid Racemization and the Preservation of Ancient DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinar, Hendrik N.; Hoss, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    The extent of racemization of aspartic acid, alanine, and leucine provides criteria for assessing whether ancient tissue samples contain endogenous DNA. In samples in which the D/L ratio of aspartic acid exceeds 0.08, ancient DNA sequences could not be retrieved. Paleontological finds from which DNA sequences purportedly millions of years old have been reported show extensive racemization, and the amino acids present are mainly contaminates. An exception is the amino acids in some insects preserved in amber.

  17. Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism. Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of part...

  18. Two types of amino acid substitutions in protein evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Miyata; Sanzo Miyazawa; Teruo Yasunaga

    1979-01-01

    Summary The frequency of amino acid substitutions, relative to the frequency expected by chance, decreases linearly with the increase in physico-chemical differences between amino acid pairs involved in a substitution. This correlation does not apply to abnormal human hemoglobins. Since abnormal hemoglobins mostly reflect the process of mutation rather than selection, the correlation manifest during protein evolution between substitution frequency

  19. The amino acid sequence of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelis Schüller; Jaap J. Beintema; Jaap Broos; Janneke Meulenberg

    1985-01-01

    Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue. Turtle ribonuclease binds much more weakly to the affinity chromatography matrix used than mammalian ribonucleases. The amino acid sequence was determined from overlapping peptides obtained from three different digests. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein determined by others and homology were used as additional evidence for several overlaps.

  20. Structure property relationships of amino acids and some dipeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pogliani

    1994-01-01

    A molecular connectivity model of the crystal densities and specific rotations of some natural amino acids and of the longitudinal relaxation rates of some natural amino acids and cyclic dipeptides is presented. While crystal densities and relaxation rates are better described by a set of three valence molecular connectivity indices {Dv,0Xv,1Xv}, specific rotations are better described by a set of

  1. The effects of nucleotide substitution on amino acid substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanyan, V.G.; Yakovleva, S.V.; Krovatsky, Yu.V.; Esipova, N.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1993-12-31

    The aim of the work consists of modeling Dayhoff matrix from the experimentally estimated matrix of nucleotide substitutions. The close resemblance observed between the Dayhoff matrix and the modeling matrix suggests that frequencies of transitions and transversions in genome determine the frequencies of amino acids substitutions. The substitutions apparently are not a consequence of selection of interchangeable amino acids substitutions.

  2. EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

  3. The Fate of Amino Acids During Simulated Meteoritic Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marylène Bertrand; Sjerry van der Gaast; Faith Vilas; Friedrich Hörz; Gerald Haynes; Annie Chabin; Andre Brack; Frances Westall

    2009-01-01

    Delivery of prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids and peptides, in meteoritic\\/micrometeoritic materials to early Earth during the first 500 million years is considered to be one of the main processes by which the building blocks of life arrived on Earth. In this context, we present a study in which the effects of impact shock on amino acids and a

  4. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  5. Evidence for amino-acid: proton cotransport in Ricinus cotyledons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Robinson; Harry Beevers

    1981-01-01

    During germination and early growth of the castor-bean (Ricinus communis L.), protein in the endosperm is hydrolyzed and the amino acids are transferred into the cotyledons and then via the translocation stream to the axis of the growing seedling. The cotyledons retain the ability to absorb amino acids after removal of the endosperm and hypocotyl, exhibiting rates of transport up

  6. Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy M. Becker; Guoyao Wu; Joseph A. Galanko; Wunian Chen; Angela R. Maynor; Carl L. Bose; J. Marc Rhoads

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether premature infants who have necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have deficiencies in glutamine (GLN) and arginine (ARG), which are essential to intestinal integrity. Study design: A 4-month prospective cohort study of serum amino acid and urea levels in premature infants was done. Serum amino acid and urea levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods, respectively,

  7. Vitreous Amino Acid Concentrations in Patients With Glaucoma Undergoing Vitrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Honkanen; Sankar Baruah; M. Bridget Zimmerman; Cheryl L. Khanna; Yaffa K. Weaver; Joanna Narkiewicz; Rafiq Waziri; Karen M. Gehrs; Thomas A. Weingeist; H. Culver Boldt; James C. Folk; Stephen R. Russell; Young H. Kwon; Hiroaki Isono; Shoji Kishi; Yasutaka Kimura; Naoya Hagiwara; Naoki Konishi; Hitoshi Fujii; Siavash Yazdanfar; Andrew M. Rollins; Joseph A. Izatt; Barbara Nemesure; Suh-Yuh Wu; Anselm Hennis; M. Cristina Leske

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To measure vitreous concentrations of glu- tamate and other amino acids in patients with glaucoma undergoing vitrectomy. Methods: Undiluted vitreous samples were collected from patients undergoing vitrectomy at the University of Iowa (Iowa City) between 1997 and 1998 (n=69). Vitreous concentrations of 16 amino acids, including glutamate, were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Patients with a history of diabetes

  8. Interaction of metal ions and amino acids - Possible mechanisms for the adsorption of amino acids on homoionic smectite clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Loew, G. H.; Lawless, J.

    1983-01-01

    A semiempirical molecular orbital method is used to characterize the binding of amino acids to hexahydrated Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), a process presumed to occur when they are adsorbed in the interlamellar space of homoionic smectite clays. Five alpha-amino acids, beta-alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were used to investigate the metal ion and amino acid specificity in binding. It was assumed that the alpha, beta, and gamma-amino acids would bind as bidentate anionic ligands, forming either 1:1 or 1:2 six-coordinated five, six, and seven-membered-ring chelate complexes, respectively. Energies of complex formation, optimized geometries, and electron and spin distribution were determined; and steric constraints of binding of the amino acids to the ion-exchanged cations in the interlamellar spacing of a clay were examined. Results indicate that hexahydrated Cu(2+) forms more stable complexes than hexahydrated Ni(2+) with all the amino acids studied. However, among these amino acids, complex formation does not favor the adsorption of the biological subset. Calculated energetics of complex formation and steric constraints are shown to predict that 1:1 rather than 1:2 metal-amino acid complexes are generally favored in the clay.

  9. Amino acids and osmolarity in honeybee drone haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, B; Crailsheim, K

    1999-01-01

    In the haemolymph of honeybee drones, concentrations of free amino acids were higher than in worker haemolymph, with different relative proportions of individual amino acids. The overall concentration of free amino acids reached its highest level at the 5th day after adult drone emergence, and after the 9th day only minor changes in the concentration and distribution of free amino acids were observed. This coincides with the age when drones reach sexual maturity and change their feeding behaviour. Levels of essential free amino acids were high during the first 3 days of life and thereafter decreased. Osmolarity was lowest at emergence (334 +/- 42 mOsm), increased until the age of 3 days (423 +/- 32 mOsm) and then stayed generally constant until the 16th day of life. Only 25-day-old drones had significantly higher osmolarity (532 +/- 38 mOsm). The overall change in osmolarity during a drone's lifetime was about 40%. PMID:10524277

  10. Synthesis of amino acids by arc-discharge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huaibin, Shi; Chunlin, Shao; Zengliang, Yu

    2001-10-01

    Discharge was performed against ammonia water using a graphite rod as the anode and a silver thread as the cathode under an Ar atmosphere. HPLC and thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analyses showed that three kinds of amino acids were produced in the reaction mixture. As the graphite anode is the solitary source of carbon in the system, it is considered that amino acids have been produced by synthetic reaction between graphite and ammonia water. Thus, our results provide a possible way of formation of amino acids from elemental carbon on the primitive earth. In addition, the mechanism for the production of amino acids is discussed and the yields of different amino acids are presented.

  11. Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Nicola K; Gray, Helen E; Wright, Geraldine A

    2014-10-01

    Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body's nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee's nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1M sucrose or 1M sucrose containing 100mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

  12. Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Simcock, Nicola K.; Gray, Helen E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body’s nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee’s nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1 M sucrose or 1 M sucrose containing 100 mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24 h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

  13. Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Helinck; Dominique Le Bars; Daniel Moreau; Mireille Yvon

    2004-01-01

    Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus ther- mophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine,

  14. Amino acid composition of early stages of cephalopods and effect of amino acid dietary treatments on Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Villanueva; J. Riba; C. Ru??z-Capillas; A. V. González; M. Baeta

    2004-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed to provide a first look at the amino acid composition of the early stages of cephalopods and follow possible effects of certain dietary treatments. Amino acid profiles of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, squid Loligo vulgaris and octopus, Octopus vulgaris hatchlings and wild juveniles of L. vulgaris and O. vulgaris were analysed. Cephalopod hatchlings showed high

  15. Influence of some exogenous amino acids on the production of maize embryogenic callus and on endogenous amino acid content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Claparols; M. A. Santos; J. M. Torné

    1993-01-01

    The effects of four exogenous amino acids (proline, glycine, asparagine and serine) on the production of maize embryogenic callus and on its endogenous amino acid content have been investigated. For this purpose, an established embryogenic line of Type 1 callus from the inbred W64Ao2 has been used. From the results it may be concluded that a concentration of proline exceeding

  16. Using the radial distributions of physical features to compare amino acid environments and align amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Altman, R B; Chang, J T

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the microenvironments surrounding the twenty amino acids. Our analysis includes comparison of amino acid environments with random control environments as well as with each of the other amino acid environments. We describe the amino acid environments with a set of 21 features summarizing atomic, chemical group, residue, and secondary structural features. The environments are divided into radial shells of 1 A thickness to represent the distance of the features from the amino acid C beta atoms. We make the results of our analysis available graphically over the world wide web. To illustrate the validity and utility of our analysis, we used the amino acid comparative profiles to construct a substitution matrix, the WAC matrix, based on a simple summary of the computed environmental differences. We compared our matrix to BLOSUM62 and PAM250 in BLAST searches with query sequences selected from 39 protein families found in the PROSITE database. Although BLOSUM62 was the most sensitive matrix overall, our matrix was more sensitive for some families, and exhibited overall performance similar to PAM250. Our results suggest that the radial distribution of biochemical and biophysical features is useful for comparing amino acid environments, and that similarity matrices based on the geometric distribution of features around amino acids may produce improved search sensitivity. PMID:9390315

  17. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  18. Accurate determination of the amino acid content of selected feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2009-01-01

    The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to accurately determine the content of amino acids in five different feedstuffs. These values were compared with 24-h hydrolysis values determined for the same feedstuffs. Overall, approximately two-thirds of the amino acids determined in this study (aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine) using 24-h hydrolysis were in good agreement (<3% difference). When examined across feedstuffs, the concentration of serine was underestimated by the 24-h hydrolysis method by 4.8%, while the concentrations of histidine and lysine were overestimated by 3.9% and 3.1%, respectively. PMID:18946798

  19. Functional amino acids in nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    The recent years have witnessed growing interest in biochemistry, physiology and nutrition of amino acids (AA) in growth, health and disease of humans and other animals. This results from the discoveries of AA in cell signaling involving protein kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and gaseous molecules (i.e., NO, CO and H2S). In addition, nutritional studies have shown that dietary supplementation with several AA (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glutamate, leucine, and proline) modulates gene expression, enhances growth of the small intestine and skeletal muscle, or reduces excessive body fat. These seminal findings led to the new concept of functional AA, which are defined as those AA that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, lactation, and reproduction of the organisms. Functional AA hold great promise in prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders), intrauterine growth restriction, infertility, intestinal and neurological dysfunction, and infectious disease (including viral infections). PMID:23595206

  20. Synthesis of bicyclic tertiary alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Jon-Paul; Whitaker, Regina C; Miller, Craig H; Bhatti, Balwinder S

    2006-12-22

    Novel bicyclic alpha-amino acids, exo and endo-1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carboxylic acid, and 1-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylic acid have been readily synthesized for the generation of neuronal nicotinic receptor ligands. Alkylation of glycine-derived Schiff bases or nitroacetates with cyclic ether electrophiles, followed by acid-induced ring opening and cyclization in NH4OH, allowed for the preparation of substantial quantities of the three tertiary bicyclic alpha-amino acids. PMID:17168622

  1. The Fate of Amino Acids During Simulated Meteoritic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; van der Gaast, Sjerry; Vilas, Faith; Hörz, Friedrich; Haynes, Gerald; Chabin, Annie; Brack, Andre; Westall, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Delivery of prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids and peptides, in meteoritic/micrometeoritic materials to early Earth during the first 500 million years is considered to be one of the main processes by which the building blocks of life arrived on Earth. In this context, we present a study in which the effects of impact shock on amino acids and a peptide in artificial meteorites composed of saponite clay were investigated. The samples were subjected to pressures ranging from 12-28.9 GPa, which simulated impact velocities of 2.4-5.8 km/s for typical silicate-silicate impacts on Earth. Volatilization was determined by weight loss measurement, and the amino acid and peptide response was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For all compounds, degradation increased with peak pressure. At the highest shock pressures, amino acids with an alkyl side chain were more resistant than those with functional side chains. The peptide cleaved into its two primary amino acids. Some chiral amino acids experienced partial racemization during the course of the experiment. Our data indicate that impact shock may act as a selective filter to the delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids via carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. The application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the detection of excitatory amino acids

    E-print Network

    O'Neal, Dennis Patrick Doucet

    1999-01-01

    THE APPLICATION OF SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DETECTION OF EXCITATORY AMINO ACIDS A Thesis by DENNIS PATRICK DOUCET O'NEAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering THE APPLICATION OF SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DETECTION OF EXCITATORY AMINO ACIDS A Thesis by DENNIS PATRICK DOUCET O'NEAL Submitted...

  3. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  4. Evolution of a Genome-Encoded Bias in Amino Acid Biosynthetic Pathways Is a Potential Indicator of Amino Acid Dynamics in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the stress of starvation is one of an organism’s most challenging phenotypic responses. Those organisms that frequently survive the challenge, by virtue of their fitness, will have evolved genomes that are shaped by their specific environments. Understanding this genotype–environment–phenotype relationship at a deep level will require quantitative predictive models of the complex molecular systems that link these aspects of an organism’s existence. Here, we treat one of the most fundamental molecular systems, protein synthesis, and the amino acid biosynthetic pathways involved in the stringent response to starvation. These systems face an inherent logical dilemma: Building an amino acid biosynthetic pathway to synthesize its product—the cognate amino acid of the pathway—may require that very amino acid when it is no longer available. To study this potential “catch-22,” we have created a generic model of amino acid biosynthesis in response to sudden starvation. Our mathematical analysis and computational results indicate that there are two distinctly different outcomes: Partial recovery to a new steady state, or full system failure. Moreover, the cell’s fate is dictated by the cognate bias, the number of cognate amino acids in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway relative to the average number of that amino acid in the proteome. We test these implications by analyzing the proteomes of over 1,800 sequenced microbes, which reveals statistically significant evidence of low cognate bias, a genetic trait that would avoid the biosynthetic quandary. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pattern of cognate bias, which is readily derived by genome sequencing, may provide evolutionary clues to an organism’s natural environment. PMID:25118252

  5. Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Yanagida; Yoshikatsu Kanai; Arthit Chairoungdua; Do Kyung Kim; Hiroko Segawa; Tomoko Nii; Seok Ho Cha; Hirotaka Matsuo; Jun-ichi Fukushima; Yoshiki Fukasawa; Yoshiko Tani; Yutaka Taketani; Hiroshi Uchino; Ju Young Kim; Jun Inatomi; Isao Okayasu; Ken-ichi Miyamoto; Eiji Takeda; Tomoyuki Goya; Hitoshi Endou

    2001-01-01

    System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. We previously identified a transporter (L-type amino acid transporter 1: LAT1) subserving system L in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated that LAT1 requires 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) for its functional expression. Since its oncofetal expression was suggested

  6. Amino acids as promoieties in prodrug design and development.

    PubMed

    Vig, Balvinder S; Huttunen, Kristiina M; Laine, Krista; Rautio, Jarkko

    2013-10-01

    Prodrugs are biologically inactive agents that upon biotransformation in vivo result in active drug molecules. Since prodrugs might alter the tissue distribution, efficacy and the toxicity of the parent drug, prodrug design should be considered at the early stages of preclinical development. In this regard, natural and synthetic amino acids offer wide structural diversity and physicochemical properties. This review covers the use of amino acid prodrugs to improve poor solubility, poor permeability, sustained release, intravenous delivery, drug targeting, and metabolic stability of the parent drug. In addition, practical considerations and challenges associated with the development of amino acid prodrugs are also covered. PMID:23099277

  7. Beyond the Canonical 20 Amino Acids: Expanding the Genetic Lexicon*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Travis S.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to genetically encode unnatural amino acids beyond the common 20 has allowed unprecedented control over the chemical structures of recombinantly expressed proteins. Orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs have been used together with nonsense, rare, or 4-bp codons to incorporate >50 unnatural amino acids into proteins in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and mammalian cell lines. This has allowed the expression of proteins containing amino acids with novel side chains, including fluorophores, post-translational modifications, metal ion chelators, photocaged and photocross-linking moieties, uniquely reactive functional groups, and NMR, IR, and x-ray crystallographic probes. PMID:20147747

  8. Prebiotic amino acid thioester synthesis: thiol-dependent amino acid synthesis from formose substrates (formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde) and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Weber, A L

    1998-06-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters--intermediates capable of forming peptides (Weber and Orgel 1979). A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 degrees C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed. PMID:9611766

  9. How amino acids and peptides shaped the RNA world.

    PubMed

    van der Gulik, Peter T S; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a "pure RNA ribosome" evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems "RNA only", we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the "RNA world" view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  10. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    van der Gulik, Peter T.S.; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The “RNA world” hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a “pure RNA ribosome” evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems “RNA only”, we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the “RNA world” view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  11. Identification of core amino acids stabilizing rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Rader, A J; Anderson, Gülsüm; Isin, Basak; Khorana, H Gobind; Bahar, Ivet; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2004-05-11

    Rhodopsin is the only G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) whose 3D structure is known; therefore, it serves as a prototype for studies of the GPCR family of proteins. Rhodopsin dysfunction has been linked to misfolding, caused by chemical modifications that affect the naturally occurring disulfide bond between C110 and C187. Here, we identify the structural elements that stabilize rhodopsin by computational analysis of the rhodopsin structure and comparison with data from previous in vitro mutational studies. We simulate the thermal unfolding of rhodopsin by breaking the native-state hydrogen bonds sequentially in the order of their relative strength, using the recently developed Floppy Inclusion and Rigid Substructure Topography (FIRST) method [Jacobs, D. J., Rader, A. J., Kuhn, L. A. & Thorpe, M. F. (2001) Proteins 44, 150-165]. Residues most stable under thermal denaturation are part of a core, which is assumed to be important for the formation and stability of folded rhodopsin. This core includes the C110-C187 disulfide bond at the center of residues forming the interface between the transmembrane and the extracellular domains near the retinal binding pocket. Fast mode analysis of rhodopsin using the Gaussian network model also identifies the disulfide bond and the retinal ligand binding pocket to be the most rigid region in rhodopsin. Experiments confirm that 90% of the amino acids predicted by the FIRST method to be part of the core cause misfolding upon mutation. The observed high degree of conservation (78.9%) of this disulfide bond across all GPCR classes suggests that it is critical for the stability and function of GPCRs. PMID:15123809

  12. Studies on the mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase 

    E-print Network

    Kurtz, Kevin Anthony

    2000-01-01

    . The measured []V/K[] isotope effects decrease at higher pH and increase in D?O suggesting that the unprotonated form of the amino group is the substrate for D-amino acid oxidase. However, the results are inconclusive due to poor precision....

  13. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  14. Guanine- Formation During the Thermal Polymerization of Amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Caw, B. K.; Munoz, E. F.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Young, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    The action of heat on a mixture of amino acids was studied as a possible abiological pathway for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Guanine was detected. This result is significant in the context of chemical evolution.

  15. Amino acid utilization by Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Rodolfo Eduardo

    1938-01-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done on the growth of A. aerogenes and E. coli in synthetic media, but little work has been undertaken on the utilization by these organisms of amino acids as comparative sources of ...

  16. Epitope mapping of human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bratland, Eirik; Wolff, Anette S Bøe; Haavik, Jan; Kämpe, Olle; Sköldberg, Filip; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Bredholt, Geir; Knappskog, Per M; Husebye, Eystein S

    2007-02-16

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) is a rare hereditary condition considered a model disease for organ specific autoimmunity. A wide range of autoantibodies targeting antigens present in the affected organs have been identified. Autoantibodies against aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) are present in about 50% of APS I patients. In order to increase our understanding of autoantibody specificity in APS I, the aim of the present study was to localize target regions on AADC recognized by sera from APS I patients. Using several complementing strategies, we have shown that autoantibodies against AADC mainly recognize conformational epitopes. The major antigenic determinants were detected N-terminally to amino acid residue 237. Replacement of amino acids 227-230 (ERDK) with alanine residues reduced the reactivity towards AADC by >80% in all patient sera tested, suggesting that amino acids 227-230 are an important part of an immunodominant epitope. PMID:17194446

  17. Multicomponent cascade reactions of unprotected carbohydrates and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Benjamin; Linke, Michael; Mahrwald, Rainer

    2015-06-01

    Herein an operationally simple multicomponent reaction of unprotected carbohydrates with amino acids and isonitriles is presented. By the extension of this Ugi-type reaction to an unprotected disaccharide a novel glycopeptide structure was accessible. PMID:25952697

  18. Synthesis and catalytic application of amino acid based dendritic macromolecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Gossage; Johann T. B. H. Jastrzebski; Jeroen van Ameijde; Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer; Rob M. J. Liskamp; Gerard van Koten

    1999-01-01

    The use of amino acid based dendrimers as molecular scaffolds for the attachment of catalytically active organometallic Ni “pincer” complexes, via a urea functionality, is described; the dendrimer catalysts have comparable activity to their mononuclear (NCN)NiX analogues.

  19. Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

    2000-02-01

    Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

  20. Dietary management of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism with protein-modified diets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents experiences encountered with protein-modified diets (PMD) in the management of 67 patients, aged 1 day to 14 years, followed in the Pediatric Nutrition Clinic in the past 5 years. All had inborn errors of amino acid metabolism: maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency, propionic acidemia (PPA), or methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). In early infancy, the diet prescription is frequently adjusted to search for the infant's tolerance level of restricted amino acids. The levels must be established when natural foods other than milk are added to the PMD. The amino acids restricted are leucine, isoleucine, and valine in MSUD; leucine in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency; and isoleucine, methionine, threonine, and valine in PPA and MMA. Efficacy of the PMD depends on accuracy in prediction of the restricted amino acid requirement and the willingness and ability of parents and patients to conform to its demands. PMID:1588021

  1. Amino Acid Content of Noncell and Cell Wall Fractions in Feedstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Muscato; C. J. Sniffen; U. Krishnamoorthy; P. J. Van Soest

    1983-01-01

    Total and phosphate buffer insoluble amino acids were determined for corn grain and silage, dried brewer's grain, timothy hay, and soybean meal. In addition, amino acid compositions of the acid detergent residue and neutral deter- gent residue were determined, and soluble amino acids were estimated for each feedstuff. Variation of amino acid con- centrations among protein fractions as percent of

  2. Amino acid uptake in deciduous and coniferous taiga ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Kielland; Jack McFarland; Karl Olson

    2006-01-01

    We measured in situ uptake of amino acids and ammonium across deciduous and coniferous taiga forest ecosystems in interior Alaska to examine the idea that late successional (coniferous) forests rely more heavily on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), than do early successional (deciduous) ecosystems. We traced 15N-NH4+ and 13C-15N-amino acids from the soil solution into plant roots and soil pools over

  3. Non-canonical amino acids in protein engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A James Link; Marissa L Mock; David A Tirrell

    2003-01-01

    Methods for engineering proteins that contain non-canonical amino acids have advanced rapidly in the past few years. Novel amino acids can be introduced into recombinant proteins in either a residue-specific or site-specific fashion. The methods are complementary: residue-specific incorporation allows engineering of the overall physical and chemical behavior of proteins and protein-like macromolecules, whereas site-specific methods allow mechanistic questions to

  4. Production of Amino Acids: Physiological and Genetic Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Krämer

    2005-01-01

    Large scale fermentative production of l-amino acids is still an important goal of modern biotechnology. Very large amounts of l-glutamate and l-lysine, as well as significant quantities of l-threonine and l-phenylalanine and other amino acids for the application in food, feed, and for pharmaceutical purposes are currently produced by fermentation using mainly the two organisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli.

