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1

Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes  

SciTech Connect

The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of (1-13C)valine (and (2H3)leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1.

Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R. (Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1991-08-01

2

Thermal, dielectric studies on pure and amino acid ( l-glutamic acid, l-histidine, l-valine) doped KDP single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids (l-glutamic acid, l-histidine, l-valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phospate crystals are grown by solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1mol% to 10mol%. The solubility data for all dopants concentration were determined. There is variation in pH value

P. Kumaresan; S. Moorthy Babu; P. M. Anbarasan

2008-01-01

3

Growth of transplastomic cells expressing D-amino acid oxidase in chloroplasts is tolerant to D-alanine and inhibited by D-valine.  

PubMed

Dual-conditional positive/negative selection markers are versatile genetic tools for manipulating genomes. Plastid genomes are relatively small and conserved DNA molecules that can be manipulated precisely by homologous recombination. High-yield expression of recombinant products and maternal inheritance of plastid-encoded traits make plastids attractive sites for modification. Here, we describe the cloning and expression of a dao gene encoding D-amino acid oxidase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plastids. The results provide genetic evidence for the uptake of D-amino acids into plastids, which contain a target that is inhibited by D-alanine. Importantly, this nonantibiotic-based selection system allows the use of cheap and widely available D-amino acids, which are relatively nontoxic to animals and microbes, to either select against (D-valine) or for (D-alanine) cells containing transgenic plastids. Positive/negative selection with d-amino acids was effective in vitro and against transplastomic seedlings grown in soil. The dual functionality of dao is highly suited to the polyploid plastid compartment, where it can be used to provide tolerance against potential D-alanine-based herbicides, control the timing of recombination events such as marker excision, influence the segregation of transgenic plastid genomes, identify loci affecting dao function in mutant screens, and develop D-valine-based methods to manage the spread of transgenic plastids tagged with dao. PMID:23085840

Gisby, Martin F; Mudd, Elisabeth A; Day, Anil

2012-12-01

4

Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens. PMID:25409658

Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

2015-02-01

5

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

6

Synthesis and characterization of novel, optically active polyamides derived from S-valine natural amino acid and bulky anthracenic side chain.  

PubMed

This is the first description of the application of molten tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP) for the synthesis of novel polyamides (PAs). Monomer diacid, 5-[(9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracene-11,12-dicarboximido)-3-methylbutanoylamino]isophthalic acid (4), having anthracenic and amino acid S-valine pendant group, was synthesized in four steps. Several novel, optically active PAs were prepared by the condensation of synthesized diacid monomer 4 with various aromatic diamines using two different techniques: a mixture of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)/TPP/pyridine/calcium chloride (method I) and combination of TPP with TBAB (method II). The main goal of the present paper was to prepare novel PAs in a green media by removal of toxic reagents. Therefore, TBAB/TPP was used as a novel, easy, safe and eco-friendly method for the preparation of aromatic PAs. This method is compared with the polymerization reaction under conventional solvent and in the case of TBAB as a new method, higher yields, inherent viscosities and thermally stable of PAs are gained. The resulting polymers showed good solubility in polar aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, NMP, N,N-dimethylacetamide and N,N-dimethylformamide. These polymers are characterized with respect to chemical structure and purity by means of specific rotation experiments, FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis. The obtained PAs exhibit good thermal stability up to 335°C for 10% weight loss in nitrogen atmosphere and glass transition temperatures fell in the rang of 177-185°C. PMID:20352462

Mallakpour, Shadpour; Mirkarimi, Fatemeh

2010-11-01

7

Response of piglets to the valine content in diet in combination with the supply of other branched-chain amino acids.  

PubMed

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) are considered to be among the next-limiting amino acids for growth in piglets. In earlier studies, we estimated the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val : Lys (lysine) requirement to be at least 70%, whereas the Ile : Lys requirement may be as low as 50%. Because the BCAA partially share a common route of catabolism, the supply of one BCAA may affect the availability of the other BCAA. Four experiments were conducted to determine the response of 6-week-old piglets to the Val supply in relation to the other BCAA. A deficient supply of Val or Ile typically results in a reduction in average daily feed intake (ADFI). Experiment 1 was designed to determine the effect of a limiting Val supply, independent of the effect on feed intake. In a dose-response study using restrictively fed piglets, nitrogen retention did not increase for an SID Val : Lys supply greater than 64%. In the remaining experiments, piglets were offered feed ad libitum using ADFI, average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratio as response criteria. The interaction between the Val and leucine (Leu) was studied in Experiment 2 in a 2 × 2 factorial design (60% and 70% SID Val : Lys, and 111% and 165% SID Leu : Lys). Performance was considerably lower in piglets receiving 60% Val : Lys compared with those receiving 70% Val : Lys and was lowest in piglets receiving the diet with low Val and high Leu content. To further evaluate the interaction between Val and Leu, a dose-response study was carried out in which the response to Val supply was studied in combination with high Leu supply (165% Leu : Lys). Using a curvilinear-plateau model, the average SID Val : Lys requirement was 72%. However, low Val supply (60% SID Val : Lys) reduced performance by 13% to 38%, which was much greater than what we observed in earlier studies. Experiment 4 was carried out to test the hypothesis that the Val requirement is not affected by low Ile supply (50% SID Ile : Lys). Performance was not improved for Val : Lys supplies greater than 65%, which may indicate that Ile (and not Lys) was second-limiting in this study. In conclusion, the first response of piglets to deficient Val supply appears to be a reduction in ADFI, rather than a reduction in ADG or nitrogen retention. A large supply of Leu may not affect the Val requirement per se, but may aggravate the consequences of Val deficiency. PMID:22440413

Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Brossard, L; Barea, R; Primot, Y; Corrent, E; van Milgen, J

2011-09-01

8

The Amino Acid Composition of Meat and Some Other Foods : 1. Arginine, Histine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine.  

E-print Network

of different kinds of alrlino acids. Meat is primarily a protein food and as such it represents one of the most concentrated sources of amino acid we have in the aver- age diet. The 10 amino acids studied in this investigation were chosen on the basis... here sliow the amino acid contents of different kinds of tissues from beef, pork and lamb as well as the variations which occur in samples of the same kind of meat taken from different animals. Tables sho~ving the amino acid contents of a variety...

Kuiken, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Alfred); Lyman, Carl M. (Carl Morris)

1949-01-01

9

Spectroscopic studies on sidewall carboxylic acid functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with valine.  

PubMed

The valine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were prepared and characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR, SEM, and EDX, spectroscopic techniques. The enhanced XRD peak (002) intensity was observed for valine functionalized MWCNTs compared with oxidized MWCNTs, which is likely due to sample purification by acid washing. UV-Vis study shows the formation of valine functionalized MWCNTs. FT-IR study confirms the presence of functional groups of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The ESR line shape analysis indicates that the observed EPR line shape is a Gaussian line shape. The g-values indicate that the systems are isotropic in nature. The morphology study was carried out for oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs by using SEM. The EDX spectra revealed that the high purity of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The functionalization has been chosen because, functionalization of CNTs with amino acids makes them soluble and biocompatible. Thus, they have potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery. PMID:25554963

Deborah, M; Jawahar, A; Mathavan, T; Dhas, M Kumara; Benial, A Milton Franklin

2015-03-15

10

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

11

Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

2013-06-01

12

Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

2013-01-01

13

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

14

Inhibitors of Branched Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herbicides that inhibit the production of the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are used for total vegetation management and selective weed control in a wide variety of crops.  There are currently four different chemical families that share this MOA.  Before the development of glyphosate-tolerance crop technology, branched chain amino acid inhibitors were the mainstay for several major row crops.  While this is still a very important herbicide MOA, the major increase in herbicide resistance weeds since 1980 has been the direct result selection pressure from these herbicides.  There are currently more weed species resistant to branched chain amino acid inhibitors than any other herbicide MOA.

15

Reaction of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids with valine and hemoglobin.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert toxicity through metabolism to dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular protein and DNA, leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. To date, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular constituents, including amino acids and proteins, resulting in toxicity. Metabolism of carcinogenic monocrotaline, riddelliine, and heliotrine produces dehydromonocrotaline, dehyroriddelliine, and dehydroheliotrine, respectively, as primary reactive metabolites. In this study, we report that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived valine (DHP-valine) adducts. For structural elucidation, DHP-valine adducts were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) to DHP-valine-PITC products. After HPLC separation, their structures were characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, (1)H NMR, and (1)H-(1)H COSY NMR spectral analysis. Two DHP-valine-PITC adducts, designated as DHP-valine-PITC-1 and DHP-valine-PITC-3, had the amino group of valine linked to the C7 position of the necine base, and the other two DHP-valine-PITC products, DHP-valine-PITC-2 and DHP-valine-PITC-4, linked to the C9 position of the necine base. DHP-valine-PITC-1 was interconvertible with DHP-valine-PITC-3, and DHP-valine-PITC-2 was interconvertible with DHP-valine-PITC-4. Reaction of dehydroriddelliine and dehydroheliotrine with valine provided similar results. However, reaction of valine and dehydroretronecine (DHR) under similar experimental conditions did not produce DHP-valine adducts. Reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with rat hemoglobin followed by derivatization with PITC also generated the same four DHP-valine-PITC adducts. This represents the first full structural elucidation of protein conjugated pyrrolic adducts formed from reaction of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids with an amino acid (valine). In addition, it was found that DHP-valine-2 and DHP-valine-4, with the valine amino group linked at the C7 position of the necine base, can lose the valine moiety to form DHP. PMID:25211425

Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Doerge, Daniel R; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

2014-10-20

16

Prebiotic Synthesis of Hydrophobic and Protein Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

The formation of amino acids by the action of electric discharges on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia was studied in detail. The presence of glycine, alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, isovaline, leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, norleucine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, allothreonine, ?-hydroxy-?-aminobutyric acid, and ?,?-diaminobutyric acid was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All of the primary ?-amino acids found in the Murchison Meteorite have been synthesized by this electric discharge experiment. PMID:4501592

Ring, David; Wolman, Yecheskel; Friedmann, Nadav; Miller, Stanley L.

1972-01-01

17

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

18

Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

Sims, Paul A.

2011-01-01

19

Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

1989-01-01

20

Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.  

PubMed

Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

1997-02-15

21

Condensation of vaporous amino acids in the presence of silica. Formation of bi- and tricyclic amidines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids (alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid) were subjected to repeated (5 9 times) sublimation in the presence of silica at temperature of 220 240 °C. The major amino acid condensation products were diketopiperazines (DKPs) in yields of 27 89%. Mixtures of by-products have been isolated from the DKPs by means of chloroform extraction. On the basis of

Vladimir A. Basiuk

1992-01-01

22

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

23

Amino acids in modern and fossil woods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amino acid composition and the extent of racemization in several modern and fossil woods are reported. The method of analysis is described, and data are presented on the total amino acid concentration, the amino acid ratios, and the enantiomeric ratios in each sample. It is found that the amino acid concentration per gram of dry wood decreases with age of the sample, that the extent of racemization increases with increasing age, and that the amounts of aspartic acid, threonine, and serine decrease relative to valine with increasing age. The relative racemization rates of amino acids in wood, bone, and aqueous solution are compared, and it is shown that racemization in wood is much slower than in bone or aqueous solution. Racemization results for woods from the Kalambo Falls area of Zambia are used to calculate a minimum age of 110,000 years for the transition between the Sangoan and Acheulian industries at that site. This result is shown to be consistent with numerous radiometric dates for older Acheulian sites in Africa and to compare well with geologically inferred dates for the beginning of the Eemian and the end of the Acheulian industry in southern Africa.

Lee, C.; Bada, J. L.; Peterson, E.

1976-01-01

24

Competitive Inhibition of Amino Acid Uptake Suppresses Chlamydial Growth: Involvement of the Chlamydial Amino Acid Transporter BrnQ? †  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that strictly depend on host metabolites, such as nucleotides, lipids, and amino acids. Depletion of amino acids in cell culture media results in abnormal chlamydial development in vitro. Surprisingly, enrichment of certain amino acids also retards chlamydial growth. Our experiments revealed that the antichlamydial effects are largely independent of changes in the host cell transcriptome or proteome and in the major signal transduction pathway modulated by amino acids, the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Furthermore, the chlamydial growth inhibition induced by leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine was completely reversed by concomitant addition of valine. In contrast, the growth inhibition induced by serine, glycine, or threonine was not reversed by valine addition. Functional characterization of the only predicted chlamydial transporter for branched-chain amino acids, BrnQ, revealed that it can be blocked by leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine but not by serine, glycine, or threonine. This chlamydial transporter is the only known BrnQ homolog possessing specificity for methionine, suggesting a unique strategy for methionine uptake among gram-negative bacteria. The antichlamydial effects of leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and phenylalanine could be explained as competitive inhibition of the BrnQ transporter and subsequent valine starvation. PMID:18024516

Braun, Peter R.; Al-Younes, Hesham; Gussmann, Joscha; Klein, Jeannette; Schneider, Erwin; Meyer, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

25

Formation of Meteoritic Amino Acids: Isovaline and its Isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known for several decades that amino acids, and other complex organics, are found in meteorites. In particular, Murchison (CM) samples contain over seventy amino acids, these being identified by high-level chromatographic methods. Among Murchison's amino acids, isovaline stands out as being both non-biological (non-protein) and having a relatively high abundance. While approximately equal amounts of D- and L- isovaline have been reported in Murchison and other CM meteorites, this molecule's structure appears to prohibit its racemization in aqueous solutions. We recently have investigated the low-temperature solid-phase chemistry of both isovaline and valine with an eye toward each molecule's formation, stability, and possible interconversions of their D and L enantiomers. Ion-irradiated isovalineand valine-containing ices were examined by IR spectroscopy and highly-sensitive liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectral methods to assess both amino-acid destruction and racemization. Samples were studied in the presence and in the absence of water-ice, and the destruction of both isovaline and valine was measured as a function of radiation dose. In addition, we have synthesized isovaline, valine, and their amino acid isomers by solid-phase radiation-chemical pathways other than the oft-invoked Strecker process. This presentation will review and summarize some of our recent findings and place them in a context of related work. - Our work has been supported by a grant to the Goddard Center for Astrobiology through the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Experiments were performed in the Cosmic Ice Laboratory (RLH, MHM) and the Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory (JPD) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Hudson, Reggie; Moore, Marla; Dworkin, Jason

26

Brain amino acid sensing.  

PubMed

The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

2014-09-01

27

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor-phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids (alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1-70 parts-per-billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30-325 °C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water-sample contact equilibration times of 0-30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 °C (at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 °C and 250 °C (at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 °C (at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 °C, 17.2 MPa, and a water-sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

2007-09-01

28

Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

2007-01-01

29

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle-loaded  

E-print Network

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle acids and three nonprotein amino acids are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2 liquid chromatography (HPLC). Keywords: Amino acid / Nonprotein amino acid / Capillary

Zare, Richard N.

30

Iron amino acid chelates.  

PubMed

Iron amino acid chelates, such as iron glycinate chelates, have been developed to be used as food fortificants and therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Ferrous bis-glycine chelate (FeBC), ferric tris-glycine chelate, ferric glycinate, and ferrous bis-glycinate hydrochloride are available commercially. FeBC is the most studied and used form. Iron absorption from FeBC is affected by enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption, but to a lesser extent than ferrous sulfate. Its absorption is regulated by iron stores. FeBC is better absorbed from milk, wheat, whole maize flour, and precooked corn flour than is ferrous sulfate. Supplementation trials have demonstrated that FeBC is efficacious in treating iron deficiency anemia. Consumption of FeBC-fortified liquid milk, dairy products, wheat rolls, and multi-nutrient beverages is associated with an improvement of iron status. The main limitations to the widespread use of FeBC in national fortification programs are the cost and the potential for promoting organoleptic changes in some food matrices. Additional research is required to establish the bioavailability of FeBC in different food matrices. Other amino acid chelates should also be evaluated. Finally there is an urgent need for more rigorous efficacy trials designed to define the relative merits of amino acid chelates when compared with bioavailable iron salts such as ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate and to determine appropriate fortification levels PMID:15743019

Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

2004-11-01

31

Inactive and Protein Precursor Pools of Amino Acids in the Soybean Hypocotyl 1  

PubMed Central

There are at least 2 amino pools for leucine and for valine in the soybean hypocotyl, a small protein precursor pool and a large inactive pool. The precursor pool decreased in size during incubation of excised hypocotyls presumably because the cotyledonary sources of amino acids had been removed. The precursor pool was subject to expansion by supplying the amino acid externally at high concentrations. After the transfer of tissue to unsupplemented media, the expanded pool was rapidly depleted. PMID:16656482

Holleman, James M.; Key, Joe L.

1967-01-01

32

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

33

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

34

A Stereodivergent Approach to Amino Acids, Amino Alcohols, or  

E-print Network

A Stereodivergent Approach to Amino Acids, Amino Alcohols, or Oxazolidinones of High Enantiomeric of r-amino acids, amino alcohols, or oxazolidinones. The sequence includes the SN2 displacement by a cuprate reagent and a Curtius rearrangement as key steps. Amino acids1 and amino alcohols2,3 are compounds

Spino, Claude

35

Condensation of vaporous amino acids in the presence of silica. Formation of bi- and tricyclic amidines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids (alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid) were subjected to repeated (5–9 times) sublimation in the presence of silica at temperature of 220–240 °C. The major amino acid condensation products were diketopiperazines (DKPs) in yields of 27–89%. Mixtures of by-products have been isolated from the DKPs by means of chloroform extraction. On the basis of fast atom bombardment

Vladimir A. Basiuk

1992-01-01

36

Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

2008-12-01

37

Substrate specificity of amino acid transport in sheep erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of amino acid transport in normal (high-glutathione) sheep erythrocytes was investigated by studying the interaction of various neutral and dibasic amino acids in both competition and exchange experiments. Apparent Ki values were obtained for amino acids as inhibitors of L-alanine influx. Amino acids previously found to be transported by high-glutathione cells at fast rates (L-cysteine, L-alpha-amino-n-butyrate) were the most effective inhibitors. D-Alanine and D-alpha-amino-n-butyrate were without effect. Of the remaining amino acids studied, only L-norvaline, L-valine, L-norleucine, L-serine and L-2,4-diamino-n-butyrate significantly inhibited L-alanine uptake. L-Alanine efflux from pre-loaded cells was markedly stimulated by extracellular L-alanine. Those amino acids that inhibited L-alanine influx also stimulated L-alanine efflux. In addition, D-alanine, D-alpha-amino-n-biutyrate, L-threonine, L-asparagine, L-alpha, beta-diaminoproprionate, L-ornithine, L-lysine and S-2-aminoethyl-L-cysteine also significantly stimulated L-alanine efflux. L-Lysine uptake was inhibited by L-alanine but not by D-alanine, and the inhibitory potency of L-alanine was not influenced by the replacement of Na+ in the incubation medium with choline. L-Lysine efflux from pre-loaded cells was stimulated by L-alanine but not by D-alanine. It is concluded that these cells possess a highly selective stero-specific amino acid-transport system. Although the optimum substrates are small neutral amino acids, this system also has a significant affinity for dibasic amino acids. PMID:849280

Young, J D; Ellory, J C

1977-01-01

38

Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

2009-04-01

39

Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that ß-hydroxy-a-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give ß-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation

A. S. U. Choughuley; A. S. Subbaraman; Z. A. Kazi; M. S. Chadha

1975-01-01

40

Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that beta-hydroxy-alpha-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give beta-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation

A. S. U. Choughuley; A. S. Subbaraman; Z. A. Kazi; M. S. Chadha

1975-01-01

41

AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles

WILLIAM B. KINTER; T. HASTINGS WILSON

1965-01-01

42

Alteration of substrate specificity of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FOD-F) from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (NBRC 9972) is the enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deglycation of fructosyl-amino acids such as $$ N^{\\\\varepsilon }$$-fructosyl $$ N^{\\\\alpha }$$-benzyloxycarbonyl-lysine (FZK) and fructosyl valine (FV), which are model compounds of the glycated proteins in blood. Wild-type\\u000a FOD-F has high activities toward both substrates. We obtained a mutant FOD-F, which reacts

Maki Fujiwara; Jun-ichi Sumitani; Shinji Koga; Issei Yoshioka; Takuji Kouzuma; Shigeyuki Imamura; Takashi Kawaguchi; Motoo Arai

2007-01-01

43

Amino acids as natural inhibitors for hydrate formation in CO2 sequestration.  

PubMed

The motivation for this work was the potential of hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine, l-alanine, and l-valine to be applied as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs). To confirm their capabilities in inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates, three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions for carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the presence of 0.1-3.0 mol % amino acid solutions were determined in the range of 273.05-281.45 K and 14.1-35.2 bar. From quantitative analyses, the inhibiting effects of the amino acids (on a mole concentration basis) decreased in the following order: l-valine > l-alanine > glycine. The application of amino acids as THIs has several potential advantages over conventional methods. First, the environmentally friendly nature of amino acids as compared to conventional inhibitors means that damage to ecological systems and the environment could be minimized. Second, the loss of amino acids in recovery process would be considerably reduced because amino acids are nonvolatile. Third, amino acids have great potential as a model system in which to investigate the inhibition mechanism on the molecular level, since the structure and chemical properties of amino acids are well understood. PMID:21663046

Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Chun, Hee Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

2011-07-01

44

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism  

E-print Network

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism Anthony M. Castaldo, PhD Research three nucleotide se- quences (a codon) into amino acids: Amino Acid (or signal) Codons A (Alanine) GCT believe what is important is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about

Texas at San Antonio, University of

45

Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postabsorptive plasma concentrations of the large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) were measured in 74 elderly (age 7 1 ± 8 y) and 138 young (age 26 ± 5 y) healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of valine, leucine, and isoleucine were significantly lower in young females than in young males. This gender-related difference was not observed among elderly sub- jects because aging

Benjamin Caballero; Ray E Gleason; Richard J Wurtman

46

Differences in the Ability of Lactic Streptococci to Form Aldehydes from Certain Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Resting cells of five cultures of lactic streptococci were examined as to their ability to form flavorful aldehydes from four amino acids. Two strains of Streptococcus cremoris~ two strains of Streptococcus tactis, and one strain of Streptococcus lactis ear. maltigenes were incubated with isoleucine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine, and the resulting aldehydes were isolated and identified as their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

Patricia Mac Leod; M. E. Morgan

1958-01-01

47

Clostridium acetireducens sp. nov., a Novel Amino Acid Oxidizing, Acetate-Reducing Anaerobic Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain 30AT (T = type strain), which was isolated from an anaerobic bioreactor fed on waste from a potato starch factory in De Krim, The Netherlands, is a nonmotile, gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped organism that is able to degrade various amino acids, including alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, serine, and threonine. Acetate is required as an electron acceptor for the utilization of

JANNEKE KROONEMAN; MATTHEW D. COLLINS; CHRISTINA PASCUAL; JAN C. GOTTSCHAL

48

Branched-Chain and Aromatic Amino Acids Are Predictors of Insulin Resistance in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are associated with the risk for future type 2 diabetes; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We tested whether amino acids predict insulin resistance index in healthy young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Circulating isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and six additional amino acids were quantified in 1,680 individuals from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (baseline age 32 ± 5 years; 54% women). Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) at baseline and 6-year follow-up. Amino acid associations with HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glucose were assessed using regression models adjusted for established risk factors. We further examined whether amino acid profiling could augment risk assessment of insulin resistance (defined as 6-year HOMA-IR >90th percentile) in early adulthood. RESULTS Isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were associated with HOMA-IR at baseline and for men at 6-year follow-up, while for women only leucine, valine, and phenylalanine predicted 6-year HOMA-IR (P < 0.05). None of the other amino acids were prospectively associated with HOMA-IR. The sum of branched-chain and aromatic amino acid concentrations was associated with 6-year insulin resistance for men (odds ratio 2.09 [95% CI 1.38–3.17]; P = 0.0005); however, including the amino acid score in prediction models did not improve risk discrimination. CONCLUSIONS Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are markers of the development of insulin resistance in young, normoglycemic adults, with most pronounced associations for men. These findings suggest that the association of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids with the risk for future diabetes is at least partly mediated through insulin resistance. PMID:23129134

Würtz, Peter; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ala-Korpela, Mika

2013-01-01

49

Abiotic formation of valine peptides under conditions of high temperature and high pressure.  

PubMed

We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, ?-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years. PMID:22915229

Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

2012-12-01

50

Abiotic Formation of Valine Peptides Under Conditions of High Temperature and High Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, ?-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years.

Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

2012-12-01

51

Amino Acids from a Comet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

Cook, Jamie Elisla

2009-01-01

52

Solvent Effects on the Protonation Constants of Some ? Amino Acid Esters in 1,4Dioxane–Water Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric protonation constants of some ?-amino acid esters (glycine methyl ester, glycine t-butyl ester, l-valine methyl ester, l-valine ethyl ester, l-valine t-butyl ester, l-serine methyl ester, l-serine ethyl ester, l-leucine methyl ester, l-leucine ethyl ester, l-leucine t-butyl ester, l-alanine methyl ester, l-alanine benzyl ester, l-phenylalanine methyl ester, l-phenylalanine ethyl ester, and l-phenylalanine t-butyl ester) in water and 20%, 40%,

Alev Do?an; Nazife Aslan; Esin Canel; Esma K?l?ç

2010-01-01

53

Amino acids and cell regulation.  

PubMed Central

Free amino play an important role in regulating cell volume in fishes. Four tissues/cells (skeletal muscle, RBC, brain, and myocardium) of the little skate, Raja erinacea, were selected for detailed study because of their special importance or unique advantage as experimental models. Three particular amino acids, beta-alanine, taurine, and sarcosine play a predominant role in all four tissues. As in higher vertebrates, amino acid uptake in skate brain, heart, and RBC is mediated via a Na+-dependent process. Amino acids leave the skate brain rapidly in response to a sudden decrease in plasma osmolality and/or to a simultaneous drop in extracellular Na+ concentration. However, although amino acids are important for volume regulation in normal brain cells, they do not appear to be likely candidates for the unidentified "idiogenic" osmolytes in mammalian brain cells. The high concentration of taurine in skate myocardium is of special interest because of the special role of this amino acid in myocardial contractility. Thus, unlike beta-alanine and sarcosine, taurine may play a dual role in regulating both cell volume and contractility of myocardial cells. The isolated skate atrium is well suited for in vitro studies of these two processes. PMID:395764

Forster, R. P.; Goldstein, L.

1979-01-01

54

Electrochemical and XPS studies of decylamides of ?-amino acids adsorption on carbon steel in acidic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion inhibition of steel in hydrochloric acid by decylamides of ?-amino acids derivatives was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. Protection efficiencies of 90% were obtained with 100 ppm of tyrosine and glycine derivatives, while alanine and valine derivatives reached only 80%. The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the modification of the molecular structure of inhibitors. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both the decylamide of tyrosine and glycine acted primarily as anodic type inhibitors, whereas the decylamide of alanine and valine were of the cathodic type. Thermodynamic parameters and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms described the experimental findings. The number of active sites, equilibrium constant, enthalpy and change of free energy were computed for all inhibitors studied. This information suggested that organic molecules were adsorbed and displaced water molecules from the steel surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that species of N, C and O interacted with steel to form a continuous protective film.

Olivares, O.; Likhanova, N. V.; Gómez, B.; Navarrete, J.; Llanos-Serrano, M. E.; Arce, E.; Hallen, J. M.

2006-02-01

55

Enigmatic Isovaline: Investigating the Stability, Racemization, and Formation of a Non-Biological Meteoritic Amino Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the Murchison meteoritic amino acids, isovaline stands out as being both non-biological (non-protein) and having a relatively high abundance. While approximately equal amounts of D- and L-isovaline have been reported in Murchison and other CM meteorites, the molecule’s structure appears to prohibit its racemization in aqueous solutions. We recently have investigated the low-temperature solid-phase chemistry of both isovaline and valine with an eye toward each molecule’s formation, stability, and possible interconversions of D and L enantiomers. Ion-irradiated isovaline- and valine-containing ices were examined by IR spectroscopy and highly-sensitive liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectral methods to assess both amino acid destruction and racemization. Samples were studied in the presence and in the absence of water-ice, and the destruction of both isovaline and valine was measured as a function of radiation dose. In addition, we have undertaken experiments to synthesize isovaline, valine, and their amino acid isomers by solid-phase radiation-chemical pathways other than the oft-invoked Strecker process.