  5. Extraterrestrial amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Glavin; Andrew D. Aubrey; Michael P. Callahan; Jason P. Dworkin; Jamie E. Elsila; Eric T. Parker; Jeffrey L. Bada; Peter Jenniskens; Muawia H. Shaddad

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD\\/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD\\/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to

  6. Branchedchain amino acid aminotransferase along the rabbit and rat nephron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen B Burch; Natalie Cambon; Oliver H Lowry

    1985-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase along the rabbit and rat nephron. The activity of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.42) is reported for four or five different segments of the rat and rabbit nephron as well as for patches from the papilla. In the rat the levels ranged 40-fold, from a high in the thick ascending limb of Henle to a

  7. Plasma Amino-acids in the Nigerian Nutritional Ataxic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Osuntokun; J. E. Durowoju; H. McFarlane; J. Wilson

    1968-01-01

    Investigation of nine patients with tropical ataxic neuropathy showed an absence or diminution of sulphur-containing amino-acids—cysteine and methionine—and a variable concentration of most other essential amino-acids. The pattern was unlike that found in kwashiorkor. The levels of serum cholesterol and total protein were normal, and the serum vitamin B12 levels were normal or high. Plasma thiocyanate concentration was high.All the

  8. Histidine, an Essential Amino Acid for Adult Dogs1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUNO CIANCIARUSO; MICHAEL R. JONES; JOEL D. KOPPLE

    Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to eval uate whether histidine is an essential amino acid. Dogs were tube-fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous amino acid diets which provided either no histidine or 67 mg histidine\\/kg body weight\\/day. The histidine-free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5.6 ± 3.6 (so) days and to six dogs for 59.2 ± 6.0 days. In

  9. Measurement of endogenous amino acid losses in poultry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Siriwan; W. L. Bryden; Y. Mollah; E. F. Annison

    1993-01-01

    1. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were determined in broiler chickens and in cannulated cross?bred layer strain cockerels using either a nitrogen?free diet, regression analysis or a 48 h fast.2. Endogenous amino acid flows to the ileum in fasted cockerels were significantly lower than those obtained both by feeding the nitrogen?free diet, and from regression analysis in either broilers or

  10. Expression and transcriptional regulation of amino acid transporters in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; D. R. Bush

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Recent studies have shown that there are more than 50 amino acid transporter genes in the Arabidopsis genome. This abundance of amino acid transporters implies that they play a multitude of fundamental roles in plant growth\\u000a and development. Current research on the expression and regulation (i.e., tissue-specific expression and regulation of expression\\u000a in response to nutrient and environmental changes) of

  11. Polypeptide having an amino acid replaced with N-benzylglycine

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Alexander R. (Livermore, CA); Young, Janis D. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to one or more polypeptides having useful biological activity in a mammal, which comprise: a polypeptide related to bradykinin of four to ten amino acid residues wherein one or more specific amino acids in the polypeptide chain are replaced with achiral N-benzylglycine. These polypeptide analogues have useful potent agonist or antagonist pharmacological properties depending upon the structure. A preferred polypeptide is (N-benzylglycine.sup.7)-bradykinin.

  12. Genomic Regions Associated with Amino Acid Composition in Soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Panthee; V. R. Pantalone; A. M. Saxton; D. R. West; C. E. Sams

    2006-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the single largest source of protein in animal feed. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate\\u000a genomic regions controlling amino acid composition in soybean. It is important to study the genetics of amino acid composition\\u000a to achieve improvements through breeding. The objectives of this study were to determine the ratios between essential to

  13. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids in proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton Roque Bugs; Raquel Kely Bortoleto-Bugs; Marinônio Lopes Cornélio

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) to study the presence of aromatic amino acid in proteins.\\u000a We examined the aromatic amino acids in six proteins with well-known structures using absorption spectra of near ultraviolet\\u000a PAS over the wavelength range 240–320 nm. The fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties that govern\\u000a the absorption of light and a

  14. Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes. PMID:22303247

  15. Improving phylogenetic inference with a semiempirical amino acid substitution model.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Stefan; Schneider, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Amino acid substitution matrices describe the rates by which amino acids are replaced during evolution. In contrast to nucleotide or codon models, amino acid substitution matrices are in general parameterless and empirically estimated, probably because there is no obvious parametrization for amino acid substitutions. Principal component analysis has previously been used to improve codon substitution models by empirically finding the most relevant parameters. Here, we apply the same method to amino acid substitution matrices, leading to a semiempirical substitution model that can adjust the transition rates to the protein sequences under investigation. Our new model almost invariably achieves the best likelihood values in large-scale comparisons with established amino acid substitution models (JTT, WAG, and LG). In particular for longer alignments, these likelihood gains are considerably larger than what could be expected from simply having more parameters. The application of our model differs from that of mixture models (such as UL2 or UL3), as we optimize one rate matrix per alignment, whereas mixture models apply the variation per alignments site. This makes our model computationally more efficient, while the performance is comparable to that of UL3. Applied to the phylogenetic problem of the origin of placental mammals, our new model and the UL3 mixed model are the only ones of the tested models that cluster Afrotheria and Xenarthra into a clade called Atlantogenata, which would be in correspondence with recent findings using more sophisticated phylogenetic methods. PMID:23002090

  16. The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids from various hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, D.; Miller, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids using an atmosphere of CH4+N2+H2O+NH3 has been investigated with variable pNH3. The amino acids produced using higher hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, butane, and isobutane) instead of CH4 were also investigated. There was considerable range in the absolute yields of amino acids, but the yields relative to glycine (or alpha-amino-n-butyric acid) were more uniform. The relative yields of the C3 to C6 aliphatic alpha-amino acids are nearly the same (with a few exceptions) with all the hydrocarbons. The glycine yields are more variable. The precursors to the C3-C6 aliphatic amino acids seem to be produced in the same process, which is separate from the synthesis of glycine precursors. It may be possible to use these relative yields as a signature for a spark discharge synthesis provided corrections can be made for subsequent decomposition events (e.g. in the Murchison meteorite).

  17. Transport Function of Rice Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Margaret R; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    The transport function of four rice (Oryza sativa) amino acid permeases (AAPs), OsAAP1 (Os07g04180), OsAAP3 (Os06g36180), OsAAP7 (Os05g34980) and OsAAP16 (Os12g08090), was analyzed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiology. OsAAP1, OsAAP7 and OsAAP16 functioned, similarly to Arabidopsis AAPs, as general amino acid permeases. OsAAP3 had a distinct substrate specificity compared with other rice or Arabidopsis AAPs. OsAAP3 transported the basic amino acids lysine and arginine well but selected against aromatic amino acids. The transport of basic amino acids was further analyzed for OsAAP1 and OsAAP3, and the results support the transport of both neutral and positively charged forms of basic amino acids by the rice AAPs. Cellular localization using the tandem enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter pHusion showed that OsAAP1 and OsAAP3 localized to the plasma membrane after transient expression in onion epidermal cells or stable expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25907566

  18. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane. PMID:25201567

  19. Evaluation of Amino Acids as Turfgrass Nematicides1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Luc, John E.; Crow, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog at rates of 224 and 448 kg amino acid/ha reduced the number of Belonolaimus longicaudatus mixed life-stages and Meloidogyne incognita J2 in soil, whereas L-threonine and lysine were not effective in reducing the number of either nematode. Futhermore, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog were equally effective against B. longicaudatus at rates of 112, 224, and 448 kg amino acid/ha, and the highest rate (448 kg amino acid/ha) of all amino acids was more effective in reducing the number of B. longicaudatus than the lower rate. However, phytotoxicity was observed on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) treated with 448 kg amino acid/ha of methionine hydroxyl analog and DL methionine. In addition, in one of two field experiments on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) turf percentage green cover was increased and the number of B. longicaudatus was reduced by 224 kg amino acid/ha of DL-methionine and potassium methionate compared to untreated controls in one of two trials. PMID:22736861

  20. Enantiomeric enrichment of ?-amino acid derivatives: recrystallization of N-Fmoc ?-amino acid tert-butyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J O'Donnell; Francisca Delgado

    2001-01-01

    The optical purity of products derived from enantioselective reactions of the benzophenone imine of glycine tert-butyl esters can often be improved by conversion to the N-Fmoc ?-amino acid tert-butyl esters followed by simple recrystallization.

  1. Diel and depth variations in dissolved free amino acids and ammonium in the Baltic Sea determined by shipboard HPL Canalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH MOPPER; PETER LINDROTH

    1982-01-01

    A precolumn fluorimetric labeling method was tested for shipboard HPLC analysis of dis- solved fret amino acids (DFAA) in natural waters. No sample preparation is required and all naturally occurring amino acids plus ammonium are sufficiently separated within 30 min, Striking diel trends were observed to a depth of at least 60 m, with maximal DFAA concen- trations (200400 nM)

  2. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases, the transcription activation function of Met4 is prevented by Met30p, which binds to the Met4 inhibitory region. In addition to the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex, transcriptional regulation involves two zinc finger-containing proteins, Met31p and Met32p. The AdoMet-mediated control of the sulfur amino acid pathway illustrates the molecular strategies used by eucaryotic cells to couple gene expression to metabolic changes. PMID:9409150

  3. Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids 

    E-print Network

    Chambers, James Richard

    1958-01-01

    chloride and sodium hydroxide, rapid stirring was continued for another 30 minutes. This solution was then made acidic to congo red with 6 N hydro? chloric acid, extracted with 13 ml. of diethyl ether to remove unreacted benzoyl chloride and any benzoic... acid is insoluble in ethyl alcohol but its hydrochloride is soluble; therefore, the free acid can be obtained easily by dissolving the hydro? chloride in ethyl alcohol and precipitating the free acid (III) with butene oxide, A 0 + CH...

  4. Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

    2011-03-01

    Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

  5. Amino acid sequences of two ferredoxins from pokeweed, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, S; Hase, T; Wada, K; Matsubara, H; Suzuki, K; Takaichi, S

    1978-05-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ferredoxins isolated from pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, were determined. Tryptic peptides of maleyl-carboxymethyl-ferredoxin I and carboxymethyl-ferredoxin II were prepared and analyzed. The large peptides were further digested with staphylococcal protease and chymotrypsin. Ferredoxins I and II were composed of 96 and 98 amino acid residues, respectively. Though ferredoxin I lacks tryptophan and methionine, ferredoxin II contains both of them. In a comparison of the amino acid sequences with those of other higher plant ferredoxins, ferredoxin I is one residue shorter than others at the carboxyl-terminus and ferredoxin II one longer than others at the amino-terminus. Ferredoxins I and II differ in 23 sites from each other and in 27 to 37 sites from other higher plant ferredoxins. This suggests that duplication of the ferredoxin gene occurred after the divergence of pokeweed from other higher plants. A phylogenetic tree including all other ferredoxins was constructed. PMID:659398

  6. A unified nomenclature and amino acid numbering for human PTEN.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Rafael; Baker, Suzanne J; Barata, Joao T; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Cid, Victor J; Chin-Sang, Ian D; Davé, Vrushank; den Hertog, Jeroen; Devreotes, Peter; Eickholt, Britta J; Eng, Charis; Furnari, Frank B; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Gericke, Arne; Hopkins, Benjamin; Jiang, Xeujun; Lee, Seung-Rock; Lösche, Mathias; Malaney, Prerna; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Molina, María; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Parsons, Ramon; Pinton, Paolo; Rivas, Carmen; Rocha, Rafael M; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Ross, Alonzo H; Serrano, Manuel; Stambolic, Vuk; Stiles, Bangyan; Suzuki, Akira; Tan, Seong-Seng; Tonks, Nicholas K; Trotman, Lloyd C; Wolff, Nicolas; Woscholski, Rudiger; Wu, Hong; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2014-07-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a major brake for cell transformation, mainly due to its phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] phosphatase activity that directly counteracts the oncogenicity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTEN mutations are frequent in tumors and in the germ line of patients with tumor predisposition or with neurological or cognitive disorders, which makes the PTEN gene and protein a major focus of interest in current biomedical research. After almost two decades of intense investigation on the 403-residue-long PTEN protein, a previously uncharacterized form of PTEN has been discovered that contains 173 amino-terminal extra amino acids, as a result of an alternate translation initiation site. To facilitate research in the field and to avoid ambiguities in the naming and identification of PTEN amino acids from publications and databases, we propose here a unifying nomenclature and amino acid numbering for this longer form of PTEN. PMID:24985344

  7. A Unified Nomenclature and Amino Acid Numbering for Human PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Rafael; Baker, Suzanne J.; Barata, Joao T.; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Cid, Victor J.; Chin-Sang, Ian D.; Davé, Vrushank; den Hertog, Jeroen; Devreotes, Peter; Eickholt, Britta J.; Eng, Charis; Furnari, Frank B.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Gericke, Arne; Hopkins, Benjamin; Jiang, Xeujun; Lee, Seung-Rock; Lösche, Mathias; Malaney, Prerna; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Molina, María; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Parsons, Ramon; Pinton, Paolo; Rivas, Carmen; Rocha, Rafael M.; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Serrano, Manuel; Stambolic, Vuk; Stiles, Bangyan; Suzuki, Akira; Tan, Seong-Seng; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Wolff, Nicolas; Woscholski, Rudiger; Wu, Hong; Leslie, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a major brake for cell transformation, mainly due to its phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] phosphatase activity that directly counteracts the oncogenicity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTEN mutations are frequent in tumors and in the germ line of patients with tumor predisposition or with neurological or cognitive disorders, which makes the PTEN gene and protein a major focus of interest in current biomedical research. After almost two decades of intense investigation on the 403-residue-long PTEN protein, a previously uncharacterized form of PTEN has been discovered that contains 173 amino-terminal extra amino acids, as a result of an alternate translation initiation site. To facilitate research in the field and to avoid ambiguities in the naming and identification of PTEN amino acids from publications and databases, we propose here a unifying nomenclature and amino acid numbering for this longer form of PTEN. PMID:24985344

  8. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations.

  9. Plasma amino acids and protein levels in chronic renal failure and changes caused by oral supplements of essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Young, G A; Keogh, J B; Parsons, F M

    1975-06-01

    1. Plasma amino acids and six proteins have been measured in patients with chronic renal failure receiving low protein diets before and after oral supplementation with essential amino acids. 2. All the patients on low protein diets had a lower percentage of essential amino acids in their plasma than normal subjects but after supplementation, plasma levels increased significantly with minimal increase in non-essential amino acids or urea nitrogen. 3. Mean levels of plasma transferrin, complement C3 and globulin Gc were lower and plasma prealbumin higher in patients than in normal subjects. Plasma complement C4 and albumin were not different from normal. 4. Seven out of nine patients who tolerated the supplementation showed a significant increase in plasma transferrin, prealbumin and complement C3 but not in complement C4, globulin Gc or albumin. 5. Correlations between the percentage of essential amino acids and each of plasma transferrin, prealbumin and complement C3 and also between several of the plasma proteins further substantiate their value in the assessment of dietary intake in chronic renal failure. 6. The value of amino acid supplementation on low protein diets in chronic renal failure is discussed in relation to these observations. PMID:1132152

  10. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints. PMID:20413233

  11. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase of the total quantity of amino acids after acid hydrolysis, due to the formation/release of amino acids during the whole water extraction / liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, could have hidden a loss of amino acids. Thus, in extraterrestrial material studies involving liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, the quantities of total amino acids may have been underestimated.

  12. Use of free amino acid composition of shell to estimate age since death of recent molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, A.M.; Powell, E.N.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An understanding of death assemblage formation requires a measurement of time since death of constituent individuals. A new dating technique based on the measurement of the free amino acid content of mollusc shells has been developed which is inexpensive, rapid, and effective in dating time scales of a few decades to a few centuries. Since the breakdown of proteins of the matrix of mollusc shells begins soon after deposition, free amino acids gradually increase with shell age. The measurement of these can be used to determine the relative age among a group of shells. The future use of this technique depends on a clearer understanding of how free amino acid accumulation rate varies with age and species and developing effective calibration methods so that absolute rather than relative ages can be readily obtained. Three species were distributed widely enough for use - Rangia cuneata, Tagelus plebeius, and Phacoides pectinatus. A good relationship between free amino acids and relative age was present in all three species over the entire core; however some species and some amino acid were superior to others. Rangia cuneata produced the best correlation because it is epifaunal and thus died at the sediment surface rather than over an extended depth range and, also perhaps, because amino acid accumulation rates were more linear.

  13. Determination of the D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Cheng, C.-N.; Cronin, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils were measured by using a gas chromatographic technique. The results of two processing procedures were compared to determine the better method. Results of the comparison indicated that the determination of D and L percentages requires amino acid purification if one is to obtain accurate data. It was found that very significant amounts of D-alanine, D-aspartic acid, and D-glutamic acid were present in the contemporary soils studied. Valine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, and phenylalanine generally contained only a trace to very small amounts of the D isomer. It is probable that the D-amino acids from the alanine, aspartic, and glutamic acids are contributed to the soil primarily via microorganisms. The finding of very significant quantities of some D-amino acids (about 5-16%) in present-day soils may alert some investigators of geological sediments to a possible problem in using amino acid racemization as an age-dating technique.

  14. Engineered Disulfide-forming Amino Acid Substitutions Interfere with a Conformational Change in the Mismatch Recognition Complex Msh2-Msh6 Required for Mismatch Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Victoria V.; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    ATP binding causes the mispair-bound Msh2-Msh6 mismatch recognition complex to slide along the DNA away from the mismatch, and ATP is required for the mispair-dependent interaction between Msh2-Msh6 and Mlh1-Pms1. It has been inferred from these observations that ATP induces conformational changes in Msh2-Msh6; however, the nature of these conformational changes and their requirement in mismatch repair are poorly understood. Here we show that ATP induces a conformational change within the C-terminal region of Msh6 that protects the trypsin cleavage site after Msh6 residue Arg1124. An engineered disulfide bond within this region prevented the ATP-driven conformational change and resulted in an Msh2-Msh6 complex that bound mispaired bases but could not form sliding clamps or bind Mlh1-Pms1. The engineered disulfide bond also reduced mismatch repair efficiency in vivo, indicating that this ATP-driven conformational change plays a role in mismatch repair. PMID:23045530

  15. Closed-system behaviour of the intra-crystalline fraction of amino acids in mollusc shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. H. Penkman; D. S. Kaufman; D. Maddy; M. J. Collins

    2008-01-01

    When mollusc shells are analysed conventionally for amino acid geochronology, the entire population of amino acids is included, both inter- and intra-crystalline. This study investigates the utility of removing the amino acids that are most susceptible to environmental effects by isolating the fraction of amino acids encapsulated within mineral crystals of mollusc shells (intra-crystalline fraction). Bleaching, heating and leaching (diffusive

  16. 2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Giri

    2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 2Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 3Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;2/17/05 4Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from

  17. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the precocity of growth (0.06±0.08). The parameter representing the quantity of feed at 50 kg BW showed a relatively high genetic correlation with RFI (0.49±0.14), and average protein deposition between 35 and 110 kg had the highest correlation with FCR (-0.76±0.08). Thus, growth and FI dynamics may be envisaged as breeding tools to improve feed efficiency. Furthermore, improvement of feed efficiency should be envisaged jointly with new feeding strategies. PMID:25192352

  18. Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Tomaši?; Branimir Bertoša; Sanja Tomi?; Milan Šoški?; Volker Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded

  19. Complete Amino Acid Sequence of alpha -tubulin from Porcine Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ponstingl; E. Krauhs; M. Little; T. Kempf

    1981-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of alpha -tubulin from porcine brain was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of eight sets of overlapping peptides. It comprises 450 residues plus a COOH-terminal tyrosine that is present only in 15% of the material. A region of 40 residues at the COOH-terminus is highly acidic, mainly due to 16 glutamyl residues. This high

  20. Synthesis of a novel amino acid based dendrimer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer; Peter G. J. van der Meer; Rob M. J. Liskamp

    1997-01-01

    An easy accessible dendrimer monomer 3,5-bis(2-tert-butyloxycarbonyl aminoethoxy) benzoic acid methyl ester 1 was designed. The monomer was converted to both the “surface” and “braching” monomer in a versatile synthesis of a novel amino acid based dendrimer by the covergent method, using the well established and high-yielding BOP-peptide coupling method.

  1. Ab initio investigation of the hydration of deprotonated amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Michaux; Johan Wouters; Eric A. Perpète; Denis Jacquemin

    2009-01-01

    The complexation of five deprotonated anionic amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-Aspartic acid, and L-glutamine)\\u000a with one water molecule, has been investigated using a MP2\\/63-11++G(d,p) approach fully accounting for the basis set superposition\\u000a errors. For each amino acid, several energetic minima have been identified, and we provide spectroscopic information allowing\\u000a to discriminate them. Our results strongly suggest that two complexes

  2. Distribution, industrial applications, and enzymatic synthesis of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuzhen; Ma, Qinyuan; Zhu, Hailiang

    2015-04-01

    D-Amino acids exist widely in microbes, plants, animals, and food and can be applied in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics. Because of their widespread applications in industry, D-amino acids have recently received more and more attention. Enzymes including D-hydantoinase, N-acyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase, D-amino acid amidase, D-aminopeptidase, D-peptidase, L-amino acid oxidase, D-amino acid aminotransferase, and D-amino acid dehydrogenase can be used for D-amino acids synthesis by kinetic resolution or asymmetric amination. In this review, the distribution, industrial applications, and enzymatic synthesis methods are summarized. And, among all the current enzymatic methods, D-amino acid dehydrogenase method not only produces D-amino acid by a one-step reaction but also takes environment and atom economics into consideration; therefore, it is deserved to be paid more attention. PMID:25758960

  3. The Amino Acid Arginine 210 of the Response Regulator HrpG of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Is Required for HrpG Function in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Ficarra, Florencia A; Garofalo, Cecilia G; Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri colonizes its hosts through the trafficking of effector proteins to the plant cell by the type III protein secretion system. In X. citri subsp. citri, as in other plant pathogens, the hrp cluster encodes the type III protein secretion system and is regulated by the transcription factors HrpG and HrpX. HrpG belongs to the OmpR family's response regulator of EnvZ/OmpR two-component signal transduction system. Here, we show that the arginine 210 residue is crucial for the transcriptional activity of HrpG revealed by the absence of disease in host plants and hypersensitive response in non-host plants when a strain carrying this point mutation is used in plant infiltration assays. Also, this strain showed decreased expression levels of hrp genes in bacteria grown in culture or when they were recovered from citrus leaves. Moreover, we show for the first time that HrpG binds to both hrpX and its own promoter, and the change of the arginine 210 by a cysteine does not prevent the binding to both promoters. Nevertheless, in vitro hrpX transcription was observed only with HrpG whereas no transcription was detected with the R210C mutant. HrpG was able to interact with itself as well as with the mutant R210C suggesting that it functions as a dimer. The mutant protein R210C showed altered protease sensitivity, suggesting that Arg210 is essential for protein active conformation and thus for transcriptional activity. Our results indicate that arginine 210 in HrpG, as it may occur with this conserved residue in other members of this family of response regulators, is not required for DNA binding whereas is essential for hrp genes transcription and therefore for pathogenicity and HR induction. PMID:25961560

  4. The Amino Acid Arginine 210 of the Response Regulator HrpG of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Is Required for HrpG Function in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri colonizes its hosts through the trafficking of effector proteins to the plant cell by the type III protein secretion system. In X. citri subsp. citri, as in other plant pathogens, the hrp cluster encodes the type III protein secretion system and is regulated by the transcription factors HrpG and HrpX. HrpG belongs to the OmpR family’s response regulator of EnvZ/OmpR two-component signal transduction system. Here, we show that the arginine 210 residue is crucial for the transcriptional activity of HrpG revealed by the absence of disease in host plants and hypersensitive response in non-host plants when a strain carrying this point mutation is used in plant infiltration assays. Also, this strain showed decreased expression levels of hrp genes in bacteria grown in culture or when they were recovered from citrus leaves. Moreover, we show for the first time that HrpG binds to both hrpX and its own promoter, and the change of the arginine 210 by a cysteine does not prevent the binding to both promoters. Nevertheless, in vitro hrpX transcription was observed only with HrpG whereas no transcription was detected with the R210C mutant. HrpG was able to interact with itself as well as with the mutant R210C suggesting that it functions as a dimer. The mutant protein R210C showed altered protease sensitivity, suggesting that Arg210 is essential for protein active conformation and thus for transcriptional activity. Our results indicate that arginine 210 in HrpG, as it may occur with this conserved residue in other members of this family of response regulators, is not required for DNA binding whereas is essential for hrp genes transcription and therefore for pathogenicity and HR induction. PMID:25961560

  5. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  6. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose Substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Weber

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters - intermediates

  7. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose Substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Weber

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded a-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters – intermediates

  8. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

  9. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  10. N5-(1-carboxyethyl)-ornithine, a new amino acid from the intracellular pool of Streptococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Curtis, M A; Miller, S P

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular concentrations of amino acids were determined in cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 during growth in complex, spent, and chemically defined media. Glutamic and aspartic acids represented the major constituents of the amino acid pool. However, organisms grown in spent medium or in defined medium supplemented with ornithine also contained unusually high levels of two additional amino acids. One of these amino acids was ornithine. The second compound exhibited properties of a neutral amino acid by coelution with valine from the amino acid analyzer. The compound did not, however, comigrate with valine or any other standard amino acid by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The unknown amino acid was purified by paper and thin-layer chromatography, and its molecular structure was determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This new amino acid was shown to be N5-(1-carboxyethyl)-ornithine. The 14C-labeled compound was formed by cells of S. lactis 133 during growth in spent medium or defined medium containing [14C]ornithine. Formation of the derivative by resting cells required ornithine and the presence of a metabolizable sugar. N5-(1-Carboxyethyl)-ornithine was synthesized chemically from both poly-S-ornithine and (2S)-N2-carbobenzyloxy-ornithine as a 1:1 mixture of two diastereomers. The physical and chemical properties of the amino acid purified from S. lactis 133 were identical to those of one of the synthetic diastereomers. The bis-N-trifluoroacetyl-di-n-butyl esters of the natural and synthetic compounds generated identical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry spectra. A mechanism is suggested for the in vivo synthesis of N5-(1-carboxyethyl)-ornithine, and the possible functions of this new amino acid are discussed. Images PMID:3090017

  11. Intra- and extracellular amino acid concentrations in portacaval-shunted rabbits. Role of hyperammonemia and effects of branched-chain amino acid-enriched parenteral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Leweling; U. Staedt; J.-P. Striebel; R. Zeitz; E. Holm

    1989-01-01

    Summary Intra- and extracellular amino acid concentrations were measured in rabbits in order to elucidate the possible role of hyperammonemia in lowering the postabsorptive plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and to assess the effects of BCAA-enriched total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the amino acid pattern of muscle. The pathophysiological part of this paper deals with portacaval anastomosis (PCA)

  12. Cystine is the first limiting amino acid for utilization of endogenous amino acids in chicks fed a protein-free diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M. Webel; David H. Baker

    1999-01-01

    Three bioassays were conducted to determine the limiting order of amino acids for endogenous amino acid utilization in chicks fed a protein-free diet. The studies were conducted during the period 10 to 21 d posthatching. Experiment 1 was a deletion assay in which a protein-free basal diet was supplemented with an amino acid mixture containing methionine, cystine, threonine, arginine, phenylalanine

  13. Actions of amino-acids on the isolated hemisected spinal cord of the toad

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, D. R.; Phillis, J. W.; Watkins, J. C.

    1961-01-01

    The actions of a series of amino-acids related to ?-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid have been determined upon the isolated and sagittally hemisected spinal cord of the toad, Bufo marinus. Slow and fast components of the ventral root reflex responses following dorsal root stimulation were depressed by ?-aminobutyric acid and by a series of neutral amino-acids having a similar structure. The relative depressant potencies of the members of this series were determined by comparison of the concentrations of each required to cause the same reduction in the electrically integrated slow components of these reflex responses. Glutamic acid and closely related substances facilitated reflex responses in low concentrations and depressed these responses in high concentrations. The actions of these substances resulted in the depolarization of motoneurones which was recorded as a negative potential in the ventral root. The relative potencies of the substances were estimated from the concentrations of each required to produce negative potentials of the same magnitude. Several amino-acids not previously tested proved to have remarkably strong actions on this preparation. 3-Aminopropanesulphonic acid was the most potent depressant tested; homocysteic acid and N-methylaspartic acid were the most powerful excitatory substances. The D forms of optically active depressants or excitants were always stronger than the corresponding L forms where both enantiomorphs were available. Points of similarity and dissimilarity between these results and those of related investigations are discussed. PMID:13718946

  14. Amino acids in a Fischer Tropsch type synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. L.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    One postulation is described for the presence of organic compounds in meteorites which states that they were formed during the condensation of the solar nebula. A viable laboratory simulation of these conditions can be modeled after the industrial Fischer Tropsch reaction, which is known to produce organic compounds called hydrocarbons. In this simulation, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and ammonia is heated in the presence of iron meteorite. The reaction products for amino acids, a class of organic compounds important to life, were examined. A large number of these compounds is found in meteorites and other chemical evolution experiments, but only small quantities of a few amino acids were found in the present simulation work. These results are at odds with the existing literature in which many amino acids were reported.

  15. Luminal Heterodimeric Amino Acid Transporter Defective in Cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Rahel; Loffing, Jan; Rossier, Grégoire; Bauch, Christian; Meier, Christian; Eggermann, Thomas; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Kühn, Lukas C.; Verrey, François

    1999-01-01

    Mutations of the glycoprotein rBAT cause cystinuria type I, an autosomal recessive failure of dibasic amino acid transport (b0,+ type) across luminal membranes of intestine and kidney cells. Here we identify the permease-like protein b0,+AT as the catalytic subunit that associates by a disulfide bond with rBAT to form a hetero-oligomeric b0,+ amino acid transporter complex. We demonstrate its b0,+-type amino acid transport kinetics using a heterodimeric fusion construct and show its luminal brush border localization in kidney proximal tubule. These biochemical, transport, and localization characteristics as well as the chromosomal localization on 19q support the notion that the b0,+AT protein is the product of the gene defective in non-type I cystinuria. PMID:10588648

  16. Simple, high-yield synthesis of polyhedral carborane amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, S.B.; Kasar, R.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-02-07

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of binary cancer therapy that offers the potential of delivering spatially selective, high linear energy transfer radiation to the target cells while sparing surrounding normal tissue. We have demonstarted a versatile, general method for the conversion of o- ,m-, and p-carborane to their corresponding Boc-protected amino acids. Heterobifunctional polyhedral carboranes are exceedingly rare in the literature, and the amino acids prepared by this general method may prove to be valuable synthons for use in the synthesis of tumor-seeking compounds for BNCT or PDT. Morever, these conformationally constrained amino acids should be particularly interesting for use in peptide synthesis. The dihedral angle between the carbon atoms of these polyhedra increases in the order 60{degree} (ortho), 110{degree} (meta), and 180{degree} (para), allowing the peptide chemist to select a desired conformation. 11 refs.

  17. Expression of catfish amino acid taste receptors in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Getchell, T V; Grillo, M; Tate, S S; Urade, R; Teeter, J; Margolis, F L

    1990-04-01

    We demonstrate that poly (A+)RNA isolated from catfish barbels directs the expression of functional amino acid taste receptors in the Xenopus oocyte. The activity of these receptors is monitored in ovo by the two electrode voltage clamp technique. Specific conductance changes recorded in response to amino acid stimulation are analogous to those recorded electrophysiologically from intact catfish barbels. These responses exhibit specificity, reproducibility, rapid onset and termination, and desensitization to repetitive stimulation. A functional assay system that encompasses the full complement of transduction events from the ligand-receptor interaction to subsequent conductance changes is necessary to identify molecular components responsible for these events. Our results demonstrate that the Xenopus oocyte can be used to characterize and identify clones coding for amino acid taste receptors analogous to its use in studying receptor molecules for other neuroactive compounds. PMID:1697041

  18. Sugar amino acids and their uses in designing bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar K; Ghosh, Subhash; Jayaprakash, Sarva

    2002-02-01

    In search of new molecular entities for discovering new drugs and materials, organic chemists are looking for innovative approaches that try to imitate nature in assembling quickly large number of distinct and diverse molecular structures from 'nature-like' and yet unnatural designer building blocks using combinatorial approach. The main objective in developing such libraries is to mimic the diversities displayed in structures and properties of natural products. The unnatural building blocks used in these assemblies are carefully designed to manifest the structural diversities of the monomeric units used by nature like amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleosides to build its arsenal. Compounds made of such unnatural building blocks are also expected to be more stable toward proteolytic cleavage in physiological systems than their natural counterparts. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to nature's molecular arsenal. Recent advances in the area of combinatorial chemistry give an unprecedented technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acid-based libraries exploiting the diversities of carbohydrate molecules and well-developed solid-phase peptide synthesis methods. This review describes the development of sugar amino acids as a novel class of peptidomimetic building blocks and their applications in creating large number of structurally diverse peptide-based molecules many of which display interesting three-dimensional structures as well as useful biological properties. PMID:11945118

  19. Infusion of the branched chain amino acids in postoperative patients. Anticatabolic properties.

    PubMed

    Freund, H; Hoover, H C; Atamian, S; Fischer, J E

    1979-07-01

    Postinjury metabolism is characterized by breakdown of muscle protein as substrate for energy production and gluconeogenesis and by the resultant loss of lean body mass and weight loss. The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) which are principally oxidized by the skeletal muscle have been implicated in recent in vitro and in vivo studies as having special anticatabolic and regulating effects in skeletal muscle. We studied the anticatabolic effects of the BCAAs in 35 patients undergoing operative injury of moderate severity. In a prospective randomized and blinded manner patients were infused for five days starting immediately after surgery with either 5% dextrose or 5% dextrose with an amino acid solution containing 22, 35 or 100% BCAAs. All patients survived and there were no major postoperative complications. Mean hospital stay was 17 days for patients receiving amino acids and 19 days for patients receiving 5% dextrose only (p = ns). All three groups receiving amino acid solutions were in nitrogen equilibrium or in a slight positive nitrogen balance, while the group receiving 5% dextrose only was in a mean negative nitrogen balance of 6.6 +/- 0.6 gN/day. The differences between the three groups receiving amino acids were slight and not significant. Weight loss was 2 +/- 0.7 kg in the 5% dextrose group, 1 +/- 0.7 kg in the 22% BCAAs group, 0.5 +/- 0.5 kg in the 35% BCAAs group and the 100% BCAAs group gained 0.4 +/- 1.8 kg. Blood chemistries in the different groups and during the study period remained within normal limits except for ammonia levels rising significantly in the 5% dextrose group and SGOT levels rising in the 22% and 35% BCAA groups. With mild variations the plasma amino acid patterns in all groups were similar to the normal pattern, even in the 100% BCAAs group receiving an unbalanced amino acid solution, suggesting the complete cessation of amino acid efflux from muscle, the muscle depending solely on the exogenous supply of BCAAs to satisfy its metabolic requirements. The results suggest that early nutritional suppport in the postoperative period will result in nitrogen equilibrium and that the infusion of the three BCAAs only in the postoperative state is as effective in preventing muscle catabolism as other more balanced amino acid solutions. In the postinjury state balanced amino acid solutions rich in BCAA may prove beneficial. PMID:464673

  20. The multifaceted role of aspartate-family amino acids in plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kirma, Menny; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Galili, Gad

    2012-09-01

    Plants represent the major sources of human foods and livestock feeds, worldwide. However, the limited content of the essential amino acid lysine in cereal grains represents a major nutritional problem for human and for livestock feeding in developed countries. Optimizing the level of lysine in cereal grains requires extensive knowledge on the biological processes regulating the homeostasis of this essential amino acid as well as the biological consequences of this homeostasis. Manipulating biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of lysine metabolism enabled an enhanced accumulation of this essential amino acid in seeds. However, this approach had a major effect on the levels of various metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, revealing a strong interaction between lysine metabolism and cellular energy metabolism. Recent studies discussed here have shed new light on the metabolic processes responsible for the catabolism of lysine, as well as isoleucine, another amino acid of the aspartate-family pathway, into the TCA cycle. Here we discuss progress being made to understand biological processes associated with the catabolism of amino acids of the aspartate-family pathway and its importance for optimal improvement of the nutritional quality of plants. PMID:22516796

  1. Amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations are modified by maternal dietary glucose, gestational age, and fetal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Gurekian, Christine N; Koski, Kristine G

    2005-09-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) contains free amino acids that enter via transplacental and transmembranous routes from maternal sources; subsequently, the developing fetus "ingests" these amino acids early in gestation through unkeratinized skin and later through continuous AF swallowing. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to determine whether a restriction of maternal dietary glucose modulates the free AF amino acid pool, and 2) to establish whether any diet-induced changes were predictive of fetal weight near term (d 21.5). To produce varying in utero growth rates, pregnant rat dams were fed varying levels of glucose (0, 12, 24, 60%) throughout pregnancy. AF samples, collected on gestational days 18-21, were precolumn derivatized by 9-fluorenylmethyloxychloroformate to produce stable primary and secondary amino acid derivatives required for HPLC detection at low amino acid concentrations. Eighteen amino acids were identified. A 2-way ANOVA with main effects of diet (< or =12% and > or =24% glucose) and gestational age (d 18/19 and 20/21) showed that 2 AF amino acids, methionine and phenylalanine, and 12 AF amino acids were independently modified by diet and gestational age, respectively. Of note were the 364% increase in AF methionine and the constant decline in AF taurine as both gestational age lengthened and fetal weight increased. Multiple regression demonstrated that in addition to methionine, 3 specific AF amino acids, cysteine, lysine, and tyrosine, predicted fetal weight. These results demonstrate that the AF amino acid pool can be modified by the glucose content of the maternal diet and that specific AF amino acids are associated with gestational age and fetal growth. PMID:16140901

  2. Amino acid preferences of small, naturally occurring polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Villar, H O; Koehler, R T

    2000-03-01

    An analysis of amino acid composition of small, naturally occurring peptides ranging in size from 3 to 50 residues has been carried out. The purpose of the study is to determine whether differential trends in amino acid usage exist for small peptides compared to larger polypeptides and proteins. Results indicate that Cys, Trp, and Phe are substantially more frequent in peptides compared to their abundance in proteins at large. Aliphatic hydrophobic residues, particularly Leu and Ile, are somewhat underrepresented, while the frequency of Glu is significantly reduced. The shorter peptides are also more frequently neutral and become increasingly charged as their size increases. PMID:10679627

  3. A Topological Description of Hubs in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gaci, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Once we have compared this type of graphs to the general model of scale-free networks, we analyze the existence of nodes which highly interact, the hubs. We describe these nodes taking into account their position in the primary structure to study their apparition frequency in the folded proteins. Finally, we observe that their interaction level is a consequence of the general rules which govern the folding process. PMID:20585353

  4. Syntheses of IAA- and IPA-amino acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Khelashvili, Levan; Munawar, Munawar Ali

    2008-11-21

    Amino acid derivatives of IAA and IPA are prepared conveniently and efficiently by coupling of readily available 2a-b with diverse free amino acids 3a-g and (3c+3c') to give compounds 4a-j, (4c+4c') and (4h+4h') in 38-70% yields. Similarly, 2a-b afforded IAA and IPA peptide conjugates 6a-b in 32-40% yields. Complete retention of chirality was supported by NMR and HPLC analysis. PMID:18939870

  5. ?-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-07-01

    Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "?-crystalline phase" or "?-gel". In this study, we have characterized ?-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the ?-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated ?-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated ?-gels in the order 12-Glu <12-G8G-12 < 12-G5G-12 < 12-G2G-12. In the three gemini surfactant systems, the decreased spacer chain length resulted in the increased maximum viscosity and elastic modulus of the saturated ?-gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the ?-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of ?-gel in gemini surfactant systems. PMID:24912111

  6. D-amino acids inhibit initial bacterial adhesion: thermodynamic evidence.

    PubMed

    Xing, Su-Fang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Taylor, Alicia A; Walker, Sharon L; Wang, Yi-Fu; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in a self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix that can adhere to inert or living surfaces. D-Amino acids were previously identified as self-produced compounds that mediate biofilm disassembly by causing the release of the protein component of the polymeric matrix. However, whether exogenous D-amino acids could inhibit initial bacterial adhesion is still unknown. Here, the effect of the exogenous amino acid D-tyrosine on initial bacterial adhesion was determined by combined use of chemical analysis, force spectroscopic measurement, and theoretical predictions. The surface thermodynamic theory demonstrated that the total interaction energy increased with more D-tyrosine, and the contribution of Lewis acid-base interactions relative to the change in the total interaction energy was much greater than the overall nonspecific interactions. Finally, atomic force microscopy analysis implied that the hydrogen bond numbers and adhesion forces decreased with the increase in D-tyrosine concentrations. D-Tyrosine contributed to the repulsive nature of the cell and ultimately led to the inhibition of bacterial adhesion. This study provides a new way to regulate biofilm formation by manipulating the contents of D-amino acids in natural or engineered systems. PMID:25333717

  7. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hutson, S M; Fenstermacher, D; Mahar, C

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-14C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso[1-14C]valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and [1-14C]KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM [1-14C]KIV and alpha-ketoiso[1-14C]caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using [1-14C]leucine and [1-14C]valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of [1-14C]leucine or [1-14C]valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized. Further addition of alpha-ketoglutarate resulted in a significant increase in the rate of labeled leucine or valine transamination, but again most of the labeled keto acid product was oxidized. Thus, catabolism of branched chain amino acids will be favored by a high concentration of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate and low intramitochondrial glutamate. PMID:3346211

  8. An amino acid mixture mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; Menon, Rejeesh; Vaught, Lauren A; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-06-01

    Electrolyte and nutrient absorption occur in villous epithelial cells. Radiation often results in reduced electrolyte and nutrient absorption, which leads to gastrointestinal toxicity. Therefore, the authors studied: (1) radiation-induced changes in glucose and amino acid absorption across ileal tissues and (2) the effect of amino acid mixtures on absorptive capacity. NIH Swiss mice were irradiated (0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 Gy) using a ¹³?Cs source at 0.9 Gy min?¹. Transepithelial short circuit current (I(sc)), dilution potential, and isotope flux determinations were made in Ussing chamber studies and correlated to plasma endotoxin and IL-1? levels. Amino acids that increased electrolyte absorption and improved mucosal barrier functions were used to create a mitigating amino acid mixture (MAAM). The MAAM was given to mice via gastric gavage; thereafter, body weight and survival were recorded. A significant decrease in basal and glucose-stimulated sodium absorption occurred after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 Gy irradiation. Ussing chamber studies showed that paracellular permeability increased following irradiation and that the addition of glucose resulted in a further increase in permeability. Following irradiation, certain amino acids manifested decreased absorption, whereas others were associated with increased absorption. Lysine, aspartic acid, glycine, isoleucine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, tryptophan, and serine decreased plasma endotoxins were selected for the MAAM. Mice treated with the MAAM showed increased electrolyte absorption and decreased paracellular permeability, IL-1? levels, and plasma endotoxin levels. Mice treated with MAAM also had increased weight gain and better survival following irradiation. The MAAM has immediate potential for use in mitigating radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. PMID:24776907

  9. Seasonal changes of free amino acids and thermal hysteresis in overwintering heteropteran insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír; Renault, David; Rozsypal, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Overwintering adults of Pyrrhocoris apterus do not tolerate freezing of their body fluids and rely on a supercooling strategy and seasonal accumulation of polyols to survive at subzero body temperatures. We sampled the adults monthly in the field during the cold season 2008-2009 and found active thermal hysteresis factors (THFs) in hemolymph of winter-sampled adults. The hysteresis between the equilibrium melting and freezing points ranged from 0.18°C to 0.30°C. No signs of THFs activity were found in the autumn- and spring-sampled insects. The total free amino acid pool almost doubled during winter time. The sum concentrations of 27 free amino acids ranged between 35 and 40mM in whole body water and 40-45mM in hemolymph during December-February. Two amino acids, Pro and ?-Ala most significantly contributed to the seasonal increase, while Gln showed the most dramatic seasonal decrease. Moderate levels of amino acid accumulation in overwintering P. apterus suggest that they are by-products of protein degradation and pentose pathway activity during the state of metabolic suppression imposed by diapause and low body temperature. Potential colligative effects of accumulated amino acids, extending the supercooling capacity of overwintering P. apterus, are negligible. Non-colligative effects require further study. PMID:21729762

  10. Regulation of protein degradation pathways by amino acids and insulin in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid gain in lean mass in neonates requires greater rates of protein synthesis than degradation. We previously delineated the molecular mechanisms by which insulin and amino acids, especially leucine, modulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and how this changes with development. In the curre...

  11. Correlation between Fibroin Amino Acid Sequence and Physical Silk Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Fedic; Michal Zurovec; Frantisek Sehnal

    2003-01-01

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were se- quenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephe- stia kuehniella), and Indian

  12. Statistical modeling of correlatively expressed functional amino acids in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern maize breeding and selection for large starchy kernels may have contributed to reduced contents of essential amino acids which represents a serious nutritional problem for humans and animals. A large number (1,348) of germplasm accessions belonging to 13 populations and classified into four h...

  13. Complete Amino Acid Sequence of beta -tubulin from Porcine Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Krauhs; Melvyn Little; Tore Kempf; Renate Hofer-Warbinek; Wolfgang Ade; Herwig Ponstingl

    1981-01-01

    The primary structure of porcine brain beta -tubulin was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of six sets of overlapping peptides. The protein consists of 445 amino acid residues and has a minimum of six positions that are heterogeneous, indicating at least two beta -tubulins in porcine brain. Comparison of the optimally aligned sequences of beta -tubulin and beta

  14. Persistent biases in the amino acid composition of prokaryotic proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Géraldine Pascal; Claudine Médigue; Antoine Danchin

    2006-01-01

    Summary Correspondence analysis of 28 proteomes selected to span the entire realm of prokaryotes revealed universal biases in the proteins' amino acid distribution. Integral Inner Membrane Proteins always form an individual cluster, which can then be used to predict protein localisation in unknown proteomes, independently of the organism's biotope or kingdom. Orphan proteins are consistently rich in aromatic residues. Another

  15. Amino Acids as Gustatory Stimuli in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Bruce P.; Bernard, Rudy A.; Kare, Morley R.

    1962-01-01

    Neural activity in intact chorda tympani nerve of rats was studied with an electronic summator. Neural activity increased when amino acid solutions 0.01 M or above passed over the tongue. Response magnitude, at concentrations close to solubility limits for the amino acids tested, was: DL-methionine < DL-tryptophan < DL-valine < DL-alanine < glycine < 0.1 M NaCl. Maximum response magnitudes to 1 M D-, and 1.2 M DL-alanine, and 1.5 M glycine developed in 1 to 3 minutes. Following such stimulation, a 63 per cent reduction in response to 0.1 M NaCl occurred 60 minutes after the first stimulation (medians). The depression was still present 20 hours later. Responses to glycine and alanine were not depressed. Amino acids vs. water preferences were investigated. With ascending concentration sequences, rats selected low concentration DL- and L-alanine and glycine; accepted D-, L-, and DL-tryptophan and low concentration DL-methionine; and rejected high concentration glycine, DL-alanine, and DL-methionine. Descending sequences showed depressed and delayed selection of glycine and DL-alanine, and DL-methionine and D- and L-tryptophan rejection. Both groups rejected DL-valine. It is concluded that glycine and alanine receptor effects differ from those of NaCl, but that all three compounds may affect a common receptor site. Prior exposure to amino acids may modify subsequent neural and/or behavioral responses. PMID:13903994

  16. Progress Toward an Enceladus Amino Acid Sampler Astrobiology Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. P.; Willis, P. A.; Blacksberg, J.

    2012-12-01

    The development of a new astrobiolgoy instrument for exploring the trace chemical composition of the Enceladus jets and plume, and the e-ring of Saturn is presented. The Enceladus amino acid sampler (EAAS) allows for detection of amino acids using optical Raman spectroscopy integrated with a sample pre-concentration system. The pre-concentration process facilitates the delivery of a sample to a mass spectrometer for detection of specific amino acids. The initial EAAS design utilizes lab-on-a-breadboard components where a sample inlet, sample outlet, reagents, controllers, pumps, valves and pre-concentration column for the EAAS prototype are all assembled on a 5" x 7" breadboard. The pre-concentration process is controlled using automation scripts and software. An optical window allows a Raman spectrometer to directly monitor the pre-concentration of amino acids in a filter/column loaded with of a strong cation exchange resin. Initial samples to demonstrate EAAS simulate the conditions of Don Juan Pond, one of the coldest and saltiest bodies of liquid water on Earth, located in the Wright Valley of Antarctica. This EAAS development is an important step toward a new type of astrobiology science instrument that is capable of operating on a spacecraft in flight or in orbit.

  17. Inter-domain linker prediction using amino acid compositional index.

    PubMed

    Shatnawi, Maad; Zaki, Nazar

    2015-04-01

    Protein chains are generally long and consist of multiple domains. Domains are distinct structural units of a protein that can evolve and function independently. The accurate and reliable prediction of protein domain linkers and boundaries is often considered to be the initial step of protein tertiary structure and function predictions. In this paper, we introduce CISA as a method for predicting inter-domain linker regions solely from the amino acid sequence information. The method first computes the amino acid compositional index from the protein sequence dataset of domain-linker segments and the amino acid composition. A preference profile is then generated by calculating the average compositional index values along the amino acid sequence using a sliding window. Finally, the protein sequence is segmented into intervals and a simulated annealing algorithm is employed to enhance the prediction by finding the optimal threshold value for each segment that separates domains from inter-domain linkers. The method was tested on two standard protein datasets and showed considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art domain linker prediction methods. PMID:25677918

  18. Origins of amino acid transporter loci in trypanosomatid parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P Jackson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large amino acid transporter gene families were identified from the genome sequences of three parasitic protists, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major. These genes encode molecular sensors of the external host environment for trypanosomatid cells and are crucial to modulation of gene expression as the parasite passes through different life stages. This study provides a comprehensive phylogenetic account

  19. Analysis and survival of amino acids in Martian regolith analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, James R. C.; Loes Ten Kate, Inge; Martins, Zita; Nørnberg, Per; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the native amino acid composition of two analogs of Martian soil, JSC Mars-1 and Salten Skov. A Mars simulation chamber has been built and used to expose samples of these analogs to temperature and lighting conditions similar to those found at low latitudes on the Martian surface. The effects of the simulated conditions have been examined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Exposure to energetic ultraviolet (UV) light in vacuum appears to cause a modest increase in the concentration of certain amino acids within the materials, which is interpreted as resulting from the degradation of microorganisms. The influence of low temperatures shows that the accretion of condensed water on the soils leads to the destruction of amino acids, supporting the idea that reactive chemical processes involving H2O are at work within the Martian soil. We discuss the influence of UV radiation, low temperatures, and gaseous CO2 on the intrinsic amino acid composition of Martian soil analogs and describe, with the help of a simple model, how these studies fit within the framework of life detection on Mars and the practical tasks of choosing and using Martian regolith analogs in planetary research.

  20. The Application of Electrodialysis to Desalting an Amino Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente; González-García, José; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; Bonete, Pedro; Inglés, Marina

    2000-11-01

    One of the main difficulties in preparing pharmaceutical products is isolating them from aqueous solutions of high salt concentration, as a high purity must be obtained. Several methods that employ organic solvents are normally used. In this paper, a novel method, electrodialysis, is presented together with its application to the desalting of an industrial effluent comprising an amino acid (p-hydroxyphenylglycine) with a high salt content (ammonium sulfate and sodium dihydrogenphosphate). It was possible to remove more than 70% of the initial salt content. From this solution with a low salt content, it is possible to isolate the amino acid with a higher purity. This experiment will enable the student to gain a useful knowledge of this technique and to work with typical figures of merit of electrodialysis such as current efficiency, electrical energy consumption, production of the process, removal of salt, and loss of amino acid. In addition the student learns the use of chromatographic techniques applied to the analysis of amino acids (HPLC) and salts (IC).