Hudson, R. L.; Lewis, A. S.; Moore, M. H.; Dworkin, J. P.; Martin, M. P.

2009-12-01

56

Amino acid-based surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a pressing need for developing efficiently surfactants that are biodegradable and biocompatible. Surfactant molecules from renewable raw materials that mimic natural lipoamino acids are one of the preferred choices for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Given their natural and simple structure they show low toxicity and quick biodegradation. The value of amino acids and vegetable oil derivatives as

María Rosa Infante; Lourdes Pérez; Aurora Pinazo; Pere Clapés; María Carmen Morán; Marta Angelet; María Teresa García; María Pilar Vinardell

2004-01-01

57

Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

1998-01-01

58

A comparison of the rate equations, kinetic parameters, and activation energies for the initial uptake of l -lysine, l -valine, ?-aminobutyric acid, and ?-aminoisobutyric acid by mouse brain slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  At substrate concentrations, in medium, of 0.2 to 20mm and at temperatures of 25 and 37°C, the initial concentrative influx of the amino acidsl-lysine (30 and 37°C),l-valine, and -aminobutyric acid into incubated mouse-cerebrum slices follows the rate equation for the initial influx of -aminoisobutyric acid (Cohen,J. Physiol.\\u000a228:105, 1973),v=V\\u000amax\\/(1+K\\u000at\\/S)+k\\u000au\\u000aS. Kinetic constants at 37°C are:V\\u000amax=0.089 moles\\/g

Stephen R. Cohen

1975-01-01

59

Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis of products arising from pyrolysis of amino acids in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amino acids were pyrolysed at 600°C in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and the formed volatile products were analysed on line by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, norleucine, methionine, phenylalanine yielded principally the trimethylsilyl (TMS) ester of the parent amino acid. TMS esters of carboxylic acids arising from reductive deamination were observed for serine, threonine and

Giuseppe Chiavari; Daniele Fabbri; Silvia Prati

2001-01-01

60

Energy Absorption and Exposure Buildup Factors of Essential Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

The effective atomic number and effective electron density in amino acids are of significant interest due to their use in various applications. The energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities of essential amino acids such as Leucine (C6H13NO2), Lysine (C6H14N2O2), Methionine (C5H11NO2S), Phenylalanine (C9H11NO2), Threonine (C4H9NO3), Tryptophan (C11H12N2O2), Valine (C5H11NO2), Arginine (C6H14N4O2), and Histidine (C6H9N3O2) were determined theoretically in the energy range 0.015–15?MeV. PMID:24605325

Bursal?o?lu, Ertu?rul; Balkan, Begüm; Kavanoz, H. Birtan; Okutan, Mustafa; Yalç?n, Zeynel

2014-01-01

61

Interaction between amino acids on the performances of individually housed piglets.  

PubMed

Dietary branched-chain amino acid and tryptophan concentrations have been associated with effects on daily feed intake; this study is an extension of that research. We evaluated eight dietary treatments in a Latin square cross-over design with 32 female piglets during 8 weeks (9.9 ± 0.6 kg to 44.9 ± 2.9 kg, mean ± SD). Treatments differed in dietary standardized ileal digestible leucine (10.8 and 21.3 g/kg), valine (7.0 and 7.8 g/kg), isoleucine (6.0 or 7.3 g/kg) and tryptophan (2.0 and 2.5 g/kg) content. A longitudinal model was fitted with the level of valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan and the interactions leucine × tryptophan, valine × leucine, isoleucine × tryptophan as fixed effects. Increasing the dietary leucine content decreased feed intake (-169 g/day) and daily gain (-168 g/day) of the pigs and impaired the feed conversion ratio (+0.49 g/g) (p < 0.01 for all parameters). Adding valine to the high leucine diet counteracted the feed intake reduction partially, while effects on daily gain and feed conversion ratio were largely counteracted by adding extra valine. The positive effect on feed conversion ratio diminished over time (p = 0.001 for age × valine). Adding extra tryptophan to the high leucine diet tended to negatively affect daily gain (p = 0.081) and feed conversion ratio (p = 0.074). Adding extra dietary isoleucine together with extra valine did not further counteract the negative effects of excess dietary leucine. The present results confirmed that, with excess leucine, extra valine benefits performance. Further adding extra tryptophan or isoleucine did not improve performances. PMID:25041548

Millet, S; Aluwé, M; Ampe, B; De Campeneere, S

2015-04-01

62

in amino-acid concentration enhanced amino-acid and glucose utilization for lipogenesis, with no  

E-print Network

in amino-acid concentration enhanced amino- acid and glucose utilization for lipogenesis more strongly amino-acid and glucose incorporation into cellular lipids, the glu- cose incorporation showed a synergistic effect between insulin and amino acids for up to 1.59 g/I amino acid in the medium

Boyer, Edmond

63

The standard amino acids alanine ala A  

E-print Network

The standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids, and T) but only 20 amino acids, and that the code is redundant or "degenerate" in the sense that several

Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

64

A novel family of (1-aminoalkyl)(trifluoromethyl)- and -(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acids – analogues of ?-amino acids  

PubMed Central

Summary A series of novel (1-aminoalkyl)(trifluoromethyl)- and -(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acids – analogues of proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic ?-amino acids were prepared. The synthetic methodology was based on nucleophilic addition of (trifluoromethyl)phosphinic acid or (difluoromethyl)phosphinic acid or its ethyl ester to substrates with C=N or activated C=C double bonds. Analogues of glycine, phenylglycine, alanine, valine, proline, aminomalonic and aspartic acids were thus prepared. Three-component one-pot reactions of (trifluoromethyl)phosphinic acid and dibenzylamine with aldehydes were also tested to prepare the title compounds. PMID:24778725

Pavlenko, Natalia V; Oos, Tatiana I; Gerus, Igor I; Doeller, Uwe; Willms, Lothar

2014-01-01

65

Formation of amino acids by cobalt-60 irradiation of hydrogen cyanide solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to study the pathway for the prebiotic origin of amino acids from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) under the action of ionizing radiation considered as an effective source of energy on the primitive earth. The irradiations were performed in a cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 200,000 rad/hr. Seven naturally occurring amino acids are identified among the products formed by the hydrolysis of gamma-irradiated solutions of HCN: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The identity of these amino acids is established by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Control experiments provided evidence that the amino acids are not the result of contamination.

Sweeney, M. A.; Toste, A. P.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1976-01-01

66

Regulation of the Pool Size of Valine in Escherichia coli K-12  

PubMed Central

Three mutations (ilvH611, ilvH612, and ilvH613) are described which make Escherichia coli K-12 resistant to valine inhibition and are located near leu. The expression of the ilv genes appears to be normal in these mutants since the isoleucine-valine biosynthetic enzymes are not derepressed relative to the wild type. The intracellular concentration of valine is, however, higher in the mutants than in the isogenic ilvH+ strain. These mutants also excrete valine, probably because of the high intracellular concentration of this amino acid. The pool size of valine is regulated independently from that of isoleucine and leucine. The increased intracellular concentration of valine is due to a decreased feedback inhibition that valine exerts on its own biosynthetic pathway. In fact, acetolactate synthase activity assayed in extracts of ilvH612 and ilvH613 mutants is more resistant to valine inhibition than the activity assayed in the ilvH+ isogenic strain. Two forms of acetolactate synthase activity can be separated from these extracts by adsorption and elution on hydroxylapatite. One of them is as sensitive to valine inhibition as that of the wild type, the other is more resistant to valine inhibition. PMID:4612002

Felice, Maurilio De; Guardiola, John; Malorni, Maria C.; Klopotowski, Tadeusz; Iaccarino, Maurizio

1974-01-01

67

40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction...

2011-07-01

68

40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction...

2013-07-01

69

40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction...

2014-07-01

70

40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product...substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction...

2012-07-01

71

Quinone-Amino Acid Conjugates Targeting Leishmania Amino Acid Transporters  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1–15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

2014-01-01

72

Evaluation of channel function after alteration of amino acid residues at the pore center of KCNQ1 channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the electrical charge or the size of the amino acid residue at the pore center of a slowly activation component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel: KCNQ1 was studied. K+ currents were measured after transfection of one of four KCNQ1 mutants: substituting Isoleucine with Lysine, Glutamate, Valine or Glycine and then transfected in COS-7 cells. Both the

Taruna Ikrar; Haruo Hanawa; Hiroshi Watanabe; Yoshiyasu Aizawa; Mahmoud M. Ramadan; Masaomi Chinushi; Minoru Horie; Yoshifusa Aizawa

2009-01-01

73

Nonprotein Amino Acids in the Murchison Meteorite  

PubMed Central

Twelve nonprotein amino acids appear to be present in the Murchison meteorite. The identity of eight of them has been conclusively established as N-methylglycine, ?-alanine, 2-methylalanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, isovaline, and pipecolic acid. Tentative evidence is presented for the presence of N-methylalanine, N-ethylglycine, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, and norvaline. These amino acids appear to be extraterrestrial in origin and may provide new evidence for the hypothesis of chemical evolution. PMID:16591908

Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Lawless, James G.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

1971-01-01

74

Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

2015-03-01

75

Single amino acid substitutions in the enzyme acetolactate synthase confer resistance to the herbicide sulfometuron methyl  

PubMed Central

Sulfometuron methyl, a sulfonylurea herbicide, blocks growth of bacteria, yeast, and higher plants by inhibition of acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18), the first common enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Spontaneous mutations that confer increased resistance to the herbicide were obtained in cloned genes for acetolactate synthase from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DNA sequence of a bacterial mutant gene and a yeast mutant gene revealed single nucleotide differences from their respective wild-type genes. The mutations result in single amino acid substitutions in the structurally homologous aminoterminal regions of the two proteins, but at different positions. The bacterial mutation results in reduced levels of acetolactate synthase activity, reduced sensitivity to sulfometuron methyl, and unaltered resistance to feedback inhibition by valine. The yeast mutation results in unaltered levels of acetolactate synthase activity, greatly reduced sensitivity to sulfometuron methyl, and slightly reduced sensitivity to valine. PMID:16593715

Yadav, Narendra; McDevitt, Raymond E.; Benard, Susan; Falco, S. Carl

1986-01-01

76

Autophagy and amino acid homeostasis are required for chronological longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Following cessation of growth, yeast cells remain viable in a non-dividing state for a period of time known as the chronological life span (CLS). Autophagy is a degradative process responsible for amino acid recycling in response to nitrogen starvation and amino acid limitation. We have investigated the role of autophagy during chronological aging of yeast grown in glucose minimal media containing different supplemental essential and non-essential amino acids. Deletion of ATG1 or ATG7, both of which are required for autophagy, reduces CLS, whereas deletion of ATG11, which is required for selective targeting of cellular components to the vacuole for degradation, does not reduce CLS. The non-essential amino acids isoleucine and valine, and the essential amino acid leucine, extend CLS in autophagy-deficient as well as autophagy-competent yeast. This extension is suppressed by constitutive expression of GCN4, which encodes a transcriptional regulator of general amino acid control (GAAC). Consistent with this, GCN4 expression is reduced by isoleucine and valine. Furthermore, elimination of the leucine requirement extends CLS and prevents the effects of constitutive expression of GCN4. Interestingly, deletion of LEU3, a GAAC target gene encoding a transcriptional regulator of branched side chain amino acid synthesis, dramatically increases CLS in the absence of amino acid supplements. In general, this indicates that activation of GAAC reduces CLS whereas suppression of GAAC extends CLS in minimal medium. These findings demonstrate important roles for autophagy and amino acid homeostasis in determining CLS in yeast. PMID:19302372

Alvers, Ashley L.; Fishwick, Laura K.; Wood, Michael S.; Hu, Doreen; Chung, Hye Sun; Dunn, William A.; Aris, John P.

2009-01-01

77

Dietary deficiency of essential amino acids rapidly induces cessation of the rat estrous cycle.  

PubMed

Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to survival until well-balanced amino acid sources are found. PMID:22132231

Narita, Kazumi; Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

2011-01-01

78

Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of labdeneamides with amino acids.  

PubMed

Semisynthetic aromatic amides from ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA diterpene acids have been shown to display a relevant gastroprotective effect with low cytotoxicity. The aim of this work was to assess the gastroprotective effect of amino acid amides from imbricatolic acid and its 8(9)-en isomer in the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as to determine the cytotoxicity of the obtained compounds on the following human cell lines: normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS), and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2). The diterpenes 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, its 8(9)-en isomer, 15-hydroxyimbricatolic acid, and the 8(9)-en derivative, bearing a COOH function at C-19, were used as starting compounds. New amides with C-protected amino acids were prepared. The study reports the effect of a single oral administration of either compound 50 min before the induction of gastric lesions by ethanol/HCl. Some 20 amino acid monoamides were obtained. Dose-response experiments on the glycyl derivatives showed that at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg, the compounds presented an effect comparable to the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg and at 50 mg/kg reduced gastric lesions by about 50%. All derivatives obtained in amounts > 30 mg were compared at a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. The best gastroprotective effect was observed for the exomethylene derivatives bearing a valine residue at C-19 either with an acetoxy or free hydroxy group at C-15. The tryptophanyl derivative from the acetate belonging to the 8,9-en series presented selective cytotoxicity against hepatocytes. The glycyl amide of 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid was the most cytotoxic and less selective compound with IC?? values between 47 and 103 µM for the studied cell lines. This is the first report on the obtention of semisynthetic amino acid amides from labdane diterpenes. PMID:20862639

Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Theoduloz, Cristina; Valderrama, Jaime A

2011-03-01

79

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2011-07-01

80

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2014-07-01

81

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2010-07-01

82

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2012-07-01

84

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

2013-05-21

85

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2011-02-15

86

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2011-08-09

87

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

2014-04-01

88

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

2012-04-01

89

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

2013-04-01

90

Evolutionarily Conserved Optimization of Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

E-print Network

Evolutionarily Conserved Optimization of Amino Acid Biosynthesis Ethan O. Perlstein Æ Benjamin L in evolutionary history the biosynthetic enzymes for amino acid x gradually lost residues of x, thereby reducing the threshold for deleterious effects of x scarcity. The resulting reduction in cognate amino acid composition

de Bivort, Benjamin

91

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

2014-08-26

92

Oral administration of branched chain amino acids improves virus-induced glucose intolerance in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the therapeutic effect of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on mice with glucose intolerance induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Male DBA\\/2 mice were divided into three groups: treated with BCAA, (such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine), untreated, and control. BCAA-treated and -untreated groups were inoculated intraperitoneally with the NDK25 variant of EMCV at 200 plaque-forming units per mouse.

Toshihiro Utsugi; Akihiro Yoshida; Tsugiyasu Kanda; Isao Kobayashi; Masahiko Kurabayashi; Shoichi Tomono; Shoji Kawazu; Yutaka Tajima; Ryozo Nagai

2000-01-01

93

Resolution of sulphur-containing amino acids by chiral phase gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl esters of the pentafluoropropionyl-amino acid derivatives of the tetrafunctional, sulphur-bridged, stereoisomeric lanthionines, cystathionines and ?-methyl-lanthionines were resolved on glass capillaries coated with the chiral stationary phase N-propionyl-L-valine-N-tert-butylamide-polysiloxane (Chirasil-Val) within 35min. Interestingly, L-cystathionine elutes before its D-enantiomer in contrast to the usual order of emergence on an L-phase. The method was applied to the polypeptide antibiotic nisin, which contains mesolanthionine

E. KiJsters; H. Allgaier; G. Jung; E. Bayer

1984-01-01

94

Studies on the macroscopic protonation constants of some ?-amino acids in ethanol–water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both to demonstrate whether the predominant species are dipolar ion or the neutral form and to predict the change of dipolar form to neutral form ratio in ethanol–water mixtures, the macroscopic protonation constants of eight ?-amino acid (glycine, l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, l-serine, l-methionine, and l-isoleucine) were determined potentiometrically in 20–80% (v\\/v) ethanol–water mixtures at 25°C with an ionic strength

Alev Do?an; Fitnat Köseo?lu; Esma K?l?ç

2002-01-01

95

An amino acid mixture mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.  

PubMed

Electrolyte and nutrient absorption occur in villous epithelial cells. Radiation often results in reduced electrolyte and nutrient absorption, which leads to gastrointestinal toxicity. Therefore, the authors studied: (1) radiation-induced changes in glucose and amino acid absorption across ileal tissues and (2) the effect of amino acid mixtures on absorptive capacity. NIH Swiss mice were irradiated (0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 Gy) using a ¹³?Cs source at 0.9 Gy min?¹. Transepithelial short circuit current (I(sc)), dilution potential, and isotope flux determinations were made in Ussing chamber studies and correlated to plasma endotoxin and IL-1? levels. Amino acids that increased electrolyte absorption and improved mucosal barrier functions were used to create a mitigating amino acid mixture (MAAM). The MAAM was given to mice via gastric gavage; thereafter, body weight and survival were recorded. A significant decrease in basal and glucose-stimulated sodium absorption occurred after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 Gy irradiation. Ussing chamber studies showed that paracellular permeability increased following irradiation and that the addition of glucose resulted in a further increase in permeability. Following irradiation, certain amino acids manifested decreased absorption, whereas others were associated with increased absorption. Lysine, aspartic acid, glycine, isoleucine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, tryptophan, and serine decreased plasma endotoxins were selected for the MAAM. Mice treated with the MAAM showed increased electrolyte absorption and decreased paracellular permeability, IL-1? levels, and plasma endotoxin levels. Mice treated with MAAM also had increased weight gain and better survival following irradiation. The MAAM has immediate potential for use in mitigating radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. PMID:24776907

Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; Menon, Rejeesh; Vaught, Lauren A; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

2014-06-01

96

Effect of defaunation and amino acid supplementation on growth and amino acid balance in growing sheep  

E-print Network

Effect of defaunation and amino acid supplementation on growth and amino acid balance in growing, and the wool growth. The supplementation with protected amino acids may increase the growth rate and may lead and the addition of protected methionine and lysine on animal growth and amino acids digestibility in the body

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties  

E-print Network

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties 1. carboxyl group is proton donor ! weak acid 2. amino group is proton acceptor ! weak base 3. At physiological p natural amino acids (few exceptions) 2. 20 different R groups C. Classification based on R-group - know

Frey, Terry

98

Postnatal amino acid uptake by the rat small intestine. Changes in membrane transport systems for amino acids associated with maturation of jejunal morphology.  

PubMed

The uptake of a number of amino acids by the developing small intestine of the rat was investigated in vitro. L-valine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-arginine and L-lysine were all taken up by active transport and concentrated within the jejunal mucosa. GABA was not actively transported by the jejunum. The kinetics of carrier transport of amino acids was determined from birth to maturity. The Michaelis constant (Km) of the L-leucine, L-methionine, L-arginine and l-lysine transport systems was found to be low postnatally and increased with age, particularly after the time of weaning. The rate of l-leucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine and L-lysine transport (Vmax) was high postnatally but decreased after weaning. Neutral amino acids were transported at higher rates than basic amino acids. l-arginine was poorly transported by the jejunum. The specificity of transport systems for amino acids was investigated in inhibition studies. Amino acid transport systems appeared to be polyfunctional in the postnatal period but were more specific in post-weaned animals. The changes in kinetics and specificity of amino acid transport in the small intestine are discussed with reference to their possible functional significance and to the maturational changes in the jejunum, particularly with the appearance of a functionally distinct absorptive cell lining the intestinal villi during the third postnatal week (the time of weaning). PMID:121999

Murphy, S; Daniels, V G

1979-04-01

99

Enigmatic Isovaline: Investigating the Stability, Racemization, and Formation of a Non-biological Meteoritic Amino Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the Murchison meteoritic amino acids, isovaline stands out as being both nonbiological (non-protein) and having a relatively high abundance. While approximately equal amounts of D- and L-isovaline have been reported in Murchison and other CM meteorites, the molecule's structure appears to prohibit its racemization in aqueous solutions. We recently have investigated the low-temperature solid-phase chemistry of both isovaline and valine with an eye toward each molecule's formation, stability, and possible interconversions of D and L enantiomers. Ion-irradiated isovaline- and valinecontaining ices were examined by IR spectroscopy and highly-sensitive liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectral methods to assess both amino acid destruction and racemization. Samples were studied in the presence and in the absence of water-ice, and the destruction of both isovaline and valine was measured as a function of radiation dose. In addition, we have undertaken experiments to synthesize isovaline, valine, and their amino acid isomers by solid-phase radiation-chemical pathways other than the oft-invoked Strecker process. This presentation will review and summarize some of our recent findings. -- Our work has been supported by a grant to the Goddard Center for Astrobiology through the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Experiments were performed in the Cosmic Ice Laboratory (RLH, MHM, AL) and the Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory (JPD, DPG) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Hudson, Reggie; Moore, Marla; Lewis, Ariel; Dworkin, Jason

2008-01-01

100

Recombinant bovine somatotropin decreases hepatic amino acid catabolism in female rats.  

PubMed

The effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on hepatic amino acid catabolism in female rats was investigated. Daily injections of rbST for 5 d decreased liver homogenate lysine alpha-ketoglutarate reductase (EC 1.5.1.8) activity (P < 0.05) and liver homogenate lysine oxidation (P < 0.05) approximately 35%. Liver homogenate methionine and valine oxidation were depressed approximately 20 (P = 0.13) and 35% (P < 0.05), respectively. These data show a decrease in hepatic capacity to oxidize amino acids in rats administered rbST. Whether depressed liver amino acid degrading enzyme activity plays a role in amino acid oxidation in vivo remains to be evaluated. PMID:8648440

Blemings, K P; Gahl, M J; Crenshaw, T D; Benevenga, N J

1996-06-01

101

Brain amino acid abnormalities in liver disease--a postmortem study.  

PubMed

In a postmortem exploratory study, we examined whether specific amino acid abnormalities associated with liver diseases in vivo may also be detected in human brain samples obtained at clinical autopsies. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA: valine, leucine, isoleucine) were decreased in the group of patients with liver diseases compared with the control group, whereas the aromatic amino acids (AAA: phenylalanine, tyrosine) were increased. However, the ranges overlapped significantly and were not statistically different. The molar ratio BCAA/AAA was determined to be 1.92 in the collection of patients with liver diseases compared with 2.27 in the control group. In patients with liver disease, ornithine concentrations in the brain appeared significantly decreased whereas glutamine was significantly increased. No significant difference was found in the brain concentrations of proline. Amino acid analysis may contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of liver disease, which are discussed, and may supplement the postmortem diagnosis. PMID:14640289

Musshoff, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard; Schoenemeier, Sonja; Buerrig, Karl-Friedrich; Jacob, Bernhard; Bonte, Wolfgang; Daldrup, Thomas

2003-11-01

102

Polymerization of ?-amino Acids in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged a- and ß-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. a-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. ß-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an a- and ß-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently

Rihe Liu; Leslie E. Orgel

1998-01-01

103

Amino Acid Properties Conserved in Molecular Evolution  

PubMed Central

That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts – one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications. PMID:24967708

Rudnicki, Witold R.; Mroczek, Teresa; Cudek, Pawe?

2014-01-01

104

ANTIGENICITY OF POLYPEPTIDES (POLY ALPHA AMINO ACIDS)  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated that polymers consisting solely of D-?-amino acids are not immunogenic in rabbits, guinea pigs, man, and mouse, whereas the same polymers of L-?-amino acids are very effective antigens. This has been attributed to the importance of metabolizability of a polymer in contributing to its immunogenicity. In the glu-lys-ala series of polymers, the immunogenicity of a polymer of 2 L-amino acids and a D-amino acid appears to be governed by the immunogenicity of the 2 L-amino acids. However, some of the specificity may be directed towards configurations containing the D-amino acid. It has been noted that injections of rabbits with polymers of D-amino acids has resulted in a reduced response against the isomeric L polymer. PMID:14271319

Maurer, Paul H.

1965-01-01

105

Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

1989-01-01

106

Amino acid abundances and stereochemistry in hydrothermally altered sediments from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeastern Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

The Juan de Fuca Ridge is a hydrothermally active, sediment covered, spreading ridge situated a few hundred kilometres off the west coast of North America in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Sediments from seven sites drilled during the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 139 and 168 were analyzed for total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA), individual amino acid distributions, total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) contents. The aim was to evaluate the effects of hydrothermal stress on the decomposition and transformation of sedimentary amino acids. Hydrolyzable amino acids account for up to 3.3% of the total organic C content and up to 12% of the total N content of the upper sediments. The total amounts of amino acids decrease significantly with depth in all drilled holes. This trend is particularly pronounced in holes with a thermal gradient of around 0.6 degrees C/m or higher. The most abundant amino acids in shallow sediments are glycine, alanine, lysine, glutamic acid, valine and histidine. The changes in amino acid distributions in low temperature holes are characterized by increased relative abundances of non-protein beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. In high temperature holes the amino acid compositions are characterized by high abundances of glycine, alanine, serine, ornithine and histidine at depth. D/L ratios of samples with amino acid distributions similar to those found in acid hydrolysates of kerogen, indicate that racemization rates of amino acids bound by condensation reactions may be diminished. PMID:17654789

Andersson, E; Simoneit, B R; Holm, N G

2000-09-01

107

Nonprotein Amino Acids from Spark Discharges and Their Comparison with the Murchison Meteorite Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

All the nonprotein amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite are products of the action of electric discharge on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia. These amino acids include ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, norvaline, isovaline, pipecolic acid, ?-alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, sarcosine, N-ethylglycine, and N-methylalanine. In addition, norleucine, alloisoleucine, N-propylglycine, N-isopropylglycine, N-methyl-?-alanine, N-ethyl-?-alanine ?,?-diaminopropionic acid, isoserine, ?,?-diaminobutyric acid, and ?-hydroxy-?-aminobutyric acid are produced by the electric discharge, but have not been found in the meteorite. PMID:16591973

Wolman, Yecheskel; Haverland, William J.; Miller, Stanley L.

1972-01-01

108

Enantiomeric excesses in meteoritic amino acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analyses of the four stereoisomers of 2-amino-2,3-dimethylpentanoic acid (dl-alpha-methylisoleucine and dl-alpha-methylalloisoleucine) obtained from the Murchison meteorite show that the L enantiomer occurs in excess (7.0 and 9.1%, respectively) in both of the enantiomeric pairs. Similar results were obtained for two other alpha-methyl amino acids, isovaline and alpha-methylnorvaline, although the alpha hydrogen analogs of these amino acids, alpha-amino-n-butyric acid and norvaline, were found to be racemates. With the exception of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid, these amino acids are either unknown or of limited occurrence in the biosphere. Because carbonaceous chondrites formed 4.5 billion years ago, the results are indicative of an asymmetric influence on organic chemical evolution before the origin of life.

Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.

1997-01-01

109

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CR chondrites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites. Three CRs, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577, were analyzed for their amino acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET 92042 and GRA 95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 ppm to 249 ppm. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET 92042 and GRA 95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ?13C values ranging from +31.6‰ to +50.5‰. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin for these compounds. Compared to Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 and GRA 95229, the more aqueously altered GRO 95577 is depleted in amino acids. In both CRs and CMs, the absolute amino acid abundances appear to be related to the degree of aqueous alteration in their parent bodies. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine in the Antarctic CRs also appear to depend on the degree of aqueous alteration.

Martins, Z.; Alexander, C. M. O. D.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Ehrenfreund, P.

110

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

E-print Network

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these compounds. In addition, the relative abundances of alpha-AIB and beta-alanine in the Antarctic CR meteorites analyzed appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body.

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-03-10

111

Tautomeric and microscopic protonation equilibria of some alpha-amino acids.  

PubMed

The acid-base equilibria of several amino acids, namely glycine, l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, l-serine, l-methionine, and l-isoleucine, have been characterized in terms of microscopic protonation constants and tautomeric ratios. In this study, the microscopic protonation constants and tautomeric ratios of eight amino acids in different ethanol-water mixtures have been determined. The variation of microscopic constants of amino acids is discussed on the basis of solute-solvent interactions, and the ratio of dipolar ionic form to neutral form is determined in ethanol-water mixtures (20/80% ethanol by volume). The dipolar ionic form still greatly predominates, even in 80% ethanol, as estimated from potentiometric titration data. PMID:17416338

Do?an, Alev; Kiliç, Esma

2007-06-01

112

AminoAcid Sequence of Porcine Pepsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the culmination of several years of experiments, we propose a complete amino-acid sequence for porcine pepsin, an enzyme containing 327 amino-acid residues in a single polypeptide chain. In the sequence determination, the enzyme was treated with cyanogen bromide. Five resulting fragments were purified. The amino-acid sequence of four of the fragments accounted for 290 residues. Because the structure of

J. Tang; P. Sepulveda; J. Marciniszyn; K. C. S. Chen; W.-Y. Huang; N. Tao; D. Liu; J. P. Lanier

1973-01-01

113

Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered 3 months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16 900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its 3 month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated fiom a different type of parent body than the CM and CI chondrites. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P- or D-type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived fiom these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be reevaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

2002-01-01

114

Amino acids precursors in lunar finds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

1975-01-01

115

Relationship between amino acid usage and amino acid evolution in primates.  

PubMed

Amino acid usage varies from species to species. A previous study has found a universal trend in amino acid gain and loss in many taxa and a one-way model of amino acid evolution in which the number of new amino acids increases as the number of old amino acids decreases was proposed. Later studies showed that this pattern of amino acid gain and loss is likely to be compatible with the neutral theory. The present work aimed to further study this problem by investigating the evolutionary patterns of amino acids in 8 primates (the nucleotide and protein alignments are available online http://gattaca.nju.edu.cn/pub_data.html). First, the number of amino acids gained and lost was calculated and the evolution trend of each amino acid was inferred. These values were found to be closely related to the usage of each amino acid. Then we analyzed the mutational trend of amino acid substitution in human using SNPs, this trend is highly correlated with fixation trend only with greater variance. Finally, the trends in the evolution of 20 amino acids were evaluated in human on different time scales, and the increasing rate of 5 significantly increasing amino acids was found to decrease as a function of time elapsed since divergence, and the dS/dN ratio also found to increase as a function of time elapsed since divergence. These results suggested that the observed amino acid substitution pattern is influenced by mutation and purifying selection. In conclusion, the present study shows that usage of amino acids is an important factor capable of influencing the observed pattern of amino acid evolution, and also presented evidences suggesting that the observed universal trend of amino acid gain and loss is compatible with neutral evolution. PMID:25527119

Liu, Haoxuan; Xie, Zhengqing; Tan, Shengjun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Sihai

2015-02-25

116

Acyclic chiral amines and amino acids as inexpensive and readily tunable catalysts for the direct asymmetric three-component Mannich reaction.  

PubMed

The direct three-component asymmetric Mannich reaction catalyzed by acyclic chiral amines or amino acids is presented. Simple acyclic chiral amines and amino acids--such as alanine-tetrazole (9), alanine, valine, and serine-catalyzed the three-component asymmetric Mannich reactions between unmodified ketones, p-anisidine, and aldehydes with high chemo- and stereoselectivity, furnishing the corresponding Mannich bases with up to >99 % ee. This study demonstrates that the whole range of amino acids in nature, as well as nonproteogenic amino acid derivatives, can be considered in the design and tuning of novel, inexpensive organocatalysts for the direct asymmetric Mannich reaction. PMID:16189842

Ibrahem, Ismail; Zou, Weibiao; Engqvist, Magnus; Xu, Yongmei; Córdova, Armando

2005-11-18

117

Amino Acid Free Energy Decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distance Constraint Model (DCM) describes protein thermodynamics at a coarse-grained level based on a Free Energy Decomposition (FED) that assigns energy and entropy contributions to specific molecular interactions. Application of constraint theory accounts for non-additivity in conformational entropy so that the total free energy of a system can be reconstituted from all its molecular parts. In prior work, a minimal DCM utilized a simple FED involving temperature-independent parameters indiscriminately applied to all residues. Here, we describe a residue-specific FED that depends on local conformational states. The FED of an amino acid is constructed by weighting the energy spectrums associated with local energy minimums in configuration space by absolute entropies estimated using a quasi-harmonic approximation. Interesting temperature-dependent behavior is found. Support is from NIH R01 GM073082 and a CRI postdoctoral Duke research fellowship for H. Wang.

Wang, Hui; Fairchild, Michael; Livesay, Dennis; Jacobs, Donald

2009-03-01

118

Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

2012-12-01

119

Physiological role of d -amino acid- N -acetyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : detoxification of d -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sensitive to d-amino acids: those corresponding to almost all proteinous l-amino acids inhibit the growth of yeast even at low concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM). We have determined that d-amino acid-N-acetyltransferase (DNT) of the yeast is involved in the detoxification of d-amino acids on the basis of the following findings. When the DNT gene was disrupted, the resulting mutant

Geok-Yong Yow; Takuma Uo; Tohru Yoshimura; Nobuyoshi Esaki

2006-01-01

120

Erythrocytes participate significantly in blood transport of amino acids during the post absorptive state in normal humans.  

PubMed

To investigate the participation of erythrocytes in the blood transport of amino acids during the course of intestinal absorption in humans, erythrocyte and plasma amino-acid concentrations were determined following ingestion of an oral load of amino acids. In addition to baseline plasma and erythrocyte amino acid concentrations in 18 subjects, plasma and erythrocyte amino acids kinetics during the 125 min following an oral amino acid load were further determined in 9 of the 18 subjects. The results showed that human erythrocytes contained most amino acids at similar or higher concentrations than plasma. Furthermore, the correlations observed between plasma and erythrocyte contents clearly indicated that erythrocytes were involved in the transport of amino acids by the blood. For some amino acids erythrocyte transport sometimes exceeded that of plasma. Significant correlation coefficients showed that strong plasma-erythrocyte relationships existed for alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and ornithine. In conclusion, our data supported the hypothesis that both blood compartments, plasma and erythrocytes, are involved significantly in the blood transport of amino acids in humans during the postabsorptive state. PMID:9840404

Agli, A N; Schaefer, A; Geny, B; Piquard, F; Haberey, P

1998-11-01

121

N Carbamoyl Amino Acid Solid–Gas Nitrosation by NO\\/NO x : A New Route to Oligopeptides via ?-Amino Acid N -Carboxyanhydride. Prebiotic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?-N-Carbamoyl amino acid (CAA), whose conditions of formation in a prebiotic hydrosphere have been described previously (Taillades\\u000a et al. 1998), could have been an important intermediate in prebiotic peptide synthesis through reaction with atmospheric NO\\u000a \\u000a x\\u000a \\u000a . Nitrosation of solid CAA (glycine or valine derivative) by a 4\\/1 NO\\/O2 gaseous mixture (1 atm) yields N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) quantitatively in less than

Jacques Taillades; Hélène Collet; Laurence Garrel; Isabelle Beuzelin; Laurent Boiteau; Henri Choukroun; Auguste Commeyras

1999-01-01

122

Comparative study on free amino acid composition of wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

A comparative study on the amino acid composition of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino acid. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino acid contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino acids and a great diversity of palatable sensations. PMID:18942845

Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentão, Patrícia

2008-11-26

123

Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a n...

124

Free radical-mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We summarize here results of studies designed to elucidate basic mechanisms of reactive oxygen (ROS)-mediated oxidation of proteins and free amino acids. These studies have shown that oxidation of proteins can lead to hydroxylation of aromatic groups and aliphatic amino acid side chains, nitration of aromatic amino acid residues, nitrosylation of sulfhydryl groups, sulfoxidation of methionine residues, chlorination of

E. R. Stadtman; R. L. Levine

2003-01-01

125

Branched chain amino acid-enriched solutions in the septic patient. A randomized, prospective trial.  

PubMed Central

A prospective, randomized trial was undertaken to compare the nutritional efficacy in surgical stress of a standard amino acid solution and two branched chain-enriched amino acid solutions: one enriched primarily with valine, the other with leucine. The study comprised 37 patients in the surgical intensive care unit who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition started within 24 hours of the onset of major operation, injury, or sepsis. Nitrogen retention was marginally but statistically significantly better on days 5, 7, and 10 in both groups of patients receiving the branched chain-enriched solutions, but differences in cumulative nitrogen balance were not statistically significant. Amino acid composition appeared to be important in that the group receiving the leucine-enriched solution appeared to maintain hepatic protein synthesis better (as manifest by higher short-turnover plasma protein concentrations) and required less exogenous insulin to maintain euglycemia. Improved outcome was not seen in the groups receiving the branched chain-enriched solutions. PMID:3079994

Bower, R H; Muggia-Sullam, M; Vallgren, S; Hurst, J M; Kern, K A; LaFrance, R; Fischer, J E

1986-01-01

126

Alteration of free serum amino acids in voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.  

PubMed

Free serum amino acid pools of field voles, Microtus montanus, were determined over a 24 hr period, and compared to values obtained from voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. The majority of amino acids in the control animals demonstrated a diurnal variation, peaking predominantly during the dark portion of the photoperiod. This trend was not evident in the infected animals. In addition, infected voles possessed an apparent state of hypoaminoacidemia, with levels of threonine, serine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tryosine, and tryptophan typically below uninfected values. Alanine and proline, in contrast, were markedly increased at certain time points. Tyrosine (reduced by approximately 50%) and tryptophan (reduced to levels below detection) underwent the most pronounced drop in trypanosome-infected animals, indicating the possibility of a related alteration in pools of derivative biogenic amines in other tissues. This suggests a role for the latter 2 amino acids in the neuropsychiatric syndromes of African trypanosomiasis. PMID:321737

Newport, G R; Page, C R; Ashman, P U; Stibbs, H H; Seed, J R

1977-02-01

127

Role of amino acid transporters in amino acid sensing1234  

PubMed Central

Amino acid (AA) transporters may act as sensors, as well as carriers, of tissue nutrient supplies. This review considers recent advances in our understanding of the AA-sensing functions of AA transporters in both epithelial and nonepithelial cells. These transporters mediate AA exchanges between extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments, delivering substrates to intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters on endosomal (eg, lysosomal) membranes may themselves function as intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters at the cell surface, particularly those for large neutral AAs such as leucine, interact functionally with intracellular nutrient-signaling pathways that regulate metabolism: for example, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which promotes cell growth, and the general control non-derepressible (GCN) pathway, which is activated by AA starvation. Under some circumstances, upregulation of AA transporter expression [notably a leucine transporter, solute carrier 7A5 (SLC7A5)] is required to initiate AA-dependent activation of the mTORC1 pathway. Certain AA transporters may have dual receptor-transporter functions, operating as “transceptors” to sense extracellular (or intracellular) AA availability upstream of intracellular signaling pathways. New opportunities for nutritional therapy may include targeting of AA transporters (or mechanisms that upregulate their expression) to promote protein-anabolic signals for retention or recovery of lean tissue mass. PMID:24284439

2014-01-01

128

The Apollo Program and Amino Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

Fox, Sidney W.

1973-01-01

129

Inhibitors of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will detail the biochemical mechanisms that are affected by herbicides which inhibit a plantâ??s ability to synthesize amino acids. The significance of amino acids and proteins will also be described. The herbicide glyphosate, will be studied at length, including the advances made by biotechnology.

130

Amino acid racemization dating of fossil bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of amino acid racemization as a dating technique holds considerable promise for resolving questions of human evolution and culture histories. The advantages of this method are: fossil bone can be directly dated; only gram quantities are needed for analysis; and the range extends beyond that of radiocarbon. Amino acid racemization rates are dependent upon both time and temperature.

Jeffrey L. Bada; Patricia Masters Helfman

1975-01-01

131

6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

132

Amino acids in an Antarctic carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids have been found in aqueous extracts of a C2 carbonaceous chondrite recovered from Antarctica. The composition of the amino acids strongly suggests that they have a meteoritic origin. Comparison of these results with those obtained with other C2 chondrites supports the view that Antarctic meteorites have not been significantly altered by terrestrial processes since their fall.

Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Moore, C. B.

1979-01-01

133

Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by the meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions (Munoz Caro, et

M. Bertrand; S. van der Gaast; F. Vilas; F. Horz; G. Barnes; B. Barbier; A. Chabin; A. Braak; A. Westall

2004-01-01

134

Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities of essential amino acids in the energy range 1 keV–100 GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of essential amino acids histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method in the wide energy range of 1keV–100GeV using WinXCOM. The values of these parameters have been found to change with energy and composition of the amino acids.

S. R. Manohara; S. M. Hanagodimath

2007-01-01

135

Dietary amino acids and brain function.  

PubMed

Two groups of amino acids--the aromatic and the acidic amino acids--are reputed to influence brain function when their ingestion in food changes the levels of these amino acids in the brain. The aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine) are the biosynthetic precursors for the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Single meals, depending on their protein content, can rapidly influence uptake of aromatic amino acid into the brain and, as a result, directly modify their conversion to neurotransmitters. Such alterations in the production of transmitters can directly modify their release from neurons and, thus, influence brain function. The acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate are themselves brain neurotransmitters. However, they do not have ready access to the brain from the circulation or the diet. As a result, the ingestion of proteins, which are naturally rich in aspartate and glutamate, has no effect on the level of acidic amino acid in the brain (or, thus, on brain function by this mechanism). Nevertheless, the food additives monosodium glutamate and aspartame (which contains aspartate) have been reputed to raise the level of acidic amino acid in the brain (when ingested in enormous amounts), to modify brain function, and even to cause neuronal damage. Despite such claims, a substantial body of published evidence clearly indicates that the brain is not affected by ingestion of aspartame and is affected by glutamate only when the amino acid is administered alone in extremely large doses. Therefore, when consumed in the diet neither compound presents a risk to normal brain function. PMID:7903674

Fernstrom, J D

1994-01-01

136

Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Brinton, K. L.; McDonald, G. D.

1999-01-01

137

Amino Acid Homeostasis and Chronological Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Amino Acid Homeostasis and Chronological Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae John P is amino acid homeostasis. Amino acid homeostasis requires three principal functions: amino acid uptake, de novo synthesis, and recycling. Autophagy plays a key role in recycling amino acids and other metabolic

Aris, John P.

138

Enzymatic aminoacylation of tRNA with unnatural amino acids  

E-print Network

Enzymatic aminoacylation of tRNA with unnatural amino acids Matthew C. T. Hartman, KristopherRNAs with amino acids. We have developed an AARS assay based on mass spectrometry that can be used to rapidly functional properties. Remarkably, many -amino acids, N-methyl amino acids, and , -disubstituted amino acids

Heller, Eric

139

RELATING PHYSICOCHEMMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMINO ACIDS TO VARIABLE NUCLEOTIDE SUBSTITUTION  

E-print Network

RELATING PHYSICOCHEMMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMINO ACIDS TO VARIABLE NUCLEOTIDE SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS) as well as heterogeneity of amino acid substitution pattern over sites. The codon (amino acid) sites of amino acid substitution and the effect of amino acid chemical properties vary. Parameters are estimated

Yang, Ziheng

140

Amino acid transporters: roles in amino acid sensing and signalling in animal cells.  

PubMed Central

Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms. PMID:12879880

Hyde, Russell; Taylor, Peter M; Hundal, Harinder S

2003-01-01

141

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOEpatents

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

1998-09-15

142

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOEpatents

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

1998-10-06

143

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOEpatents

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

1998-10-06

144

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOEpatents

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

1998-09-15

145

Influence of leucine on arterial concentrations and regional exchange of amino acids in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

1. L-Leucine was given to healthy, post-absorptive subjects as a continuous intravenous infusion (300 mumol/min) during 2 1/2 h. Arterial blood concentrations and regional exchange amino acids were measured across the splanchnic region, the brain and a leg, by the catheter technique. Renal clearance of amino acids was also determined. 2. During the infusion of leucine its concentration rose four- to six-folds, while the concentrations of several other amino acids declined continually, the effect being most pronounced for isoleucine (-55% of initial value), methionine (-55%), valine (-40%), tyrosine (-35%) and phenylalanine (-35%). 3. The infused leucine was taken up by muscle tissue (55%), by the splanchnic region (25%) and by the brain (10%). Neither leg-muscle release nor splanchnic uptake of aromatic amino acids was affected. Renal clearance and tubular reabsorption of amino acids were uninfluenced by leucine infusion. The uptake of isoleucine and methionine by the brain, seen in the basal state, was inhibited during leucine infusion. 4. The marked reduction in the concentrations of the aromatic amino acids, the uptake of leucine by the brain and the inhibition of brain methionine uptake, which accompany leucine infusion in healthy subjects, may be of relevance for the treatment of patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy. PMID:7428288

Hagenfeldt, L; Eriksson, S; Wahren, J

1980-09-01

146

Serum branched-chain amino acids in the diagnosis of hyperinsulinism in infancy.  

PubMed

Fasting values of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were measured by column chromatography in the sera of 27 normal infants and children, 15 days to 9 years of age, 14 children with documented ketotic hypoglycemia one to 7 years of age, and in 14 sera from six infants, 15 days to 2 years of age, with documented hyperinsulinism. In normal children and those with ketotic hypoglycemia, each individual branched-chain amino acid and their sum were significantly negatively correlated with blood sugar values ranging between 11 and 92 mg/dl (P < 0.001). In infants with hyperinsulinism, branched-chain amino acid concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.001) without correlation with blood sugar values ranging between 13 and 51 mg/dl, and plasma insulin concentrations (9 to 85 microU/ML). In all the children the sum of branched-chain amino acids was positively correlated with blood beta OH butyrate concentrations measured at the same time (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The association of low blood sugar and low branched-chain amino acid concentrations during fasting seems characteristic of hyperinsulinism, and the measurement of branched-chain amino acids in these infants offers a physiologic indicator of the diagnosis of hyperinsulinism. PMID:7003083

Chaussain, J L; Georges, P; Gendrel, D; Donnadieu, M; Job, J C

1980-12-01

147

Determination of the D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils were measured by using a gas chromatographic technique. The results of two processing procedures were compared to determine the better method. Results of the comparison indicated that the determination of D and L percentages requires amino acid purification if one is to obtain accurate data. It was found that very significant amounts of D-alanine, D-aspartic acid, and D-glutamic acid were present in the contemporary soils studied. Valine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, and phenylalanine generally contained only a trace to very small amounts of the D isomer. It is probable that the D-amino acids from the alanine, aspartic, and glutamic acids are contributed to the soil primarily via microorganisms. The finding of very significant quantities of some D-amino acids (about 5-16%) in present-day soils may alert some investigators of geological sediments to a possible problem in using amino acid racemization as an age-dating technique.

Pollock, G. E.; Cheng, C.-N.; Cronin, S. E.

1977-01-01

148

Condensation of vaporous amino acids in the presence of silica. Formation of bi- and tricyclic amidines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids (alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid) were subjected to repeated (5 9 times) sublimation in the presence of silica at temperature of 220 240 °C. The major amino acid condensation products were diketopiperazines (DKPs) in yields of 27 89%. Mixtures of by-products have been isolated from the DKPs by means of chloroform extraction. On the basis of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of the mixtures it is proposed that under these conditions further dehydration proceeds resulting in bicyclic (BCA) and tricyclic (TCA) amidine derivatives of DKPs; the BCA formation has been confirmed by means of IR and1H NMR spectroscopy in the case of 2-aminoisobutyric acid. During the sublimation, thermal destruction of the cyclic products was also observed accompanied by the cycle degradation and cleavage of alkyl substituents. The BCAs and TCAs are considered as possible sources of linear di- and tripeptides.

Basiuk, Vladimir A.

1992-11-01

149

Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids  

PubMed Central

Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: 1. During long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; 2. These behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; 3. These behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids, and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences. PMID:24072505

Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

2013-01-01

150

Amino Acid Metabolism Conflicts with Protein Diversity  

PubMed Central

The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, David A.; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E.

2014-01-01

151

Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

2014-01-01

152

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

153

Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

1995-01-01

154

Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most important prebiotic molecules as it is from these precursors that the building blocks of life were formed [1]. Although organic molecules were among the components of the planetesimals making up the terrestrial planets, large amounts of primitive organic precursor molecules are believed to be exogenous in origin and to have been imported to the Earth via micrometeorites, carbonaceous meteorites and comets, especially during the early stages of the formation of the Solar System [1,2]. Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions [3]. We are now interested in the effects of space conditions and meteoritic impact on these amino acids [4-6]. Most of the extraterrestrial organic molecules known today have been identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites [7]. One of the components of these meteorites is a clay with a composition close to that of saponite, used in our experiments. Two American teams have studied the effects of impact on various amino acids [8,9]. [8] investigated amino acids in saturated solution in water with pressure ranges between 5.1 and 21 GPa and temperature ranges between 412 and 870 K. [9] studied amino acids in solid form associated with and without minerals (Murchison and Allende meteorite extracts) and pressure ranges between 3 and 30 GPa. In these two experiments, the amino acids survived up to 15 GPa. At higher pressure, the quantity of preserved amino acids decreases quickly. Some secondary products such as dipeptides and diketopiperazins were identified in the [8] experiment.

Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; vanderGaast, S.; Vilas, F.; Hoerz, F.; Barnes, G.; Chabin, A.; Brack, A.

2008-01-01

155

40 CFR 721.2584 - Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. 721.2584 Section 721...Substances § 721.2584 Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as dodecanoic acid, 12-amino- (PMN P-98-0823;...

2012-07-01

156

40 CFR 721.2584 - Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. 721.2584 Section 721...Substances § 721.2584 Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as dodecanoic acid, 12-amino- (PMN P-98-0823;...

2013-07-01

157

40 CFR 721.2584 - Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. 721.2584 Section 721...Substances § 721.2584 Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as dodecanoic acid, 12-amino- (PMN P-98-0823;...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 721.2584 - Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. 721.2584 Section 721...Substances § 721.2584 Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as dodecanoic acid, 12-amino- (PMN P-98-0823;...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 721.2584 - Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. 721.2584 Section 721...Substances § 721.2584 Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as dodecanoic acid, 12-amino- (PMN P-98-0823;...

2014-07-01

160

Genetics Home Reference: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed May 2008 What is aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency? Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) ...

161

Amino Acid Profile in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Collagen is a significant structural protein, the integrity of which is essential to be maintained for proper homeostasis. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), being a collagen metabolic disorder, may be subject to changes in amino acid profiling. Aim: The present study was attempted to evaluate the amino acid profile to assess its feasibility as a biological marker in OSMF. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 13 patents with OSMF and the normal group comprised of 13 normal patients without associated habits or systemic disorders. Venous blood was collected from the antecubital vein, plasma was separated and the plasma was then subjected to high profile liquid chromatographic analysis. Results: The assay levels of threonine, alanine and tyrosine did not yield any significant results. The decreased assay levels of valine, Isoleucine and the increased assay level of methionine and glycine observed in group II yielded significant results in correlation with the control group. The decreased assay level seen in phenylalanine in group II and III in correlation with group IV is statistically significant. Conclusion: A few amino acids have been identified which can be used as biological markers for the severity of the disease such as valine, methionine and phenyl alanine. Large scale studies are required to elucidate the potential of these biological markers. PMID:25654030

Goel, Richa; Chandrasekhar, Thiruvengadam; Ramani, Pratibha; Sherlin, Herald J.; Natesan, Anuja; Premkumar, Priya

2014-01-01

162

Branched chain amino acid metabolism profiles in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a globally widespread disease of increasing clinical significance. The pathological progression of the disease from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been well defined, however, the contribution of altered branched chain amino acid metabolomic profiles to the progression of NAFLD is not known. The three BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine are known to mediate activation of several important hepatic metabolic signaling pathways ranging from insulin signaling to glucose regulation. The purpose of this study is to profile changes in hepatic BCAA metabolite levels with transcriptomic changes in the progression of human NAFLD to discover novel mechanisms of disease progression. Metabolomic and transcriptomic data sets representing the spectrum of human NAFLD (normal, steatosis, NASH fatty, and NASH not fatty livers) were utilized for this study. During the transition from steatosis to NASH, increases in the levels of leucine (127 % of normal), isoleucine (139 %), and valine (147 %) were observed. Carnitine metabolites also exhibited significantly elevated profiles in NASH fatty and NASH not fatty samples and included propionyl, hexanoyl, lauryl, acetyl and butyryl carnitine. Amino acid and BCAA metabolism gene sets were significantly enriched among downregulated genes during NASH. These cumulative alterations in BCAA metabolite and amino acid metabolism gene profiles represent adaptive physiological responses to disease-induced hepatic stress in NASH patients. PMID:25534430

Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald G; Reily, Michael D; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Vaillancourt, Richard R; Cherrington, Nathan J

2015-03-01

163

Landscape patterns of free amino acids in arctic tundra soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of free amino acids were measured in soils from four major ecosystem types in arctic Alaska. Total free amino acid concentrations were several-fold higher than ammonium (the major form of inorganic nitrogen) in water extracts of soils. The dominant free amino acids in these soils were glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and arginine. Concentrations of total amino acids

Knut Kielland

1995-01-01

164

Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 parts per billion, ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4,100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16,900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis, are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its three month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated from a different type of parent body than the CM's and CI's. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P or D- type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived from these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be re-evaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

2002-05-01

165

Escherichia coli W as a new platform strain for the enhanced production of L-valine by systems metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

A less frequently employed Escherichia coli strain W, yet possessing useful metabolic characteristics such as less acetic acid production and high L-valine tolerance, was metabolically engineered for the production of L-valine. The ilvA gene was deleted to make more pyruvate, a key precursor for L-valine, available for enhanced L-valine biosynthesis. The lacI gene was deleted to allow constitutive expression of genes under the tac or trc promoter. The ilvBN(mut) genes encoding feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) I and the L-valine biosynthetic ilvCED genes encoding acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase, dihydroxy acid dehydratase, and branched chain amino acid aminotransferase, respectively, were amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The global regulator Lrp and L-valine exporter YgaZH were also amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The engineered E. coli W (?lacI ?ilvA) strain overexpressing the ilvBN(mut) , ilvCED, ygaZH, and lrp genes was able to produce an impressively high concentration of 60.7?g/L L-valine by fed-batch culture in 29.5?h, resulting in a high volumetric productivity of 2.06?g/L/h. The most notable finding is that there was no other byproduct produced during L-valine production. The results obtained in this study suggest that E. coli W can be a good alternative to Corynebacterium glutamicum and E. coli K-12, which have so far been the most efficient L-valine producer. Furthermore, it is expected that various bioproducts including other amino acids might be more efficiently produced by this revisited platform strain of E. coli. PMID:21191998

Park, Jin Hwan; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Jeong Wook; Lee, Sang Yup

2011-05-01

166

40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

2013-07-01

167

40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

2014-07-01

168

40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

2012-07-01

169

40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

2011-07-01

170

40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

2010-07-01

171

Investigation of the adsorption of amino acids on Pd(1 1 1): A density functional theory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory calculations have been used to study the adsorption of glycine, alanine, norvaline, valine, proline, cysteine, and serine on Pd(1 1 1). Most amino acids except cysteine adsorb onto the surface in a tridentate fashion through a nitrogen atom and both oxygen atoms. For cysteine, an additional bond is formed with the surface due to the strong affinity of the sulfur atom, resulting in a significantly larger adsorption energy. The adsorption patterns of amino acids we examined are supported by the shifts in vibrational frequencies associated with NHH and COO. The adsorption strength of amino acids depends on how much the molecules deform during the adsorption process. Understanding the adsorption of amino acids on Pd(1 1 1) provides fundamental information for future consideration of the interactions between their derivatives or more complicated biomolecules and metal surfaces.

James, Joanna N.; Han, Jeong Woo; Sholl, David S.

2014-05-01

172

How to build optically active ? -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Various methodologies published in the literature dealing witha-amino carboxylic acid asymmetric synthesis are presented in a digest form. In each case, only some recent or most typical works are mentioned.

M. Calmes; J. Daunis

1999-01-01

173

Amino Acid biosynthesis pathways in diatoms.  

PubMed

Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

Bromke, Mariusz A

2013-01-01

174

Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

Bromke, Mariusz A.