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-01-01

    Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. PMID:24927904

  2. Beta-Amino acid analogs of an insect neuropeptide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect neuropeptides of the insect kinin class share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence FX1X2WG-NH2 (X2 = P,S) and regulate such critical physiological processes as water balance and digestive enzyme release. Incorporation of beta-amino acids in peptides can enhance both resistance to peptid...

  3. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Edgar P.

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Amino Acids-Based Trimethoprim Salts

    PubMed Central

    ElShaer, Amr; Hanson, Peter; Worthington, Tony; Lambert, Peter; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2012-01-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor which prevents the conversion of dihydrofolic acid into tetrahydrofolic acid, resulting in the depletion of the latter and leading to bacterial death. Oral bioavailability of TMP is hindered by both its low solubility and low permeability. This study aims to prepare novel salts of TMP using anionic amino acids; aspartic and glutamic acid as counter ions in order to improve solubility and dissolution. TMP salts were prepared by lyophilisation and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both the amino acids formed salts with TMP in a 1:1 molar ratio and showed a 280 fold improvement in solubility. Investigation of the microbiological activity of the prepared salts against TMP sensitive Escherichia coli showed that the new salts not only retained antibacterial activity but also exhibited higher zone of inhibition which was attributed to improved physicochemical characters such as higher solubility and dissolution. The results are an important finding that could potentially impact on faster onset of antibacterial activity and reduced therapeutic dose when administered to patients. Studies are underway investigating the effect of ion-pairing TMP with amino acids on the permeability profile of the drug. PMID:24300187

  5. A study of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gaull, Gerald E.; Gaitonde, M. K.

    1967-01-01

    1. In a study of the metabolism of l-[35S]methionine in vivo, the labelled sulphur compounds of rat liver and brain were separated first by ion-exchange chromatography into two fractions containing (i) free sulphur amino acids such as methionine, cystathionine, cyst(e)ine and homocyst(e)ine and (ii) glutathione. 2. Two-dimensional paper chromatography with butan-1-ol–acetic acid or propionic acid–water in the first direction and 80% acetone or acetone–ethyl methyl ketone–water in the second direction was found superior to other solvent systems for separating the sulphur amino acids. 3. At 10min. after injection of [35S]methionine only a small part of the 35S was found combined in free methionine or other free sulphur amino acids. 4. Evidence was obtained of the presence of adenosyl[35S]methionine and adenosyl[35S]homocysteine in perchloric acid extracts of rat liver and brain. 5. The trans-sulphuration pathway was active in brain as well as in liver. PMID:6030290

  6. Changes in amino acids and essential fatty acids during early larval rearing of dentex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tulli; E. Tibaldi

    1997-01-01

    Samples of fertilized dentex, Dentex dentex, eggs and larvae fed enriched rotifers and Artemia according to standard hatchery procedures were analysed for free, total amino acid and fatty acid contents. Egg free amino acids (53 nmol ind-1) and total lipids (13.5 (µg ind-1) levels were considerably reduced in the newly hatched larvae (6.0 nmol and 5.7 (µg ind-1 respectively) while

  7. Biochemical and physiological bases for utilization of dietary amino acids by young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amounts of all "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" (NEAA) to support maximum production performance. Therefore, over the past 50?years, much emphasis has been placed on dietary requirements of nutritionally essential amino acids as building blocks for tissue proteins. However, a large body of literature shows that NEAA, particularly glutamine, glutamate, arginine and proline regulate physiological functions via cell signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NEAA-derived gaseous molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide). Available evidence shows that under current feeding programs, only 70% and 55% of dietary amino acids are deposited as tissue proteins in 14-day-old sow-reared piglets and in 30-day-old pigs weaned at 21?days of age, respectively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the roles and dietary requirements of NEAA in swine nutrition. This review highlights the basic biochemistry and physiology of absorption and utilization of amino acids in young pigs to enhance the efficacy of utilization of dietary protein and to minimize excretion of nitrogenous wastes from the body. PMID:23445937

  8. Transduction mechanisms for the taste of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Brand, J G; Teeter, J H; Kumazawa, T; Huque, T; Bayley, D L

    1991-05-01

    Amino acids are important taste stimuli for a variety of animals. One animal model, the channel catfish, I. punctatus, possesses sensitive taste receptor systems for several amino acids. Neurophysiological and biochemical receptor binding studies suggest the presence of at least three receptor pathways: one is a relatively nonspecific site(s) responsive to short-chain neutral amino acids such as L-alanine (L-ALA); another is responsive to the basic amino acid L-arginine (L-ARG); still another is a low affinity site for L-proline (L-PRO). Several possible transduction pathways are available in the taste system of this animal model for these amino acids. One of these, formation of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and cyclic AMP (cAMP), is mediated by GTP-binding regulatory proteins, while another involves ion channels directly activated by stimuli. L-ALA is a potent stimulus to cAMP and IP3 accumulation, while L-ARG at low concentrations is without effect. On the other hand, L-ARG and L-PRO, but not L-ALA, are able to activate stimulus-specific and cation-selective channels in taste epithelial membranes reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers at the tips of patch pipettes. Preliminary studies using mouse taste tissue demonstrate that monosodium-L-glutamate (MSG) did not enhance production of IP3 or cAMP. However, in reconstitution experiments using taste epithelium of mouse, conductance changes due to MSG are observed. The specificity of this channel(s) and its uniqueness have yet to be determined. PMID:1679559

  9. Adding ?-Ketoglutarate to Semi-hard Cheese Curd Highly Enhances the Conversion of Amino acids to Aroma Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yvon; S. Berthelot; J. C. Gripon

    1998-01-01

    St Paulin type cheeses made with three different starters were supplemented with alpha;-ketoglutarate, the main alpha;-ketoacid acceptor for amino acid transamination. Amino acid catabolism was monitored during ripening by free amino acid analysis and by analysis of metabolites produced from radiolabelled amino acids introduced as tracer into cheese curd. Also, odour development in cheese was evaluated by sniffing. Amino acid

  10. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism and pharmacological effects of branched-chain amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiharu Shimomura; Taro Murakami; Masaru Nagasaki; Takashi Honda; Hidemi Goto; Katsuhiro Kotake; Tsuyoshi Kurokawa; Toshiaki Nonami

    2004-01-01

    Significant evidence of the pharmacological and physiological effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has accumulated, attracting the interest of not only clinicians but also basic medical researchers. We summarize here the characteristic features of BCAA catabolism, focusing on the initial two enzymes in the pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase and branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. In addition, we describe a unique characteristic

  11. Amino acid derivatives are substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2 (slc36a2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel Edwards; Catriona M. H. Anderson; Kelly M. Gatfield; Mark P. Jevons; Vadivel Ganapathy; David T. Thwaites

    2011-01-01

    The H+-coupled amino acid transporter PAT2 (SLC36A2) transports the amino acids proline, glycine, alanine and hydroxyproline. A physiological role played by PAT2 in amino acid reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule is demonstrated by mutations in SLC36A2 that lead to an iminoglycinuric phenotype (imino acid and glycine uria) in humans. A number of proline, GABA and tryptophan derivatives were examined

  12. Complexes of polyadenylic acid and the methyl esters of amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaled, M. A.; Mulins, D. W., Jr.; Swindle, M.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study of amino acid methyl esters binding to polyadenylic acid supports the theory that the genetic code originated through weak but selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides. NMR, insoluble complex analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy are used to illustrate a correlation between the hydrophybicities of A amino acids and their binding constants, which, beginning with the largest, are in the order of Phe (having nominally a hydrophobic AAA anticodon), Ile, Leu, Val and Gly (having a hydrophilic anticodon with no A). In general, the binding constants are twice the values by Reuben and Polk (1980) for monomeric AMP, which suggests that polymer amino acids are interacting with only one base. No real differences are found betwen poly A binding for free Phe, Phe methyl ester or Phe amide, except that the amide value is slightly lower.

  13. Regulation of adipose branched chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated blood branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. One possibility is that under these conditions there is a reduced cellular utilization and/or lower complete oxidation of BCAAs. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a...

  14. The origin of conserved protein domains and amino acid repeats via adaptive competition for control over amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Rorick, Mary M; Wagner, Günter P

    2010-01-01

    Some proteins, such as homeodomain transcription factors, contain highly conserved regions of sequence. It has recently been suggested that multiple functional domains overlap in the homeodomain, together explaining this high conservation. However, the question remains why so many functional domains cluster together in one relatively small and constrained region of the protein. Here we have modeled an evolutionary mechanism that can produce this kind of clustering: conserved functional domains are displaced from the parts of the molecule that are undergoing adaptive evolution because novel functions generally out-compete conserved functions for control over the identity of amino acid residues. We call this model COAA, for Competition Over Amino Acids. We also studied the evolution of amino acid repeats (a.k.a. homopeptides), which are especially prevalent in transcription factors. Repeats that are encoded by non-homogenous mixtures of synonymous codons cannot be explained by replication slippage alone. Our model provides two explanations for their origin, maintenance, and over-representation in highly conserved proteins. We demonstrate that either competition between multiple functional domains for space within a sequence, or reuse of a sequence for many functions over time, can cause the evolution of amino acid repeats. Both of these processes are characteristic of multifunctional proteins such as homeodomain transcription factors. We conclude that the COAA model can explain two widely recognized features of transcription factor proteins: conserved domains and a tendency to accumulate homopeptides. PMID:20024539

  15. Kinetic fractionation of stable nitrogen isotopes during amino acid transamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, Stephen A.; Estep, Marilyn L. Fogel; Engel, Michael H.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-10-01

    This study evaluates a kinetic isotope effect involving 15N, during the transamination reactions catalyzed by glutamic oxalacetic transaminase. During the transfer of amino nitrogen from glutamic acid to oxaloacetate to form aspartic acid, 14NH 2 reacted 1.0083 times faster than 14NH 2. In the reverse reaction transferring NH 2 from aspartic acid to ?-ketoglutarate, 14NH 2 was incorporated 1.0017 times faster than 15NH 2. Knowledge of the magnitude and sign of these isotope effects will be useful in the interpretation of the distribution of 15N in biological and geochemical systems.

  16. Oligomerization of Negatively-Charged Amino Acids by Carbonyldiimidazole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    The carbonyldiimidazole-induced oligomerizations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and 0-phospho-serine are amongst the most efficient reported syntheses of biopolymers in aqueous solution. The dependence of the yields of products on the concentrations of reagents, the temperature and the enantiomeric composition of the substrate amino acids are reported. Catalysis by metal ions, particularly by Mg(2+), is described. These reactions do not generate significant amounts of material in the size-range of several tens of residues that are thought to be needed for a polymer to function as a genetic material.

  17. Cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics, parallel catalyst screening for aziridination

    E-print Network

    Li, Shih-ming

    1996-01-01

    of the hydantoin intermediate under basic conditions or of the o(- 2,28-30 cyano compounds with acidic conditions resulted in the formation of a mixture of amino acids. The pure cis- and trans- isomers obtained by these methods were isolated by recrystallization... was acidified with 50% sulfuric acid, extracted again with ether (8 x 25 mL). The ether extracts were washed with water, dried over MgSO4, and concentrated. Recrystallization from ether give the title compound as colorless crystal. Yield: mp: 11. 5 g (31...

  18. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Shishova, Ekaterina Y.; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Emig, Francis A.; Ash, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of human arginase I. Specifically, we focus on: (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values, but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is: water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis. PMID:19093830

  19. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Shishova, E.; Di Costanzo, L; Emig, F; Ash, D; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of arginase I. Specifically, we focus on (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis.

  20. Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi?, Ana; Bertosa, Branimir; Tomi?, Sanja; Soski?, Milan; Magnus, Volker

    2007-06-22

    The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded quantitative correlations with k: retention on a C18 reversed-phase column (experimental approach) and the distance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic poles of the molecules (in silico approach). Most compounds examined are possible metabolic precursors of IAA, an experimental tumor therapeutic. PMID:17459401

  1. Infusion of Branched-chain Enriched Amino Acid Solution in Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Herbert; Dienstag, Jules; Lehrich, James; Yoshimura, Norman; Bradford, Ronald R.; Rosen, Harvey; Atamian, Susan; Slemmer, Elizabeth; Holroyde, Jane; Fischer, Josef E.

    1982-01-01

    Hospitalized patients with hepatic insufficiency often suffer from severe catabolic states and are in urgent need of nutritional support during their acute illness. Protein intolerence, however, remains a significant problem with respect to the provision of adequate nutrition, either enterally or parenterally. The following report is an anecdotal series of 63 consecutive patients in a large urban hospital treated prospectively with nutritional support using a prototype high branched-chain amino acid solution (FO80) given by technique of total parenteral nutrition by the subclavian or internal jugular route with hypertonic dextrose. Sixty-three patients, of which 42 had chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) with acute decompensation and 17 with acute hepatic injury as well as four with hepatorenal syndrome, are the subject of this report. All required intravenous nutritional support and were either intolerant to commercially available parenteral nutrition solutions or were in hepatic encephalopathy at the time they were initially seen. The cirrhotic patients had been hospitalized for a mean of 14.5 ± 1.9 days before therapy, had a mean bilirubin of 13 mg/100 ml, and had been in coma for 4.8 ± 0.7 days despite standard therapy. Patients with acute hepatitis had been in the hospital for 16.2 ± 4.1 days before therapy, had a mean bilirubin of 25 mg/100 ml, and had been in coma 5.2 ± 1.6 days before therapy. Routine tests of liver function, blood chemistries, amino acids, EEGs, and complex neurological testing including Reitan trailmaking tests were used in the evaluation of these patients. Up to 120 grams of synthetic amino acid solution with hypertonic dextrose was tolerated in these patients with improvement noted in encephalopathy of at least one grade in 87% of the patients with cirrhosis and 75% of the patients with hepatitis. Nitrogen balance was achieved when 75 to 80 grams of synthetic amino acids were administered. Survival was 45% in the cirrhotic group and 47% in the acute hepatitis group. Encephalopathy appeared to correlate with individual amino acids differentially in the various groups and with the ratio between the aromatic and the branched-chain amino acids. Ammonia did not correlate with either the degree of encephalopathy or improvement therefrom. In 24 Patients therapy for hepatic encephalopathy was limited to infusion of the branched-chain enriched amino acid solution only, with wake-up in 66% of this group. The results strongly suggest that in protein intolerant patients requiring nutritional support, infusion with branchedchain enriched amino acid solutions is well tolerated with either no worsening of or improvement in hepatic encephalopathy coincident with the achievement of nitrogen equilibrium and adequate nutritional support. PMID:6284073

  2. Proteogenic amino acids: chiral and racemic crystal packings and stabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunitz, J D; Gavezzotti, A

    2012-06-14

    Crystal structures of chiral and racemic proteogenic amino acids are compared, over a database of 40 crystal structures and 20 chiral-racemic pairs. Wallach's rule does not apply. Solubility data show that the racemates tend to be slightly more stable than their chiral counterparts. Lattice energies are calculated by semiempirical PIXEL methods and by several ab initio methods, which also yield molecular energies. Results, especially molecular energies, are sensitive to small structural differences and therefore depend on the crystal structure accuracy. Surface effects in crystals of zwitterionic molecules require special attention. Energy differences between chiral and racemic crystals are typically around 10 kJ mol(-1), roughly the limit of our calculations. These suggest, however, that crystal stability tends to increase with decreasing crystal density, a result possibly related to the strong directionality of hydrogen bonds. The analysis of interaction energies between molecules related by specific symmetry operations shows that stabilization in homochiral crystal structures comes mainly from formation of screw-symmetric ribbons, whereas racemic crystal structures preferentially exhibit strongly stabilizing centrosymmetric dimers. PMID:22360776

  3. Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus

    E-print Network

    Kwon, Hyuk Jung

    2005-08-29

    ;-amino acids in allantoic fluid during early gestation. Serine (16.5 mM) contributed about 60% of total ?-amino acids in allantoic fluid on Day 140 of gestation. Maximal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginase activities and highest rates...

  4. Predicting the Functional Effect of Amino Acid Substitutions and Indels

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yongwook; Sims, Gregory E.; Murphy, Sean; Miller, Jason R.; Chan, Agnes P.

    2012-01-01

    As next-generation sequencing projects generate massive genome-wide sequence variation data, bioinformatics tools are being developed to provide computational predictions on the functional effects of sequence variations and narrow down the search of casual variants for disease phenotypes. Different classes of sequence variations at the nucleotide level are involved in human diseases, including substitutions, insertions, deletions, frameshifts, and non-sense mutations. Frameshifts and non-sense mutations are likely to cause a negative effect on protein function. Existing prediction tools primarily focus on studying the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions through examining amino acid conservation at the position of interest among related sequences, an approach that is not directly applicable to insertions or deletions. Here, we introduce a versatile alignment-based score as a new metric to predict the damaging effects of variations not limited to single amino acid substitutions but also in-frame insertions, deletions, and multiple amino acid substitutions. This alignment-based score measures the change in sequence similarity of a query sequence to a protein sequence homolog before and after the introduction of an amino acid variation to the query sequence. Our results showed that the scoring scheme performs well in separating disease-associated variants (n?=?21,662) from common polymorphisms (n?=?37,022) for UniProt human protein variations, and also in separating deleterious variants (n?=?15,179) from neutral variants (n?=?17,891) for UniProt non-human protein variations. In our approach, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the human and non-human protein variation datasets is ?0.85. We also observed that the alignment-based score correlates with the deleteriousness of a sequence variation. In summary, we have developed a new algorithm, PROVEAN (Protein Variation Effect Analyzer), which provides a generalized approach to predict the functional effects of protein sequence variations including single or multiple amino acid substitutions, and in-frame insertions and deletions. The PROVEAN tool is available online at http://provean.jcvi.org. PMID:23056405

  5. Fatty acid, amino acid and trace mineral composition of Eleusine coracana (Pwana) seeds from northern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane R. Fernandez; Dorothy J. Vanderjagt; Mark Millson; Yung-Sheng Huang; Lu-Te Chuang; Andrzej Pastuszyn; Robert H. Glew

    2003-01-01

    In northern Nigeria the seeds of the cereal Eleusine coracana (finger millet), called ‘pwana’ by the Birom and ‘tamba’ by the Hausa, are used as a supplemental food taken in the form of tea or a porridge-like meal. Seeds were analyzed for fatty acid, amino acid and mineral contents. They contained 12 mg\\/g total fatty acid, 42% of which was

  6. Comparative functional genomics of amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Pastink

    2009-01-01

    The amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria used as starters in industrial fermentations has profound effects on the quality of the fermented foods. The work described in this PhD thesis was initiated to use genomics technologies and a comparative approach to link the gene content of some well-known lactic acid bacteria to flavor formation and to increase our general

  7. Computational modelling of amino acid exchange and facilitated transport in placental membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Panitchob, N.; Widdows, K.L.; Crocker, I.P.; Hanson, M.A.; Johnstone, E.D.; Please, C.P.; Sibley, C.P.; Glazier, J.D.; Lewis, R.M.; Sengers, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    Placental amino acid transport is required for fetal development and impaired transport has been associated with poor fetal growth. It is well known that placental amino acid transport is mediated by a broad array of specific membrane transporters with overlapping substrate specificity. However, it is not fully understood how these transporters function, both individually and as an integrated system. We propose that mathematical modelling could help in further elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how these transporters mediate placental amino acid transport. The aim of this work is to model the sodium independent transport of serine, which has been assumed to follow an obligatory exchange mechanism. However, previous amino acid uptake experiments in human placental microvillous plasma membrane vesicles have persistently produced results that are seemingly incompatible with such a mechanism; i.e. transport has been observed under zero-trans conditions, in the absence of internal substrates inside the vesicles to drive exchange. This observation raises two alternative hypotheses; (i) either exchange is not fully obligatory, or (ii) exchange is indeed obligatory, but an unforeseen initial concentration of amino acid substrate is present within the vesicle which could drive exchange. To investigate these possibilities, a mathematical model for tracer uptake was developed based on carrier mediated transport, which can represent either facilitated diffusion or obligatory exchange (also referred to as uniport and antiport mechanisms, respectively). In vitro measurements of serine uptake by placental microvillous membrane vesicles were carried out and the model applied to interpret the results based on the measured apparent Michaelis–Menten parameters Km and Vmax. In addition, based on model predictions, a new time series experiment was implemented to distinguish the hypothesised transporter mechanisms. Analysis of the results indicated the presence of a facilitated transport component, while based on the model no evidence for substantial levels of endogenous amino acids within the vesicle was found. PMID:25451528

  8. Use of silicone fluids in studies of cellular amino acids.

    PubMed

    Yi, P N; Rhee, T; Fenn, J O; Jarrett, J H; Wallace, K M

    1986-03-01

    In numerous cellular studies, cells labeled with radioisotopes have been separated from the labeling medium by an aqueous solution in order to determine the quantity of internalized labels; however, the aqueous wash tends to remove significant labeling from the cells. Therefore, in order to preserve all of the internalized labels, non-aqueous medium such as silicone fluids may be used. The termination of the labeling is achieved in the silicone method when, upon centrifugation, the cells separate from the medium and enter the silicone fluid to sediment to the tube bottom. This sedimentation of cells placed above a layer of silicone fluid exhibits a critical dependence on the centrifugal force, and gives rise to an uncertainty of only 2 s in determining the time of separation of cells from the medium using General Electric F-50 silicone fluid and a modified Beckman J2-21 centrifuge. It is therefore possible to determine the kinetics of incorporation of labeled amino acids into intracellular pools and proteins. In particular, since this silicone wash method determines the size of the total pool and the aqueous wash method determines the size of the acid-extractable pool, the simultaneous measurements of the size of both pools leads to the determination of the kinetics of labeling of the free amino acid pool. Among many possible applications and extensions of these methods, the studies of formation of intracellular pools and relations among different pools of transported molecules, such as water and amino acids, appear promising. PMID:3086420

  9. Analysis of endogenous d -amino acid-containing peptides in Metazoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Bai; Sarah Sheeley; Jonathan V. Sweedler

    2009-01-01

    Peptides are chiral molecules with their structure determined by the composition and configuration of their amino acid building\\u000a blocks. The naturally occurring amino acids, except glycine, possess two chiral forms. This allows the formation of multiple\\u000a peptide diastereomers that have the same sequence. Although living organisms use l-amino acids to make proteins, a group of d-amino acid-containing peptides (DAACPs) has

  10. Kinetic studies of dipeptide-based and amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Wery?ski; Jacek Waniewski; Tao Wang; Björn Anderstam; Bengt Lindholm; Jonas Bergström

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic studies of dipeptide-based and amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis solutions.BackgroundDipeptide-based peritoneal dialysis solutions may have potential advantages compared with the glucose or amino acid-based solutions. Dipeptides may hydrolyze in the peritoneal cavity, generating constituent amino acids and thereby increasing the osmolality of the dialysate. Dipeptides can also be a valuable source of amino acids, which are poorly soluble in water,

  11. Clinical use of amino acids as dietary supplement: pros and cons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco S. Dioguardi

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen supply is pivotal for the maintenance of life. Amino acids can be utilized to synthesize both glucose and lipids.\\u000a The opposite, i.e., production of amino acids from either one of them, is not possible in the absence of other amino acids\\u000a as donors of nitrogen. The quality of amino acid content in protein has been re-evaluated recently, and the

  12. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-12-17

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  13. A practical recipe for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Mann; Shao-En Ong

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple, robust, yet powerful approach in mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics. SILAC labels cellular proteomes through normal metabolic processes, incorporating non-radioactive, stable isotope-containing amino acids in newly synthesized proteins. Growth medium is prepared where natural (“light”) amino acids are replaced by “heavy” SILAC amino acids. Cells grown in

  14. A practical recipe for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-En Ong; Matthias Mann

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple, robust, yet powerful approach in mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics. SILAC labels cellular proteomes through normal metabolic processes, incorporating non-radioactive, stable isotope-containing amino acids in newly synthesized proteins. Growth medium is prepared where natural (''light'') amino acids are replaced by ''heavy'' SILAC amino acids. Cells grown in

  15. Reliable Metabolic Flux Estimation in Escherichia coli Central Carbon Metabolism Using Intracellular Free Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Okahashi, Nobuyuki; Kajihata, Shuichi; Furusawa, Chikara; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is a tool of metabolic engineering for investigation of in vivo flux distribution. A direct 13C enrichment analysis of intracellular free amino acids (FAAs) is expected to reduce time for labeling experiments of the MFA. Measurable FAAs should, however, vary among the MFA experiments since the pool sizes of intracellular free metabolites depend on cellular metabolic conditions. In this study, minimal 13C enrichment data of FAAs was investigated to perform the FAAs-based MFA. An examination of a continuous culture of Escherichia coli using 13C-labeled glucose showed that the time required to reach an isotopically steady state for FAAs is rather faster than that for conventional method using proteinogenic amino acids (PAAs). Considering 95% confidence intervals, it was found that the metabolic flux distribution estimated using FAAs has a similar reliability to that of the PAAs-based method. The comparative analysis identified glutamate, aspartate, alanine and phenylalanine as the common amino acids observed in E. coli under different culture conditions. The results of MFA also demonstrated that the 13C enrichment data of the four amino acids is required for a reliable analysis of the flux distribution. PMID:24957033

  16. Protein feeding and balancing for amino acids in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Patton, Robert A; Hristov, Alexander N; Lapierre, Hélène

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows. PMID:25245615

  17. Characteristics and formation of amino acids and hydroxy acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Cooper, G. W.; Pizzarello, S.

    1995-01-01

    Eight characteristics of the unique suite of amino acids and hydroxy acids found in the Murchison meteorite can be recognized on the basis of detailed molecular and isotopic analyses. The marked structural correspondence between the alpha-amino acids and alpha-hydroxy acids and the high deuterium/hydrogen ratio argue persuasively for their formation by aqueous phase Strecker reactions in the meteorite parent body from presolar, i.e., interstellar, aldehydes, ketones, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide. The characteristics of the meteoritic suite of amino acids and hydroxy acids are briefly enumerated and discussed with regard to their consonance with this interstellar-parent body formation hypothesis. The hypothesis has interesting implications for the organic composition of both the primitive parent body and the presolar nebula.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  20. Stereochemistry of amino acids in surface samples of a marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    In two surface samples of marine sediment, the percentages of D-alanine and D-aspartic acid are significantly higher than the other D-amino acids and are similar to the range found in soils. The percentage of D-glutamic acid is also higher than the other amino acids but less than D-alanine and D-aspartic acid. These D-amino acids may come mainly from bacteria.

  1. Maximal growth occurs at a broad range of essential amino acids to total nitrogen ratios in kittens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Taylor; J. G. Morris; P. H. Kass; Quinton R. Rogers

    1998-01-01

    Summary Kittens fed diets containing 2.0 and 3.0 times (X) the NRC (1986) essential amino acid (EAA) requirement (EAArq) and 210 to 560g crude protein (CP)\\/kg diet had growth rates and plasma amino acid patterns that were not significantly different than kittens fed a control diet (CD) containing 1.5 X EAArq and 350 g CP\\/kg diet. Growth rates of kittens

  2. The excitation of mammalian central neurones by amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J G; Hicks, T P; McLennan, H; Richardson, T L; Wheal, H V

    1979-01-01

    1. The relative potencies of a number of analogues of L-glutamate as excitants of thalamic neurones in the rat have been compared. The most powerful compounds were kainate, ibotenate and (+/-)cis-1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane. The D- and L-isomers of glutamate and aspartate were also compared. Whereas D-glutamate is approximately one-half as active as the L-form, D-aspartate is more potent than L-aspartate. 2. Computer analysis has indicated that ibotenate and cis-1-amino-1,3-dicarboxy-cyclopentane have relatively fixed and similar C alpha-N, Comega-N and C alpha-Comega interatomic distances which can also be achieved by glutamate in certain conformations of the molecule, but not by aspartate. 3. Parallel examination of the antagonists glutamate diethylester and D-alpha-aminoadipate has shown that the former preferentially reduces L-glutamate effects while the latter blocks the actions of other amino acid excitants more readily than those of L-glutamate. 4. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that at least two populations of neuronal receptors for the excitatory amino acids exist. PMID:439027

  3. Adsorption characteristics of amino acids on to calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    He, Junbin; Lin, Rihui; Long, Han; Liang, Yuwei; Chen, Yangyang

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption of amino acids on to calcium oxalate found in urinary calculus has been studied and the adsorption characteristics were analyzed. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the kinetics data. The pseudo-second-order model best described the dynamic behavior of the adsorption process. The uptake of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were found to decrease as solution pH increasing from 4 to 8. The experimental data obtained at different pH conditions were analyzed and fitted by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Sips isotherm models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Error analysis (correlation coefficient, residual root mean square error and chi-square test) showed that the Langmuir I isotherm model and the non-linear form of Sips isotherm model should be primarily adopted for fitting the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity of glutamic acid and aspartic acid onto calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are 0.059 and 0.066?mol/g at pH 4, respectively. These studies have the vital significance for research aimed at exploring the role of urinary amino acids effect the formation process of calcium oxalate crystals found in urinary calculus and for potential application in the design of synthetic peptides used for urinary calculi therapy. PMID:26021431

  4. SYMPOSIUM: NUTRIENT UPTAKE ACROSS THE MAMMARY GLAND Amino Acid Transport Systems in Bovine Mammary Tissue 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRAIG R. BAUMRUCKER

    Nutrient provision to the lactating mammary gland involves three factors: blood nutrient concentration, blood flow, and cellular uptake. This paper reviews uptake of amino acids by bovine mammary tissue relative to interorgan blood flows, red blood cell contribution, arteriovenous differences, specific mammary amino acid transport systems, and glutathione and ~\\/-glutamyl transpeptidase. Recent studies with ruminant amino acid blood fluxes and

  5. Oral amino acid administration in patients with diabetes mellitus: supplementation or metabolic therapy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Aquilani

    2004-01-01

    Amino acids are essential for body protein synthesis. Moreover, they can be used to produce energy within the cells. For protein turnover, normal plasma amino acid concentration enhances proteolytic suppression by insulin; furthermore, hyperaminoacidemia can stimulate protein synthesis both in the presence of baseline insulin and in hyperinsulinemic subjects with type 1 diabetes. In humans, the availability of amino acids

  6. Nature's starships. I. Observed abundances and relative frequencies of amino acids in meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: cobbak@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Origins Institute, McMaster University, ABB 241, 1280 Main Street, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  7. Solid state radiolysis of non-proteinaceous amino acids in vacuum: astrochemical implications

    E-print Network

    Solid state radiolysis of non-proteinaceous amino acids in vacuum: astrochemical implications´miai Kiado´, Budapest, Hungary 2012 Abstract The analysis of the amino acids present in Murchison meteorite and in other carbonaceous chondrites has revealed the presence of 66 different amino acids. Only eight

  8. Novel preparation of chiral ?-amino acids using the Mitsunobu-Tsunoda reaction.

    PubMed

    Noisier, Anaïs F M; Harris, Craig S; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-09-11

    An efficient synthesis of racemic or optically active ?-amino acids by modified-Mitsunobu alkylation of a racemic or chiral glycine template from alcohols was developed. Libraries of amino acids were prepared in moderate to good yield with good to high enantioselectivity. This simple method widens the scope for preparation of structurally diverse amino acids. PMID:23877629

  9. Amino acid current through anion channels in cultured human glial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Roy

    1995-01-01

    During volume regulation in hypotonic media, glial cells release a large portion of their amino acids. These amino acid losses appear to be mediated by a diffusion type of transport and a swelling-activated chloride channel seems to be involved. The objective of this project was to provide direct evidence that amino acids could diffuse through a Cl- channel. Using a

  10. Occurrence and Bacterial Cycling of d Amino Acid Isomers in an Estuarine Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels O. G. Jørgensen; Mathias Middelboe

    2006-01-01

    Abundance of d isomers of amino acids has been used in studies of organic matter diagenesis to determine the contribution of bacterial biomass to the organic matter, especially in marine sediments. However, fluxes of d amino acids in pelagic waters are poorly known. Here we present seasonal changes (March–September) in concentrations of dominant d amino acids in the pool of

  11. Nature's Starships. I. Observed Abundances and Relative Frequencies of Amino Acids in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2014-03-01

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  12. Amino Acid Mixture Improves Training Efficiency in Athletes1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Ohtani; Masaaki Sugita; Kimiaki Maruyama

    This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods of time (10, 30, and 90 d). Outcome variables included

  13. Correlating Mineralogy and Amino Acid Contents of Milligram-Scale Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrite Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron, S.; Berger, Eve L.; Locke, Darren R.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in most of the carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances of amino acids, as well as their structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that there is a link between parent-body conditions, mineralogy and the synthesis and preservation of amino acids (and likely other organic molecules). However, elucidating specific causes for the observed differences in amino acid composition has proven extremely challenging because samples analyzed for amino acids are typically much larger ((is) approximately 100 mg powders) than the scale at which meteorite heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences, (is) approximately 1-mg or smaller samples). Thus, the effects of differences in mineralogy on amino acid abundances could not be easily discerned. Recent advances in the sensitivity of instrumentation have made possible the analysis of smaller samples for amino acids, enabling a new approach to investigate the link between mineralogical con-text and amino acid compositions/abundances in meteorites. Through coordinated mineral separation, mineral characterization and highly sensitive amino acid analyses, we have performed preliminary investigations into the relationship between meteorite mineralogy and amino acid composition. By linking amino acid data to mineralogy, we have started to identify amino acid-bearing mineral phases in different carbonaceous meteorites. The methodology and results of analyses performed on the Murchison meteorite are presented here.

  14. Contribution of Amino Acid Catabolism to the Tissue Specific Persistence of Campylobacter jejuni in a Murine

    E-print Network

    Galan, Jorge E

    Contribution of Amino Acid Catabolism to the Tissue Specific Persistence of Campylobacter jejuni and growth is limited. Some amino acids have been shown to serve as carbon sources both in vitro and in vivo. These results further emphasize the importance of amino acid utilization in C. jejuni colonization of various

  15. Genetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-

    E-print Network

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41), in which we identified a novel amino-acidGenetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-Dependent Isocitrate

  16. Corrosion control of Cu–Ni alloys in neutral chloride solutions by amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waheed A. Badawy; Khaled M. Ismail; Ahlam M. Fathi

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of Cu–Ni alloys was investigated in aqueous chloride solutions using amino acids as environmentally safe materials. The corrosion rate was calculated in absence and presence of the corrosion inhibitor using polarization and impedance techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the different amino acids was also calculated.The experimental results have shown that a simple amino acid like glycine can

  17. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HARVEST TIME AND SULFUR FERTILIZATION ON AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF LENTIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yucel Kesli; M. Sait Adak

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sulfur (S) fertilization and harvest time on amino acid composition of seeds of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) at two different sites were studied. The aim of this study was to determine amino acid content of seed protein and to increase low levels of sulfur amino acids and trytophan in lentil seeds, which are major components for

  18. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  19. Plasma-enhanced copolymerization of amino acid and synthetic monomers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle D; Young, Seth L; Jiang, Hao; Jakubiak, Rachel; Bunning, Timothy J; Naik, Rajesh R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2012-01-24

    In this paper we report the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for the simultaneous deposition and copolymerization of an amino acid with other organic and inorganic monomers. We investigate the fundamental effects of plasma-enhanced copolymerization on different material chemistries in stable ultrathin coatings of mixed composition with an amino acid component. This study serves to determine the feasibility of a direct, facile method for integrating biocompatible/active materials into robust polymerized coatings with the ability to plasma copolymerize a biological molecule (L-tyrosine) with different synthetic materials in a dry, one-step process to form ultrathin coatings of mixed composition. This process may lead to a method of interfacing biologic systems with synthetic materials as a way to enhance the biomaterial-tissue interface and preserve biological activity within composite films. PMID:22176716

  20. Aromatic Amino Acids-Guanidinium Complexes through Cation-? Interactions.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sanz, Ana A; Rozas, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Continuing with our interest in the guanidinium group and the different interactions than can establish, we have carried out a theoretical study of the complexes formed by this cation and the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan and tyrosine) using DFT methods and PCM-water solvation. Both hydrogen bonds and cation-? interactions have been found upon complexation. These interactions have been characterized by means of the analysis of the molecular electron density using the Atoms-in-Molecules approach as well as the orbital interactions using the Natural Bond Orbital methodology. Finally, the effect that the cation-? and hydrogen bond interactions exert on the aromaticity of the corresponding amino acids has been evaluated by calculating the theoretical NICS values, finding that the aromatic character was not heavily modified upon complexation. PMID:26007180

  1. A single amino acid gates the KcsA channel.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Minako; Okuno, Daichi; Onishi, Yukiko; Ide, Toru

    2014-08-01

    The KcsA channel is a proton-activated potassium channel. We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) acts as a pH-sensor, and the charged states of certain negatively charged amino acids in the CPD play an important role in regulating the pH-dependent gating. Here, we demonstrate the KcsA channel is constitutively open independent of pH upon mutating E146 to a neutrally charged amino acid. In addition, we found that rearrangement of the CPD following this mutation was not large. Our results indicate that minimal rearrangement of the CPD, particularly around E146, is sufficient for opening of the KcsA channel. PMID:25019991

  2. A mutation in amino acid permease AAP6 reduces the amino acid content of the Arabidopsis sieve elements but leaves aphid herbivores unaffected

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Hunt; Stefano Gattolin; H. John Newbury; Jeffrey S. Bale; Hua-Ming Tseng; David A. Barrett; Jeremy Pritchard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the amino acid permease gene AAP6 in regulating phloem amino acid composition and then to determine the effects of this altered diet on aphid performance. A genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) was produced in which the function of the amino acid permease gene AAP6 (At5g49630) was abolished. Plants homozygous

  3. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hutson; D. Fenstermacher; C. Mahar

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-¹⁴C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-¹⁴C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular

  4. Unnatural amino acids: better than the real things?

    PubMed Central

    Minnihan, Ellen C; Yokoyama, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to the development of technology for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, with nonsense codon suppression and expressed protein ligation emerging as two of the most promising methods. Recent research advances in which these methods have been applied to study protein function and mechanism are briefly highlighted, and the potential of the methods for efficient, widespread future use in vitro and in vivo is critically evaluated. PMID:20948602

  5. A New Approach to Clustering the Amino Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry E. Stanfel

    1996-01-01

    Each amino acid is represented by a vector of numerical measurements for the attributes of volume, area, hydrophilicity, polarity, hydrogen bonding, shape, and charge. Inter-residue distances are then calculated according to common metrics, and we introduce a new clustering objective function derived from information-theoretic considerations. The arguments of the function are the inter-object distances of the things to be clustered:

  6. Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Murkovic; Karin Derler

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in green coffee is of the utmost importance since these two classes of compounds act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. During the course of the Maillard reaction potentially harmful substances like acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural accrue as well. The carbohydrates were analysed by anion-exchange chromatography

  7. ?-Keratins in crocodiles reveal amino acid homology with avian keratins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changjiang Ye; Xiaobing Wu; Peng Yan; George Amato

    2010-01-01

    The DNA sequences encoding ?-keratin have been obtained from Marsh Mugger (Crocodylus palustris) and Orinoco Crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius). Through the deduced amino acid sequence, these proteins are rich in glycine, proline and serine. The central region of\\u000a the proteins are composed of two beta-folded regions and show a high degree of identity with ?-keratins of aves and squamates.\\u000a This central

  8. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Callahan; A. Aubrey; J. L. Bada; J. P. Dworkin; J. E. Elsila; D. P. Glavin; E. Parker; P. Jenniskens

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of meteorite fragments from the 2008 TC3 asteroid impact, collectively named Almahata Sitta, revealed a rare, anomalous polymict ureilite containing large carbonaceous grains (Jenniskens et al. 2009). Here we report the first amino acid analysis of a meteorite from an F-type asteroid as part of the Almahata Sitta meteorite sample analysis consortium. A single fragment (piece #4, 1.2

  9. Large neutral amino acids supplementation in phenylketonuric patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rocha; F. Martel

    2009-01-01

    Summary  Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism that results in severe mental retardation if not treated early\\u000a and appropriately. The traditional treatment, consisting of a low-phenylalanine diet, is usually difficult to maintain throughout\\u000a adolescence and adulthood, resulting in undesirable levels of blood phenylalanine and consequent neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity\\u000a of phenylalanine is enhanced by its transport mechanism across the

  10. Importance of proline and other amino acids during honeybee flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Micheu; K. Crailsheim; B. Leonhard

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   The levels of proline and other amino acids in the haemolymph and other body parts of honeybee foragers were investigated\\u000a by HPLC analysis. The concentrations of proline in the blood of glucose-fed or -injected bees finishing their exhaustive tethered\\u000a flights on a roundabout were significantly reduced compared to bees that were fed and rested for one hour. This indicates

  11. Metabolic design in amino acid producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Sahm; Lothar Eggeling; Bernd Eikmanns; Reinhard Krämer

    1995-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of amino acids, e.g. of l-glutamate and l-lysine. In the last 10 years, genetic engineering and amplification of relevant structural genes have become fascinating methods for the construction of strains with desired genotypes. By cloning and expressing the various genes of the l-lysine pathway in C. glutamicum we could

  12. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  13. Evaluating standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-L. Yin; T.-J. Li; R.-L. Huang; Z.-Q. Liu; X. F. Kong; W.-Y. Chu; B.-E. Tan; D.-Deng; P. Kang; F.-G. Yin

    2008-01-01

    The ileal digestibility coefficient (CSID) of amino acids (AA) and crude protein (CP) in 40 feedstuffs for growing pigs were determined with the protein-free (PF) and enzyme-hydrolyzed casein (EHC) methods. The 40 feedstuffs that were used earlier were 10 samples of cereals and cereal by-products, 12 samples of legumes, 6 samples of animal protein feedstuff and 12 samples of oil

  14. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties.

    PubMed

    Fedic, Robert; Zurovec, Michal; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2003-09-12

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were sequenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). The amino acid repeats are species-specific, evidently a diversification of an ancestral region of 43 residues, and include three types of regularly dispersed motifs: modifications of GSSAASAA sequence, stretches of tripeptides GXZ where X and Z represent bulky residues, and sequences similar to PVIVIEE. No concatenations of GX dipeptide or alanine, which are typical for Bombyx silkworms and Antheraea silk moths, respectively, were found. Despite different repeat structure, the silks of G. mellonella and E. kuehniella exhibit similar tensile strength as the Bombyx and Antheraea silks. We suggest that in these latter two species, variations in the repeat length obstruct repeat alignment, but sufficiently long stretches of iterated residues get superposed to interact. In the pyralid H-fibroins, interactions of the widely separated and diverse motifs depend on the precision of repeat matching; silk is strong in G. mellonella and E. kuehniella, with 2-3 types of long homogeneous repeats, and nearly 10 times weaker in P. interpunctella, with seven types of shorter erratic repeats. The high proportion of large amino acids in the H-fibroin of pyralids has probably evolved in connection with the spinning habit of caterpillars that live in protective silk tubes and spin continuously, enlarging the tubes on one end and partly devouring the other one. The silk serves as a depot of energetically rich and essential amino acids that may be scarce in the diet. PMID:12816957

  15. Proteome analysis using selective incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy D. Veenstra; Suzana Martinovi?; Gordon A. Anderson; Ljiljana Paša-Toli?; Richard D. Smith

    2000-01-01

    A method is described for identifying intact proteins from genomic databases using a combination of accurate molecular mass\\u000a measurements and partial amino acid content. An initial demonstration was conducted for proteins isolated from Escherichia coli (E. coli) using a multiple auxotrophic strain of K12. Proteins extracted from the organism grown in natural isotopic abundance minimal\\u000a medium and also minimal medium

  16. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  17. Towards a Mathematical Foundation of Immunology and Amino Acid Chains

    E-print Network

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.

  18. Amino acid sequence and comparative antigenicity of chicken metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Fullmer, C S; Garvey, J S

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of metallothionein (MT) from chicken liver is reported. The primary structure was determined by automated sequence analysis of peptides produced by limited acid hydrolysis and by trypsin digestion. The comparative antigenicity of chicken MT was determined by radioimmunoassay using rabbit anti-rat MT polyclonal antibody. Chicken MT consists of 63 amino acids as compared to 61 found in MTs from mammals. One insertion (and two substitutions) occurs in the amino-terminal region, a region considered invariant among mammalian MTs. Eighteen of the 20 cysteines in chicken MT were aligned with cysteines from other mammalian sequences. Two cysteines near the carboxyl terminus are shifted by one residue due to the insertion of proline in that region. Overall, the chicken protein showed approximately equal to 68% sequence identity in a comparison with various mammalian MTs. The affinity of the polyclonal antibody for chicken MT was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to that of a mammalian MT (rat MT isoforms). This reduced affinity is attributed to major substitutions in chicken MT in the regions of the principal determinants of mammalian MTs. Theoretical analysis of the primary structure predicted the secondary structure to consist of reverse turns and random coils with no stable beta or helix conformations. There is no evidence that chicken MT differs functionally from mammalian MTs. PMID:2448773

  19. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids in proteins.

    PubMed

    Bugs, Milton Roque; Bortoleto-Bugs, Raquel Kely; Cornélio, Marinônio Lopes

    2008-02-01

    This paper concerns the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) to study the presence of aromatic amino acid in proteins. We examined the aromatic amino acids in six proteins with well-known structures using absorption spectra of near ultraviolet PAS over the wavelength range 240-320 nm. The fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties that govern the absorption of light and a subsequent release of heat to generate a transient pressure wave was used to test the concept of monitoring aromatic amino acids with this method. Second derivative spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region of proteins was also used to study the regions surrounding the aromatics and the percentage area in each band was related in order to determine the contribution in function of the respective molar extinction coefficients for each residue. Further investigation was conducted into the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I), with the purpose of identifying the aromatics that participate in the interaction. The clear changes in the second derivative and curve-fitting procedures suggest that initial SDS binding to the tryptophan located in the dimer interface and above 10 SDS an increased intensity between 260 and 320 nm, demonstrating that the more widespread tyrosine and phenylalanine residues contribute to the SDS/BthTx-I interactions. These results demonstrate the potential of near UV-PAS for the investigation of membrane proteins/detergent complexes in which light scattering is significant. PMID:17805525

  20. The radiolysis and radioracemization of amino acids on silica surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Lemmon, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of experiments on the radioracemization of amino acids in the presence of silica surfaces such as may have been found on the prebiotic earth. L-leucine and a DL-leucine mixture deposited on samples of 1-quartz and an amorphous silica preparation (Syloid 63) was subjected to Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation, then analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the radiolysis and racemization rates. The quartz surface is found to have a marginal efficacy in enhancing radiolysis when compared with a crystalline L-leucine control, although enhancing radioracemization symmetrically by a factor of two. Both the radiolysis and radioracemization of L-leucine and DL-leucine on a Syloid-63 silica surface are observed to increase with increasing radiation dose, and to be substantially greater than in the crystalline controls. Additional experiments with the nonprotein amino acid isovaline deposited on Syloid 63 confirm the greater radiolysis susceptibility of amino acids deposited on silica with respect to the crystalline state, although racemization is not observed. The observations suggest that the presence of a silica surface would have a deleterious effect on any mechanism for the origin of molecular chirality relying on stereoselective beta-radiolysis.

  1. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  2. Identification of key amino acid residues in Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase.

    PubMed

    Sarçabal, P; Remaud-Simeon, M; Willemot, R; Potocki de Montalk, G; Svensson, B; Monsan, P

    2000-05-26

    Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea catalyzes the synthesis of an amylose-like polymer from sucrose. Sequence alignment revealed that it belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13. Site-directed mutagenesis enabled the identification of functionally important amino acid residues located at the active center. Asp-294 is proposed to act as the catalytic nucleophile and Glu-336 as general acid base catalyst in amylosucrase. The conserved Asp-401, His-195 and His-400 residues are critical for the enzymatic activity. These results provide strong support for the predicted close structural and functional relationship between the sucrose-glucosyltransferases and enzymes of the alpha-amylase family. PMID:10828446

  3. Essential amino acid usage and evolutionary nutrigenomics of eukaryotes--insights into the differential usage of amino acids in protein domains and extra-domains.

    PubMed

    Santana-Santos, L; Prosdocimi, F; Ortega, J M

    2008-01-01

    Nutrigenomics studies the effects of nutrients on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of organisms, and here an evolutionary standpoint on this new discipline is presented. It is well known that metazoan organisms are unable to synthesize all amino acids necessary to produce their proteins and that these essential amino acids (EAA) must be acquired from the diet. Here, we tested the hypothesis that conserved regions such as protein domains (DM) have different essentiality indexes and use different sets of amino acids when compared to extra-domains (ED) and proteins without mapped domains (WD). We found that auxotrophic organisms have a tendency to use less EAAs in DM than do prototrophic ones. Looking into the amino acid usage of eukaryotic proteins downloaded from KEGG and COG, we showed that WD have a usage of amino acids closer to DM, which suggests that proteins without mapped domains behave as large domains. Using an ED index that shows the proportion of prevalent amino acids in ED, a differential usage of amino acids in domains versus extra-domains was demonstrated. Protein domains were shown to be enriched with a higher number of EAA, and it may be related to the fact that these amino acids had lost their biosynthetic pathways in metazoans during a great amino acid pathway deletion, followed by a nutritional constraint that may have happened close to the conquest of the terrestrial environment. Thus, the proportion of EAA outside domains could have decreased during evolution due to nutritional constraints. PMID:18949703

  4. Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

  5. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  6. Dog bites man or man bites dog? The enigma of the amino acid conjugations

    PubMed Central

    Beyo?lu, Diren; Smith, Robert L.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to assist in the regulation of body stores of amino acids, such as glycine, glutamate, and, in certain invertebrates, arginine, that are key neurotransmitters in the CNS. As such, the amino acid conjugations are not so much detoxication reactions, rather they are homeostatic and neuroregulatory processes. Experimental data have been culled in support of this hypothesis from a broad range of scientific and clinical literature. Such data include the low detoxication value of amino acid conjugations and the Janus nature of certain amino acids that are both neurotransmitters and apparent conjugating agents. Amino acid scavenging mechanisms in blood deplete brain amino acids. Amino acids glutamate and glycine when trafficked from brain are metabolized to conjugates of aromatic acids in hepatic mitochondria and then irreversibly excreted into urine. This process is used clinically to deplete excess nitrogen in cases of urea cycle enzymopathies through excretion of glycine or glutamine as their aromatic acid conjugates. Untoward effects of high-dose phenylacetic acid surround CNS toxicity. There appears to be a relationship between extent of glycine scavenging by benzoic acid and psychomotor function. Glycine and glutamine scavenging by conjugation with aromatic acids may have important psychosomatic consequences that link diet to health, wellbeing, and disease. PMID:22227274

  7. Use of N?amino acid isotope dilution techniques to determine endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta in growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vince M. Gabert; Nuria Canibe; Henry Jørgensen; Bjørn O. Eggum; Willem C. Sauer

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the contribution of endogenous amino acids (AA) to total AA, using the N?AA and N?leucine isotope dilution techniques, in ileal digesta from growing pigs. Four barrows, initial body weight (BW) 33.8 ± 1.0 kg, were fitted with a simple T?cannula at the distal ileum and one catheter in each of the external jugular

  8. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  9. Dietary protein and amino acids-consideration of the undigestible fraction.