2013-01-01

175

Analysis of acetohydroxyacid synthase variants from branched-chain amino acids-producing strains and their effects on the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) controls carbon flux through the branch point and determines the relative rates of the synthesis of isoleucine, valine and leucine, respectively. However, it is strongly regulated by its end products. In this study, we characterized AHAS variants from five branched-chain amino acids-producing strains. Amino acid substitution occurred in both catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Interestingly, AHAS variants reduced sensitivity to feedback inhibition by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Although AHAS with amino acid substitution in regulatory subunit showed higher resistance, amino acid substitution in catalytic subunit could also endow AHAS with resistance to feedback inhibition. In addition, AHAS variants from V2 and L5 displayed about 1.4-fold higher specific activity compared to other AHAS variants. On the other hand, AHAS variant from V1 exhibited the highest resistance to BCAAs, 87% of original activity left even in the presence of 10mM BCAAs. Recombinant Corynebacteriumglutamicum strains were further constructed to investigate the effects of expressing AHAS variants on the synthesis of BCAAs and alanine (main by-product) in C. glutamicum. BCAAs production was increased with the increase of resistance to feedback inhibition, although valine showed a significant increase. For instance, C. g-1BN could accumulate 9.51g/l valine, 0.450g/l leucine and 0.180g/l isoleucine, and alanine was reduced to 0.477g/l. These AHAS variants are important for further improving performance of BCAAs-producing strain. PMID:25697867

Guo, Yanfeng; Han, Mei; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Weiguo

2015-05-01

176

Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

Wang, Jiangyun (San Diego, CA); Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2010-10-05

177

Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

Wang, Jiangyun (San Diego, CA); Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2012-06-05

178

Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by the meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions (Munoz Caro, et al. Nature 416, 403 (2002).). We are now interested in the effects of space conditions and meteoritic impact on these amino acids (Barbier B., et al. Planet. Space Sci. 46, 391 (1998), Barbier B., et al. , Planet. Space Sci. 50, 353 (2002) ; Boillot F., et al. Origins of Life and Evol. Biosphere 32, 359 (2002)). Most of the extraterrestrial organic molecules known today have been identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. One of the components of these meteorites is a clay with a composition close to that of saponite. Thus, in order to study the effects of meteoritic impact on amino acids, three amino acids (alanine, glycine, and b-alanine) were mixed with 0,275 mg saponite clay to simulate a carbonaceous chondrite meteorite. These three amino acids were identified in the Murchison meteorite, and two of them (Gly and Ala) are used in biological systems. A pressure of 15 GPa, simulating a meteorite impact with a velocity of 1.2 km/sec was applied to this artificial meteorite at the NASA Johnson Space Center Experimental Impact Laboratory. The sample extracts show a good preservation of the amino acids : 34% of glycine, about 46% of D-alanine and about 20% of b-alanine were preserved. Another experiment has been carried out using different amino-acids and higher pressures. We are now analyzing the samples. The preparation and the analysis of samples were carried out in Orléans (France) at the Molecular Biophysics Center.

Bertrand, M.; van der Gaast, S.; Vilas, F.; Horz, F.; Barnes, G.; Barbier, B.; Chabin, A.; Braak, A.; Westall, A.

2004-11-01

179

Decrease in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine after phenylalanine-tyrosine free amino acid solutions in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an overnight fast, 5 male healthy subjects ingested increasing amounts of a solution containing a fixed proportion of seven essential amino acids (L-isoleucine, 13.3%; L-leucine, 21.0%; L-lysine, 15.2%; L-methionine, 21.0%; L-threonine, 9.5%; L-tryptophan, 4.8% and L-valine, 15.2%) and lacking phenylalanine and tyrosine. The solutions caused a rapid fall in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine which was proportional to the total

E. A. Moja; V. Lucini; F. Benedetti; A. Lucca

1996-01-01

180

Amino Acid Patterns around Disulfide Bonds  

PubMed Central

Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities) and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies) statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds) for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins. PMID:21151463

Marques, José R. F.; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Drury, Brett; Melo, André

2010-01-01

181

Anticodon-independent aminoacylation of an RNA minihelix with valine.  

PubMed

Minihelices mimicking the amino acid acceptor and anticodon branches of yeast tRNA(Val) have been synthesized by in vitro transcription of synthetic templates. It is shown that a minihelix corresponding to the amino acid acceptor branch and containing solely a valine-specific identity nucleotide can be aminoacylated by yeast valyl-tRNA synthetase. Its charging ability is lost after mutating this nucleotide. This ability is stimulated somewhat by the addition of a second hairpin helix that mimicks the anticodon arm, which suggests that information originating from the anticodon stem-loop can be transmitted to the active site of the enzyme by the core of the protein. PMID:1570324

Frugier, M; Florentz, C; Giegé, R

1992-05-01

182

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and nucleotide bases for target bacterial vibrational mode identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies of bacteria have reported a wide range of vibrational mode assignments associated with biological material. We present Raman and SER spectra of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, cysteine, alanine, proline, methionine, asparagine, threonine, valine, glycine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and the nucleic acid bases adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and uridine to better characterize biological vibrational mode assignments for bacterial target identification. We also report spectra of the bacteria Bacillus globigii, Pantoea agglomerans, and Yersinia rhodei along with band assignments determined from the reference spectra obtained.

Guicheteau, Jason; Argue, Leanne; Hyre, Aaron; Jacobson, Michele; Christesen, Steven D.

2006-05-01

183

Amino acids in the Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite from Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for the presence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite is presented. Hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed water-extracted amino acid samples from exterior, middle and interior portions of the meteorite were analyzed by an amino acid analyzer and by gas chromatography of N-TFA-isopropyl amino acid derivatives. Nine protein and six nonprotein amino acids were detected in the meteorite at abundances between 34 and less than one nmole/g, with equal amounts in interior and exterior portions. Nearly equal abundances of the D and L enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found, indicating the abiotic, therefore extraterrestrial, origin of the amino acids. The Antarctic environment and the uniformity of protein amino acid abundances are discussed as evidence against the racemization of terrestrially acquired amino acids, and similarities between Yamato amino acid compositions and the amino acid compositions of the Murchison and Murray type II carbonaceous chrondrites are indicated.

Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Yanai, K.

1979-01-01

184

Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava. PMID:23661446

Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

2013-01-01

185

A common HPLC-PDA method for amino acid analysis in insects and plants.  

PubMed

A common method for analysis of 17 amino acids from various insect species and plant parts was standardized using HPLC-PDA. Prior to hydrolysis, lyophilization of test samples was found indispensible to remove excess moisture, which interferes in hydrolysis and separation of amino acids. After the hydrolysis of plant and insect samples, 500 and 100 microL of boiling HCl, respectively for reconstitution, and 20 microL of hydrolyzed samples used for derivatization, provided best results. Gradient profile of mobile phase and run time up to 65 min were standardized to (i) overcome the problems related to eluting underivatized sample part, (ii) optimize the use of mobile phase and run time, and (iii) get better separation of different amino acids. Analysis of Chilo partellus larvae reared on sorghum seedling powder based artificial diet indicated that arginine and histidine quantities were on par in both samples. However, methionine was higher, and leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine were lower in sorghum seedlings than in C. partellus larvae, suggesting compensation of these amino acids by the insect through voracious feeding, as is being expected from artificial diet. This method was found highly sensitive, reproducible and useful for the analysis of amino acids for better understanding of insect-plant interactions. PMID:24617018

Dhillon, M K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gujar, G T

2014-01-01

186

Amino acid isotopic analysis in agricultural systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A relatively new approach to stable isotopic analysis—referred to as compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA)—has emerged, centering on the measurement of 15N:14N ratios in amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). CSIA has recently been used to generate trophic position estimates among anima...

187

Original article Rumen effective degradability of amino acids  

E-print Network

Original article Rumen effective degradability of amino acids from soybean meal corrected degradation kinetics and effective degradability of individual amino acids, total analysed amino acids (TAA was similar for TAA and CP (74.7 vs. 75.7%). Degradability values of individual amino acids varied moderately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

What Amino Acid Properties Affect Protein Evolution? Xuhua Xia,1  

E-print Network

What Amino Acid Properties Affect Protein Evolution? Xuhua Xia,1 Wen-Hsiung Li2 1 Department the effects of 10 amino acid properties on the evolution of the genetic code, the amino acid composition of proteins, and the pattern of nonsynonymous substitutions. The 10 amino acid properties studied

Xia, Xuhua

189

The bkdR Gene of Streptomyces coelicolor Is Required for Morphogenesis and Antibiotic Production and Encodes a Transcriptional Regulator of a BranchedChain Amino Acid Dehydrogenase Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products from the degradation of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine contribute to the production of a number of important cellular metabolites, including branched-chain fatty acids, ATP and other energy production, cell-cell signaling for morphological development, and the synthesis of precursors for polyketide antibiotics. The first nonreversible reactions in the degradation of all three amino acids are catalyzed

Ondrej Sprusansky; Karen Stirrett; Deborah Skinner; Claudio Denoya; Janet Westpheling

2005-01-01

190

Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. III - Seven carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All of the eighteen possible seven-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids have been positively identified in a hot-water extract of the Murchison meteorite by the combined use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. None of these amino acids has previously been found in meteorites or in any other natural material. They range in concentration from less than or equal to 0.5 to 5.3 nmol/g. Configuration assignments were made for 2-amino-3,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and allo-2-amino-3,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and the diasteromer ratio was determined. Fifty-five amino acids have now been positively identified in the Murchison meteorite, 36 of which are unknown in terrestrial materials. This unique suite of amino acids is characterized by the occurrence of all structural isomers within the two major classes of amino acids represented, by the predominance of branched chain isomers, and by an exponential decline in amount with increasing carbon chain length within homologous series. These characteristics of the Murchison amino acids are suggestive of synthesis before incorporation into a parent body.

Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra

1986-01-01

191

Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: Mechanisms involved in translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only

A. C. Chakrabarti

1994-01-01

192

Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 ?m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 °C, 1 min, 6 °C/min at 100 °C, 4 °C/min at 200 °C, 20 °C/min at 300 °C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 °C, the injector temperature 200 °C and ion source temperature 250 °C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 ?A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

Iordache, A.; Horj, E.; Ani, A. R.; Mesaros, C.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M.

2010-08-01

193

Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media  

SciTech Connect

An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 mx0.25 mm, 0.25 {mu}m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 deg. C, 1 min, 6 deg. C/min at 100 deg. C, 4 deg. C/min at 200 deg. C, 20 deg. C/min at 300 deg. C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 deg. C, the injector temperature 200 deg. C and ion source temperature 250 deg. C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 {mu}A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

Iordache, A. [National R and D Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea, 4 Uzinei St., Rm. Valcea, 240050 (Romania); Horj, E.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M. ['Babes-Bolyai' University, 1 M. Kogalniceanu St., Cluj-Napoca, 400084 (Romania); Ani, A. R. [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca-USAMV, 3-5 Manastur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mesaros, C. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 38 Gh. Marinescu St., 540000, Targu Mures (Romania)

2010-08-04

194

Amino acid uptake in rust fungi  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

Struck, Christine

2015-01-01

195

Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences  

PubMed Central

What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

2015-01-01

196

Distinguishing proteins from arbitrary amino acid sequences.  

PubMed

What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

Yau, Stephen S-T; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

2015-01-01

197

Amino acid uptake in rust fungi.  

PubMed

The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

Struck, Christine

2015-01-01

198

40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

2010-07-01

199

L-amino acid oxidases with specificity for basic L-amino acids in cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

The two closely related fresh water cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have previously been shown to constitutively express a FAD-containing L-amino acid oxidase with high specificity for basic L-amino acids (L-arginine being the best substrate). In this paper we show that such an enzyme is also present in the fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus cedrorum PCC 6908. In addition, an improved evaluation of the nucleotide/amino acid sequence of the L-amino acid oxidase of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 (encoded by the aoxA gene) with respect to the FAD-binding site and a translocation pathway signal sequence will be given. Moreover, the genome sequences of 24 cyanobacteria will be evaluated for the occurrence of an aoxA-similar gene. In the evaluated cyanobacteria 15 genes encoding an L-amino acid oxidase-similar protein will be found. PMID:17542496

Gau, Achim E; Heindl, Achim; Nodop, Anke; Kahmann, Uwe; Pistorius, Elfriede K

2007-01-01

200

Apical Transporters for Neutral Amino Acids: Physiology and Pathophysiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Absorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine involves a variety of transporters for different groups of amino acids. This is illustrated by inherited disorders of amino acid absorption, such as Hartnup disorder, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria, dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, and lysinuric protein intolerance, affecting separate groups of amino acids. Recent advances in the molecular identification of apical neutral amino acid transporters has shed a light on the molecular basis of Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria.

Stefan Broer (Australian National University)

2008-04-01

201

Branched chain amino acid metabolism in the biosynthesis of Lycopersicon pennellii glucose esters  

SciTech Connect

Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy) an insect-resistant, wild tomato possesses high densities of glandular trichomes which exude a mixture of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylated glucose esters that function as a physical impediment and feeding deterrent to small arthropod pests. The acyl moieties are branched C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} acids, and branched and straight chain C{sub 10}, C{sub 11}, and C{sub 12} acids. The structure of the branched acyl constituents suggests that the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway participates in their biosynthesis. ({sup 14}C)Valine and deuterated branched chain amino acids (and their oxo-acid derivatives) were incorporated into branched C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} acid groups of glucose esters by a process of transamination, oxidative decarboxylation and subsequent acylation. C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} branched acids were elongated by two carbon units to produce the branched C{sub 10}-C{sub 12} groups. Norvaline, norleucine, allylglycine, and methionine also were processed into acyl moieties and secreted from the trichomes as glucose esters. Changes in the acyl composition of the glucose esters following sulfonylurea herbicide administration support the participation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and the other enzymes of branched amino acid biosynthesis in the production of glucose esters.

Walters, D.S.; Steffens, J.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

202

Free amino acids in brain, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue of voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.  

PubMed

The concentrations of several acidic and neutral amino acids of brain, liver, and skeletal muscle were determined in field voles, Microtus montanus, and compared to values obtained from voles harboring a chronic infection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. All of the amino acids examined were found at comparable levels in brain tissue from both groups of animals with the exception of tyrosine, which was reduced by approximately 45% in the infected voles. Similarly, the only difference noted in liver tissue was 32% decrease of free tyrosine in the infected animals. With respect to muscle tissue, in addition to a 45% reduction of free tyrosine in the infected voles, decreases of a smaller magnitude were also noted for threonine, glutamate, and valine. The relatively specific alteration of free tyrosine concentrations in the investigated tissues of trypanosome-infected animals suggests an alteration in host metabolism of this amino acid and/or parasite utilization. PMID:338875

Newport, G R; Page, C R

1977-12-01

203

New Enzymatic Method of Chiral Amino Acid Synthesis by Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Amino Acid Amides: Use of Stereoselective Amino Acid Amidases in the Presence of ?-Amino-?-Caprolactam Racemase?  

PubMed Central

d- and l-amino acids were produced from l- and d-amino acid amides by d-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and l-amino acid amidase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603, respectively, in the presence of ?-amino-?-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae as the catalyst by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides. PMID:17586677

Yamaguchi, Shigenori; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

2007-01-01

204

Amino acid precursors in lunar samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of hot water to extract lunar samples, followed by the hydrolysis of the aqueous extract, appears to be the method of choice for identification and quantitation of amino acid precursors in extraterrestrial sources. The net inferences from the analyses to date are (1) that amino acid precursors are verifiably present in lunar dust, and (2) that they are quite certainly not the consequence of contamination by terrestrial organisms, including man. It is suggested that prebiotic evolutionary pathways such as have been traversed on the earth were terminated on the moon for lack of sufficient water. Although some or all of the amino acid precursors may be indigenous, the low level observed suggests that they may also result from onfall of organic compounds from interstellar matter, comets, tails, solar wind, or meteorites.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

1972-01-01

205

Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

Cook, Jamie Elsila

2009-01-01

206

Phenylalanine sensitive K562-D cells for the analysis of the biochemical impact of excess amino acid.  

PubMed

Although it is recognized that the abnormal accumulation of amino acid is a cause of the symptoms in metabolic disease such as phenylketonuria (PKU), the relationship between disease severity and serum amino acid levels is not well understood due to the lack of experimental model. Here, we present a novel in vitro cellular model using K562-D cells that proliferate slowly in the presence of excessive amount of phenylalanine within the clinically observed range, but not phenylpyruvate. The increased expression of the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2) and its adapter protein 4F2 heavy chain appeared to be responsible for the higher sensitivity to phenylalanine in K562-D cells. Supplementation with valine over phenylalanine effectively restored cell proliferation, although other amino acids did not improve K562-D cell proliferation over phenylalanine. Biochemical analysis revealed mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) as a terminal target of phenylalanine in K562-D cell proliferation, and supplementation of valine restored mTORC1 activity. Our results show that K562-D cell can be a potent tool for the investigation of PKU at the molecular level and to explore new therapeutic approaches to the disease. PMID:25373594

Sanayama, Yoshitami; Matsumoto, Akio; Shimojo, Naoki; Kohno, Yoichi; Nakaya, Haruaki

2014-01-01

207

Phenylalanine sensitive K562-D cells for the analysis of the biochemical impact of excess amino acid  

PubMed Central

Although it is recognized that the abnormal accumulation of amino acid is a cause of the symptoms in metabolic disease such as phenylketonuria (PKU), the relationship between disease severity and serum amino acid levels is not well understood due to the lack of experimental model. Here, we present a novel in vitro cellular model using K562-D cells that proliferate slowly in the presence of excessive amount of phenylalanine within the clinically observed range, but not phenylpyruvate. The increased expression of the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2) and its adapter protein 4F2 heavy chain appeared to be responsible for the higher sensitivity to phenylalanine in K562-D cells. Supplementation with valine over phenylalanine effectively restored cell proliferation, although other amino acids did not improve K562-D cell proliferation over phenylalanine. Biochemical analysis revealed mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) as a terminal target of phenylalanine in K562-D cell proliferation, and supplementation of valine restored mTORC1 activity. Our results show that K562-D cell can be a potent tool for the investigation of PKU at the molecular level and to explore new therapeutic approaches to the disease. PMID:25373594

Sanayama, Yoshitami; Matsumoto, Akio; Shimojo, Naoki; Kohno, Yoichi; Nakaya, Haruaki

2014-01-01

208

Branched-chain amino acids complex inhibits melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Present study was investigated the effect of each or complex of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) on melanin production in B16F0 melanoma cells treated with various concentrations (1-16?mM) for 72?h. Among the 20 amino acids, lysine and glycine showed the highest activities of DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, respectively. Each and combination of BCAAs reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes and cell viability in melanoma cells. Present study was also investigated the inhibitory effects of each or complex of BCAAs at each 10?mM concentration on the 100 ?M IBMX-mediated stimulation of melanogenesis in melanoma cells for 72?h and found that IBMX treatment was stimulated to enhance melanin synthesis and that the complex of BCAAs was the most effectively inhibited in the melanin amounts of cellular and extracellular and the whitening the cell pellet. When the inhibitory effect of BCAAs on tyrosinase was examined by intracellular tyrosinase assay, both isoleucine and valine exhibit slightly inhibition, but leucine and combination of BCAAs did not inhibit the cell-derived tyrosinase activity. Present study demonstrated that complex of BCAAs inhibited melanin production without changes intercellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, the complex of BCAAs may be used in development of safe potentially depigmenting agents. PMID:21854182

Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

2012-04-01

209

THE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF HYPERTENSIN II AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL RELATIONSHIP TO HYPERTENSIN I  

PubMed Central

Preparations of hypertensin II, obtained from the treatment of hypertensin I by the action of the hypertensin converting enzyme of plasma and purified by countercurrent distribution, were quantitatively analyzed for their amino acid content. Chromatography on ion exchange columns showed the presence of equimolar amounts of aspartic acid, proline, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine. Hypertensin I was found to contain one mole of leucine and one mole of histidine in addition to the amino acids of hypertensin II. These two amino acids were isolated from the conversion products of hypertensin I and identified as the peptide histidylleucine. Carboxypeptidase digestion of hypertensin I showed the carboxyl terminal sequence of amino acids to be residue-phenylalanyl-histidylleucine. Similar studies of hypertensin II demonstrated residue-phenylalanine. It was concluded that the conversion of hypertensin I by the plasma hypertensin converting enzyme involved hydrolysis of the phenylalanyl-histidine bond to form hypertensin II and histidylleucine. The further removal by carboxypeptidase of phenylalanine from hypertensin II destroyed all of the vasoconstrictor activity. PMID:13345963

Lentz, Kenneth E.; Skeggs, Leonard T.; Woods, Kenneth R.; Kahn, Joseph R.; Shumway, Norman P.

1956-01-01

210

Whole-body amino acid pattern of F 4 human growth hormone gene-transgenic red common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) fed diets with different protein levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

F4 generation of human growth hormone (hGH) gene-transgenic red common carp, and the non-transgenic controls were fed for 8 weeks on purified diets with 20%, 30% or 40% protein. Analysis of whole-body amino acids showed that the proportions of lysine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine and alanine, as percentages of body protein, increased significantly, while those of arginine, glutamic acid and tyrosine

Cuizhang Fu; Yibo Cui; Silas S. O. Hung; Zuoyan Zhu

2000-01-01

211

The Genetics of Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of a heavy (SLC3 family) and a light (SLC7 family) subunit. Mutations in system b0,+ (rBAT-b0,+AT) and in system y+L (4F2hc-y+LAT1) cause the primary inherited aminoacidurias (PIAs) cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, respectively. Recent developments [including the identification of the first Hartnup disorder gene (B0AT1; SLC6A19)] and knockout mouse models have begun to reveal the basis of renal and intestinal reabsorption of amino acids in mammals.

Manuel Palacín (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

2005-04-01

212

Chloride dependent amino acid transport in the human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriers of beta amino acids and imino acids in the small intestine of rabbits and guinea pigs are chloride dependent, and a cotransport of chloride, sodium, and 2-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid has been shown. This study examines the chloride dependence of amino acid transport in the human small intestine. The steady state tissue uptake of amino acids, given as the ratio between

L K Munck

1995-01-01

213

Original article Ileal true digestibility of amino acids  

E-print Network

Original article Ileal true digestibility of amino acids in wheat milling by-products for pigs (WF), 3 of wheat bran (WB) ­ were analysed and studied for their protein and amino acid ileal true the least digestible amino acids, whereas methionine was among the most digestible ones. N and all amino

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer for Detection of Abiotic Amino Acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary goals of the current NASA thrust in Astrobiology is the detection and identification of organic molecules as part of an in-situ lander platform on the surface of Mars or Europa. The identification of these molecules should help determine whether indigenous organisms exist on the surface of Mars or in an undersea environment on Europa. In addition, a detailed organic chemical inventory of surface and near surface molecules will help elucidate the possibilities of life elsewhere in the Universe. Terrestrial life has, as its backbone, the family of molecules known as the amino acids (AA), and while AA can be found in the terrestrial environments as part of more complex molecules, such as peptides, and proteins, they also exist as individual molecules due to of the hydrolyses of biopolymers. In terrestrial biochemistry, there are 20 principal amino acids which are necessary for life. However, some forms of these molecules can be found in nature synthesized via abiotic process. For example, they are known to exist extraterrestrially as a component of carbonaceous meteorites. The idea that amino acids are readily created by abiotic means has been demonstrated by their positive identification in the Murchison CM2 meteorite, which fell in 1969. This meteorite was analyzed before contamination by terrestrial microbes could result. Three laboratories individually tested parts of the meteorite and concluded that the amino acids present in them were indigenous to the meteorite because, among other reasons, they had equal L- and D- enantiomers. Final identification of the constituents of the Murchison included 33 amino acids which have no known biotic source, 11 amino acids which have limited distribution and 8 (Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Proline, Leucine, Isoleucine, Aspartic Acid, and Glutamic Acid), which readily occur in terrestrial proteins.

Beegle, L. W.; Terrell, C. A.; Kim, H.; Kanik, I.

2003-01-01

215

Food Intake Regulation: Amino Acid Toxicity and Changes in Rat Brain and Plasma Amino Acids1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake and changes of brain and plasma amino acid concentrations of young rats fed diets high in individual amino acid (6% casein diet plus 5% of L-methionine, L-tryptophan, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, DL-threonine, L-lysine or L-glutamic acid) were investigated. Inclusion of methionine or tryptophan in the diet produced the most severe depressions in food intake and growth, followed in decreasing

Y. PENG; J. GUBIN; A. E. HARPER; M. G. VAVICH; A. R. KEMMERER

216

Effect of L-azetidine 2-carboxilic acid on the activity of the general amino-acid permease from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus.  

PubMed

Addition of the L-proline analogue L-azetidine 2-carboxylic acid to growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus promoted fast deactivation of the general aminoacid permease, measured as L-valine uptake, without an immediate decrease in the growth rate. Cells preincubated with the analogue for 3 h were unable to restore either growth ability or general aminoacid permease activity in analogue-free medium. Eadie-Hofstee plots of L-valine uptake in the presence of the analogue are consistent with a strong reduction in the number of active molecules of the general amino-acid permease located in the plasma membrane. Inhibitory effects on protein synthesis were seen after preincubations of the yeast with the analogue for 3 h although a 30 min preincubation had no effect. PMID:2048935

Iglesias, R; Ferreras, J M; Arias, F J; Muñoz, R; Rojo, M A; Girbés, T

1991-01-01

217

D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

Fujii, Noriko

2002-04-01

218

Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

1990-01-01

219

Macromolecular Crowding Studies of Amino Acids Using NMR Diffusion Measurements and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular crowding occurs when the total concentration of macromolecular species in a solution is so high that a considerable proportion of the volume is physically occupied and therefore not accessible to other molecules. This results in significant changes in the solution properties of the molecules in such systems. Macromolecular crowding is ubiquitous in biological systems due to the generally high intracellular protein concentrations. The major hindrance to understanding crowding is the lack of direct comparison of experimental data with theoretical or simulated data. Self-diffusion is sensitive to changes in the molecular weight and shape of the diffusing species, and the available diffusion space (i.e., diffusive obstruction). Consequently, diffusion measurements are a direct means for probing crowded systems including the self-association of molecules. In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of the self-diffusion of four amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine and phenylalanine) up to their solubility limit in water were compared directly with molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental data were then analyzed using various models of aggregation and obstruction. Both experimental and simulated data revealed that the diffusion of both water and the amino acids were sensitive to the amino acid concentration. The direct comparison of the simulated and experimental data afforded greater insights into the aggregation and obstruction properties of each amino acid.

Virk, Amninder; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Willis, Scott; Torres, Allan; Price, William

2015-02-01

220

Molecular Mode of Action of the Antifungal ?-Amino Acid BAY 10-8888  

PubMed Central

BAY 10-8888 is a cyclic ?-amino acid that is related to cispentacin and that has antifungal activity. Candida albicans cells accumulated BAY 10-8888 intracellularly to a concentration about 200 that in the medium when grown in media with a variety of nitrogen sources. In complex growth medium, BAY 10-8888 transport activity was markedly reduced and was paralleled by a decrease in its antifungal activity. Uptake of BAY 10-8888 was mediated by an H+-coupled amino acid transporter with specificity for branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and showed a KT (Michaelis constant of the transport reaction) of 0.95 mM and a Vmax of 18.9 nmol × min?1 × 107 cells?1. Similar to the transport of natural amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transport of BAY 10-8888 into the cell was unidirectional. Efflux occurred by diffusion and was not carrier mediated. Inside the cell BAY 10-8888 inhibited specifically isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis and cell growth. Intracellular isoleucine reversed BAY 10-8888-induced growth inhibition. BAY 10-8888 was not incorporated into proteins. BAY 10-8888 inhibited isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase with the same concentration dependency as protein biosynthesis in intact cells assuming 200-fold accumulation. PMID:9736535

Ziegelbauer, Karl; Babczinski, Peter; Schönfeld, Wolfgang

1998-01-01

221

Amino acid metabolism of Lemna minor L  

SciTech Connect

A serious limitation to the use of N(O,S)-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl amino acid derivatives in the analysis of {sup 15}N-labeling kinetics of amino acids in plant tissues, is that the amides glutamine and asparagine undergo acid hydrolysis to glutamate and aspartate, respectively, during derivatization. This led us to consider an alternative procedure for derivatization of glutamine and asparagine with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide in pyridine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry yielded fragment ions (M-57) of mass 417 and 431 for the ({sup 14}N)asparagine and ({sup 14}N)glutamine derivatives, respectively, suitable for monitoring unlabeled, single-{sup 15}N- and double-{sup 15}N-labeled amide species from the ion clusters at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 415 to 423 for asparagine, and m/z 429 to 437 for glutamine. From separate analyses of the specific isotope abundance of the amino-N groups of asparagine and glutamine as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl derivatives, the specific amide-({sup 15}N) abundance of these amino acids was determined.