    PubMed

    Moughan, Paul J; Ravindran, V; Sorbara, J O B

    2014-09-01

    A case is made for the application of true ileal amino acid digestibility and true ileal reactive lysine digestibility (lysine availability) in poultry nutrition. Technical aspects of the true ileal digestibility assays are reviewed, as are factors influencing amino acid digestibility in the broiler. There is considerable variation in amino acid digestibility and lysine availability both within and among diverse feedstuffs. Differences in mean amino acid digestibility among feedstuffs, and the variability in the digestibility of an amino acid within a feedstuff should both be taken into account during least-cost dietary formulation. PMID:25037823

  10. Hyper- and hyporesponsive mutant forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ssy1 amino acid sensor.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Peter; Gaber, Richard F; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2008-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae integral membrane protein Ssy1p functions with Ssy5p and Ptr3p to sense extracellular amino acids. Signal transduction leads to processing and nuclear localization of Stp1p and Stp2p, transcriptional activators of many amino acid transporter genes. Ssy1p is structurally related to amino acid permeases, but unable to transport amino acids. We isolated SSY1 mutants that constitutively activate a target promoter. Dose-response analysis showed that the mutants are hyperresponsive, requiring less inducer to give strong signaling than does the wild type. Another mutant (Ssy1p(T639I)) turned out to be hyporesponsive, i.e., it signals only at high inducer concentration. In accordance with a transporter-like mechanism for Ssy1p function we suggest that the hyper- and hyporesponsive mutant forms differ from the wild-type sensor by being more and less inclined, respectively, to adopt an outward-facing, signaling conformation. Coordinate conformational dynamics of the sensor complex was supported by additive effects of combinations of constitutive SSY1, PTR3 and SSY5 alleles. Assuming structural similarity of Ssy1p to the distantly related bacterial leucine transporter LeuT(Aa), several activating substitutions were located near the substrate binding site while others were on the periphery of Ssy1p. We suggest analyses of transporter-like sensors as an approach to understand key features of transporters. PMID:18307103

  11. Simplified protein design biased for prebiotic amino acids yields a foldable, halophilic protein

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Liam M.; Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A compendium of different types of abiotic chemical syntheses identifies a consensus set of 10 “prebiotic” ?-amino acids. Before the emergence of biosynthetic pathways, this set is the most plausible resource for protein formation (i.e., proteogenesis) within the overall process of abiogenesis. An essential unsolved question regarding this prebiotic set is whether it defines a “foldable set”—that is, does it contain sufficient chemical information to permit cooperatively folding polypeptides? If so, what (if any) characteristic properties might such polypeptides exhibit? To investigate these questions, two “primitive” versions of an extant protein fold (the ?-trefoil) were produced by top-down symmetric deconstruction, resulting in a reduced alphabet size of 12 or 13 amino acids and a percentage of prebiotic amino acids approaching 80%. These proteins show a substantial acidification of pI and require high salt concentrations for cooperative folding. The results suggest that the prebiotic amino acids do comprise a foldable set within the halophile environment. PMID:23341608

  12. Comparison of automated pre-column and post-column analysis of amino acid oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, J.; Orenberg, J. B.; Nugent, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    It has been shown that various amino acids will polymerize under plausible prebiotic conditions on mineral surfaces, such as clays and soluble salts, to form varying amounts of oligomers (n = 2-6). The investigations of these surface reactions required a quantitative method for the separation and detection of these amino acid oligomers at the picomole level in the presence of nanomole levels of the parent amino acid. In initial high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) studies using a classical postcolumn o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatization ion-exchange HPLC procedure with fluorescence detection, problems encountered included lengthy analysis time, inadequate separation and large relative differences in sensitivity for the separated species, expressed as a variable fluorescent yield, which contributed to poor quantitation. We have compared a simple, automated, pre-column OPA derivatization and reversed-phase HPLC method with the classical post-column OPA derivatization and ion-exchange HPLC procedure. A comparison of UV and fluorescent detection of the amino acid oligomers is also presented. The conclusion reached is that the pre-column OPA derivatization, reversed-phase HPLC and UV detection produces enhanced separation, improved sensitivity and faster analysis than post-column OPA derivatization, ion-exchange HPLC and fluorescence detection.

  13. NCAD, a database integrating the intrinsic conformational preferences of non-coded amino acids.

    PubMed

    Revilla-López, Guillem; Torras, Juan; Curcó, David; Casanovas, Jordi; Calaza, M Isabel; Zanuy, David; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth; Grodzinski, Piotr; Alemán, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Peptides and proteins find an ever-increasing number of applications in the biomedical and materials engineering fields. The use of non-proteinogenic amino acids endowed with diverse physicochemical and structural features opens the possibility to design proteins and peptides with novel properties and functions. Moreover, non-proteinogenic residues are particularly useful to control the three-dimensional arrangement of peptidic chains, which is a crucial issue for most applications. However, information regarding such amino acids--also called non-coded, non-canonical, or non-standard--is usually scattered among publications specialized in quite diverse fields as well as in patents. Making all these data useful to the scientific community requires new tools and a framework for their assembly and coherent organization. We have successfully compiled, organized, and built a database (NCAD, Non-Coded Amino acids Database) containing information about the intrinsic conformational preferences of non-proteinogenic residues determined by quantum mechanical calculations, as well as bibliographic information about their synthesis, physical and spectroscopic characterization, conformational propensities established experimentally, and applications. The architecture of the database is presented in this work together with the first family of non-coded residues included, namely, alpha-tetrasubstituted alpha-amino acids. Furthermore, the NCAD usefulness is demonstrated through a test-case application example. PMID:20455555

  14. Osmolarity-sensitive release of free amino acids from cultured kidney cells (MDCK)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sánchez Olea; H. Pasantes-Morales; A. Lázaro; M. Cereijido

    1991-01-01

    Summary The amino acid pool of MDCK cells was essentially constituted by alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, serine, taurine, lysine, ß-alanine and glutamine. Upon reductions in osmolarity, free amino acids were rapidly mobilized. In 50% hyposmotic solutions, the intracellular content of free amino acids decreased from 69 to 25mm. Glutamic acid, taurine and ß-alanine were the most sensitive to hyposmolarity, followed

  15. Morphology and Structure of Amino-fatty Acid Intercalated Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Larry; Sumera, Florentino

    2015-04-01

    Natural clays and its modified forms have been studied for their wide range of applications, including polymer-layered silicate, catalysts and adsorbents. For nanocomposite production, montmorillonite (MMT) clays are often modified with organic surfactants to favor its intermixing with the polymer matrix. In the present study, Na+-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was subjected to organo-modification with a protonated 12-aminolauric acid (12-ALA). The amount of amino fatty acid surfactants loaded was 25, 50, 100 and 200% the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na+-MMT (25CEC-AMMT, 50CEC-AMMT, 100CEC-AMMT and 200CEC-AMMT). Fatty acid-derived surfactants are an attractive resource of intercalating agents for clays due to their renewability and abundance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the occurrence of intercalation of 12-ALA and their molecular structure in the clay's silicates. XRD analysis revealed that the interlayer spacing between the alumino-silicate layers increased from 1.25 nm to 1.82 nm with increasing ALA content. The amino fatty acid chains were considered to be in a flat monolayer structure at low surfactant loading, and a bilayered to a pseudotrilayered structure at high surfactant loading. On the other hand, FTIR revealed that the alkyl chains adopt a gauche conformation, indicating their disordered state based on their CH2symmetric and asymmetric vibrations. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) allows the determination of the moisture and organic content in clays. Here, TGA revealed that the surfactant in the clay was thermally stable, with Td ranging from 353° C to 417° C. The difference in the melting behavior of the pristine amino fatty acids and confined fatty acids in the interlayer galleries of the clay were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimerty (DSC). The melting temperatures (Tm) of the amino fatty acid in the clay were initially found to be higher than those of the free amino fatty acid, but decreased with increasing surfactant loading. This suggested that the amino fatty acid may be tethered to the clay structure via ionic interaction and/or ion-dipole attraction. Significant changes in the clay morphology, particle size and surface charge were observed after organo-modification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the organo-clays have a disordered and flaky morphology, while the unmodified MMT appeared to be dispersed spherical grains. The effective (Z) diameter of Na+-MMT was found to be ~520 nm, but increased up to ~937 nm upon intercalation of 12-ALA. The zeta potential (?) of the clay materials, on the other hand, ranged from -33 mV for undmodified MMT to -16 mv (200CEC-AMMT clay). The possible occupational hazards of working with nanoclays should also be explored. Presently, the MTT-dye reduction assay was performed to determine cell viability of mouse monocyte-macrophages (J774A.1) after direct exposure to the clays. The cytotoxicity of the clays exhibited a chemistry and dose dependent response, with unmodified Na+-MMT as the most cytotoxic while the organo-clays exhibited low toxicity. These results demonstrated the successful intercalation of the surfactant for the production of organophilic clay materials for a wide range of applications.

  16. Effect of reducing amino acid excess in a corn-soybean meal diet on performance, nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibilities of growing pigs 

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Katherine Ann

    1988-01-01

    reasons why feed efficiency may improve. Amino acids absorbed in excess of those needed for protein synthesis must be deaminated and the N converted to urea prior to excretion in the urine. Energetically, this is a costly process. Reducing amino acid..., Jr. Dr. Darrell A. Knabe The most effective way to reduce excess amino acids that may effect feed efficiency in swine diets is to reduce the percentage of soybean meal and add synthetic amino acids to meet the pigs dietary requirements. A growth...

  17. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability. PMID:26056817

  18. Protein and amino acid supplementation in older humans.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Naomi K

    2013-06-01

    The aging process is a continuum throughout life and often associated with deterioration of body function as well as accumulation of chronic disabilities and of disease. The impact of nutritional status on morbidity and mortality is unquestioned. Malnutrition increases the risk for frailty and nutritional deficits can influence immune status, response to medical treatments and recovery from acute illnesses, including surgery. Health-promoting interventions implemented individually, such as exercise programs, preventive home visits, comprehensive geriatric evaluation and management, and attention to adequate nutrition with or without nutritional supplements, have been shown in separate studies to be both feasible and effective in reducing age-related deterioration. Protein and its constituent amino acids (AA) are key components of any healthy diet. Sarcopenia, the slow but progressive loss of lean muscle mass associated with advancing age, has been the focus of many studies but there is no clear-cut answer to the question of how to restrain the process. The more general question of how the requirements for protein and specific AA change with age continues to be investigated. A shift towards studying the efficacy and safety of specific AA or combination of AA that may sustain and/or enhance physiologic processes, ranging from specific tissue metabolism to overall function (e.g. exercise performance, immune function, cognition, and chronic disease development) has occurred. This review focuses on recent studies examining the use of specific AA or mixtures as supplements in the elderly and whether/how AA may assist in the maintenance of health and independence. PMID:23563921

  19. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. PMID:23567135

  20. Function and evolutionary diversity of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) in regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1 were initially identified as plant volatile elicitors and research has been focused on this apparent ecological disadvantage rather than on possible benefit for the caterpillar itself. Recently, we demonstrated that...

  1. Relationship between Auxin and Amino Acid Metabolism of Tobacco Protoplast-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marion-Poll, Annie; Caboche, Michel

    1984-01-01

    Single amino acids were found to be highly toxic to protoplast-derived cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cultured at low density in a culture medium containing a low naphthaleneacetic acid concentration (0.05 micromolar). The cytotoxicities of alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, lysine, proline, and valine were reduced when the naphthaleneacetic acid concentration of the culture medium was increased to 1 micromolar. This selective modification of amino acid toxicity by naphthaleneacetic acid could not be correlated with modifications of uptake rates or incorporation of these amino acids into protein or amino acid-auxin conjugates. A mutant clone resistant to high naphthaleneacetic acid concentrations and affected in root morphogenesis did not display, at the cellular level, the naphthaleneacetic acidmediated modification of amino acid cytotoxicity. Images Fig. 7 PMID:16663732

  2. (R)-?-Aminoadipic Acid: A Versatile Precursor for the Synthesis of D-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The ready accessibility of (R)-?-aminoadipic acid by enzymatic cleavage of cephalosporin C (CephC) in the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) on a large scale makes it a favorable chiral pool building block for the synthesis of unusual amino acids. A route for the synthesis of C-5-alkenyl and C-6-alkylidene derivatives of (R)-pipecolic acid is described which utilizes (R)-?-aminoadipic acid as the enantiomerically pure starting material. Moreover, the synthesis of azido and triazolyl derivatives of (R)-?-aminoadipic acid is reported. PMID:24222844

  3. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of an unusual amino acid (2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid) isolated from the seeds of Crotalaria juncea.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Janki; Singh, Vinay Kr; Shrivastava, Atul; Chaturvedi, Upma; Bhatia, Gitika; Arya, K R; Awasthi, S K; Narender, T

    2013-12-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery programme on Indian medicinal plants, we isolated an unusual amino acid, i.e. 2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid (1) from the seeds of Crotalaria juncea. The 2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid (1) showed dose dependent lipid lowering activity in the in vivo experiments and also showed good in vitro antioxidant activity. The cyclized compound, 3-amino-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (2) showed better lipid lowering and antioxidant profile than the parent compound 1. PMID:24035223

  4. Rapid complexing of oxoacylglycerols with amino acids, peptides and aminophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kurvinen, J P; Kuksis, A; Ravandi, A; Sjövall, O; Kallio, H

    1999-03-01

    We prepared model Schiff bases from 2-[9-oxo]nonanoyl glycerol (2-MAG-ALD) and various amino compounds. 2-MAG-ALD was obtained by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of trioleoyl glycerol and reductive ozonolysis of the resulting 2-monooleoyl glycerol. The reaction products were purified by thin-layer chromatography. Schiff bases were synthesized in greater than 50% yield by reacting 2-MAG-ALD with twofold molar excess of valine, Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester and the tripeptides glycyl-glycyl-glycine, glycyl-glycyl-histidine, and glycyl-histidyl-lysine in aqueous methanol and with 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl glycerophosphoethanolamine (PE) in chloroform/methanol for 16 h at room temperature. Prior to analysis the bases were reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol for 30 min at 4 degrees C. Reaction products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/MS). Reduced Schiff bases of 2-MAG-ALD with PE and amino acids were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC/ESI/MS and those with peptides by reversed-phase HPLC/ESI/MS. Single adducts were obtained in all cases and both the alpha-amino group of valine and the epsilon-amino group of Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester were reactive. Molecular ions of reaction products were the only detected ions in the negative ionization mode, whereas in the positive ion mode sodiated molecular ions were also detected. The present study suggests that 2-MAG-ALD may form Schiff base adducts with amino compounds in other aqueous media, such as the intestinal lumen and in the hydrophobic environment of cell membranes. PMID:10230725

  5. A method for estimating the number of invariant amino acid coding positions in a gene using cytochrome c as a model case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter M. Fitch; Emanuel Margoliash

    1967-01-01

    This paper shows, within the limitations of the assumption stated below, that approximately 27–29 of the unmutated codons which determine the amino acids of cytochrome c are invariant because of biological requirements. A mutation is defined here as the change of a single base in the sequence of a trinucleotide codon, which change alters the amino acid coded for. Codons,

  6. Effects of basic pH on amino acid racemization and leaching in freshwater mollusk shell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin A. Orem; Darrell S. Kaufman

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the variables that affect the rate of racemization is imperative for improving the reliability of amino acid geochronology. In this paper the influence of basic pH on amino acid racemization and leaching of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser), and alanine (Ala) in freshwater mollusk shell is addressed. Shell fragments of modern Margaritifera falcata were immersed in

  7. Maternal nutrient restriction reduces concentrations of amino acids and polyamines in ovine maternal and fetal plasma and fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyukjung; Ford, Stephen P; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J; Hess, Bret W; Wu, Guoyao

    2004-09-01

    Amino acids and polyamines are essential for placental and fetal growth, but little is known about their availability in the conceptus in response to maternal undernutrition. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction reduces concentrations of amino acids and polyamines in the ovine conceptus. This hypothesis was tested in nutrient-restricted ewes between Days 28 and 78 (experiment 1) and between Days 28 and 135 (experiment 2) of gestation. In both experiments, ewes were assigned randomly on Day 28 of gestation to a control group fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements and to an nutrient-restricted group fed 50% of NRC requirements. Every 7 days beginning on Day 28 of gestation, ewes were weighed and rations adjusted for changes in body weight. On Day 78 of gestation, blood samples were obtained from the uterine artery and umbilical vein for analysis. In experiment 2, nutrient-restricted ewes on Day 78 of gestation either continued to be fed 50% of NRC requirements or were realimented to 100% of NRC requirements until Day 135. Fetal weight was reduced in nutrient-restricted ewes at both Day 78 (32%) and Day 135 (15%) compared with controls. Nutritional restriction markedly reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of total alpha-amino acids (particularly serine, arginine-family amino acids, and branched-chain amino acids) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids at both mid and late gestation. Realimentation of nutrient-restricted ewes increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of total alpha-amino acids and polyamines in all the measured compartments and prevented intrauterine growth retardation. These novel findings demonstrate that 50% global nutrient restriction decreases concentrations of amino acids and polyamines in the ovine conceptus that could adversely impact key fetal functions. The results have important implications for understanding the mechanisms responsible for both intrauterine growth retardation and developmental origins of adult disease. PMID:15140798

  8. Fast mass spectrometry-based enantiomeric excess determination of proteinogenic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Heidi; Thurow, Kerstin

    2013-03-01

    A rapid determination of the enantiomeric excess of proteinogenic amino acids is of great importance in various fields of chemical and biologic research and industries. Owing to their different biologic effects, enantiomers are interesting research subjects in drug development for the design of new and more efficient pharmaceuticals. Usually, the enantiomeric composition of amino acids is determined by conventional analytical methods such as liquid or gas chromatography or capillary electrophoresis. These analytical techniques do not fulfill the requirements of high-throughput screening due to their relative long analysis times. The method presented allows a fast analysis of chiral amino acids without previous time consuming chromatographic separation. The analytical measurements base on parallel kinetic resolution with pseudoenantiomeric mass tagged auxiliaries and were carried out by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. All 19 chiral proteinogenic amino acids were tested and Pro, Ser, Trp, His, and Glu were selected as model substrates for verification measurements. The enantiomeric excesses of amino acids with non-polar and aliphatic side chains as well as Trp and Phe (aromatic side chains) were determined with maximum deviations of the expected value less than or equal to 10ee%. Ser, Cys, His, Glu, and Asp were determined with deviations lower or equal to 14ee% and the enantiomeric excess of Tyr were calculated with 17ee% deviation. The total screening process is fully automated from the sample pretreatment to the data processing. The method presented enables fast measurement times about 1.38 min per sample and is applicable in the scope of high-throughput screenings. PMID:23232768

  9. Functional Analysis of a 450Amino Acid N-Terminal Fragment of Phytochrome B in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshito Oka; Tomonao Matsushita; Nobuyoshi Mochizuki; Tomomi Suzuki; Satoru Tokutomi; Akira Nagatania

    2004-01-01

    Phytochrome, a major photoreceptor in plants, consists of two domains: the N-terminal photosensory domain and the C-terminal domain. Recently, the 651-amino acid photosensory domain of phytochrome B (phyB) has been shown to act as a functional photoreceptor in the nucleus. The phytochrome (PHY) domain, which is located at the C-terminal end of the photosensory domain, is required for the spectral

  10. Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on plasma and muscle concentrations of amino acids during prolonged submaximal exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Blomstrand; Sonja Ek; Eric A Newsholme

    1996-01-01

    On two occasions, seven male endurance-trained cyclists performed sustained exhaustive exercise with reduced muscle glycogen stores. During exercise, the subjects were supplied in random order with an aqueous solution of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or flavored water (placebo). Ingestion of BCAA caused the concentration of these amino acids to increase by 135% in the plasma and by 57% in muscle

  11. [Effect of a varying body allowance of protein and essential amino acids on the pool of free amino acids in the blood and tissues].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedzhanov, E K

    1988-01-01

    The pool of free amino acids in the blood and tissues was studied, basing on the protein amount in the diet and its qualitative composition, in 60 male WAG rats (bw 130-150 g), using gas-liquid chromatography. Three levels of casein were used in the ration (8.25 and 64% by mass). Incomplete protein of vegetable origin--wheat gluten was given instead of casein in an amount of 25%. The data obtained evidence that alanine circulation in deficiency of protein and essential amino acids is lowered which is associated with the inhibition of transamination of branched amino acids into glutamate. Deficiency of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan in wheat gluten, when it is given to rats, leads to a decrease of these amino acids' pool in the skeletal muscles and blood that indicates the development of their deficiency in the body. The use of the relevant protein in the animals' diet resulted in disorders oi gluconeogenic amino acids (serine, glycine, proline), aspartate and cysteine metabolism. The protein excess leads to the growth of most amino acids' pool. Thus, metabolism of amino acids and their content in the tissue depend on the direction of the amino acid metabolic processes and their concentration in the food ration. PMID:3388806

  12. Synthesis of quaternary ?-methyl ?-amino acids by asymmetric alkylation of pseudoephenamine alaninamide pivaldimine.

    PubMed

    Hugelshofer, Cedric L; Mellem, Kevin T; Myers, Andrew G

    2013-06-21

    The utility of pseudoephenamine as a chiral auxiliary for the alkylative construction of quaternary ?-methyl ?-amino acids is demonstrated. The method is notable for the high diastereoselectivities of the alkylation reactions, for its versatility with respect to electrophilic substrate partners, and for its mild hydrolysis conditions, which provide ?-amino acids without salt contaminants. Alternatively, ?-amino esters can be obtained by direct alcoholysis. PMID:23746325

  13. Carbohydrate and amino acid analyses of Giardia muris cysts.

    PubMed

    Manning, P; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L

    1992-01-01

    Intact Giardia muris cysts were subjected to consecutive chloroform/methanol and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractions, and to amyloglucosidase treatment. The SDS-insoluble, amyloglucosidase-fast cyst walls (ACW) were further incubated with chymotrypsin, trypsin, papain, or pronase. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy revealed no discernible change in the ultrastructure of the filamentous layer of the cyst wall following any of these treatments. Affinity for cyst wall-specific monoclonal antibody (Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, OH) was also retained after all treatments. Periodic acid-Schiff staining and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of intact and treated cyst hydrolysates showed a significant reduction in the amount of glucose associated with the cyst (72 nmoles/10(6) intact cysts vs 1.9 nmoles/10(6) ACW) as a result of amyloglucosidase treatment, indicating that glucose is stored within Giardia as an SDS-insoluble polymer. Galactosamine was identified by GC/MS as the predominant sugar associated with both the ACW and the proteinase treated ACW (42 nmoles/10(6) ACW). High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids from intact and treated cyst hydrolysates revealed a marked reduction, but not elimination, of detectable quantities of identifiable amino acid residues (255 nmoles/10(6) intact cysts vs 6.8 nmoles/10(6) proteinase treated ACW). These results suggest that the filamentous layer of the cyst wall is primarily a carbohydrate peptide complex. PMID:1578402

  14. Evolution of an amino acid based prodrug approach: stay tuned.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Ivan S; Kashemirov, Boris A; Hilfinger, John M; McKenna, Charles E

    2013-02-01

    Certain acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) such as (S)-HPMPC (cidofovir, Vistide) and (S)-HPMPA have been shown to be active against a broad spectrum of DNA and retroviruses. However, their poor absorption as well as their toxicity limit the utilization of these therapeutics in the clinic. Nucleoside phosphonates are poorly absorbed primarily due to the presence of the phosphonic acid group, which ionizes at physiological pH. When dosed intravenously they display dose-limiting nephrotoxicity due to their accumulation in the kidney. To overcome these limitations, nucleoside phosphonate prodrug strategies have taken center stage in the development pathway and a number of different approaches are at various stages of development. Our efforts have focused on the development of ANP prodrugs in which a benign amino acid promoiety masks a phosphonate P-OH via a hydroxyl side chain. The design of these prodrugs incorporates multiple chemical groups (the P-X-C linkage, the amino acid stereochemistry, the C-terminal and N-terminal functional groups) that can be tuned to modify absorption, pharmacokinetic and efficacy properties with the goal of improving overall prodrug performance. PMID:23339402

  15. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids alter neurobehavioral function in rats

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Anna; Wenner, Brett R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D.; Maggioni, Mauro; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have described a strong association of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with obesity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we have investigated the potential impact of BCAA on behavioral functions. We demonstrate that supplementation of either a high-sucrose or a high-fat diet with BCAA induces anxiety-like behavior in rats compared with control groups fed on unsupplemented diets. These behavioral changes are associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of tryptophan (Trp) in brain tissues and a consequent decrease in serotonin but no difference in indices of serotonin synaptic function. The anxiety-like behaviors and decreased levels of Trp in the brain of BCAA-fed rats were reversed by supplementation of Trp in the drinking water but not by administration of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, suggesting that the behavioral changes are independent of the serotonergic pathway of Trp metabolism. Instead, BCAA supplementation lowers the brain levels of another Trp-derived metabolite, kynurenic acid, and these levels are normalized by Trp supplementation. We conclude that supplementation of high-energy diets with BCAA causes neurobehavioral impairment. Since BCAA are elevated spontaneously in human obesity, our studies suggest a potential mechanism for explaining the strong association of obesity and mood disorders. PMID:23249694

  17. Excitatory amino acids and morphine withdrawal: differential effects of central and peripheral kynurenic acid administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Rasmussen; John H. Krystal; George K. Aghajanian

    1991-01-01

    The non-selective excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid, which does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, dose-dependently attenuated the behavioral signs of naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats following both intraventricular and subcutaneous administration. However, intraventricular and subcutaneous administration of kynurenic acid and different effects on individual withdrawal behaviors. Moreover, single unit recordings in anesthetized animals showed that intraventricular, but not

  18. Emission of methylbutyric acid from Gypsophila paniculata L. during bud opening: Changes in amino acid catabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hataitip Nimitkeatkai; Yoshinori Ueda; Hajime Furukawa; Katsuhiko Inamoto; Motoaki Doi

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of methylbutyric acid emission which is responsible for the unpleasant odor of gypsophila inflorescences (Gypsophila paniculata L. ‘Bristol Fairy’ and ‘Golan’), we investigated the activities of enzymes in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids. The continuous application of either 10mM l-leucine, 10mM l-isoleucine or 4.5mM isovaleraldehyde increased the production of methylbutyric acids. When gypsophila inflorescences

  19. Effects of amino Acid derivativeson physical, mental, and physiological activities.

    PubMed

    Luckose, Feby; Pandey, Mohan Chandra; Radhakrishna, Kolpe

    2015-11-10

    Nutritional ergogenic aids have been in use for a long time to enhance exercise and sports performance. Dietary components that exhibit ergogenic activity are numerous and their consumption is common and popular among athletes. They often come under scrutiny by legal authorities for their claimed benefits and safety concerns. Amino acid derivatives are propagated as being effective aids to enhance physical and mental performance in many ways, even though studies have pointed out that individuals who are deficient are more likely to benefit from dietary supplementation of amino acid derivatives than normal humans. In this review, some of the most common and widely used amino acids derivatives in sports and athletics namely creatine, tyrosine, carnitine, HMB, and taurine have been discussed for their effects on exercise performance, mental activity as well as body strength and composition. Creatine, carnitine, HMB, and taurine are reported to delay the onset of fatigue, improve exercise performance, and body strength. HMB helps in increasing fat-free mass and reduce exercise induced muscle injury. Taurine has been found to reduce oxidative stress during exercise and also act as an antihypertensive agent. Although, studies have not been able to find any favorable effect of tyrosine administration on exercise performance, it has been proved to be very effective in fighting stress, improving mood and cognitive performance particularly in sleep-deprived subjects. While available data from published studies and findings are equivocal about the efficacy of creatine, tyrosine, and HMB, more comprehensive researches on carnitine and taurine are necessary to provide evidence for the theoretical basis of their ergogenic role in nutritional modification and supplementation. PMID:24279396

  20. Imputing amino acid polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigens.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Han, Buhm; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick J; Rich, Stephen S; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2013-01-01

    DNA sequence variation within human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes mediate susceptibility to a wide range of human diseases. The complex genetic structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) makes it difficult, however, to collect genotyping data in large cohorts. Long-range linkage disequilibrium between HLA loci and SNP markers across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region offers an alternative approach through imputation to interrogate HLA variation in existing GWAS data sets. Here we describe a computational strategy, SNP2HLA, to impute classical alleles and amino acid polymorphisms at class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) and class II (-DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1) loci. To characterize performance of SNP2HLA, we constructed two European ancestry reference panels, one based on data collected in HapMap-CEPH pedigrees (90 individuals) and another based on data collected by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC, 5,225 individuals). We imputed HLA alleles in an independent data set from the British 1958 Birth Cohort (N?=?918) with gold standard four-digit HLA types and SNPs genotyped using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K and Illumina Immunochip microarrays. We demonstrate that the sample size of the reference panel, rather than SNP density of the genotyping platform, is critical to achieve high imputation accuracy. Using the larger T1DGC reference panel, the average accuracy at four-digit resolution is 94.7% using the low-density Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K, and 96.7% using the high-density Illumina Immunochip. For amino acid polymorphisms within HLA genes, we achieve 98.6% and 99.3% accuracy using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K and Illumina Immunochip, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate how imputation and association testing at amino acid resolution can facilitate fine-mapping of primary MHC association signals, giving a specific example from type 1 diabetes. PMID:23762245

  1. Hyperdimensional Analysis of Amino Acid Pair Distributions in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Svend B.; Arnason, Omar; Söring, Jón; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2011-01-01

    Our manuscript presents a novel approach to protein structure analyses. We have organized an 8-dimensional data cube with protein 3D-structural information from 8706 high-resolution non-redundant protein-chains with the aim of identifying packing rules at the amino acid pair level. The cube contains information about amino acid type, solvent accessibility, spatial and sequence distance, secondary structure and sequence length. We are able to pose structural queries to the data cube using program ProPack. The response is a 1, 2 or 3D graph. Whereas the response is of a statistical nature, the user can obtain an instant list of all PDB-structures where such pair is found. The user may select a particular structure, which is displayed highlighting the pair in question. The user may pose millions of different queries and for each one he will receive the answer in a few seconds. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the data cube as well as the programs, we have selected well known structural features, disulphide bridges and salt bridges, where we illustrate how the queries are posed, and how answers are given. Motifs involving cysteines such as disulphide bridges, zinc-fingers and iron-sulfur clusters are clearly identified and differentiated. ProPack also reveals that whereas pairs of Lys residues virtually never appear in close spatial proximity, pairs of Arg are abundant and appear at close spatial distance, contrasting the belief that electrostatic repulsion would prevent this juxtaposition and that Arg-Lys is perceived as a conservative mutation. The presented programs can find and visualize novel packing preferences in proteins structures allowing the user to unravel correlations between pairs of amino acids. The new tools allow the user to view statistical information and visualize instantly the structures that underpin the statistical information, which is far from trivial with most other SW tools for protein structure analysis. PMID:22174733

  2. Preliminary Report of NAD+Dependent Amino Acid Dehydrogenase Producing Bacteria Isolated from Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Shahbaz Mohammadi; Eskander Omidinia; Abbas Sahebghadam Lotfi; Reza Saghiri

    Background: Amino acid dehydrogenases (L-amino acid: oxidoreductase deaminating; EC 1.4.1.X) are members of the wider superfamily of oxidoreductases that catalyze the reversible oxidative deamination of an amino acid to its keto acid and ammonia with the concomitant reduction of either NAD+, NADP+ or FAD. These enzymes have been received much attention as biocatalysts for use in biosensors or diagnostic kits

  3. Nitrogenase activity, amino acid pool patterns and amination in blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. N. Dharmawardene; W. D. P. Stewart; S. O. Stanley

    1972-01-01

    The free amino acid pools in the nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae Anabaena cylindrica, A. flos-aquae and Westiellopsis prolifica contain a variety of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid and the amide glutamine being present in much higher concentrations than the others. This pattern is characteristic of that found in organisms having glutamine synthetage\\/glutamate synthetase [glutamine amide-2-oxoglutarate amino transferase (oxido-reductase)] as

  4. N -(indol-3-ylacetyl)amino acids as sources of auxin in plant tissue culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Magnus; Biljana Nigovi?; Roger P. Hangarter; Norman E. Good

    1992-01-01

    N-(Indol-3-ylacetyl) derivatives (IAA conjugates) of aliphatic amino acids with a two- to six-carbon backbone including ?-l-amino acids, (?-amino acids, and the ?,?-diamino acids ornithine and lysine were prepared, chemically characterized, and\\u000a tested as sources of auxin in plant tissue culture. Stimulation of unorganized growth in Solanum nigrum L. callus and callus induction and developmental effects in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

  5. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  6. Amino Acid-Derived Metabolites from the Ascidian Aplidium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Won, Tae Hyung; Kim, Chang-Kwon; Lee, So-Hyoung; Rho, Boon Jo; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-01-01

    Four new iodobenzene-containing dipeptides (1–4), a related bromotryptophan-containing dipeptide (5), and an iodophenethylamine (6) were isolated from the ascidian Aplidium sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. The structures of these novel compounds, designated as apliamides A–E (1–5) and apliamine A (6) were determined via combined spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residue in 1 was determined by advanced Marfey’s analysis. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity and significant inhibition against Na+/K+-ATPase (4). PMID:26087023

  7. Intraperitoneal amino acids: a therapy whose time has come?

    PubMed

    Jones, M R

    1995-01-01

    In regard to the question posed in the title of this review, the answer is mixed. IPN is possible today but only on a limited basis and at high cost with uncertain benefit. A 1.1% amino acid dialysis solution for IPAA therapy is available in several European countries but has not yet been approved for use in the United States. When it becomes more widely available, IPAA should become an important tool, along with other types of therapy, for use in the maintenance of good nutritional status in PD patients. PMID:7578491

  8. Thermal copoly/amino acids/ as inhibitors of glyoxalase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Syren, R. M.; Windsor, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of copoly(alpha-amino acids) have been prepared thermally; some have been found to function as inhibitors of glyoxalase I, an enzyme which occupies a central position in Szent-Gyorgyi's theory of tumour genesis. These polymers are also of interest in the search for synthetic peptides having carcinostatic activity, since many natural peptides are active. The way in which the inhibitory activity varies with composition of the synthetic polymers has been investigated. Various properties (hydrophobicity, molecular weight, UV absorption, kinetic type) have been examined in a search for correlates of inhibitory activity.

  9. L Amino acid oxidase from filamentous fungi: screening and optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf S. El-Sayed; Ahmed A. Shindia; Yomna Zaher

    Twenty-seven fungal isolates recovered on medium containing L-lysine were found to have the potentiality for producing extracellular L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAO). Aspergillus oryzae displayed the highest yield of enzyme (2.6 U\\/mg protein) and antioxidants (2.3 mg\\/ml) followed by Aspergillus flavipes and Trichoderma viride. Upon optimization of the fermentation medium, the maximum enzyme yield (4.6 U\\/mg protein) was obtained on a medium containing\\u000a L-lysine

  10. Gas Phase Structure of Amino Acids: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, I. Pena S.; Sanz, M. E.; Vaquero, V.; Cabezas, C.; Perez, C.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Recent improvements in our laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectrometer such as using Laval-type nozzles and picoseconds Nd:YAG lasers (30 to 150 ps) have allowed a major step forward in the capabilities of this experimental technique as demonstrated by the last results in serine cysteine and threonine^a for which seven, six and seven conformers have been respectively identified. Taking advantage of these improvements we have investigated the natural amino acids metionine, aspartic and glutamic acids and the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the aim of identify and characterize their lower energy conformers. Searches in the rotational spectra have lead to the identification of seven conformers of metionine, six and five of aspartic and glutamic acids, respectively, and seven for the ?-aminobutyric. These conformers have been unambiguously identified by their spectroscopic constants. In particular the ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, that depend heavily on the orientation of the amino group with respect to the principal inertial axes of the molecule, prove to be a unique tool to distinguish unambigously between conformations with similar rotational constants. For the ?-aminobutyric acid two of the seven observed structures are stablized by an intramolecular interaction n-?*. Two new conformers of proline have been identified together with the two previously observed. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 2009, 11, 617. D. B. Atkinson, M. A. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1995, 66, 4434 S. Blanco, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA2007, 104, 20183. M. E. Sanz, S. Blanco, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,2008, 120, 6312. A. Lesarri, S. Mata, E. J. Cocinero, S. Blanco, J.C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. , 2002, 41, 4673

  11. Lysine catabolism, amino acid transport, and systemic acquired resistance: What is the link?

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaiyu; Ludewig, Uwe

    2014-04-28

    Lysine is an essential amino acid for human nutrition, which is generally low in cereal diets. Its biosynthesis via the aspartate-pathway and catabolism is controlled by complex feedback mechanisms. Recently, aspartate-derived amino acids were found to be elevated during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis and a lysine catabolite, pipecolic acid, was identified as critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance. Pipecolic acid is mobile in plants, functions as an intensifier of defense responses and mediates systemic acquired resistance establishment via signal amplification. The altered pathogen defense in several mutants with altered homeostasis of aspartate-derived amino acids, such as lysine, had already provided a genetic link with amino acid homeostasis. Furthermore, the modification of amino acid transport and distribution within tissues not only affected the plant growth performance, but also the plant-pathogen interaction. The ectopic overexpression of a gene encoding a high affinity importer with preference to basic amino acids, such as lysine, CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER1 (CAT1), improved the disease resistance to a hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen in Arabidopsis via a constitutively activated salicylic acid pathway. The importance of Asp-derived amino acid homeostasis for plant systemic acquired resistance and on overall plant growth performance may be relevant to resistance and nutritional quality breeding. Whether nitrogen fertilization has an impact on crop pest control management via amino acid homeostasis is briefly discussed. PMID:24776818

  12. Differences between Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in the Molecular Mechanisms Governing Utilization of D-Amino Acids as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun C.; Khanal Lamichhane, Ami; Bradley, James; Rodgers, Laura; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to grow on media containing certain D-amino acids as a sole nitrogen source is widely utilized to differentiate Cryptococcus gattii from C. neoformans. We used the C. neoformans H99 and C. gattii R265 strains to dissect the mechanisms of D-amino acids utilization. We identified three putative D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) genes in both strains and showed that each DAO gene plays different roles in D-amino acid utilization in each strain. Deletion of DAO2 retarded growth of R265 on eleven D-amino acids suggesting its prominent role on D-amino acid assimilation in R265. All three R265 DAO genes contributed to growth on D-Asn and D-Asp. DAO3 was required for growth and detoxification of D-Glu by both R265 and H99. Although growth of H99 on most D-amino acids was poor, deletion of DAO1 or DAO3 further exacerbated it on four D-amino acids. Overexpression of DAO2 or DAO3 enabled H99 to grow robustly on several D-amino acids suggesting that expression levels of the native DAO genes in H99 were insufficient for growth on D-amino acids. Replacing the H99 DAO2 gene with a single copy of the R265 DAO2 gene also enabled its utilization of several D-amino acids. Results of gene and promoter swaps of the DAO2 genes suggested that enzymatic activity of Dao2 in H99 might be lower compared to the R265 strain. A reduction in virulence was only observed when all DAO genes were deleted in R265 but not in H99 indicating a pathobiologically exclusive role of the DAO genes in R265. These results suggest that C. neoformans and C. gattii divergently evolved in D-amino acid utilization influenced by their major ecological niches. PMID:26132227

  13. Amino acid catabolism: a pivotal regulator of innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Tracy L.; Huang, Lei; Lemos, Henrique; Metz, Richard; Mautino, Mario; Prendergast, George C.; Mellor, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Enhanced amino acid catabolism is a common response to inflammation, but the immunologic significance of altered amino acid consumption remains unclear. The finding that tryptophan catabolism helped maintain fetal tolerance during pregnancy provided novel insights into the significance of amino acid metabolism in controlling immunity. Recent advances in identifying molecular pathways that enhance amino acid catabolism and downstream mechanisms that affect immune cells in response to inflammatory cues support the notion that amino acid catabolism regulates innate and adaptive immune cells in pathologic settings. Cells expressing enzymes that degrade amino acids modulate antigen-presenting cell and lymphocyte functions and reveal critical roles for amino acid- and catabolite-sensing pathways in controlling gene expression, functions, and survival of immune cells. Basal amino acid catabolism may contribute to immune homeostasis that prevents autoimmunity, whereas elevated amino acid catalytic activity may reinforce immune suppression to promote tumorigenesis and persistence of some pathogens that cause chronic infections. For these reasons, there is considerable interest in generating novel drugs that inhibit or induce amino acid consumption and target downstream molecular pathways that control immunity. In this review, we summarize recent developments and highlight novel concepts and key outstanding questions in this active research field. PMID:22889220

  14. Soil amino acid composition quantified by acid hydrolysis and anion chromatography-pulsed amperometry.

    PubMed

    Martens, Dean A; Loeffelmann, Kevin L

    2003-10-22

    Soil organic N accounts for 95-98% of the total soil N content with amino acids (AAs) and amino sugars (ASs) identified as the major soil organic N compounds, but traditional 6 M HCl with reflux or sealed digestions for 24 h and various detection systems have accounted for only 30-40% of soil total N content as AA-N. This study compared traditional HCl extraction methodology with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) hydrolysis and nonderivatized AA and AS quantification by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection for determination of the AA composition of plant litter and soils. MSA (4 M) gave AA-N recovery comparable to or better than 6 M HCl for plant AA digestions (16 h, 121 degrees C, 104 kPa). Use of 4 M MSA (0.5-1.5 h, 136 degrees C, 112 kPa) increased the total recovery of organic N as AAs, ASs, and NH(4)(+) by 46% from soils (n = 22) compared with 6 M HCl (12 h, 110 degrees C, reflux) with a MSA recovery rate of 85.6% of the total N content (n = 22 soils). The shorter MSA soil digestions (0.5-1.5 h) suggested that the majority of soil organic N was not present as protein forms found in plant litter analysis (16 h of digestion). MSA ion chromatographic analysis for soil AA/AS composition is a robust nonderivatization method requiring little sample preparation that can distinguish between small changes in soil AA composition during one growing season due to vegetation and tillage managements. PMID:14558773

  15. Comprehensive Profiling of Amino Acid Response Uncovers Unique Methionine-Deprived Response Dependent on Intact Creatine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohu; Keenan, Melissa M.; Wu, Jianli; Lin, Chih-An; Dubois, Laura; Thompson, J. Will; Freedland, Stephen J.; Murphy, Susan K.; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Besides being building blocks for protein synthesis, amino acids serve a wide variety of cellular functions, including acting as metabolic intermediates for ATP generation and for redox homeostasis. Upon amino acid deprivation, free uncharged tRNAs trigger GCN2-ATF4 to mediate the well-characterized transcriptional amino acid response (AAR). However, it is not clear whether the deprivation of different individual amino acids triggers identical or distinct AARs. Here, we characterized the global transcriptional response upon deprivation of one amino acid at a time. With the exception of glycine, which was not required for the proliferation of MCF7 cells, we found that the deprivation of most amino acids triggered a shared transcriptional response that included the activation of ATF4, p53 and TXNIP. However, there was also significant heterogeneity among different individual AARs. The most dramatic transcriptional response was triggered by methionine deprivation, which activated an extensive and unique response in different cell types. We uncovered that the specific methionine-deprived transcriptional response required creatine biosynthesis. This dependency on creatine biosynthesis was caused by the consumption of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) during creatine biosynthesis that helps to deplete SAM under methionine deprivation and reduces histone methylations. As such, the simultaneous deprivation of methionine and sources of creatine biosynthesis (either arginine or glycine) abolished the reduction of histone methylation and the methionine-specific transcriptional response. Arginine-derived ornithine was also required for the complete induction of the methionine-deprived specific gene response. Collectively, our data identify a previously unknown set of heterogeneous amino acid responses and reveal a distinct methionine-deprived transcriptional response that results from the crosstalk of arginine, glycine and methionine metabolism via arginine/glycine-dependent creatine biosynthesis. PMID:25849282

  16. Differential changes of neuroactive amino acids in samples obtained from discrete rat brain regions after systemic administration of saxitoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Carmina Cervantes Cianca; Rafael Durán Barbosa; Lilian Rosana Ferreira Faro; Lucia Vidal Adan; Ana Gago-Martínez; Miguel Alfonso Pallares

    2009-01-01

    Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) and 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid are neuroactive amino acids. They are found in the central rat nervous system. Here, we have studied if a relationship exists between the presence of saxitoxin (STX) a paralytic poisoning shellfish (PSP) and the neuroactive amino acids. Samples of striatum (S), hypothalamus (H), mid brain (MB), frontal cortex (FC), brain

  17. -HPLC determination of acidic d-amino acids and their N-methyl derivatives in biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tsesarskaia, Mara; Galindo, Erika; Szókán, Gyula; Fisher, George

    2015-01-01

    d-aspartate (d-Asp) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) occur in the neuroendocrine systems of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play a role in hormone release and synthesis, neurotransmission, and memory and learning. N-methyl-d-glutamate (NMDG) has also been detected in marine bivalves. Several methods have been used to detect these amino acids, but they require pretreatment of tissue samples with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) to remove primary amino acids which interfere with the detection of NMDA and NMDG. We report here a one step derivatization procedure with the chiral reagent N-?-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-(d or l)-valine amide, FDNP-Val-NH2, a close analog of Marfey’s reagent but with better resolution and higher molar absorptivity. The diastereomers formed are separated by HPLC on an ODS-Hypersil column eluted with TFA/water – TFA/MeCN. UV absorption at 340 nm permits detection levels as low as 5–10 picomoles. D-Asp, NMDA and NMDG peaks are not obscured by other primary or secondary amino acids; hence pretreatment of tissues with OPA is not required. This method is highly reliable and fast (less than 40 minutes HPLC run). Using this method, we have detected D-Asp, NMDA and NMDG in several biological tissues (octopus brain, optical lobe, and bucchal mass; foot and mantle of the mollusk Scapharca broughtonii), confirming the results of other researchers. PMID:19277955

  18. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  19. Evidence from Meteorites for Multiple Possible Amino Acid Alphabets for the Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question for the origins of life is understanding which amino acids made up the first proteins synthesized during the origins of life. The canonical set of 20 - 22 amino acids used in proteins are all alpha-amino, alpha-hydrogen isomers that, nevertheless, show considerable variability in properties including size, hydrophobicity, and ionizability. Abiotic amino acid synthesis experiments such as Miller-Urey spark discharge reactions produce a set of up to 23 amino acids, depending on starting materials and reaction conditions, with significant abundances of both alpha- and non-alpha-amino acid isomers. These two sets of amino acids do not completely overlap; of the 23 spark discharge amino acids, only 11 are used in modern proteins. Furthermore, because our understanding of conditions on the early Earth are limited, it is unclear which set(s) of conditions employed in spark discharge or hydrothermal reactions are correct, leaving us with significant uncertainty about the amino acid alphabet available for the origins of life on Earth. Meteorites, the surviving remnants of asteroids and comets that fall to the Earth, offer the potential to study authentic samples of naturally-occurring abiotic chemistry, and thus can provide an alternative approach to constraining the amino acid library during the origins of life.

  20. Common amino acid domain among endopolygalacturonases of ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Keon, J P; Waksman, G

    1990-01-01

    The endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) enzymes produced in vitro by three ascomycete fungi, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were studied by using thin-layer isoelectric focusing and activity stain overlay techniques. The polygalacturonases from A. niger and S. sclerotiorum consisted of numerous isoforms, whereas the endopolygalacturonase from C. lindemuthianum consisted of a single protein species. The most abundant endopolygalacturonase isoform produced by each of these organisms was purified and characterized. Biochemical parameters, including molecular weight, isoelectric point, kinetic parameters, temperature and pH optima, and thermal stability, were determined. Considerable differences in physical and chemical properties were demonstrated among these fungal polygalacturonases. Antibodies raised against individual proteins exhibited little cross-reaction, suggesting that these enzymes differ structurally as well as biochemically. In contrast, the analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three proteins showed extensive homology, particularly in a region labeled domain 1 in which 84% of the amino acids were conserved. Images PMID:2403258

  1. Mechanisms of myocardial protection by amino acids: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pisarenko, O I

    1996-08-01

    1. Positive inotropic effect of taurine and improvement of cardiac performance of failing heart are mediated through the modulation of Ca2+ movement through the sarcolemma. 2. Cardioprotection with glutamate and aspartate is related to enhanced anaerobic energy formation in mitochondria coupled with succinate formation and, probably, with the relieving of glycolytic flux. During reperfusion, both amino acids replenish the malate-aspartate shuttle reactants, thereby facilitating glucose oxidation. 3. Increased intracellular concentrations of branched chain amino acids (leucine, valine and isoleusine) stimulate formation of acetyl-coenzyme (CoA) and succinyl-CoA and, thus, recovery of oxidative metabolism. 4. Methionine and cysteine enhance force of contraction by N-methylation of membrane phospholipids of the sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Methionine and, to a lesser extent, cysteine may reduce myocardial damage by oxygen radical species. 5. Histidine exerts antioxidant properties as a scavenger of singlet oxygen and OH radicals. High concentrations of histidine provide intracellular buffering to stimulate anaerobic energy formation. PMID:8886480

  2. Inferring topological features of proteins from amino acid residue networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Nelson Augusto; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2007-02-01

    Topological properties of native folds are obtained from statistical analysis of 160 low homology proteins covering the four structural classes. This is done analyzing one, two and three-vertex joint distribution of quantities related to the corresponding network of amino acid residues. Emphasis on the amino acid residue hydrophobicity leads to the definition of their center of mass as vertices in this contact network model with interactions represented by edges. The network analysis helps us to interpret experimental results such as hydrophobic scales and fraction of buried accessible surface area in terms of the network connectivity. Moreover, those networks show assortative mixing by degree. To explore the vertex-type dependent correlations, we build a network of hydrophobic and polar vertices. This procedure presents the wiring diagram of the topological structure of globular proteins leading to the following attachment probabilities between hydrophobic-hydrophobic 0.424(5), hydrophobic-polar 0.419(2) and polar-polar 0.157(3) residues.

  3. Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, T.P.; Woods, K.R.