Rhodes, D.; Rich, P.J.; Brunk, D.G. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

1989-04-01

222

Molecular biology of mammalian amino acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid receptor proteins are ubiquitous trans- ducers of most excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain. In July 1987 two reports ap- peared describing the molecular cloning of a pair of subunits of the GABAA receptor (7) and one subunit of the glycine receptor (13). These papers sparked wide interest and led quickly to the concept of

RAYMOND DINGLEDINE; SCOTT J. MYERS; ROBERT A. NICHOLAS

223

Amino acid substitution matrices from protein blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for alignment of protein sequences typically measure similarity by using a substitution matrix with scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another. The most widely used matrices are based on the Dayhoff model of evolutionary rates. Using a different approach, we have derived substitution matrices from about 2000 blocks of aligned sequence segments characterizing more than

Steven Henikoff; Jorja G. Henikoff

1992-01-01

224

Amino acid modifications on tRNA  

PubMed Central

The accurate formation of cognate aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) is essential for the fidelity of translation. Most amino acids are esterified onto their cognate tRNA isoacceptors directly by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). However, in the case of four amino acids (Gln, Asn, Cys and Sec), aminoacyl-tRNAs are made through indirect pathways in many organisms across all three domains of life. The process begins with the charging of noncognate amino acids to tRNAs by a specialized synthetase in the case of Cys-tRNACys formation or by synthetases with relaxed specificity such as the non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-GluRS), non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) and seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS). The resulting misacylated tRNAs are then converted to cognate pairs through transformation of the amino acids on the tRNA, which is catalyzed by a group of tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes such as tRNA-dependent amidotransferases, Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS), O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase (PSTK) and Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS). The majority of these indirect pathways are widely spread in all domains of life and thought to be ancient in the course of evolution. PMID:18604446

Yuan, Jing; Sheppard, Kelly; Söll, Dieter

2008-01-01

225

Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

Barcz, Aleksy; Szyma?ski, Zbigniew

226

Manganese alters rat brain amino acids levels  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated with alterations in amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed whole rat brain amino acid content subsequent to 4 or 8 intraperitoneal (ip) injections, with 25 mg MnCl2/kg/day, at 48-hour (h) intervals. We noted a significant increase in glycine brain levels after 4 or 8 Mn injections (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and arginine also after 4 or 8 injections (p<0.001). Significant increases were also noted in brain proline (p<0.01), cysteine (p<0.05), phenylalanine (p<0.01) and tyrosine (p<0.01) levels after 8 Mn injections vs. the control group. These findings suggest that Mn-induced alterations in amino acid levels secondary to Mn affect the neurochemical milieu. PMID:22971893

Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, M. Camila; Almeida, Isabel; Ramos, Ruben; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M.; Aschner, Michael; Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.

2012-01-01

227

Amino acid profile in Down's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Fasting plasma and urinary amino acid concentrations were studied under carefully controlled conditions in 22 children with Down's syndrome and in age matched controls. The only significant difference between the groups was a higher mean plasma lysine concentration in Down's syndrome patients compared to controls. PMID:8669939

Heggarty, H J; Ball, R; Smith, M; Henderson, M J

1996-01-01

228

Genetic and genotype x environment interaction effects for the content of seven essential amino acids in indica rice.  

PubMed

It is necessary for rice breeders to understand the genetic basis of nutrient quality traits of rice. Essential amino acids are most important in determining the nutrient quality of rice grain and can affect the health of people who depend on rice as a staple food. In view of the paucity of genetic information available on essential amino acids in indica rice, we estimated the genetic main effects and genotype x environment (G x E) interaction effects on the content of essential amino acids. Nine cytoplasmic male sterile lines as females and five restorer lines as males were introduced in a North Carolina II design across environments. Estimates of the content of the essential amino acids valine, methionine, leucine and phenylalanine showed that they were mainly controlled by genetic main effects, while the contents of threonine, cysteine and isoleucine were mainly affected by G x E effects. In the case of genetic main effects, both cytoplasmic and maternal genetic effects were predominant for all essential amino acids, indicating that selection for improving essential amino acid content based on maternal performance would be more effective than that based on seeds. The total narrow-sense heritabilities were high and ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. Since general heritabilities for these essential amino acids (except for cysteine) were found to be much larger than G x E interaction heritability, the improvement of content of most essential amino acids under selection would be expected under various environments. Rice varieties such as Zhenan 3, Yinchao 1, T49, 26715, 102 and 1391 should be selected as optimal parents for increasing the content of most essential amino acids, while the total genetic effects from Zhexie 2, Xieqingzao, Gangchao 1, V20, Zuo 5 and Zhenshan 97 were mainly negative and these parents could decrease the contents of most essential amino acids. PMID:15536256

Wu, J G; Shi, C H; Zhang, X M; Katsura, T

2004-08-01

229

Evolution from amino acids - Lunar occurrence of their precursors.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the present state of experimentally based concepts of organic evolution from amino acids. Earlier studies of the synthesis of amino acid precursors from meteoritic material, lunar dust, and terrestrial lava are briefly summarized, and laboratory experiments in which polymers of amino acids were obtained either by direct heating of dry amino acids or by heating aqueous solutions of mixtures of amino acids are described. In particular, a process is described by which alpha-amino acids were made to react to form linear chains of proteinoids. It is concluded that a proteinoid microsystem was a common ancestor of all life on earth.

Fox, S. W.

1972-01-01

230

Compartmentalization of amino acids in surfactant aggregates - Partitioning between water and aqueous micellar sodium dodecanoate and between hexane and dodecylammonium propionate trapped water in hexane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The partitioning of amino acids (glycine, alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, isoleucine, threonine, serine, valine, proline, arginine) in aqueous and nonaqueous micellar systems was studied experimentally. Partitioning from neat hexane into dodecylammonium propionate trapped water in hexane was found to be dependent on both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which implies that the interior of dodecylammonium propionate aggregates is negatively charged and is capable of hydrogen bonding in addition to providing a hydrophobic environment. Unitary free energies of transfer of amino acid side chains from hexane to water were determined and solubilities of amino acids in neat hexane substantiated the amino acid hydrophobicity scale. The relevance of the experiments to prebiotic chemistry was examined.

Fendler, J. H.; Nome, F.; Nagyvary, J.

1975-01-01

231

FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF EWE UTERINE FLUID  

E-print Network

FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF EWE UTERINE FLUID UNDER VARIOUS HORMONAL TREATMENTS DURING EARLY Recherches zootechniques, I. N. R. A., i'8350 Jouy en Josas SUMMARY Free amino acids are dosed in ewe uterine secretions are very rich in free amino acids, especially glutamic acid + glutamine and glycine. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Hybrid Crystals of Calcium Carbonate and Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of amino acids on the crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and the reactivity between amino acids and CaCO3. Noncharged-polar and acidic amino acids are highly incorporated into CaCO3 and stabilize cauliflower-like grains composed of vaterite which is thermodynamically unstable in the CaCO3 polymorphs. Amino acids in the hybrid CaCO3 form radicals different from those in

Ayako Kai; Toshikatsu Miki

2000-01-01

233

Synthesis of a conformationally constrained ?-amino acid building block.  

PubMed

Conformationally restricted amino acids are important components in peptidomimetics and drug design. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a novel, non-proteinogenic constrained delta amino acid containing a cyclobutane ring, cis-3(aminomethyl)cyclobutane carboxylic acid (ACCA). The synthesis of the target amino acid was achieved in seven steps, with the key reaction being a base induced intramolecular nucleophilic substitution. A small library of dipeptides was prepared through the coupling of ACCA with proteinogenic amino acids. PMID:22851051

O'Reilly, Elaine; Pes, Lara; Ortin, Yannick; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Paradisi, Francesca

2013-02-01

234

Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

2014-01-01

235

Chemical Properties of Amino Acids and Identification of Unknown Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes two related laboratory exercises on the chemical properties and identification of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins). Detailed pre-lab assignments and guidelines for students' laboratory reports are provided.

Karen Sprague (University of Oregon; )

1996-01-01

236

Nickel Deficiency Disrupts Metabolism of Ureides, Amino Acids, and Organic Acids of Young Pecan Foliage[OA  

PubMed Central

The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C.; Wood, Bruce W.

2006-01-01

237

Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

238

Amino acid catabolic pathways of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a diverse group of Gram positive obligately fermentative microorganisms which include both beneficial and pathogenic strains. LAB generally have complex nutritional requirements and therefore they are usually associated with nutrient-rich environments such as animal bodies, plants and foodstuffs. Amino acids represent an important resource for LAB and their utilization serves a number of physiological roles such as intracellular pH control, generation of metabolic energy or redox power, and resistance to stress. As a consequence, the regulation of amino acid catabolism involves a wide set of both general and specific regulators and shows significant differences among LAB. Moreover, due to their fermentative metabolism, LAB amino acid catabolic pathways in some cases differ significantly from those described in best studied prokaryotic model organisms such as Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis. Thus, LAB amino acid catabolism constitutes an interesting case for the study of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, LAB are involved in the production of a great variety of fermented products so that the products of amino acid catabolism are also relevant for the safety and the quality of fermented products. PMID:16893752

Fernández, María; Zúñiga, Manuel

2006-01-01

239

Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. I - Six carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six of the seven chain isomers of six-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids (leucine isomers) have been either identified or confirmed in hot-water extracts of the Murchison meteorite using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion exchange chromatography. 2-Amino-2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyric acid, pseudoleucine, and 2-methylnorvaline were positively identified by GC-MS. These amino acids have not been previously reported to occur in natural materials and may be uniquely meteoritic in origin. The presence of leucine and isoleucine (including the diastereoisomer, alloisoleucine) was confirmed. Peaks corresponding to norleucine were seen by ion-exchange and gas chromatography but characteristic mass spectra were not obtained. The alpha-branched chain isomers in this series are quantitatively the most significant. These results are compared with literature data on amino acid synthesis by electrical discharge and Fischer-Tropsch-type catalysis. Neither model system produces an amino acid suite that is completely comparable to that found in the Murchison meteorite.

Cronin, J. R.; Gandy, W. E.; Pizzarello, S.

1981-01-01

240

Polymerization of amino acids under high-pressure conditions: Implication to chemical evolution on the early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prebiotic polymerization of amino acids is the most fundamental reaction to promote the chemical evolution for origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids is the dehydration reaction. This questions as to if submarine hydrothermal conditions, thus hydrated enironments, were appropreate for peptide formations. Our previous experiments implied that non-aqueous and high-pressure environments (more than 20 MPa) would be suitable for polymerization of amino acids (Ohara et al., 2006). This leads to the hypothesis that the first peptides may have formed in the Hadean oceanic crustal environments, where dehydration proceeded with availability of appropriate temperatures and pressures. In the present study, experiments simulating the crustal conditions were performed with various pressures (1-175 MPa) and temperatures (100- 200 C degree) using autoclaves. Purified powders (100 mg) of alanine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid were used in the experiments without mixing water in order to examine the solid-solid reactions. The products were analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. Results indicate that: (1) longer time is required to form peptide compared to those of previous aqueous experiments; (2) pressure has a role to limit the production of melanoidine and cyclic amino acids, which are inhibitors for elongation of peptides; (3) glycine was polymerized up to 11-mer, which was not formed in any previous experiments without catalyses; (4) valine was polymerized up to 3-mer; and (5) aspartic acid was polymerized to 4-mer, accompanied with production of other amino acids. It is noteworthy that high-pressure environments favor all examined polymerization reactions. Such situations would have happened inside of deep oceanic crusts of the early Earth.

Kakegawa, T.; Ohara, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Abiko, H.; Nakazawa, H.

2008-12-01

241

Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.  

PubMed

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-10-01

242

Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-01-01

243

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

244

Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

245

Amino acid analyses of R and CK chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exogenous delivery of amino acids and other organic molecules to planetary surfaces may have played an important role in the origins of life on Earth and other solar system bodies. Previous studies have revealed the presence of indigenous amino acids in a wide range of carbon-rich meteorites, with the abundances and structural distributions differing significantly depending on parent body mineralogy and alteration conditions. Here we report on the amino acid abundances of seven type 3-6 CK chondrites and two Rumuruti (R) chondrites. Amino acid measurements were made on hot water extracts from these meteorites by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the nine meteorites analyzed, four were depleted in amino acids, and one had experienced significant amino acid contamination by terrestrial biology. The remaining four, comprised of two R and two CK chondrites, contained low levels of amino acids that were predominantly the straight chain, amino-terminal (n-?-amino) acids ?-alanine, and ?-amino-n-butyric acid. This amino acid distribution is similar to what we reported previously for thermally altered ureilites and CV and CO chondrites, and these n-?-amino acids appear to be indigenous to the meteorites and not the result of terrestrial contamination. The amino acids may have been formed by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, although this hypothesis needs further testing.

Burton, Aaron S.; McLain, Hannah; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Davidson, Jemma; Miller, Kelly E.; Andronikov, Alexander V.; Lauretta, Dante; Dworkin, Jason P.

2015-03-01

246

Allied Health Chemistry Laboratory: Amino Acids, Insulin, Proteins, and Skin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory experiment specifically designed for allied health students. The students construct molecular models of amino acids, extract amino acids from their skin with hot water, and chromatographically analyze the skin extract and hydrolyzed insulin. (MLH)

Dever, David F.

1975-01-01

247

Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

2014-01-01

248

Seleno-amino acid found in Astragalus bisulcatus.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange and filter-paper columns were used in a separation of amino acids from an extract of Astragalus bisulcatus. Two amino acids were identified, S-methylcysteine and Se-methylselenocysteine. PMID:13839255

TRELEASE, S F; DI SOMMA, A A; JACOBS, A L

1960-09-01

249

The free amino acid content of ovine cervicovaginal mucus  

E-print Network

Major Subject; Physiology of Reproduction THE FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF OVINE CERVICOVAGINAL MUCUS A Thesis THOMAS LEE WOODWARD Approved as to style and content by: ad of Department) (Member) August, 1969 ABSTRACT The Free Amino Acid Content... (83. 3%) but the difference was not significant. Cervicovaginal mucus collected at estrus from 19 con. trol and 36 synchronized ewes was anal. yzed for free amino acid content. Fifteen free amino acids were identified and quantitated. The mucus...

Woodward, Thomas Lee

1969-01-01

250

Conditions for the formation of dilysyl-dipyrrolones A and B, and novel yellow dipyrrolone derivatives formed from xylose and amino acids in the presence of lysine.  

PubMed

Foods derived from plants contain pentose in addition to hexose. It is well known that pentose contributes more to browning by the Maillard reaction than hexose does. We have recently found novel yellow compounds formed from xylose and lysine under weakly acidic conditions, named dilysyldipyrrolones (dilysyl-DPLs) A and B. We indicate in this study that dilysyl-DPLs were specifically formed under weakly acidic conditions from pentose, but not hexose. Moreover, we found novel DPL derivatives which were formed from xylose and such amino acids as alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, and valine in the presence of lysine. PMID:21307606

Nomi, Yuri; Sakamoto, Junko; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Murata, Masatsune

2011-01-01

251

Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators\\u000a of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones\\u000a and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations\\u000a of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione,

Guoyao Wu

2009-01-01

252

Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in\\u000a supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the\\u000a health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded\\u000a from an overall analysis of literature

François Blachier; Antonio H. Lancha; Claire Boutry; Daniel Tomé

2010-01-01

253

Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nu...

254

Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks  

E-print Network

Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks O. GACI LITIS are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the inter- actions between them. Using a graph theory approach: proteins, amino acid, interaction network, structural classification 1 Introduction Proteins are biological

Boyer, Edmond

255

Stochastic Analysis of Amino Acid Substitution in Protein Synthesis  

E-print Network

Stochastic Analysis of Amino Acid Substitution in Protein Synthesis D. Bosnacki1 , H.M.M. ten present a formal analysis of amino acid replacement dur- ing mRNA translation. Building on an abstract of the insertion of amino acids into the nascent polypeptide chain. To this end, we integrate the probabilistic

de Vink, Erik

256

Jacobs University Bremen Encoding of Amino Acids and Proteins  

E-print Network

Jacobs University Bremen Encoding of Amino Acids and Proteins from a Communications and Information School of Engineering and Science Encoding of Amino Acids and Proteins from a Communications). The 2-D plots of ECM show that most mutations occur between codons that encode the same amino acid, i

Henkel, Werner

257

Racemic amino acids from the ultraviolet photolysis of  

E-print Network

.............................................................. Racemic amino acids from for the origin and early evolution of life1 . Indigenous amino acids have been found in meteorites2 --over 70 in the Murchison meteorite alone3 . Although it has been generally accepted that the meteoritic amino acids formed

258

Chemical Genetic Programming The Effect of Evolving Amino Acids  

E-print Network

Chemical Genetic Programming ­ The Effect of Evolving Amino Acids Wojciech Piaseczny1 , Hideaki of amino acids is prepared, mainly through assimilation of smaller inorganic compounds in plants, and through digestion of food in animals. Each amino acid is a bio- chemical building block, so together

Fernandez, Thomas

259

ASTROCHEMISTRY Radiolysis and radioracemization of 20 amino acids  

E-print Network

ASTROCHEMISTRY Radiolysis and radioracemization of 20 amino acids from the beginning of the Solar-Verlag 2011 Abstract A series of chiral amino acids in the levo form used in the current terrestrial. For each amino acids, the radiolysis degree and the radioracemization degree was measured, respectively

260

Amino Acids DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602801  

E-print Network

Amino Acids DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602801 Catalytic, Asymmetric Synthesis of 1,4- Benzoxazinones: A Remarkably Enantioselective Route to a-Amino Acid Derivatives from o-Benzoquinone Imides** Jamison Wolfer enantiomeri- cally enriched a-amino acids and related derivatives.[4] Herein, we present the first catalytic

Lectka, Thomas

261

Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach  

E-print Network

Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach Omar GACI and Stefan BALEV are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We consider the problem of reconstructing protein's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. We rely on a probability that two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Unnatural Amino Acids via Modified Claisen  

E-print Network

Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Unnatural Amino Acids via Modified Claisen Rearrangement of Glycine functionalized R-cyclo- hexenyl amino acid such as 2, obtained via a [3,3]-sig- matropic rearrangement in our first publication in this area.7 The first synthesis of amino acids by Claisen rearrangement

Hudlicky, Tomas

263

Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

264

Metabolomics method to comprehensively analyze amino acids in different domains.  

PubMed

Amino acids play essential roles in both metabolism and the proteome. Many studies have profiled free amino acids (FAAs) or proteins; however, few have connected the measurement of FAA with individual amino acids in the proteome. In this study, we developed a metabolomics method to comprehensively analyze amino acids in different domains, using two examples of different sample types and disease models. We first examined the responses of FAAs and insoluble-proteome amino acids (IPAAs) to the Myc oncogene in Tet21N human neuroblastoma cells. The metabolic and proteomic amino acid profiles were quite different, even under the same Myc condition, and their combination provided a better understanding of the biological status. In addition, amino acids were measured in 3 domains (FAAs, free and soluble-proteome amino acids (FSPAAs), and IPAAs) to study changes in serum amino acid profiles related to colon cancer. A penalized logistic regression model based on the amino acids from the three domains had better sensitivity and specificity than that from each individual domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to perform a combined analysis of amino acids in different domains, and indicates the useful biological information available from a metabolomics analysis of the protein pellet. This study lays the foundation for further quantitative tracking of the distribution of amino acids in different domains, with opportunities for better diagnosis and mechanistic studies of various diseases. PMID:25699545

Gu, Haiwei; Du, Jianhai; Carnevale Neto, Fausto; Carroll, Patrick A; Turner, Sally J; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Eisenman, Robert N; Raftery, Daniel

2015-04-21

265

Original article Whole blood and plasma amino acid transfers across  

E-print Network

Original article Whole blood and plasma amino acid transfers across the portal drained viscera (WB) and plasma (P) amino acid transfers across the portal drained viscera and the liver were amino acid concentrations were determined in the CA, PV and HV. The plasma/WB ratios showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates  

E-print Network

Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates Using HPLC with Automated Derivatization with Absorbance Detection Abstract A method is presented for analyzing primary amino acids detection. Amino acids are derivatized with orthophthaldildehyde (OPA) using an online injector program

Wikswo, John

267

Some Aspects of the Amino Acid Metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Paper chromatographic methods were used to determine the amino acids in unhydrolysed corn steep liquor and to study the uptake and synthesis of amino acids by Penicillium chysogenum. Of the eleven amino acids found in corn steep liquor all were taken up by the organism prior to the main period of penicillin formation. Only traces of ninhydrin-reacting material were

A. J. H. Pyle

1954-01-01

268

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

269

Bioavailable amino acids in sediments: A biomimetic, kinetics based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a biomimetic approach, based on direct incubation with proteolytic enzymes, to measure bioavailable amino acids in sediments. The kinetics of release of monomers and oligopeptides, which are amenable to absorption by cells, is measured as either individual or total amino acids. Microbial proteases incubated with fresh sediments yield amino acids at a similar rate as gut juices from

LAWRENCE M. MAYER; LINDA L. SCHICK; THOMAS SAWYER; CRAIG J. PLANTE; PETER A. JUMARS; ROBERT L. SELF

1995-01-01

270

Cyclisation of Aminyl Radicals Derived from Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amino acid aminyl radicals have been generated from sulfenamide precursors using Bu3SnH. The aminyl radicals undergo 5-exo-trig cyclisation reactions onto suitably placed N-alkenyl or ?-alkenyl chains on the amino acids with reasonable diastereoselectivity. The ?-ester of the amino acid imparts electrophilic behaviour to the aminyl radicals and facilitates cyclisation onto alkenes. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

W. Russell Bowman; Michael J Broadhurst; Daniel R Coghlan; Kirk A Lewis

1997-01-01

271

Krafft temperature and enthalpy of solution of N -acyl amino acid surfactants and their racemic modifications: effect of the counter ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Krafft temperatures and enthalpies of solution of N-hexadecanoyl alaninate and valinate, and N-tetradecanoyl phenylalaninate were obtained from differential scanning calorimetry. The Krafft temperature of N-acyl amino acid surfactant increased with decreasing size of the counter ion, with some exceptions. The enthalpy of solution was endothermic and increased with decreasing size of the counter ion except for the cases of

Akio Ohta; Satoru Nakashima; Hiroki Matsuyanagi; Tsuyoshi Asakawa; Shigeyoshi Miyagishi

2003-01-01

272

Essential amino acids and other essential components for development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from third-stage larvae to young adults.  

PubMed

Third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis were cultured to the young adult stage in Waymouth's chemically defined medium MB 752/1, which contained 18 amino acids, 11 vitamins, glutathione, hypoxanthine, and glucose in a balanced salt solution. Nutritional requirements were examined by deletion of single components from Waymouth's medium. Ten amino acids, namely L-arginine, L-histidine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-valine, were shown to be essential for the parasite's development. L-Aspartic acid, L-cysteine, L-cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, glycine, L-proline, and L-tyrosine were not essential. Among the 11 vitamins, only choline chloride was essential for the development. The deletion of pyridoxine from the medium adversely affected parasite development. Glucose was also required by the worms, but glutathione and hypoxanthine were not required for their development. When the 10 essential L-amino acids were replaced individually by D-isomers of the same amino acids, none supported larval development in the manner of the L-amino acids. PMID:8064517

Hata, H

1994-08-01

273

Amino acid inhibition and stimulation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid exit from anuran small intestine  

PubMed Central

1. Using the vascularly perfused frog small intestine, the exit of the non-metabolized amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) from the pre-loaded epithelium into the blood has been studied in winter animals. 2. Marked inhibition of the instantaneous rate constant for AIB exit into the vascular bed is observed when L-leucine, but not D-leucine, is added either to the intestinal lumen or to the vascular bed. The extent of the inhibition is related to the leucine concentration in an alinear fashion. The concentration of luminal L-leucine giving half maximal inhibition is 2·5 mM. 3. The instantaneous rate constant for AIB exit is similarly decreased by 10 mM-L-tryptophan and by L-phenylalanine added to the intestinal lumen and to a lesser extent by L-asparagine, L-valine, L-glutamine, L-isoleucine, and L-norleucine. 4. 10 mM-L-proline added to the lumen stimulates AIB exit from the pre-loaded epithelium into the blood. This stimulation is due to an increased rate constant for movement of AIB across the basolateral membrane. 5. No inhibition is found when the dipeptide L-leucyl-L-leucine (10 mM) is added to the intestinal lumen in the presence of 10 mM-L-leucine. When added to the vascular compartment this dipeptide has no effect upon AIB exit from the epithelium. 6. Possible mechanisms by which amino acids and peptides may influence AIB movement out of the epithelium into the blood are discussed and conclusions are drawn concerning AIB transport across the intestinal basolateral membrane of the intact epithelium. PMID:7120150

Boyd, C. A. R.; Perring, Vivien S.

1982-01-01

274

Microbial Poly(L-Lactide)Degrading Enzyme Induced by Amino Acids, Peptides, and Poly(L-Amino Acids)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(L-lactide)(PLA)-degrading activities of a fungus, Tritirachium album, and two strains of actinomycetes,Lentzea waywayandensis and Amycolatopsis orientalis, were inducible by some proteins (poly-L-amino acid), peptides and amino acids. Extracellular PLA-degrading activity of the culture filtrates was detected when these strains grew in liquid basal medium containing 0.1% (w\\/v) of (poly-L-amino acids), peptides or amino acids as the enzyme inducer. In addition

Amnat Jarerat; Yutaka Tokiwa; Hideo Tanaka

2004-01-01

275

A study of protein structure using amino acid interaction networks 1 A study of protein structure using amino acid  

E-print Network

A study of protein structure using amino acid interaction networks 1 X A study of protein structure using amino acid interaction networks Omar Gaci and Stefan Balev University of Le Havre France 1 of interacting amino acids. We believe that understanding these networks can help to better understand

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Some of the amino acid chemistry going on in the Laboratory of Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Some of the chemistry of amino acids going on in our laboratory (Laboratoire des Amino acides Peptides et Protéines) is described as well as some mass spectrometry methodology for their characterization particularly on solid supports. Several aspects are presented including: (i) the stereoselective synthesis of natural and unnatural amino acids using 2-hydroxypinan-3-one as chiral auxiliary; (ii) the stereoselective synthesis

S. Bouifraden; C. Drouot; M. El Hadrami; F. Guenoun; L. Lecointe; N. Mai; C. Pothion; M. Sadoune; B. Sauvagnat; M. Amblard; J. L. Aubagnac; M. Calmes; P. Chevallet; J. Daunis; C. Enjalbal; J. A. Fehrentz; F. Lamaty; J. P. Lavergne; R. Lazaro; V. Rolland; M. L. Roumestant; Ph. Viallefont; Y. Vidal; J. Martinez

1999-01-01

277

New enzymatic method of chiral amino acid synthesis by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides: use of stereoselective amino acid amidases in the presence of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase.  

PubMed

D- and L-amino acids were produced from L- and D-amino acid amides by D-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and L-amino acid amidase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603, respectively, in the presence of alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae as the catalyst by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides. PMID:17586677

Yamaguchi, Shigenori; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

2007-08-01

278

Amino acid and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the concentrations of amino acids and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in subretinal fluid (SRF) of cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The relevance of the results with postoperative anatomic and functional success in RRD was investigated. Methods Fifty-three patients were included in this prospective study. The study group consisted of 46 patients who had scleral buckling surgery with the diagnosis of RRD, and SRF was obtained during the surgery. The control specimens consisted of vitreous samples of seven patients who were diagnosed with pars plana vitrectomy without RRD. Study cases were divided into three groups, corresponding to the duration of retinal detachment. Clinical characteristics, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomic status at month 6, were recorded. Concentrations of 15 selected amino acids were quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography, and VEGF levels were measured with enzyme immunoassay. Results When compared with the control group, SRF concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and glycine increased significantly in the study group (p<0.05). Statistical analysis showed that concentrations of alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine decreased (p<0.05). SRF levels of glutamine, taurine, and serine had no significant change. SRF VEGF levels were significantly higher than the vitreous samples of the controls (p<0.001). Time-dependent changes and interactions between VEGF and amino acids were observed. There was no correlation between the concentrations of amino acids or VEGF with the parameters of BCVA and anatomical success. Conclusions Significant changes occur in concentrations of amino acids and VEGF in SRF of cases with RRD. Our results suggest that several mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:25352742

Buyukuysal, Rifat Levent; Gelisken, Oner; Buyukuysal, Cagatay; Can, Basak

2014-01-01

279

AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE  

PubMed Central

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of everted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C14- or H3-labeled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorptive cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles per liter of cells. Quantitative data were obtained by microdensitometry of C14 autoradiographs. Similar, though less striking, results were obtained with the sugars: galactose, 3-0-methylglucose, ?-methylglucoside, and 6-deoxyglucose. In all cases the marked "step-up" in concentration occurred near the brush border of the cell, and a "step-down" in concentration occurred at the basal pole of the cell. Known inhibitors of intestinal absorption, e.g., phlorizin in the case of sugars, blocked the concentrative step at the luminal border of the absorptive cell. It is inferred from these data that active transport systems for sugars and amino acids reside in the brush border region of the cell. Additional evidence suggests that the basal membrane of the cell may be the site of both a diffusion barrier and a weak transport system directed into the cell. PMID:19866662

Kinter, William B.; Wilson, T. Hastings

1965-01-01

280

Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The ?13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

2014-06-01

281

Editing of errors in selection of amino acids for protein synthesis.  

PubMed Central

All living cells must conduct protein synthesis with a high degree of accuracy maintained in the transmission and flow of information from gene to finished protein product. One crucial "quality control" point in maintaining a high level of accuracy is the selectivity by which aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases furnish correctly activated amino acids, attached to tRNA species, as the building blocks for growing protein chains. During selection of amino acids, synthetases very often have to distinguish the cognate substrate from a homolog having just one fewer methyl group in its structure. The binding energy of a methyl group is estimated to contribute only a factor of 100 to the specificity of binding, yet synthetases distinguish such closely related amino acids with a discrimination factor of 10,000 to 100,000. Examples of this include methionine versus homocysteine, isoleucine versus valine, alanine versus glycine, and threonine versus serine. Many investigators have demonstrated in vitro the ability of certain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to edit, that is, correct or prevent incorrect attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules. Several major editing pathways are now established from in vitro data. Further, at least some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have recently been shown to carry out the editing function in vivo. Editing has been demonstrated to occur in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant energy is expended by the cell for editing of misactivated amino acids, which can be reflected in the growth rate. Because of this, cellular levels of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways which yield competing substrates for protein synthesis, must be carefully regulated to prevent excessive editing. High-level expression of recombinant proteins imposes a strain on the biosynthetic capacity of the cell which frequently results in misincorporation of abnormal or wrong amino acids owing in part to limited editing by synthetases. Unbalanced amino acid pools associated with some genetic disorders in humans may also lead to errors in tRNA aminoacylation. The availability of X-ray crystallographic structures of some synthetases, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, allows insights into molecular details of the extraordinary selectivity of synthetases, including the editing function. PMID:1406490

Jakubowski, H; Goldman, E

1992-01-01

282

Extraterrestrial amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L ˜ 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other nonprotein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), 4-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and ?-AIB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five-carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures, or introduced as a contaminant from unrelated meteorite clasts and chemically altered by ?-decarboxylation.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

2010-10-01

283

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

284

Valyl-tRNA synthetase from yeast. Discrimination between 20 amino acids in aminoacylation of tRNA(Val)-C-C-A and tRNA(Val)-C-C-A(3'NH2).  

PubMed

For discrimination between valine and the 19 naturally occurring noncognate amino acids, as well as between valine and 2-amino-isobutyric acid by valyl-tRNA synthetase from baker's yeast, discrimination factors (D) have been determined from kcat and Km values in aminoacylation of tRNA(Val)-C-C-A. The lowest values were found for Trp, Ser, Cys, Lys, Met and Thr (D = 90-870), showing that valine is 90-870 times more frequently attached to tRNA(Val)-C-C-A than the noncognate amino acids at the same amino acid concentrations. The other amino acids exhibit D values between 1,100 and 6200. Generally, valyl-tRNA synthetase is considerably less specific than isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, but this may be partly compensated in the cell by valine concentrations higher than those of noncognate acids. In aminoacylation of tRNA(Val)-C-C-A(3'NH2) discrimination factors D1 are in the range of 40-1260. From D1 values and AMP formation stoichiometry, pretransfer proof-reading factors pi 1 were determined: post-transfer proof-reading factors II 2 were determined from D values and AMP formation stoichiometry in acylation of tRNA(Val)-C-C-A. II 1 values (7-168) show that pretransfer proof-reading is the main correction step, post-transfer proof-reading (II 2 approximately 1-7) is less effective and in some cases negligible. Initial discrimination factors were calculated from discrimination and proof-reading factors according to a two-step binding process. These factors, due to different Gibbs free energies of binding can be related to hydrophobic interaction forces, and a hypothetical 'stopper' model of the amino-acid-binding site is discussed. PMID:2199195

Freist, W; Cramer, F

1990-07-20

285

Available versus digestible amino acids - new stable isotope methods.  

PubMed

The nutritive value of food protein sources is dependent on the amino acid composition and the bioavailability of the nutritionally indispensable amino acids. Traditionally the methods developed to determine amino acid bioavailability have focused on intestinal absorption or digestibility, which is calculated as the percent of amino acid intake that does not appear in digesta or faeces. Traditional digestibility based methods do not always account for gut endogenous amino acid losses or absorbed amino acids which are unavailable due to the effect of heat processing and the presence of anti-nutritional factors, though methods have been developed to address these issues. Furthermore, digestibility based methods require the use of animal models, thus there is a need to develop in vivo methods that can be applied directly in human subjects to identify the proportion of dietary amino acids which is bioavailable, or metabolically available to the body for protein synthesis following digestion and absorption. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method developed in our laboratory for humans has been systematically applied to determine almost all indispensable amino acid requirements in adult humans. Oxidation of the indicator amino acid is inversely proportional to whole body protein synthesis and responds rapidly to changes in the bioavailability of amino acids for metabolic processes. Using the IAAO concept, we developed a new in vivo method in growing pigs, pregnant sows and adult humans to identify the metabolic availability of amino acids in foods. The stable isotope based metabolic availability method is suitable for rapid and routine analysis in humans, and can be used to integrate amino acid requirement data with dietary amino acid availability of foods. PMID:23107543

Elango, Rajavel; Levesque, Crystal; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

2012-08-01

286

Dosimetry of D- and L-enantiomers of /sup 11/C-labeled tryptophan and valine  

SciTech Connect

We have previously reported the radiation dosimetry of /sup 11/C-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine, as well as clinical pancreatic imaging studies with these agents. Because of significant uptake in both normal pancreas and in pancreatic tumors (thought to be due to the presence of the D-enantiomer), differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma was not feasible. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed for rapid resolution of /sup 11/C-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine. Radiation dose estimates to the various organs in man were calculated for the D- and L-enantiomers of /sup 11/C-labeled tryptophan and valine, based on tissue distribution data in rats. The dose estimates were sufficiently low that 20-mCi doses of each of the enantiomeric amino acids were approved by the FDA for intravenous administration to humans. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Washburn, L.C.; Byrd, B.L.; Sun, T.T.; Crook, J.E.; Hubner, K.F.; Coffey, J.L.; Watson, E.E.

1985-01-01

287

An Examination of the Carbon Isotope Effects Associated with Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here we demonstrated that reactions involved in amino acid biosynthesis can be used to distinguish amino acids formed by life from those formed by nonbiological processes. The unique patterns of ?13C imprinted by life on amino acids produced a biological bias. We also showed that, by applying discriminant function analysis to the ?13C value of a pool of amino acids formed by biological activity, it was possible to identify key aspects of intermediary carbon metabolism in the microbial world. In fact, microorganisms examined in this study could be placed within one of three metabolic groups: (1) heterotrophs that grow by oxidizing compounds containing three or more carbon-to-carbon bonds (fermenters and organotrophs), (2) autotrophs that grow by taking up carbon dioxide (chemolitotrophs and phototrophs), and (3) acetoclastic microbes that grow by assimilation of formaldehyde or acetate (methylotrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and acetotrophs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that cryptoendolithic communities from Antarctica grouped most closely with the autotrophs, which indicates that the dominant metabolic pathways in these communities are likely those utilized for CO2 fixation. We propose that this technique can be used to determine the dominant metabolic types in a community and reveal the overall flow of carbon in a complex ecosystem.

Scott, James H.; O'Brien, Diane M.; Emerson, David; Sun, Henry; McDonald, Gene D.; Salgado, Antonio; Fogel, Marilyn L.

2006-12-01

288

An examination of the carbon isotope effects associated with amino acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here we demonstrated that reactions involved in amino acid biosynthesis can be used to distinguish amino acids formed by life from those formed by nonbiological processes. The unique patterns of delta(13)C imprinted by life on amino acids produced a biological bias. We also showed that, by applying discriminant function analysis to the delta(13)C value of a pool of amino acids formed by biological activity, it was possible to identify key aspects of intermediary carbon metabolism in the microbial world. In fact, microorganisms examined in this study could be placed within one of three metabolic groups: (1) heterotrophs that grow by oxidizing compounds containing three or more carbon-to-carbon bonds (fermenters and organotrophs), (2) autotrophs that grow by taking up carbon dioxide (chemolitotrophs and phototrophs), and (3) acetoclastic microbes that grow by assimilation of formaldehyde or acetate (methylotrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and acetotrophs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that cryptoendolithic communities from Antarctica grouped most closely with the autotrophs, which indicates that the dominant metabolic pathways in these communities are likely those utilized for CO(2 )fixation. We propose that this technique can be used to determine the dominant metabolic types in a community and reveal the overall flow of carbon in a complex ecosystem. PMID:17155886

Scott, James H; O'Brien, Diane M; Emerson, David; Sun, Henry; McDonald, Gene D; Salgado, Antonio; Fogel, Marilyn L

2006-12-01

289

Identification of remanié fossils using amino acid racemisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of racemisation for a range of amino acids for the total acid hydrolysate and free fractions, calibrated against radiocarbon dating, indicates that the foraminifer Marginopora vertebralis, found within ‘modern’ tidal flat sediments between Wardang Island and Goose Island, South Australia, is reworked from the underlying Late Pleistocene Glanville Formation. Analyses of amino acids in the total acid hydrolysate

Colin V. Murray-Wallace; Antonio P. Belperio

1994-01-01

290

A sulfur amino acid deficiency changes the amino acid composition of body protein in piglets.  

PubMed

Experiments carried out to determine the amino acid requirement in growing animals are often based on the premise that the amino acid composition of body protein is constant. However, there are indications that this assumption may not be correct. The objective of this study was to test the effect of feeding piglets a diet deficient or not in total sulfur amino acids (TSAA; Met + Cys) on nitrogen retention and amino acid composition of proteins in different body compartments. Six blocks of three pigs each were used in a combined comparative slaughter and nitrogen balance study. One piglet in each block was slaughtered at 42 days of age, whereas the other piglets received a diet deficient or not in TSAA for 19 days and were slaughtered thereafter. Two diets were formulated to provide either 0.20% Met and 0.45% TSAA (on a standardized ileal digestible basis) or 0.46% Met and 0.70% TSAA. Diets were offered approximately 25% below ad libitum intake. At slaughter, the whole animal was divided into carcass, blood, intestines, liver, and the combined head, tail, feet and other organs (HFTO), which were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acid contents. Samples of the longissimus muscle (LM) were analyzed for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and actin contents. Nitrogen retention was 20% lower in piglets receiving the TSAA-deficient diet (P < 0.01). In these piglets, the nitrogen content in tissue gain was lower in the empty body, carcass, LM and blood (P < 0.05) or tended to be lower in HFTO (P < 0.10), but was not different in the intestines and liver. The Met content in retained protein was lower in the empty body, LM and blood (P < 0.05), and tended to be lower in the carcass (P < 0.10). The Cys content was lower in LM, but higher in blood of piglets receiving the TSAA-deficient diet (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle appeared to be affected most by the TSAA deficiency. In LM, the Met content in retained protein was reduced by 12% and total Met retention by more than 60%. The MyHC and actin contents in LM were not affected by the TSAA content of the diet. These results show that a deficient TSAA supply affects the amino acid composition of different body proteins. This questions the use of a constant ideal amino acid profile to express dietary amino acid requirements, but also illustrates the plasticity of the animal to cope with nutritional challenges. PMID:22444655

Conde-Aguilera, J A; Barea, R; Le Floc'h, N; Lefaucheur, L; van Milgen, J

2010-08-01

291

From one amino acid to another: tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smal- ler number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the tRNA, which is then converted to the cognate

Kelly Sheppard; Jing Yuan; Michael J. Hohn; Brian Jester; Kevin M. Devine; Dieter Soll

2008-01-01

292

Accumulated analyses of amino acid precursors in returned lunar samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) obtained by hydrolysis of extracts have been quantitatively determined in ten collections of fines from five Apollo missions. Although the amounts found, 7-45 ng/g, are small, the lunar amino acid/carbon ratios are comparable to those of the carbonaceous chondrites, Murchison and Murray, as analyzed by the same procedures. Since both the ratios of amino acid to carbon, and the four or five most common types of proteinous amino acid found, are comparable for the two extraterrestrial sources despite different cosmophysical histories of the moon and meteorites, common cosmochemical processes are suggested.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

1973-01-01

293

Biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids is essential for effective symbioses between betarhizobia and Mimosa pudica.  

PubMed

Burkholderia phymatum STM815 and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 are betaproteobacterial strains that can effectively nodulate several species of the large legume genus Mimosa. A Tn5 mutant, derived from B. phymatum STM815 (KM60), and another derived from C. taiwanensis LMG19424 (KM184-55) induced Fix(-) nodules on Mimosa pudica. The Tn5-interrupted genes of the mutants showed strong homologies to ilvE, which encodes a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, and leuC, which encodes the large subunit of isopropylmalate isomerase. Both enzymes are known to be involved in the biosynthetic pathways for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, valine and isoleucine). The B. phymatum ilvE mutant, KM60, was not auxotrophic for BCAAs and could grow well on minimal medium with pyruvate as a carbon source and ammonia as a nitrogen source. However, it grew less efficiently than the wild-type (WT) strain when ammonia was substituted with valine or isoleucine as a nitrogen source. The BCAA aminotransferase activity of KM60 was significantly reduced relative to the WT strain, especially with isoleucine and valine as amino group donors. The C. taiwanensis leuC mutant, KM184-55, could not grow on a minimal medium with pyruvate as a carbon source and ammonia as a nitrogen source, but its growth was restored when leucine was added to the medium. The isopropylmalate isomerase activity of KM184-55 was completely lost compared with the WT strain. Both mutants recovered their respective enzyme activities after complementation with the WT ilvE or leuC genes and were subsequently able to grow as well as their parental strains on minimal medium. They were also able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on M. pudica. We conclude that the biosynthesis of BCAAs is essential for the free-living growth of betarhizobia, as well as for their ability to form effective symbioses with their host plant. PMID:22556357

Chen, Wen-Ming; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Sheu, Shih-Yi

2012-07-01

294

NUTRITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL IMPORTANCE OF INTESTINAL SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The metabolism of sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine, has been linked to several key aspects of human health and cellular function. In addition, the metabolism of dietary amino acids by the gastrointestinal tract is nutritionally important for normal function. In the case of sulfur amino ac...

295

Physiological Adaptation to the Loss of Amino Acid Transport Ability  

PubMed Central

A strain of Neurospora crassa devoid of constitutive amino acid transport ability can utilize arginine as the sole nitrogen source. Nitrogen starvation, presence of arginine, and mutational inactivation of the general permease are key factors in signaling production of an extracellular enzyme which removes the alpha-amino group from the amino acid. PMID:6214547

DeBusk, Ruth M.; Ogilvie-Villa, Susan

1982-01-01

296

Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid  

PubMed Central

Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

Shen, Wen

2012-01-01

297

Precise measurement for the purity of amino acid and peptide using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Precise measurement for the purity of organic compounds will fundamentally improve the capabilities and measurement services of the organic chemical analysis. Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is an important method to assess the purity of organic compounds. We presented a precise measurement method for the purity of small molecule with identification of impurities. In addition, the qNMR was rarely applied to purity of large compounds such as peptide, for which qNMR peaks are too crowded. Other than general idea of qNMR, we removed unwanted exchangeable peaks by proton exchange, as a new approach for qNMR, to make the quantitative protons of peptide isolated, which can ensure precise measurement. Moreover, a suitable internal standard, acesulfame potassium, was applied. The analytes were valine and peptide T5, due to their importance for protein analysis. For valine, the intraday CV was 0.052%, and the interday CV during 8 months was 0.071%. For peptide T5, simpler operation, shorter analytical time (1h vs. 3 days) and smaller CV (0.36% vs. 0.93%) were achieved by qNMR, compared with a traditional method (amino acid based isotope labeled mass spectrometry) via a hydrolysis reaction. This method has greatly increased the quantitative precision of qNMR for small compounds, and extended application scope of qNMR from small compounds to peptides. PMID:24840420

Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Xinhua; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Quan, Can; Li, Hongmei; Yang, Yi

2014-07-01

298

Tuning gelation kinetics and mechanical rigidity of ?-hairpin peptide hydrogels via hydrophobic amino acid substitutions.  

PubMed

Self-assembling peptide hydrogels with faster gelation kinetics and higher mechanical rigidity are favorable for their practical applications. A design strategy to control the folding, self-assembly, and hydrogelation of ?-hairpin peptides via hydrophobic amino acid substitutions has been explored in this study. Isoleucine has higher hydrophobicity and stronger propensity for ?-sheet hydrogen bonding than valine. After the valine residues of MAX1 (VKVKVKVKV(D)PPTKVKVKVKV-NH2) were replaced with isoleucines, oscillatory rheometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the variants had clearly faster self-assembly and hydrogelation rates and that the resulting gels displayed higher mechanical stiffness. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the parent MAX1 and its variants all formed networks of long and entangled fibrils with the similar diameters of ?3 nm, suggesting little effect of hydrophobic substitutions on the self-assembled morphology. The MAX1I8 (IKIKIKIKV(D)PPTKIKIKIKI-NH2) hydrogel showed the fastest gelation rate (within 5 min) and the highest gel rigidity with the series, supporting the homogeneous cell distribution within its 3D scaffold. In addition, the MAX1I8 hydrogel showed quick shear-thinning and rapid recovery upon cessation of shear strain, and the MTT and immunological assays indicated its low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. These features are highly attractive for its widespread use in 3D cell culturing and regenerative medical treatments. PMID:25087842

Chen, Cuixia; Gu, Yanfeng; Deng, Li; Han, Shuyi; Sun, Xing; Chen, Yucan; Lu, Jian R; Xu, Hai

2014-08-27

299

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

300

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the snythesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

301

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

302

Application of the spin-trap HPLC-ESR method to radiation chemistry of amino acids in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent studies of the application of the newly developed spin-trap HPLC-ESR method to ?-radiolysis of aqueous solutions containing amino acids are reviewed. 2-Methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP) was used as a spin trap to convert generated unstable free radicals into relatively stable aminoxyl radicals, which were separated individually by HPLC with cation-exchange columns. Compounds derived from MNP during the preparation of aqueous MNP solutions were found to be t-butylnitrosohydroxylamine, t-butyl alcohol and isbutene. The preparation procedure of the solution in which these undesirable products are minimized is proposed. ?-Radiolysis of aqueous MNP solutions resulted in the formation of five aminoxyl radicals. The chromatographic retention times of the radicals were found to be different from those of the spin adducts from the amino acids studied here. Amino acids investigated in the present work were glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine and DL-methionine. Twenty-five spin adducts from the amino acids were detected and identified by the method. The reactions by which short-lived radicals are produced in ?-irradiated aqueous solutions of the amino acids have been found to be H-abstraction by hydroxyl radicals and deamination by hydrated electrons.

Makino, Keisuke; Moriya, Fumio; Hatano, Hiroyuki

303

Formation of Amino Acid Thioesters for Prebiotic Peptide Synthesis: Catalysis By Amino Acid Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of life can be described as a series of events in which a prebiotic chemical process came increasingly under the control of its catalytic products. In our search for this prebiotic process that yielded catalytic takeover products (such as polypeptides), we have been investigating a reaction system that generates peptide-forming amino acid thioesters from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia in the presence of thiols. As shown below, this model process begins by aldol condensation of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde to give trioses and releases. These sugars then undergo beta-dehydration yielding their respective alpha-ketoaldehydes. Addition of ammonia to the alpha-ketoaldehydes yields imines which can either: (a) rearrange in the presence of thesis to give amino acid thioesters or (be react with another molecule of aldehyde to give imidazoles. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modem amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to products by energy-yielding redox reactions. Recently, we discovered that amino acids, such as the alanine reaction product, catalyze the first and second steps of the process. In the presence of ammonia the process also generates other synthetically useful products, like the important biochemical -- pyruvic acid.

Weber, Arthur L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

304

A review of the role of acid-base balance in amino acid nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Acid-base balance and amino acid metabolism are intimately related. Changes in acid-base balance influence the metabolic fate of many amino acids. Also, acid-base homeostasis is achieved in part by alteration of amino acid metabolism, not only in the kidney, but also in liver, muscle and splanchnic tissue. Glutamine is the primary amino acid involved in renal ammonia- genesis, a

J. F. Patience; J. E Patience

2010-01-01

305

Amino acid preservation in saline halite core samples: Analogs for Martian dry evaporitic regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent data returned from several Mars spacecraft show substantial evidence for mineral precipitation from bodies of liquid water. Evaporitic minerals such as gypsum, kieserite and poly-hydrated magnesium sulfates have been detected remotely by orbiting spacecraft [1], jarosite has been detected in situ by the MER Opportunity [2], and chlorides are highly abundant upon the surface of Mars [3], often in correlation with siliclastic deposits [4]. Terrestrial environments can provide analogs for these systems identified on the Martian surface, and in-depth characterization of the terrestrial systems can provide valuable insights into processes that may have occurred on Mars during the late Noachian/early Hesperian. This is especially true in ancient playa or evaporative basin environments where deep core sampling offers a method of observing the geochemical diagenetic changes with time within a constrained environment. Deep coring can provide samples upwards of 200 ka within hundreds of meters of core [5]. The analysis of these sections can allow for the determination of preservation of various biosignatures from extinct microbial communities as well as their in situ diagenetic rates. Amino acids are powerful biomarkers that can be used to estimate biomass [6] and determine ages of extinct microbial communities [7]. Preliminary data for a core sample collected from Saline Valley, CA, shows the effect of time on amino acid biosignatures. The core has been dated by U-series: 35 feet, 20.9 ± 1.1 ka; 127 feet, 61.1 ±2.8 ka; 204 feet, 73.9 ±4.8 ka; and 310 feet, 150.3 ± 7.8 ka. The abundance of amino acids is observed to decrease drastically over the first 20 ka and then stabilize, although the overall composition changes. Acidic amino acids along with alanine and valine are the dominant amino acids. The enantiomeric (D/L) ratios generally increase with age because of in situ racemization, although the enantiomeric ratios for alanine and glutamic acid show a decrease in the deepest core section. This may indicate some recent amino acid contribution to the pool of certain amino acids. Racemization rates can be calculated from the equation: ln[(1+D/L)/(1-D/L)] - ln [(1+D/L)/(1-D/L)]t=0 = 2ki(time) where ki is the first-order rate constant for the interconversion of the enantiomers. Using the D/L ratios at the top of the core for the t = 0 term gives kasp = 3.5x10exp-5 y-1 and 1.3x10exp-5 y-1 for the 18 and 70 ka samples, respectively. For valine, the values are kval = 5.6x10exp-6 y-1 and 7.3x10exp-6 y-1. Extrapolating these values to the average surface temperatures on Mars indicates that the chirality of these amino acids would be preserved for billions of years. Thus, closed basin lacustrine and dry desert valley regions with evaporite-rich deposits are suitable environments in the search for preserved biosignatures on Mars. References [1] Bibring, J.P., et al., Science 307, 1576 (2005) [2] Klinghofer, G., et al., Science 306, 1740 (2004) [3] Osterloo, M.M., et al., Science 319, 1651 (2008) [4] Squyres, S.W., et al., Nature 443, E1 (2006) [5] Lowenstein, T.K., et al., Geology 27, 3 (1999) [6] Glavin, D., et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 185,1 (2001) [7] Aubrey, A. D., et al., in preparation, Nature Geo. Sci.

Bada, J.; Aubrey, A.; Lowenstein, T.; Timofeeff, M.

2008-12-01

306

Amino acids of the Nogoya and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids were found in acid hydrolyzed, hot water extracts of the Nogoya (C2) and Mokoia (C3V) chondrites. About 40 n moles/g of amino acids were found in the Nogoya extract while Mokoia contained less than 1 n mole/g. The amino acid composition of Nogoya differs from that of other C2 chondrites studied earlier. The results from Mokoia are similar to previous data obtained from the C3V chondrite Allende.

Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.