    1981-06-01

    A method is presented for locating protein antigenic determinants by analyzing amino acid sequences in order to find the point of greatest local hydrophilicity. This is accomplished by assigning each amino acid a numerical value (hydrophilicity value) and then repetitively averaging these values along the peptide chain. The point of highest local average hydrophilicity is invariably located in, or immediately adjacent to, an antigenic determinant. It was found that the prediction success rate depended on averaging group length, with hexapeptide averages yielding optimal results. The method was developed using 12 proteins for which extensive immunochemical analysis has been carried out and subsequently was used to predict antigenic determinants for the following proteins: hepatitis B surface antigen, influenza hemagglutinis, fowl plague virus hemagglutinin, human histocompatibility antigen HLA-B7, human interferons, Escherichia coli and cholera enterotoxins, ragweed allergens Ra3 and Ra5, and streptococcal M protein. The hepatitis B surface antigen sequence was synthesized by chemical means and was shown to have antigenic activity by radioimmunoassay.

  4. Cometary impact and amino acid survival - Chemical kinetics and thermochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Arrhenius parameters for the initiating reactions in butane thermolysis and the formation of soot, reliable to at least 3000 K, have been applied to the question of the survival of amino acids in cometary impacts on early Earth. The pressure/temperature/time course employed here was that developed in hydrocode simulations for kilometer-sized comets (Pierazzo and Chyba, 1999), with attention to the track below 3000 K where it is shown that potential stabilizing effects of high pressure become unimportant kinetically. The question of survival can then be considered without the need for assignment of activation volumes and the related uncertainties in their application to extreme conditions. The exercise shows that the characteristic times for soot formation in the interval fall well below the cooling periods for impacts ranging from fully vertical down to about 9?? above horizontal. Decarboxylation, which emerges as more rapid than soot formation below 2000-3000 K, continues further down to extremely narrow impact angles, and accordingly cometa??ry delivery of amino acids to early Earth is highly unlikely. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  5. The effects of a series of omega-phosphonic alpha-carboxylic amino acids on electrically evoked and excitant amino acid-induced responses in isolated spinal cord preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R. H.; Francis, A. A.; Jones, A. W.; Smith, D. A.; Watkins, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    1 The depressant actions on evoked electrical activity and the excitant amino acid antagonist properties of a range of omega-phosphonic alpha-carboxylic amino acids have been investigated in the isolated spinal cord preparations of the frog or immature rat. 2 When tested on dorsal root-evoked ventral root potentials, members of the homologous series from 2- amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid to 2-amino-8-phosphonooctanoic acid showed depressant actions which correlated with the ability of the substances to antagonize selectivity motoneuronal depolarizations induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate. 3 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate was the most potent substance of the series giving an apparent KD of 1.4 microM for the antagonism of responses to N-methyl-D-aspartate. 4 A comparison of the (+)- and (-)-forms of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate indicated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist activity and the neuronal depressant action of this substance were both due mainly to the (-)-isomer. 5 The (-)- and (+)-forms of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate had different actions. The (-)-forms of this substance had a relatively weak and non-selective antagonist action on depolarizations induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate, quisqualate and kainate and a similarly weak depressant effect when tested on evoked electrical activity. The (+)-form was more potent than he (-)-form in depressing electrically evoked activity but did not antagonize responses to amino acid excitants. At concentrations higher than those required to depress electrically evoked activity, the (+)-form produced depolarization. This action was blocked by 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. PMID:7042024

  6. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in heart disease: an epiphenomenon or a real culprit?

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhou, Meiyi; Sun, Haipeng; Wang, Yibin

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic remodelling is an integral part of the pathogenesis of heart failure. Although much progress has been made in our current understanding of the metabolic impairment involving carbohydrates and fatty acids in failing hearts, relatively little is known about the changes and potential impact of amino acid metabolism in the onset of heart diseases. Although most amino acid catabolic activities are found in the liver, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism requires activity in several non-hepatic tissues, including cardiac muscle, diaphragm, brain and kidney. In this review, the new insights into the regulation of cardiac BCAA catabolism and functional impact on cardiac development and physiology will be discussed along with the potential contribution of impairment in BCAA catabolism to heart diseases. A particular focus will be the new information obtained from recently developed genetic models with BCAA catabolic defects and metabolomic studies in human and animal models. These studies have revealed the potential role of BCAA catabolism in cardiac pathophysiology and have helped to distinguish BCAA metabolic defects as an under-appreciated culprit in cardiac diseases rather than an epiphenomenon associated with metabolic remodelling in the failing heart. PMID:21502372

  7. Highly expressed proteins have an increased frequency of alanine in the second amino acid position

    PubMed Central

    Tats, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel

    2006-01-01

    Background Although the sequence requirements for translation initiation regions have been frequently analysed, usually the highly expressed genes are not treated as a separate dataset. Results To investigate this, we analysed the mRNA regions downstream of initiation codons in nine bacteria, three archaea and three unicellular eukaryotes, comparing the dataset of highly expressed genes to the dataset of all genes. In addition to the detailed analysis of the nucleotide and codon frequencies we compared the N-termini of highly expressed proteins to the N-termini of all proteins coded in the genome. Conclusion The most conserved pattern was observed at the amino acid level: strong alanine over-representation was observed at the second amino acid position of highly expressed proteins. This pattern is well conserved in all three domains of life. PMID:16483368

  8. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, ?,?-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: ?-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  9. Amino acids and amino sugars of surface particulate and sediment trap material from waters of the Scotia sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Peter J.; Suess, Erwin; AndréUngerer, C.

    1986-06-01

    Two coarse suspended matter size classes (75-150 ?m, >150 ?m), from subantarctic and Antarctic surface waters in the Scotia Sea, and sediment trap material from the Drake Passage were analyzed for their elemental, amino acid and amino sugar compositions. Different proportions of biogenic silica and organic matter in the particulates of both regions reflect a zonation of primary producers, with diatoms predominating in the waters south of the Polar Front. High SiO 2:C org ratios, elevated proportions of hydroxyl amino acids, and essentially identical amino acid compositions for both size classes indicate that diatoms account for a major portion of the particulate proteinaceous material from Antarctic surface waters. Of the two amino sugars, glucosamine and galactosamine, only the former was detected in significant amounts in the surface particulates. The total amino acid : glucosamine ratio was lowest in surface particulates of subantarctic waters and increased with increasing latitude in Antarctic waters, reaching the highest values in the region of the Bransfield Strait. Moreover, amino acid : glucosamine ratios suggest day-night differences in particulate matter resulting from primary productivity in conjunction with the feeding behavior of vertical migrators. Significantly different amino acid and amino sugar compositions of the surface particulate matter >75 ?m in size and the sediment trap material reflect fractionation processes at shallow depths. Remineralization and digestion of organic matter appear to result in a relative enrichment of structural components (diatom cell walls, chitinaceous matter) in fecal pellets and other large aggregates. The preferential preservation of diatom cell wall material is indicated by a strong relative enrichment of glycine and hydroxyl amino acids in the sediment trap material in conjunction with high biogenic silica:organic carbon ratios. Similarly, low amino acid:glucosamine ratios in the sediment trap material from depths point to a preferential preservation of chitinaceous matter. Slight compositional differences between the material from the upper and lower trap may indicate that bacteria are acting on the rapidly sinking particles. These changes appear to be insignificant, however, when compared to the fractionations occurring at shallow depths.

  10. Effects of CO2 enrichment on the metabolism of soluble amino acids and organic acids in barley primary leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of soluble amino acids and organic acids to CO2 enrichment were determined with barley primary leaves (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant) grown in controlled environment chambers. Total soluble amino acids were enhanced 33% by CO2 enrichment when determined 9 days after sowing (DAS). However,...

  11. Whole-body nitrogen and tyrosine metabolism in surgical patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Desai; B. R. Bistrian; L. L. Moldawer; G. L. Blackburn

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity received preoperatively a standard crystalline amino acid solution containing 15.6% branched-chain amino acids. During the first five postoperative days, the patients were randomized to receive one of three amino acid solutions of different branched-chain amino acid content. Whole-body amino acid appearance and oxidation were estimated using a continuous intravenous infusion of

  12. Accumulation of seleno-amino acids in legume and grass plant species grown in selenium-laden soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wu; Xun Guo; Gary S. Banuelos

    1997-01-01

    Seleno-amino acid accumulation was studied for two legume and two grass species grown in Selenium (Se)-laden soils. An antagonistic relationship was found between the tissue Se-amino acid concentration and the corresponding sulfur-amino acid concentration. This relationship demonstrates a competitive interaction between Se and sulfate at the amino acid synthesis level. The nonsulfur-containing amino acids were not substantially affected by the

  13. Regulation of TORC1 in response to amino acid starvation via lysosomal recruitment of TSC2

    PubMed Central

    Demetriades, Constantinos; Doumpas, Nikolaos; Teleman, Aurelio A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY TOR Complex 1 (TORC1) is a potent anabolic regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. When cells have sufficient amino acids, TORC1 is active due to its lysosomal localization mediated via the Rag GTPases. Upon amino acid removal, the Rag GTPases release TORC1, causing it to become cytoplasmic and inactive. We show here that upon amino acid removal, the Rag GTPases also recruit TSC2 to the lysosome, where it can act on Rheb. Only when both the Rag GTPases and Rheb are inactive is TORC1 fully released from the lysosome. Upon amino acid withdrawal, cells lacking TSC2 fail to completely release TORC1 from the lysosome, fail to completely inactivate TORC1, and fail to adjust physiologically to amino acid starvation. These data suggest that regulation of TSC2 subcellular localization may be a general mechanism to control its activity, and places TSC2 in the amino acid sensing pathway to TORC1. PMID:24529380

  14. [Plasma amino acids in patients with liver cirrhosis treated with lactulose].

    PubMed

    Giardina, M G; Matarazzo, M; Prantera, T; Verre, C; De Marco, F

    1984-12-30

    The altered plasma amino acid pattern (i.e. increased levels of aromatic amino acids and decreased levels of branched chain amino acids) is a characteristic feature of cirrhotic patients. Recently it has been proved that an increased net degradation of BCAA is positively correlated to the plasma NH3 level, strongly suggesting that these amino acids are molecularly involved in glutamine synthesis to detoxify ammonia in skeletal muscle. Lactulose, a synthetic, nonabsorbable disaccharide, is believed to actively promote excretion of ammonia from the body by causing it to be trapped in the acidified fecal stream and making it unavailable for absorption. Therefore therapy with lactulose could determine an increase of BCAA. The present study was undertaken to examine plasma amino acid pattern of ten patients with liver cirrhosis before and after lactulose therapy. No statistically significant changes of amino acids were observed. PMID:6529509

  15. Sensing of amino acids in a dopaminergic circuitry promotes rejection of an incomplete diet in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bjordal, Marianne; Arquier, Nathalie; Kniazeff, Julie; Pin, Jean Philippe; Léopold, Pierre

    2014-01-30

    The brain is the central organizer of food intake, matching the quality and quantity of the food sources with organismal needs. To ensure appropriate amino acid balance, many species reject a diet lacking one or several essential amino acids (EAAs) and seek out a better food source. Here, we show that, in Drosophila larvae, this behavior relies on innate sensing of amino acids in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the brain. We demonstrate that the amino acid sensor GCN2 acts upstream of GABA signaling in DA neurons to promote avoidance of the EAA-deficient diet. Using real-time calcium imaging in larval brains, we show that amino acid imbalance induces a rapid and reversible activation of three DA neurons that are necessary and sufficient for food rejection. Taken together, these data identify a central amino-acid-sensing mechanism operating in specific DA neurons and controlling food intake. PMID:24485457

  16. The simultaneous quantitation of ten amino acids in soil extracts by mass fragmentography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Hoyano, Y.; Reynolds, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Duffield, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    A specific and sensitive method for the identification and simultaneous quantitation by mass fragmentography of ten of the amino acids present in soil was developed. The technique uses a computer driven quadrupole mass spectrometer and a commercial preparation of deuterated amino acids is used as internal standards for purposes of quantitation. The results obtained are comparable with those from an amino acid analyzer. In the quadrupole mass spectrometer-computer system up to 25 pre-selected ions may be monitored sequentially. This allows a maximum of 12 different amino acids (one specific ion in each of the undeuterated and deuterated amino acid spectra) to be quantitated. The method is relatively rapid (analysis time of approximately one hour) and is capable of the quantitation of nanogram quantities of amino acids.

  17. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  18. Amino acid composition of single seeds and cotyledons of some brassica species by gas liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L.-A. Appelqvist; Baboo M. Nair

    1977-01-01

    There are considerable differences in amino acid pattern between the seed coat and the embryo (separated after 5 h of imbibition in water) but only minor differences between the various embryonic parts, the hypocotyl, the inner and outer cotyledons. Thus, the seed coat is high in proline and hydroxyproline and relatively low in glutamic acid. No change in amino acid

  19. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  20. Resolving Discrepancy between Nucleotides and Amino Acids in Deep-Level Arthropod Phylogenomics: Differentiating Serine Codons in 21-Amino-Acid Models

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, Andreas; Regier, Jerome C.; Zwickl, Derrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In a previous study of higher-level arthropod phylogeny, analyses of nucleotide sequences from 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 panarthopod species yielded significantly higher bootstrap support for selected nodes than did amino acids. This study investigates the cause of that discrepancy. Methodology/Principal Findings The hypothesis is tested that failure to distinguish the serine residues encoded by two disjunct clusters of codons (TCN, AGY) in amino acid analyses leads to this discrepancy. In one test, the two clusters of serine codons (Ser1, Ser2) are conceptually translated as separate amino acids. Analysis of the resulting 21-amino-acid data matrix shows striking increases in bootstrap support, in some cases matching that in nucleotide analyses. In a second approach, nucleotide and 20-amino-acid data sets are artificially altered through targeted deletions, modifications, and replacements, revealing the pivotal contributions of distinct Ser1 and Ser2 codons. We confirm that previous methods of coding nonsynonymous nucleotide change are robust and computationally efficient by introducing two new degeneracy coding methods. We demonstrate for degeneracy coding that neither compositional heterogeneity at the level of nucleotides nor codon usage bias between Ser1 and Ser2 clusters of codons (or their separately coded amino acids) is a major source of non-phylogenetic signal. Conclusions The incongruity in support between amino-acid and nucleotide analyses of the forementioned arthropod data set is resolved by showing that “standard” 20-amino-acid analyses yield lower node support specifically when serine provides crucial signal. Separate coding of Ser1 and Ser2 residues yields support commensurate with that found by degenerated nucleotides, without introducing phylogenetic artifacts. While exclusion of all serine data leads to reduced support for serine-sensitive nodes, these nodes are still recovered in the ML topology, indicating that the enhanced signal from Ser1 and Ser2 is not qualitatively different from that of the other amino acids. PMID:23185239

  1. Plasma Amino Acids in Interrupted Aortic Arch and the Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry L. Halliday; Raymond Moore; Denis O’Hara

    1987-01-01

    Plasma amino acids were measured in 8 babies with left-sided congenital heart disease, 3 interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and 5 hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLH), at 1–6 days of age. There was an increase in total amino acid levels when compared with 40 control infants of similar gestational age and birth weight. Both branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were raised

  2. Amino Acid and Vitamin Composition of Raw and Cooked Horse Mackerel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuray Erkan; Arif Selçuk; Özkan Özden

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid, vitamin (A, E, B1, B2, B3 and B6), and proximate composition were determined in raw and cooked horse mackerel. The changes in amino acid, vitamin, and proximate\\u000a content were found to be significant for all cooking methods (frying, grilling, and steaming). Cooking did in general significantly\\u000a increase the contents of essential, semi-essential, and other amino acids compared to

  3. The Determination of Amino Acids in 0.1 ml. of Blood Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. McEvoy-Bowe; S. Sarojini Thevi

    A method has been developed for the determination of the following amino acids in 0.1 ml. of blood plasma: alanine, arginine, glutamine, glycine, lysine, serine, taurine, threonine,andvaline.A microSephadex C-25 columnwasusedto separatethe plasma proteins from the amino acids. The amino acid fraction, which is collected in 1 ml. of eluate, is then desalted in an electrolytic desalter, and lyophilized. The residue

  4. Irreplaceable Amino Acids and Reduced Alphabets in Short-Term and Directed Protein Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Jiménez-montaño; Matthew He

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we extend codon volatility definition to amino acid reduced alphabets to characterize mutations that conserve\\u000a physical-chemical properties. We also define the average relative changeability of amino acids in terms of single-base codon\\u000a self-substitution frequencies (identities). These frequencies are taken from an empirical codon substitution matrix [14].\\u000a It is shown that this index splits the amino acids into

  5. Extraction of protein and amino acids from deoiled rice bran by subcritical water hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Issara Sereewatthanawut; Surawit Prapintip; Katemanee Watchiraruji; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Artiwan Shotipruk

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the production of value-added protein and amino acids from deoiled rice bran by hydrolysis in subcritical water (SW) in the temperature range between 100 and 220°C for 0–30min. The results suggested that SW could effectively be used to hydrolyze deoiled rice bran to produce useful protein and amino acids. The amount of protein and amino acids produced

  6. Synthesis of chiral N-protected amino acid esters by the use of UNCAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chevallet; J.-A. Fehrentz; K. Kiec-Kononowicz; C. Devin; J. Castel; A. Loffet; J. Martinez

    1996-01-01

    An easy synthesis of N-protected amino acid esters, including tert-butyl esters, is described by the use of urethane N-protected carboxyanhydrides (UNCAs). Treating UNCAs with tert-butanol in the presence of potassium bicarbonate at 45°C yielded the corresponding N-protected amino acid tert-butyl esters in a very simple way. Benzyloxycarbonyl and tert-butyloxycarbonyl N-protected amino acid tert-butyl esters have been obtained by this procedure.

  7. Amino acids regulate salinity-induced potassium efflux in barley root epidermis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Ann Cuin; Sergey Shabala

    2007-01-01

    The amino acid content increases substantially in salt-stressed plants. The physiological relevance of this phenomenon remains\\u000a largely unknown. Using the MIFE ion flux measuring technique, we studied the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations\\u000a of 26 amino acids on NaCl-induced K+ flux from barley root epidermis. We show that 21 (of 26) amino acids caused a significant mitigation of the NaCl-induced

  8. Amino acid transporters are localized to transfer cells of developing Pea seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mechthild Tegeder; Christina E. Offler; Wolf B. Frommer; John W. Patrick

    2000-01-01

    To determine the nature and cellular localization of amino acid transport in pea seeds, two cDNA clones belonging to the AAP family of H+\\/amino acid co-transporters (PsAAP1 and PsAAP2) were isolated from a cotyledon cDNA library of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Functional expression in the yeast amino acid uptake mutants 22DELTA6AAL and 22DELTA8AA showed that PsAAP1 mediates transport of neutral,

  9. AtCAT6, a sink-tissue-localized transporter for essential amino acids in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Z. Hammes; Erik Nielsen; Loren A. Honaas; Christopher G. Taylor; Daniel P. Schachtman

    2006-01-01

    Summary Amino acids represent the major form of reduced nitrogen that is transported in plants. Amino acid transporters in plants often show tissue-specific expression patterns and are used by plants to transport these metabolites from source to sink during development and under changing environmental conditions. We identified one amino acid transporter, AtCAT6, which is expressed in sink tissues such as

  10. Mapping Amino Acids of the Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Responsible for Receptor (CD46) Downregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Bartz; Ute Brinckmann; Lee M. Dunster; Bert Rima; Volker Ter Meulen; Jürgen Schneider-Schaulies

    1996-01-01

    We compared the amino acid sequences of groups of receptor (CD46) downregulating and nondownregulating measles virus (MV) hemagglutinins (Hs) and identified seven group-specific differences as candidates for the mediation of the observed differential effects. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we mutated the chosen amino acids of the H of MV-strain WTF (WTF-H), a nondownregulating H, and introduced the corresponding amino acids of

  11. Free amino acids in the developing leaves and flower bud of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Nabeesa; N Neelakandan

    1984-01-01

    Free amino acids were determined at six chronologically comparable developmental stages each of leaves 1 and 2, bearing vegetative\\u000a dormant axillary meristem and leaves 3 and 4, bearing axillary flower bud, inAbelmoschus esculentus. Simultaneously, free amino acids were determined in the flower bud at the third leaf axil at four stages of growth. The\\u000a developmental pattern of the amino acids

  12. An acidic amino acid-specific protease from germinating soybeans.

    PubMed

    Tan-Wilson, A L; Liu, X; Chen, R; Qi, X; Wilson, K A

    1996-05-01

    The degradation of the beta-conglycinin protein reserves in soybean seeds during germination and early growth begins with the proteolysis of its alpha and alpha' subunits by an enzyme called Protease C1. In the pathway, a number of proteolytic intermediates are produced and subsequently degraded. Determination of the N-terminal sequences of these intermediates provides insight regarding the requirements of the cleavage sites. The N-terminal sequence of three such proteolytic intermediates has been determined. The sequence has been located in the published sequences of the beta-conglycinin subunits. Comparing these cleavage sites, plus those of two others previously delineated, shows that the P1' and P4' positions always bear either a Glu or an Asp residue while the P1 position always bears either a Glu or a Gln residue. In addition, other sites from P3 to P7' are also rich in either Glu or Asp, and the whole region is predicted to be in a alpha-helix. Consistent with the observation, synthetic poly-L-Glu inhibits the Protease C1-catalysed degradation of the alpha and alpha' subunits of beta-conglycinin. Poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 1000) at 12.5 mM was more effective at inhibiting the reaction than poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 600) or poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 14,300) at the same concentration. Comparing large synthetic polypeptides at 12.5mM, inhibition by poly-L-Asp (av. M(r) = 15,000) is as effective as poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 14,300), while poly-L-Ser (av. M(r) = 15,000) had no effect at all. Poly-D-Glu (av. M(r) = 15,000) is a better inhibitor than poly-L-Glu of the same size. A serine protease of similar molecular weight as Protease C1 and also capable of catalysing the proteolysis of the alpha and alpha' subunits of beta-conglycinin to generate proteolytic intermediates of the same size has been found in mung bean. PMID:8688170

  13. Nickel Deficiency Disrupts Metabolism of Ureides, Amino Acids, and Organic Acids of Young Pecan Foliage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Bai; Charles C. Reilly; Bruce W. Wood

    2006-01-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of

  14. Diversity of amino acid converting enzymes in wild lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fernández de Palencia; M. de la Plaza; F. Amárita; T. Requena; C. Peláez

    2006-01-01

    A total of 156 lactic acid bacteria isolates belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were analysed for the amino acid converting enzymes aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ?-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase. All isolates showed aminotransferase activity towards phenylalanine (substrate for the aromatic aminotransferase AraT) and isoleucine (substrate for the branched-chain aminotransferase BcaT). Although there was a high variability inter- and intra-species,

  15. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and BranchedChain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey E. Kazakov; Dmitry A. Rodionov; Eric Alm; Adam Paul Arkin; Inna Dubchak; Mikhail S. Gelfand

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e., isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FAs) as sole carbon and energy sources converting ILV into acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), propanoyl-CoA, and propionyl- CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcrip- tional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The

  16. Fatty acid, amino acid, and trace mineral analyses of five weaning foods from Jos, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane R. Fernandez; Dorothy J. Vanderjagt; M. Williams; Y.-S. Huang; Lu-Te Chuang; Mark Millson; Ronnee Andrews; Andrzej Pastuszyn; Robert H. Glew

    2002-01-01

    Five plant-based weaning foods (WF) (Dietrend, Jot-M, Soy, Ang and Vic-T) locallyprepared in Jos, Nigeria were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography,reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and atomicemission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma to determine theirfatty acid (FA), amino acid, and trace mineral contents, respectively.Results of these direct analyses were compared to expected values derivedfrom food composition tables prepared by the United

  17. Reasons for the occurrence of the twenty coded protein amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Factors involved in the selection of the 20 protein L-alpha-amino acids during chemical evolution and the early stages of Darwinian evolution are discussed. The selection is considered on the basis of the availability in the primitive ocean, function in proteins, the stability of the amino acid and its peptides, stability to racemization, and stability on the transfer RNA. It is concluded that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, lysine, serine and possibly threonine are the best choices for acidic, basic and hydroxy amino acids. The hydrophobic amino acids are reasonable choices, except for the puzzling absences of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid, norvaline and norleucine. The choices of the sulfur and aromatic amino acids seem reasonable, but are not compelling. Asparagine and glutamine are apparently not primitive. If life were to arise on another planet, it would be expected that the catalysts would be poly-alpha-amino acids and that about 75% of the amino acids would be the same as on the earth.

  18. Amino acids as natural inhibitors for hydrate formation in CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Chun, Hee Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-07-01

    The motivation for this work was the potential of hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine, l-alanine, and l-valine to be applied as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs). To confirm their capabilities in inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates, three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions for carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the presence of 0.1-3.0 mol % amino acid solutions were determined in the range of 273.05-281.45 K and 14.1-35.2 bar. From quantitative analyses, the inhibiting effects of the amino acids (on a mole concentration basis) decreased in the following order: l-valine > l-alanine > glycine. The application of amino acids as THIs has several potential advantages over conventional methods. First, the environmentally friendly nature of amino acids as compared to conventional inhibitors means that damage to ecological systems and the environment could be minimized. Second, the loss of amino acids in recovery process would be considerably reduced because amino acids are nonvolatile. Third, amino acids have great potential as a model system in which to investigate the inhibition mechanism on the molecular level, since the structure and chemical properties of amino acids are well understood. PMID:21663046

  19. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  20. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-12-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the ?-, ?-, and ?-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspartic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.