1976-01-01

307

A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

1993-03-01

308

A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

1993-01-01

309

Relative Amino Acid Composition Signatures of Organisms and Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying organism-environment interactions at the molecular level is crucial to understanding how organisms adapt to and change the chemical and molecular landscape of their habitats. In this work we investigated whether relative amino acid compositions could be used as a molecular signature of an environment and whether such a signature could also be observed at the level of the cellular amino acid composition of the microorganisms that inhabit that environment. Methodologies/Principal Findings To address these questions we collected and analyzed environmental amino acid determinations from the literature, and estimated from complete genomic sequences the global relative amino acid abundances of organisms that are cognate to the different types of environment. Environmental relative amino acid abundances clustered into broad groups (ocean waters, host-associated environments, grass land environments, sandy soils and sediments, and forest soils), indicating the presence of amino acid signatures specific for each environment. These signatures correlate to those found in organisms. Nevertheless, relative amino acid abundance of organisms was more influenced by GC content than habitat or phylogeny. Conclusions Our results suggest that relative amino acid composition can be used as a signature of an environment. In addition, we observed that the relative amino acid composition of organisms is not highly determined by environment, reinforcing previous studies that find GC content to be the major factor correlating to amino acid composition in living organisms. PMID:24204807

Moura, Alexandra; Savageau, Michael A.; Alves, Rui

2013-01-01

310

Amino Acid Residues Contributing to the Substrate Specificity of the Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses possess two glycoprotein spikes on the virion surface: hemagglutinin (HA), which binds to oligosaccharides containing terminal sialic acid, and neuraminidase (NA), which removes terminal sialic acid from oligosaccharides. Hence, the interplay between these receptor-binding and receptor-destroying functions assumes major importance in viral replication. In contrast to the well-characterized role of HA in host range restriction of influenza viruses, there is only limited information on the role of NA substrate specificity in viral replication among different animal species. We therefore investigated the substrate specificities of NA for linkages between N-acetyl sialic acid and galactose (NeuAc?2-3Gal and NeuAc?2-6Gal) and for different molecular species of sialic acids (N-acetyl and N-glycolyl sialic acids) in influenza A viruses isolated from human, avian, and pig hosts. Substrate specificity assays showed that all viruses had similar specificities for NeuAc?2-3Gal, while the activities for NeuAc?2-6Gal ranged from marginal, as represented by avian and early N2 human viruses, to high (although only one-third the activity for NeuAc?2-3Gal), as represented by swine and more recent N2 human viruses. Using site-specific mutagenesis, we identified in the earliest human virus with a detectable increase in NeuAc?2-6Gal specificity a change at position 275 (from isoleucine to valine) that enhanced the specificity for this substrate. Valine at position 275 was maintained in all later human viruses as well as swine viruses. A similar examination of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) specificity showed that avian viruses and most human viruses had low to moderate activity for this substrate, with the exception of most human viruses isolated between 1967 and 1969, whose NeuGc specificity was as high as that of swine viruses. The amino acid at position 431 was found to determine the level of NeuGc specificity of NA: lysine conferred high NeuGc specificity, while proline, glutamine, and glutamic acid were associated with lower NeuGc specificity. Both residues 275 and 431 lie close to the enzymatic active site but are not directly involved in the reaction mechanism. This finding suggests that the adaptation of NA to different substrates occurs by a mechanism of amino acid substitutions that subtly alter the conformation of NA in and around the active site to facilitate the binding of different species of sialic acid. PMID:10400772

Kobasa, Darwyn; Kodihalli, Shantha; Luo, Ming; Castrucci, Maria R.; Donatelli, Isabella; Suzuki, Yasuo; Suzuki, Takashi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

1999-01-01

311

Behavioral responses in rats submitted to chronic administration of branched-chain amino acids.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn metabolism error caused by a deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to an accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, as well as their corresponding ?-keto and ?-hydroxy acids. Previous reports suggest that MSUD patients are at high risk for chronic neuropsychiatric problems. Therefore, in this study, we assessed variables that suggest depressive-like symptoms (anhedonia as measured by sucrose intake, immobility during the forced swimming test and body and adrenal gland weight) in rats submitted to chronic administration of BCAA during development. Furthermore, we determined if these parameters were sensitive to imipramine and N-acetylcysteine/deferoxamine (NAC/DFX). Our results demonstrated that animals subjected to chronic administration of branched-chain amino acids showed a decrease in sucrose intake without significant changes in body weight. We also observed an increase in adrenal gland weight and immobility time during the forced swimming test. However, treatment with imipramine and NAC/DFX reversed these changes in the behavioral tasks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a link between MSUD and depression in rats. Moreover, this investigation reveals that the antidepressant action of NAC/DFX and imipramine might be associated with their capability to maintain pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis. PMID:24214724

Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Gabriela C; Furlanetto, Camila B; Dominguini, Diogo; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

2014-01-01

312

Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli and then purified to homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids. In particular, it catalyzed at high rates the epimerization of l-isoleucine to d-allo-isoleucine and d-allo-isoleucine to l-isoleucine. In contrast, the enzyme showed no ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity. The relative molecular masses of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated to be about 49 kDa and 200 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular masses. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for l-isoleucine were 5.00 mM and 153 ?mol·min?1·mg?1, respectively, and those for d-allo-isoleucine were 13.2 mM and 286 ?mol·min?1·mg?1, respectively. Hydroxylamine and other inhibitors of pyridoxal 5?-phosphate-dependent enzymes completely blocked the enzyme activity, indicating the enzyme requires pyridoxal 5?-phosphate as a coenzyme. This is the first evidence of an amino acid racemase that specifically catalyzes racemization of nonpolar amino acids at the C-2 position. PMID:24039265

Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi

2013-01-01

313

Kinetic Trapping of Metastable Amino Acid Polymorphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was integrated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to test the Ostwald Rule of Stages, in which is hypothesized that crystals dynamically transition through metastable polymorphs before settling on the most thermodynamically favored form. The presence or absence of metastable forms has historically been challenging to probe due to the stochastic randomness of crystal nucleation coupled with the relatively short time-frame over which the metastable forms may survive. In this work, inkjet printing of a racemic amino acid solutions results in rapid solvent evaporation, placing crystallization under kinetic rather than thermodynamic control. SHG microscopy is used to rapidly and selectively identify the positions of metastable crystal forms. Coupling this measurement with synchrotron XRD allows diffraction analysis to be performed on individual inkjet printed dots of only a few pg of total material, prepared from single 1 pL droplets. In studies of amino acids, we have shown that the homochiral crystals emerge when printed, while those same solutions exclusively generate the racemic co-crystals upon slow solvent evaporation.

Simpson, Garth

2014-06-01

314

Amino acid alphabet Twenty amino acids are used in all proteins with the exception of  

E-print Network

selenium instead of sulfur #12;The relative abundances of individual amino acids on primordial earth were identify homologous proteins and is crucial for homology modeling The sequence structure relationship may nematodes to humans Consists of 3 alpha helices and a long N-terminal arm A consensus sequence can

Park, Sheldon

315

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

316

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

317

Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (<1 ppm). The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ? 13 C values ranging from +31.6% to +50.5%. The highly enriched carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

318

The insulinogenic effect of whey protein is partially mediated by a direct effect of amino acids and GIP on ?-cells  

PubMed Central

Background Whey protein increases postprandial serum insulin levels. This has been associated with increased serum levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, threonine and the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). We have examined the effects of these putative mediators of whey’s action on insulin secretion from isolated mouse Langerhans islets. Methods Mouse pancreatic islets were incubated with serum drawn from healthy individuals after ingestion of carbohydrate equivalent meals of whey protein (whey serum), or white wheat bread (control serum). In addition the effect of individual amino acid combinations on insulin secretion was also tested. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of whey serum on insulin secretion was tested in vitro in the absence and presence of a GIP receptor antagonist ((Pro(3))GIP[mPEG]). Results Postprandial amino acids, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses were higher after whey compared to white wheat bread. A stimulatory effect on insulin release from isolated islets was observed with serum after whey obtained at 15 min (+87%, P < 0.05) and 30 min (+139%, P < 0.05) postprandially, compared with control serum. The combination of isoleucine, leucine, valine, lysine and threonine exerted strong stimulatory effect on insulin secretion (+270%, P < 0.05), which was further augmented by GIP (+558% compared to that produced by glucose, P < 0.05). The stimulatory action of whey on insulin secretion was reduced by the GIP-receptor antagonist (Pro(3))GIP[mPEG]) at both 15 and 30 min (?56% and ?59%, P < 0.05). Conclusions Compared with white wheat bread meal, whey causes an increase of postprandial insulin, plasma amino acids, GIP and GLP-1 responses. The in vitro data suggest that whey protein exerts its insulinogenic effect by preferential elevation of the plasma concentrations of certain amino acids, GIP and GLP-1. PMID:22647249

2012-01-01

319

Geochemistry of amino acids in shells of the clam Saxidomus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of amino acids and their corresponding d l enantiomeric ratios have been measured in shells of the bivalve mollusk Saxidomus from eleven localities, ranging in age from modern to probably more than 500,000 yr, along the Pacific coast of North America. Natural logarithms of amino acid concentrations correlate well with d l ratios, and the relationship provides a possible guide to the selection of fossils for use in amino acid dating. The relative order of the extents of racemization of amino acids at any given time appears to change with increasing sample age. Application of the amino acid dating method to shells from Whidbey Island, Washington, yields an age of about 80,000 yr, in contrast to the previously determined radiocarbon age of 36,000 yr which was measured on some shell carbonate and considered a minimum age. The amino acid age is compatible with the geologic record in the area. ?? 1980.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; McMenamin, M.A.; Straham, S.E.

1980-01-01

320

Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

2015-01-01

321

Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approx. 150 C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures less than 550 C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. Key Words: Amino acids-Exogenous delivery-Micrometeorites-Sublimation.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

322

Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

Frunze, N. I.

2014-12-01

323

Trophic spectra under the lens of amino acid isotopic analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent advances in compound specific isotopic ratio analysis (CSIRA) have allowed researchers to measure trophic fractionation of 15N in specific amino acids, namely glutamic acid and phenylalanine. These amino acids have proven useful in food web studies because of the wide and consistent disparity...

324

Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease  

E-print Network

Intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by amino acid abundance. When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino ...

Cain, Natalie Elaine

325

Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. II - Five carbon acyclic primary beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino alkanoic acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five-carbon acyclic primary beta, gamma, and delta amino alkanoic acids of the Murchison meteorite are studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion exchange chromatography. The chromatograms reveal that alpha is the most abundant monoamino alkanoic acid followed by gamma and beta, and an exponential increase in the amount of amino acid is observed as the carbon number increases in the homologous series. The influence of frictional heating, spontaneous thermal decomposition, and radiation of the synthesis of amino acids is examined. The data obtained support an amino acid synthesis process involving random combination of single-carbon precursors.

Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

1985-01-01

326

Molecular annotation of ketol-acid reductoisomerases from Streptomyces reveals a novel amino acid biosynthesis interlock mediated by enzyme promiscuity  

PubMed Central

The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase superfamily oxidize and reduce a wide range of substrates, making their functional annotation challenging. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), encoded by the ilvC gene in branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis, is a promiscuous reductase enzyme within this superfamily. Here, we obtain steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters for 10 IlvC homologues from the genera Streptomyces and Corynebacterium, upon eight selected chemically diverse substrates, including some not normally recognized by enzymes of this superfamily. This biochemical data suggested a Streptomyces biosynthetic interlock between proline and the branched-chain amino acids, mediated by enzyme substrate promiscuity, which was confirmed via mutagenesis and complementation analyses of the proC, ilvC1 and ilvC2 genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, both ilvC orthologues and paralogues were analysed, such that the relationship between gene duplication and functional diversification could be explored. The KARI paralogues present in S.?coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, despite their conserved high sequence identity (97%), were shown to be more promiscuous, suggesting a recent functional diversification. In contrast, the KARI paralogue from Streptomyces viridifaciens showed selectivity towards the synthesis of valine precursors, explaining its recruitment within the biosynthetic gene cluster of valanimycin. These results allowed us to assess substrate promiscuity indices as a tool to annotate new molecular functions with metabolic implications. PMID:25296650

Verdel-Aranda, Karina; López-Cortina, Susana T; Hodgson, David A; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

2015-01-01

327

Molecular annotation of ketol-acid reductoisomerases from Streptomyces reveals a novel amino acid biosynthesis interlock mediated by enzyme promiscuity.  

PubMed

The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase superfamily oxidize and reduce a wide range of substrates, making their functional annotation challenging. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), encoded by the ilvC gene in branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis, is a promiscuous reductase enzyme within this superfamily. Here, we obtain steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters for 10 IlvC homologues from the genera Streptomyces and Corynebacterium, upon eight selected chemically diverse substrates, including some not normally recognized by enzymes of this superfamily. This biochemical data suggested a Streptomyces biosynthetic interlock between proline and the branched-chain amino acids, mediated by enzyme substrate promiscuity, which was confirmed via mutagenesis and complementation analyses of the proC, ilvC1 and ilvC2 genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, both ilvC orthologues and paralogues were analysed, such that the relationship between gene duplication and functional diversification could be explored. The KARI paralogues present in S.?coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, despite their conserved high sequence identity (97%), were shown to be more promiscuous, suggesting a recent functional diversification. In contrast, the KARI paralogue from Streptomyces viridifaciens showed selectivity towards the synthesis of valine precursors, explaining its recruitment within the biosynthetic gene cluster of valanimycin. These results allowed us to assess substrate promiscuity indices as a tool to annotate new molecular functions with metabolic implications. PMID:25296650

Verdel-Aranda, Karina; López-Cortina, Susana T; Hodgson, David A; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

2015-03-01

328

BranchedChain Amino Acids and Brain Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) influence brain function by modifying large, neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport at the blood-brain barrier. Transport is shared by several LNAAs, notably the BCAAs and the aromatic amino acids (ArAAs), and is competitive. Consequently, when plasma BCAA concentrations rise, which can occur in response to food ingestion or BCAA administration, or with the onset of certain

John D. Fernstrom

329

Which Amino Acids Should Be Used in Prebiotic Chemistry Studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of amino acids on minerals and their condensation under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic earth is\\u000a a well studied subject. However, which amino acids should be used in these experiments is still an open question. The main\\u000a goal of this review is to attempt to answer this question. There were two sources of amino acids for the

Dimas A. M. Zaia; Cássia Thaïs B. V. Zaia; Henrique De Santana

2008-01-01

330

Amino acids regulate the transcription, internal sorting, and intrinsic activity of the general amino acid permease (GAP1) in S. cerevisiae  

E-print Network

The high capacity general amino acid permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GAP1) is regulated such that it actively imports amino acids into the cell from the extracellular medium only when internal amino acid levels are ...

Risinger, April L. (April Lynn)

2007-01-01

331

Anticodon-independent aminoacylation of an RNA minihelix with valine.  

PubMed Central

Minihelices mimicking the amino acid acceptor and anticodon branches of yeast tRNA(Val) have been synthesized by in vitro transcription of synthetic templates. It is shown that a minihelix corresponding to the amino acid acceptor branch and containing solely a valine-specific identity nucleotide can be aminoacylated by yeast valyl-tRNA synthetase. Its charging ability is lost after mutating this nucleotide. This ability is stimulated somewhat by the addition of a second hairpin helix that mimicks the anticodon arm, which suggests that information originating from the anticodon stem-loop can be transmitted to the active site of the enzyme by the core of the protein. Images PMID:1570324

Frugier, M; Florentz, C; Giegé, R

1992-01-01

332

Recognition of specific patterns of amino acid inhibition of growth in higher plants, uncomplicated by glutamine-reversible `general amino acid inhibition'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the regulatory mechanisms that govern amino acid biosynthesis, particularly in multibranched pathways, frequently results in sensitivity to growth inhibition by exogenous amino acids. Usually the inhibition caused by a given amino acid(s) is relieved by another amino acid(s), thus indicating the cause of inhibition to be a specific interference with endogenous formation of the latter amino acid(s).

Carol A Bonner; Roy A Jensen

1997-01-01

333

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method is described for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(OSOCl)CN, R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(Cl)CN and [R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(CN)O][sub 2]SO wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art. No Drawings

Davis, J.W. Jr.

1983-01-25

334

Kinetic Trapping of Metastable Amino Acid Polymorphs  

PubMed Central

Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy measurements indicate that inkjet-printed racemic solutions of amino acids can produce nanocrystals trapped in metastable polymorph forms upon rapid solvent evaporation. Polymorphism impacts the composition, distribution, and physico-kinetic properties of organic solids, with energetic arguments favoring the most stable polymorph. In this study, unfavored noncentrosymmetric crystal forms were observed by SHG microscopy. Polarization-dependent SHG measurement and synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction analysis of individual printed drops are consistent with formation of homochiral crystal production. Fundamentally, these results provide evidence supporting the ubiquity of Ostwald’s Rule of Stages, describing the hypothesized transitioning of crystals between metastable polymorphic forms in the early stages of crystal formation. Practically, the presence of homochiral metastable forms has implications on chiral resolution and on solid form preparations relying on rapid solvent evaporation. PMID:24451055

2015-01-01

335

Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats  

PubMed Central

Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

Nijveen, Harm

2014-01-01

336

Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Prof. William Martin, Prof. Eörs Szathmáry (nominated by Dr. Gáspár Jékely) and Dr. Ádám Kun (nominated by Dr. Sandor Pongor) PMID:22325238

2012-01-01

337

Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

2008-10-31

338

Contribution of bacterial cells to lacustrine organic matter based on amino sugars and D-amino acids  

E-print Network

23 April 2012 Abstract Amino sugars (ASs), D-amino acids (D-AAs), and bacterial cell counts were acids (AAs), neutral sugars, and amino sug- ars (ASs) (Cowie and Hedges, 1992; Benner and Kaiser, 2003Contribution of bacterial cells to lacustrine organic matter based on amino sugars and D-amino

Wehrli, Bernhard

339

Synthesis and mass spectrometric identification of the major amino acid adducts formed between sulphur mustard and haemoglobin in human blood.  

PubMed

As part of a program to develop methods for the verification of alleged exposure to sulphur mustard, we synthesized and characterized three amino acid adducts presumably formed by alkylation of haemoglobin: 4-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-L-aspartate, 5-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)L-glutamate and N1- and N3-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-L-histidine. Suitable derivatization methods for GC/MS analysis were developed for these adducts as well as for the cysteine and the N-terminal valine adduct. Incubation of human blood with [35S]sulfur mustard in vitro followed by acidic hydrolysis of isolated globin and derivatization with Fmoc-Cl afforded three radioactive peaks upon HPLC analysis, one of which coeluted with the synthetic Fmoc derivative of N1/N3-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-L-histidine. After pronase digestion of globin the adducts of histidine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cysteine and N-terminal valine could be tentatively identified and quantitated. Final identification was obtained from GC/MS analysis. The most abundant adduct, N1/N3-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-L-histidine, could not be sensitively analysed by GC/MS. A convenient LC-tandem MS procedure was developed for this compound, enabling the detection of exposure of human blood to 10 microM sulphur mustard in vitro. PMID:9049054

Noort, D; Hulst, A G; Trap, H C; de Jong, L P; Benschop, H P

1997-01-01

340

Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells  

PubMed Central

Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, François

2014-01-01

341

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various amino acids.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (4-7nm) were synthesized from tetraauric acid using various amino acids as reducing and capping agents. The gold nanoparticles were produced from the incubation of a AuCl4(-) solution with an amino acid at 80°C for 20min. Among the twenty amino acids tested, several amino acids produced gold nanoparticles. The color of the nanoparticle solutions varied with the amino acids used for the reduction. We adopted l-histidine as a reducing agent and investigated the effects of the synthesis conditions on the gold nanoparticles. The His and AuCl4(-) concentrations affected the size of the gold nanoparticles and their aggregates. The pH of the reaction solution also affected the reaction yields and the shape of the gold nanoparticles. PMID:25591824

Maruyama, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Yuhei; Maekawa, Tetsuya

2015-06-01

342

Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550°C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached ~150°C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550°C. ?-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures >550°C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2001-09-01

343

From one amino acid to another: tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smaller number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the tRNA, which is then converted to the cognate one catalyzed by tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes. Asn-tRNA or Gln-tRNA formation in most prokaryotes requires amidation of Asp-tRNA or Glu-tRNA by amidotransferases that couple an amidase or an asparaginase to liberate ammonia with a tRNA-dependent kinase. Both archaeal and eukaryotic Sec-tRNA biosynthesis and Cys-tRNA synthesis in methanogens require O-phosophoseryl-tRNA formation. For tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthesis, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase directly attaches the amino acid to the tRNA which is then converted to Cys by Sep-tRNA: Cys-tRNA synthase. In Sec-tRNA synthesis, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase phosphorylates Ser-tRNA to form the intermediate which is then modified to Sec-tRNA by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase. Complex formation between enzymes in the same pathway may protect the fidelity of protein synthesis. How these tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthetic routes are integrated into overall metabolism may explain why they are still retained in so many organisms. PMID:18252769

Sheppard, Kelly; Yuan, Jing; Hohn, Michael J.; Jester, Brian; Devine, Kevin M.; Söll, Dieter

2008-01-01

344

Polymerization of beta-amino acids in aqueous solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged alpha- and beta-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. alpha-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. beta-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an alpha- and beta-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently by both reagents. These results are explained in terms of the mechanisms of the reactions, and their relevance to prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

345

Terrestrial evolution of polymerization of amino acids - Heat to ATP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sets of amino acids containing sufficient trifunctional monomer are thermally polymerized at temperatures such as 65 deg; the amino acids order themselves. Various polymers have diverse catalytic activities. The polymers aggregate, in aqueous solution, to cell-like structures having those activities plus emergent properties, e.g. proliferatability. Polyamino acids containing sufficient lysine catalyze conversion of free amino acids, by ATP, to small peptides and a high molecular weight fraction. The lysine-rich proteinoid is active in solution, within suspensions of cell-like particles, or in other particles composed of lysine-rich proteinoid and homopolyribonucleotide. Selectivities are observed. An archaic polyamino acid prelude to coded protein synthesis is indicated.

Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.

1981-01-01

346

Microwave-Assisted Esterification of Diverse Carboxylic Acids and Chiral Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile and efficient synthetic method of esters from their corresponding carboxylic acids and amino acids is described. The esterification reaction of carboxylic acids and amino acids could be greatly accelerated under microwave irradiation because the reactions described in this article took place in only 5 min with almost quantitative yields, and distinct acidity of catalytic acids was well tolerated. Unlike

Qian Yang; Xiao-jian Wang; Zhi-yu Li; Li Sun; Qi-dong You

2008-01-01

347

Molecular Structure of Valine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Valine was isolated in 1901 by the chemist Emil Fischer from casein and is acquired by hydrolyzing proteins. It is mostly found in muscles and is required for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue, and maintaining nitrogen balance in the body. It can also be used in substrate recognition. However, its key role is in the muscle where it is used as an energy source. Valine reverses and treats hepatic encephalopathy, alcohol related brain damages, and degenerative neurological conditions. Research has indicated that valine aids in restoring muscle mass in people who have liver disease, any injuries, or who have had surgery. Good sources of valine are dairy, meat, grain, mushrooms, soy and peanuts.

2002-08-22

348

A Novel meso-Diaminopimelate Dehydrogenase from Symbiobacterium thermophilum: Overexpression, Characterization, and Potential for d-Amino Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

meso-Diaminopimelate dehydrogenase (meso-DAPDH) is an NADP+-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination on the d-configuration of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to produce l-2-amino-6-oxopimelate. In this study, the gene encoding a meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from Symbiobacterium thermophilum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the native substrate meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, the purified enzyme also showed activity toward d-alanine, d-valine, and d-lysine. This enzyme catalyzed the reductive amination of 2-keto acids such as pyruvic acid to generate d-amino acids in up to 99% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Since meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenases are known to be specific to meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, this is a unique wild-type meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase with a more relaxed substrate specificity and potential for d-amino acid synthesis. The enzyme is the most stable meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase reported to now. Two amino acid residues (F146 and M152) in the substrate binding sites of S. thermophilum meso-DAPDH different from the sequences of other known meso-DAPDHs were replaced with the conserved amino acids in other meso-DAPDHs, and assay of wild-type and mutant enzyme activities revealed that F146 and M152 are not critical in determining the enzyme's substrate specificity. The high thermostability and relaxed substrate profile of S. thermophilum meso-DAPDH warrant it as an excellent starting enzyme for creating effective d-amino acid dehydrogenases by protein engineering. PMID:23023754

Gao, Xiuzhen; Chen, Xi; Liu, Weidong; Feng, Jinhui; Wu, Qiaqing; Hua, Ling

2012-01-01

349

Amino Acid Racemization and the Preservation of Ancient DNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent of racemization of aspartic acid, alanine, and leucine provides criteria for assessing whether ancient tissue samples contain endogenous DNA. In samples in which the D/L ratio of aspartic acid exceeds 0.08, ancient DNA sequences could not be retrieved. Paleontological finds from which DNA sequences purportedly millions of years old have been reported show extensive racemization, and the amino acids present are mainly contaminates. An exception is the amino acids in some insects preserved in amber.

Poinar, Hendrik N.; Hoss, Matthias

1996-01-01

350

Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg N.kg-1.d-1 and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) N.kg-1.d-1 for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.

1999-01-01

351

Boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides new boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for making these compounds by contacting melphalan or another nitrogen mustard derivative and sodium borocaptate. The present invention also provides a method of treating a mammal having a tumor by administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the new boron containing amino acid compounds.

Glass, John D. (Shoreham, NY); Coderre, Jeffrey A. (Wading River, NY)

2000-01-01

352

Parenteral sulfur amino acid requirements in septic infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To investigate parenteral methionine requirements of critically ill, septic infants, we conducted an investigation involving 12 infants (age 2+/-1 years; weight 13+/-2kg) using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance technique. They received a balanced parenteral amino acid formul...

353

Structural Basis of Amino Acid alpha Helix Propensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity of an amino acid to form an alpha helix in a protein was determined by multiple amino substitutions at positions 44 and 131 in T4 lysozyme. These positions are solvent-exposed sites within the alpha helices that comprise, respectively, residues 39 to 50 and 126 to 134. Except for two acidic substitutions that may be involved in salt bridges,

Michael Blaber; Xue-Jun Zhang; Brian W. Matthews

1993-01-01

354

Amino Acid Diets and Maximal Growth in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid diets fed in an agar gel have been found to support weight gains of rats as great or greater than those obtained with diets containing an equiva lent quantity of casein supplemented with methionine. Over 1% arginine, 0.6% asparagine and feeding the diet in gel form were necessary to obtain maximal weight gain. The diet contained amino acids

Q. R. ROGERS ANDA; E. HARPER

355

Parenteral amino acid intakes in critically ill children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Parenteral amino acid formulas used in parenteral nutrition have a variable composition. To determine the amino acid intake of parenterally fed, critically ill children, and compare it with recommended dietary allowances (RDA) established by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), we retrospectively review...

356

EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

357

Amino Acid Difference Formula to Help Explain Protein Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formula for difference between amino acids combines properties that correlate best with protein residue substitution frequencies: composition, polarity, and molecular volume. Substitution frequencies agree much better with overall chemical difference between exchanging residues than with minimum base changes between their codons. Correlation coefficients show that fixation of mutations between dissimilar amino acids is generally rare.

R. Grantham

1974-01-01

358

Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus  

DOEpatents

A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

Hanson, Richard S. (Wayzata, MN); Flickinger, Michael C. (St. Paul, MN); Schendel, Frederick J. (Falcon Heights, MN); Guettler, Michael V. (Waconia, MN)

2001-07-17

359

Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for locating protein antigenic determinants by analyzing amino acid sequences in order to find the point of greatest local hydrophilicity. This is accomplished by assigning each amino acid a numerical value (hydrophilicity value) and then repetitively averaging these values along the peptide chain. The point of highest local average hydrophilicity is invariably located in, or immediately

T. P. Hopp; K. R. Woods

1981-01-01

360

Multiplexed amino acid array utilizing bioluminescent Escherichia coli auxotrophs.  

PubMed

We describe a novel multiplex "amino acid array" for simultaneously quantifying different amino acids based on the rapid growth of amino acid auxotrophic E. coli. First, we constructed genetically engineered amino acid auxotrophs of E. coli containing a bioluminescence reporter gene, yielding concomitant luminescence as a response to cell growth, and then immobilized the reporter cells within individual agarose of respective wells in a 96-well plate serving as a mimic of a biochip. Using the amino acid array, we were able to determine quantitatively the concentrations of 16 amino acids in biological fluid by simply measuring bioluminescent signals from the immobilized cells within 4 h without pre- and post-treatment. The clinical utility of this method was verified by quantifying different amino acids in dried blood spot specimens from clinical samples for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases of newborn babies. This method serves as a convenient route to the rapid and simultaneous analysis of multiple amino acids from complex biological fluids and represents a new analytical paradigm that can replace conventional, yet laborious methods currently in use. PMID:20405822

Kim, Moon Il; Yu, Byung Jo; Woo, Min-Ah; Cho, Daeyeon; Dordick, Jonathan S; Cho, June Hyoung; Choi, Byung-Ok; Park, Hyun Gyu

2010-05-15

361

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Bi and Tricyclic ?-Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a medicinal chemistry collaboration, a number of novel bi- and tricyclic ?-amino acids were prepared through various routes and characterized by H nuclear Overhauser effect difference experiments. The syntheses provide a number of routes to access some highly substituted amino acid derivatives that have not been reported previously. It is envisaged that the chemistry described here could

Matthew R. Johnson; Jolicia F. Gauuan; Cheng Guo; Peter R. Guzzo; Van-Duc Le; Rajesh A. Shenoy; James Hamby; Howard Roark; Michael Stier; John E. Mangette

2011-01-01

362

The Amino Acid Sequence of beta Galactosidase of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequence of beta -galactosidase was determined. The protein contains 1021 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain. The subunit molecular weight calculated from the sequence is 116,248. The sequence determination, carried out mainly by conventional methods, was aided by complementation tests, by the use of termination mutant strains, and by a new immunochemical method. The five

Audree V. Fowler; Irving Zabin

1977-01-01

363

The amino acid sequence of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue. Turtle ribonuclease binds much more weakly to the affinity chromatography matrix used than mammalian ribonucleases. The amino acid sequence was determined from overlapping peptides obtained from three different digests. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein determined by others and homology were used as additional evidence for several overlaps.

Cornelis Schüller; Jaap J. Beintema; Jaap Broos; Janneke Meulenberg

1985-01-01

364

Targets of Amino Acid Restriction in Prostate Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The objective of this application is to identify the molecular target(s) by which specific amino acid dependency modulates the viability and invasiveness of human androgen-independent prostate cancer calls. We hypothesize that specific amino acid-regulated invasion is dependent on the inhibition of FAK and its binding partners.

365

Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

2014-01-01

366

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the

Xenia Amashukeli; Christine C. Pelletier; James P. Kirby; Frank J. Grunthaner

2007-01-01

367

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring

Xenia Amashukeli; Christine C. Pelletier; James P. Kirby; Frank J. Grunthaner

2007-01-01

368

Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or “chemistry space.” Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set. PMID:25802223

Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves II, H. James

2015-01-01

369

Extraordinarily adaptive properties of the genetically encoded amino acids.  

PubMed

Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or "chemistry space." Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set. PMID:25802223

Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves Ii, H James

2015-01-01

370

The ContextDependence of Amino Acid Properties  

E-print Network

The Context­Dependence of Amino Acid Properties Thomas R. Ioerger Department of Computer Science/threading to match new amino acid segments to fragments of known structure. 4. Refine model using energy minimization sequences. ffl E.g. at least 14 distinct beta­barrels, with various functions. ffl Mandelate Racemase

Ioerger, Thomas R.

371

INTESTINAL SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN NEONATAL PIGLETS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Methionine (Met) is an essential sulfur amino acid that functions as a key precursor for the synthesis of homocysteine and cysteine, via transmethylation (TM) and transsulfuration (TS), respectively. Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid in neonates.We previously showed that significan...

372

Two types of amino acid substitutions in protein evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The frequency of amino acid substitutions, relative to the frequency expected by chance, decreases linearly with the increase in physico-chemical differences between amino acid pairs involved in a substitution. This correlation does not apply to abnormal human hemoglobins. Since abnormal hemoglobins mostly reflect the process of mutation rather than selection, the correlation manifest during protein evolution between substitution frequency

Takashi Miyata; Sanzo Miyazawa; Teruo Yasunaga

1979-01-01

373

Identification of human l-fucose kinase amino acid sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucose is a major component of complex carbohydrates. l-Fucose kinase (fucokinase) takes part in the salvage pathway for reutilization of fucose from the degradation of oligosaccharides. The amino acid sequence of human fucokinase was derived from a cDNA encoding a protein of hitherto unidentified function. Human fucokinase polypeptide chain consists of 990 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of

Stephan Hinderlich; Markus Berger; Astrid Blume; Hao Chen; Darius Ghaderi; Christian Bauer

2002-01-01

374

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

SciTech Connect

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2009-04-28

375

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2011-03-22

376

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

SciTech Connect

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2011-12-06

377

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2008-10-07

378

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

SciTech Connect

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2012-02-14

379

Amino acid sensing by enteroendocrine STC-1 cells: role of the Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2  

PubMed Central

The results presented here show that STC-1 cells, a model of intestinal endocrine cells, respond to a broad range of amino acids, including l-proline, l-serine, l-alanine, l-methionine, l-glycine, l-histidine, and ?-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) with a rapid increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). We sought to identify the mechanism by which amino acids induce Ca2+ signaling in these cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that amino acid transport through the Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) is a major mechanism by which amino acids induced Ca2+ signaling in STC-1 cells: 1) the amino acid efficacy profile for inducing Ca2+ signaling in STC-1 cells closely matches the amino acid specificity of SNAT2; 2) amino acid-induced Ca2+ signaling in STC-1 cells was suppressed by removing Na+ from the medium; 3) the nonmetabolized synthetic substrate of amino acid transport MeAIB produced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i; 4) transfection of small interfering RNA targeting SNAT2 produced a marked decrease in Ca2+ signaling in response to l-proline in STC-1 cells; 5) amino acid-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was associated with membrane depolarization and mediated by Ca2+ influx, since it depended on extracellular Ca2+; 6) the increase in [Ca2+]i in response to l-proline, l-alanine, or MeAIB was abrogated by either nifedipine (1–10 ?M) or nitrendipine (1 ?M), which block L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. We hypothesize that the inward current of Na+ associated with the function of SNAT2 leads to membrane depolarization and activation of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels that mediate Ca2+ influx, thereby leading to an increase in the [Ca2+]i in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. PMID:20219951

Young, Steven H.; Rey, Osvaldo; Sternini, Catia

2010-01-01

380

Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids  

SciTech Connect

Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized -aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur.

Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

1986-08-01

381

Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P?valine, phenylalanine, and methionine were lower in the QPM diets than those of maize (white and yellow) (all P?valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and proline (P?

2014-01-01

382

Synthesis of amino acids by arc-discharge experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge was performed against ammonia water using a graphite rod as the anode and a silver thread as the cathode under an Ar atmosphere. HPLC and thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analyses showed that three kinds of amino acids were produced in the reaction mixture. As the graphite anode is the solitary source of carbon in the system, it is considered that amino acids have been produced by synthetic reaction between graphite and ammonia water. Thus, our results provide a possible way of formation of amino acids from elemental carbon on the primitive earth. In addition, the mechanism for the production of amino acids is discussed and the yields of different amino acids are presented.

Huaibin, Shi; Chunlin, Shao; Zengliang, Yu

2001-10-01

383

Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

2011-03-09

384

Supernovae, neutrinos and the chirality of amino acids.  

PubMed

A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the (14)N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

Boyd, Richard N; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

2011-01-01

385

Adaptive amino acid composition in collagens of parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Amino acid composition was analyzed in the glycine-rich repeat region of 306 collagens belonging to three major families of collagens from both parasitic and free-living nematodes. The collagens of parasitic species showed a tendency toward decreased usage of the hydrophilic residues A, D, and Q and increased usage of the hydrophobic resides I, L, and M; and this trend was seen in parasitic species of both the order Rhabdita and the order Spirurida. The amino acid composition of collagens of parasitic Rhabdita thus tended to resemble those of Spirurida more than that of free-living Rhabdita, suggesting an association between amino acid composition and a parasitic lifestyle. Computer predictions suggested that the more hydrophobic amino acid composition was associated with a reduction of the propensity towards B-cell epitope formation, suggesting that evasion of host immune responses may be a major selective factor responsible for the parasite-specific trend in collagen amino acid composition. PMID:25681700

Hughes, Austin L

2015-04-01

386

Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Unnatural amino acids can be genetically incorporated into proteins in live cells by using an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair. Here we describe a method to efficiently express the orthogonal tRNA and synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables unnatural amino acids to be genetically incorporated into target proteins in yeast with high efficiency. We also describe the use of a yeast strain deficient in the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which further increases the unnatural amino acid incorporation efficiency when a stop codon is used to encode the unnatural amino acid. These strategies will facilitate the investigation of proteins and their related biological processes in yeast by exploiting the novel properties afforded by unnatural amino acids. PMID:21956564

Wang, Qian; Wang, Lei

2014-01-01

387

Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

2011-01-01

388

Synthesis and characterization of new polyamides derived from alanine and valine derivatives  

PubMed Central

Background Many efforts have been recently devoted to design, investigate and synthesize biocompatible, biodegradable polymers for applications in medicine for either the fabrication of biodegradable devices or as drug delivery systems. Many of them consist of condensation of polymers having incorporated peptide linkages susceptible to enzymatic cleavage. Polyamides (PAs) containing ?-amino acid residues such as L-leucine, L-alanine and L-phenylalanine have been reported as biodegradable materials. Furthermore, polyamides (PAs) derived from C10 and C14 dicarboxylic acids and amide-diamines derived from 1,6-hexanediamine or 1,12-dodecanediamine and L-phenylalanine, L-valyl-L-phenylalanine or L-phenylalanyl-L-valine residues have been reported as biocompatible polymers. We have previously described the synthesis and thermal properties of a new type of polyamides-containing amino acids based on eight new symmetric meta-oriented protected diamines derived from coupling of amino acids namely; Fomc-glycine, Fmoc-alanine, Fomc-valine and Fomc-leucine with m-phenylene diamine or 2,6-diaminopyridine. Results revealed that incorporation of pyridine onto the polymeric backbone of all series decreases the thermal stability. Here we describe another family of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4?-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of the polymers. Results We report here the preparation of a new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4?-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of polymers. The thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by different techniques. Results revealed that structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the dicarboxylic acid monomer or the diamine monomer demonstrated an interesting connection between a single change (changing the dicarboxylic acids in each series while the diamine is fixed) and thermal properties. The newly prepared polymers may possess biodegradability and thus may find some applications as novel biomaterials. Conclusions The thermal properties of the new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid (alanine and valine) linked to benzidine and 4,4?-oxydianiline were evaluated by thermal gravimetric (TG), differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. Results revealed that the structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the dicarboxylic acid monomer or the diamine monomer demonstrated an interesting connection between a single change (changing the dicarboxylic acids in each series while the diamine is fixed) and thermal properties. In addition, pyridine-containing polymers exhibited semicrystalline characteristic with melting temperature, Tm. where none of the valine-containing polymers showed a melting and crystallization peak indicating that the polymers were amorphous. This is expected since L-valine side chain can inhibit close packing and eliminate crystallization. The newly prepared polymers may possess biodegradability and thus may find some applications as novel biomaterials. PMID:23122321

2012-01-01

389

The Mechanism of Amino Acid Efflux from Seed Coats of Developing Pea Seeds as Revealed by Uptake Experiments.  

PubMed Central

The uptake of amino acids by excised seed coat halves of developing seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was characterized. The influx of L-valine and L-glutamic acid was proportional to their external concentration, with coefficients of proportionality (k) of 11.0 and 7.1 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight min-1 M-1, respectively. The influx of L-lysine could be analyzed into a component with linear kinetics (k = 8.1 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight min-1 M-1) and one with saturation kinetics (Michaelis constant = 6.5 mM), but the latter may have resulted from the mutual interaction between the influx of the cationic lysine and the membrane potential. The influx of the amino acids was not affected by 10 [mu]M carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, but was inhibited by about 50% in the presence of 2.5 mM p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. Conservative estimates of the permeability coefficients of the plasma membrane of seed coat parenchyma cells for lysine, glutamic acid, and several neutral amino acids were all in the range of 4 x 10-7 cm s-1 to 9 x 10-7 cm s-1, which is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than those reported for artificial lipid bilayers. It is concluded that nonselective pores constitute a pathway in the plasma membrane for passive transport of amino acids. It is argued that this pathway is also used for the efflux of endogenous amino acids, the process by which nitrogen becomes available for the embryo. PMID:12223741

De Jong, A.; Koerselman-Kooij, J. W.; Schuurmans, JAMJ.; Borstlap, A. C.

1997-01-01

390

Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many carbonaceous chondrites contain alteration products from water-rock interactions at low temperature and organic compounds. A fascinating fact known for decades is the presence in some of them of an assortment of organic compounds, including amino acids, sometimes called the building blocks of life. Murchison and other CM carbonaceous chondrites contain hundreds of amino acids. Early measurements indicated that the amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites had equal proportions of L- and D-structures, a situation called racemic. This was in sharp contrast to life on Earth, which heavily favors L- forms. However, beginning in 1997, John Cronin and Sandra Pizzarello (Arizona State University) found L- excesses in isovaline and several other amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. In 2009, Daniel Glavin and Jason Dworkin (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center) reported the first independent confirmation of L-isovaline excesses in Murchison using a different analytical technique than employed by Cronin and Pizzarello. Inspired by this work, Daniel Glavin, Michael Callahan, Jason Dworkin, and Jamie Elsila (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center), have done an extensive study of the abundance and symmetry of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites that experienced a range of alteration by water in their parent asteroids. The results show that amino acids are more abundant in the less altered meteorites, implying that aqueous processing changes the mix of amino acids. They also confirmed the enrichment in L-structures of some amino acids, especially isovaline, confirming earlier work. The authors suggest that aqueously-altered planetesimals might have seeded the early Earth with nonracemic amino acids, perhaps explaining why life from microorganisms to people use only L- forms to make proteins. The initial imbalance caused by non-biologic processes in wet asteroids might have been amplified by life on Earth. Alternatively, the same processes that produced the L-amino acid excesses in carbonaceous asteroids also operated on the early Earth.

Taylor, G. J.

2011-04-01

391

Kinetics of amino acid and glucose absorption following pancreatic diversion in the pig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was conducted in the pig to determine the consequences of deprivation of exocrine pancreatic secretion on the composition and quantity of nutrients absorbed after intake of a balanced diet. Five growing pigs (53.8 kg body weight) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein and the carotid artery and with an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein to measure the exchanges between the blood and the intestinal lumen. They were also fitted with a permanent catheter in the duct of Wirsung to educe the exocrine pancreatic secretion and another one in the duodenum in order to reintroduce it. In each animal, glucose, amino-N and amino acid absorption as well as insulin and glucagon production were measured over a period of 10 h after the meal (semi-purified diet based on purified starch and containing 180 g fish meal/kg, DM content of the meal 731 g), either in the presence of pancreatic juice (group C: immediate reintroduction), or in the absence of pancreatic juice (group D: deprivation). The deprivation of pancreatic juice provoked a marked depression in the absorption of glucose (D 67.9 (SEM 27.9) g/10 h, C 437.7 (SEM 39.5) g/10 h, P < 0.001), and of amino-N (D 7.55 (SEM 0.54) g/10 h, C 15.80 (SEM 0.79) g/10 h, P < 0.001). The composition of the mixture of amino acids in the portal blood was only slightly modified: only the levels of histidine (P < 0.05) and of valine (P < 0.06, NS) decreased in the absence of pancreatic juice. Insulin production was much lower (by 64%, P < 0.05) in the absence of pancreatic juice whereas that of glucagon was not affected.

Rerat, A.; Calmes, R.; Corring, T.; Vaissade, P.

1996-01-01

392

Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

2001-01-01

393

The putative Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation, and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9) was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the soluble amino acid leaf pools were lower in the over-expressor, compared with cat9-1. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations, slightly delayed development, and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis.

Yang, Huaiyu; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ludewig, Uwe

2015-01-01

394

Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product ?-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with increased sediment depth and age (up to 288-year-old) reaching up to 59%. Independent estimates based on D-amino acid concentrations in selected laboratory strains, bacterial counts and the sedimentary concentrations of D-amino acids indicate that a large fraction of the measured D-amino acids (>47 to >97%) originated from cell wall residues rather than from enumerated cells.

Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

2006-06-01

395

[Concentration of free amino acids in the blood plasma of sheep with different amounts of nitrogen in the feed].  

PubMed

Trials were conducted with four adult sheep of the Merino breed, live weight 45 to 50 kg, fed two diets with different nitrogen levels (7.6 g nitrogen per day as protein or 24 g nitrogen per day with an addition of 17.4 g urea nitrogen to 7.6 g nitrogen as protein). The following findings were obtained: the concentration of free amino acids in blood plasma in the 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th and 22nd weeks from the beginning of feeding with both diets was lower, in most of the analyzed amino acids, three hours after feeding than before feeding. The results show that at an increased intake of urea nitrogen the concentration increases of the free amino acids lysine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, valine and isoleucine before feeding. Three hours after feeding these differences are less pronounced. An increase is only recorded in the concentration of arginine, glutamic acid and glycine, whereas the concentration of alanine decreases. PMID:6412416

Tomás, J; Michnová, E

1983-01-01

396

How Do Haloarchaea Synthesize Aromatic Amino Acids?  

PubMed Central

Genomic analysis of H. salinarum indicated that the de novo pathway for aromatic amino acid (AroAA) biosynthesis does not follow the classical pathway but begins from non-classical precursors, as is the case for M. jannaschii. The first two steps in the pathway were predicted to be carried out by genes OE1472F and OE1475F, while the 3rd step follows the canonical pathway involving gene OE1477R. The functions of these genes and their products were tested by biochemical and genetic methods. In this study, we provide evidence that supports the role of proteins OE1472F and OE1475F catalyzing consecutive enzymatic reactions leading to the production of 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), after which AroAA production proceeds via the canonical pathway starting with the formation of DHS (dehydroshikimate), catalyzed by the product of ORF OE1477R. Nutritional requirements and AroAA uptake studies of the mutants gave results that were consistent with the proposed roles of these ORFs in AroAA biosynthesis. DNA microarray data indicated that the 13 genes of the canonical pathway appear to be utilised for AroAA biosynthesis in H. salinarum, as they are differentially expressed when cells are grown in medium lacking AroAA. PMID:25216252

Gulko, Miriam Kolog; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Gonzalez, Orland; Oesterhelt, Dieter

2014-01-01

397

Amino acid sensing in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Rapid progress in gastroenterology during the first part of the last century has shown that gastrointestinal (GI) function is regulated by neuroendocrine, paracrine and endocrine signals. However, recent advances in chemical sensing, especially in the last decade, have revealed that free L-amino acids (AA), among other nutrients, play a critical role in modifying exocrine and endocrine secretion, modulating protein digestion, metabolism and nutrient utilization, and supporting the integrity and defense of the GI mucosa. Many of the mechanisms by which AAs elicit these functions in the GI has been linked to the traditional concept of hormone release and nervous system activation. But most these effects are not direct. AAs appear to function by binding to a chemical communication system such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate signaling pathways. These intracellular signals, although their molecular bases are not completely elucidated yet, are the ones responsible for the neuronal activity and release of hormones that in turn regulate GI functions. This review aims to describe the distribution of the known GPCRs from the class 3 superfamily that bind to different kinds of AA, especially from the oropharyngeal cavity to the stomach, what kind of taste qualities they elicit, such as umami, bitter or sweet, and their activity in the GI tract. PMID:22865248

San Gabriel, Ana; Uneyama, Hisayuki

2013-09-01

398

Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System  

PubMed Central

Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin. PMID:19582225

Fujioka, Kouki; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Shiohara, Tomoo; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

2009-01-01

399

Transaminases for the synthesis of enantiopure beta-amino acids  

PubMed Central

Optically pure ?-amino acids constitute interesting building blocks for peptidomimetics and a great variety of pharmaceutically important compounds. Their efficient synthesis still poses a major challenge. Transaminases (also known as aminotransferases) possess a great potential for the synthesis of optically pure ?-amino acids. These pyridoxal 5'-dependent enzymes catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor substrate to an acceptor, thus enabling the synthesis of a wide variety of chiral amines and amino acids. Transaminases can be applied either for the kinetic resolution of racemic compounds or the asymmetric synthesis starting from a prochiral substrate. This review gives an overview over microbial transaminases with activity towards ?-amino acids and their substrate spectra. It also outlines current strategies for the screening of new biocatalysts. Particular emphasis is placed on activity assays which are applicable to high-throughput screening. PMID:22293122

2012-01-01

400

Effect of KCl and KNO3 on Partial Molal Volumes and Partial Molal Compressibilities of Some Amino Acids at Different Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density ( ?) and ultrasonic velocity ( u) values of amino acids l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, and l-leucine in 2M aqueous KCl and 2M aqueous KNO3 solutions have been measured as a function of amino acid concentration at different temperatures (298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, 318.15 K, and 323.15 K). Using the ? and u data, partial molal volume ({?_v^o}) and partial molal isentropic compressibility ({?_k^o }) values have been computed. The increase in partial molal volume with temperature has been attributed to the volume expansion of hydrated zwitterions. The {?_v^o} and {?_k^o} values of l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, and l-leucine in 2M aqueous KCl and KNO3 solutions have been found to be larger than the corresponding values in water. The larger partial molal volumes of l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, and l-leucine in 2M aqueous KCl and KNO3 solutions have been ascribed to the formation of ‘zwitterion-K+/Cl-/NO{3/-}’ and ‘K+/Cl-/NO{3/-}-water dipole’ aggregates in solutions. The formation of these entities in solutions causes the release of water associated with zwitterions to the bulk water. The larger partial molal compressibilities of l-alanine-/ l-proline-/ l-valine-/ l-leucine-2M aqueous KCl/KNO3 solutions than the corresponding values in water have been attributed to the formation of ‘zwitterion-ion’ and ‘ion-water dipole’ incompressible entities in solutions.

Riyazuddeen; Khan, Imran

2009-04-01

401

On the abiotic formation of amino acids I. HCN as a precursor of amino acids detected in extracts of lunar samples II. Formation of HCN and amino acids from simulated mixtures of gases released from lunar samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two studies on the abiotic formation of amino acids are presented. The first study demonstrates the role of hydrogen cyanide as a precursor of amino acids detected in extracts of lunar samples. The formation of several amino acids, including glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, under conditions similar to those used for the analysis of lunar samples is

S. Yuasa; D. Flory; B. Basile; J. Oró

1984-01-01

402

Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake.  

PubMed

The influence of protein and amino acid on the control of food intake and the specific control of protein and amino acid intakes remains incompletely understood. The most commonly accepted conclusions are: (1) the existence of an aversive response to diets deficient in or devoid of protein or deficient in at least one essential amino acid; (2) the existence of a mechanism that enables attainment of the minimum requirement for N and essential amino acids by increasing intake of a low-protein diet; (3) a decrease in the intake of a high-protein diet is associated with different processes, including the high satiating effect of protein. Ingested proteins are believed to generate pre- and post-absorptive signals that contribute to the control of gastric kinetics, pancreatic secretion and food intake. At the brain level, two major afferent pathways are involved in protein and amino acid monitoring: the indirect neuro-mediated (mainly vagus-mediated) pathway and the direct blood pathway. The neuro-mediated pathway transfers pre-absorptive and visceral information. This information is for the main part transferred through the vagus nerve that innervates part of the oro-sensory zone: the stomach, the duodenum and the liver. Other information is directly monitored in the blood. It is likely that the system responds precisely when protein and essential amino acid intake is inadequate, but in contrast allows a large range of adaptive capacities through amino acid degradation and substrate interconversion. PMID:15384319

Tome, Daniel

2004-08-01

403

Designing amino acid residues with single-conformations.  

PubMed

Drug design can benefit from the use of non-coded amino acids, such as alpha-amino isobutyric acids (Aib) or sarcosine (N-methyl-glycine). Non-coded amino acids can confer resistance to enzymatic degradation and increase the conformational stability of the peptides. We have simulated the conformational effects of combining N-methylation, bulky groups on the Calpha atom and/or thioamides using the class II CFF91 force field and our thioamide force field parameters. Although single amino acid substitutions (e.g. Aib) can restrict the available conformations, they do not necessarily lead to unique conformers, however, we predict that some of the amino acids described in this report will fold to a single phi, psi conformation (e.g. N-methylated and thioamide penicillamine). Several other amino acid/thiopeptide combinations were designed, which are predicted to prefer only two conformations. Novel amino acids of this type should prove useful for designing peptides with defined conformations. PMID:16799150

Tran, Tran T; Treutlein, Herbert; Burgess, Antony W

2006-09-01

404

Inorganic Surface and Structure Adhesion of Amino Acids and Peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions at the interface of biological molecules and inorganic materials are an open question in materials science; understanding these hybrid interfaces at the molecular level can have extensive basic and practical implications. In an extensive set of measurements we have systematically examined the adhesion of amino acids to a series of inorganic surfaces used in semiconductor devices. Peptides comprised of each of the twenty amino acids were exposed in solution to surfaces including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. Significant differential adhesion to the various surfaces is observed over the complement of amino acids, with adhesion determined largely by the amino acid side-chain charge. Mapping of adhesion findings for the amino acids versus materials in multiple solutions has been accomplished, in addition to examination of concentration and pH dependence. These results provide an empirical basis for building peptide to inorganic surface structures. In this vein, we have designed inorganic nano-structures using molecular beam epitaxy that are shown to selectively bind to prescribed primary peptide sequences. The inorganic structures fabricated here are shown to be able to discriminate between peptides with differences of only two to four amino acids. This surprising specific differential adhesion in both open surfaces to varied amino acids and in nanoscale structures to peptides is examined for the physical processes at play.

Dunkleberger, Larue; Willett, Robert; Pfeiffer, Loren

2006-03-01

405

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

406

Amino acid composition of human uterine fluid: association with age, lifestyle and gynaecological pathology  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Do the amino acid levels of human uterine fluid vary with age, BMI, phase of menstrual cycle, benign pathology or diet? SUMMARY ANSWER The levels of 18 amino acids in human uterine fluid were shown to be affected only by maternal diet. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Murine, bovine and ovine uterine amino acid content has been reported, but no reliable data on the human exist. Murine studies have demonstrated that the intrauterine periconceptional nutritional environment is affected by maternal diet. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Uterine secretions were aspirated from 56 women aged 18–45 years. The women were recruited preoperatively from gynaecological theatre operating schedules or hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy) lists. A proportion of these women had proven fertility; however, the majority were being investigated for subfertility. The BMI, gynaecological history and dietary pattern of these women were also assessed. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the concentrations of 18 amino acids within the uterine fluid and blood serum. The results were analysed against the women's stage of cycle, age, BMI and diet. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The profile of 18 amino acids in uterine fluid was described. In total, human uterine fluid was observed to contain an amino acid concentration of 3.54 mM (interquartile range: 2.27–6.24 mM). The relative concentrations of 18 amino acids were not significantly altered by age, BMI, cycle phase or the presence of specific benign gynaecological pathologies. However, a diet identified by a validated scoring system as being less healthy was associated with higher concentrations of asparagine (P = 0.018), histidine (P = 0.011), serine (P = 0.033), glutamine (P = 0.049), valine (P = 0.025), phenylalanine (P = 0.019), isoleucine (P = 0.025) and leucine (P = 0.043) in the uterine fluid compared with a healthier diet, defined as one with a higher intake of fresh vegetables, fruit, whole-grain products and fish and a low intake of red and processed meat and high fat dairy products. There were no significant correlations between serum amino acid concentrations and those in the uterine fluid. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Our results enabled us to detect the effect of diet on the concentrations of amino acids in human uterine fluid; however, the study may not have had sufficient numbers to detect mild effects of BMI or age. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings increase our understanding of the nutritional environment encountered by the preimplantation embryo, and indicate how periconceptional diet may alter this. Given the importance of early embryo environment for programming of development and future health, this information may aid in the development of nutritional interventions aimed at optimizing the preimplantation phase of human embryo development in vivo. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was funded by the NIHR, the Medical Research Council (G0701153) and the University of Southampton and was supported by the NIHR BRC in Nutrition and Southampton University NHS Foundation Trust. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. PMID:25697730

Kermack, Alexandra J.; Finn-Sell, Sarah; Cheong, Ying C.; Brook, Nicholas; Eckert, Judith J.; Macklon, Nick S.; Houghton, Franchesca D.

2015-01-01

407

40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

2013-07-01

408

40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). 721...721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). ...generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN...

2013-07-01

409

37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications...Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent...

2013-07-01

410

37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications...Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent...

2014-07-01

411

Accuracies of Ancestral Amino Acid Sequences Inferred by the Parsimony, Likelihood, and Distance Methods  

E-print Network

Accuracies of Ancestral Amino Acid Sequences Inferred by the Parsimony, Likelihood, and Distance- cestral organisms is important for identifying critical amino acid substitutions that have caused amino acids inferred by two currently available methods (maximum- parsimony [MP] and maximum

Zhang, Jianzhi

412

37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications...Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent...

2011-07-01

413

40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

2014-07-01

414

40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

2010-07-01

415

4 Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain M. Cansev . R. J. Wurtman  

E-print Network

4 Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain M. Cansev . R. J. Wurtman 1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 60 2 Sources of Aromatic Amino Acids .............................................................. 61 3 Plasma Concentrations of the Aromatic Amino Acids ......................................... 62 3

Wurtman, Richard

416

40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

2012-07-01

417

40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). 721...721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). ...identified generically as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN...

2013-07-01

418

40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

2011-07-01

419

40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

2014-07-01

420

40 CFR 721.10380 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. 721.10380...Substances § 721.10380 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. (a) Chemical...substance identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto- (PMN...

2012-07-01

421

40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

2012-07-01

422

40 CFR 721.10380 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. 721.10380...Substances § 721.10380 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. (a) Chemical...substance identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto- (PMN...

2014-07-01

423

40 CFR 721.10380 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. 721.10380...Substances § 721.10380 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. (a) Chemical...substance identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto- (PMN...

2013-07-01

424

37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications...Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent...

2012-07-01

425

40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

2010-07-01

426

40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate...Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate...substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl,...

2014-07-01

427