Sample records for amino acid valine

  1. Plasma Amino Acid Response Curve and Amino Acid Requirements in Young Men: Valine and Lysine l\\/2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VERNON R. YOUNG; KRAISED TONTISIRIN; IMRAN Ã-ZALP

    A total of 14 young men were studied to determine the relation ships between the concentration of free valine or lysine in blood plasma, and the dietary intake and daily requirement for each of these amino acids. The diet, containing an L-amino acid mixture, which was patterned as in egg protein, supplied nitrogen equivalent to about 0.5 g egg protein

  2. Leucine affects the metabolism of valine by isolated perfused rat hearts: relation to branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Harper, A E

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of leucine on the transport, transamination and oxidation of valine and on incorporation of valine into heart proteins in the isolated perfused rat heart. Valine metabolism was studied in rat hearts perfused with medium containing glucose and graded levels of L-leucine. In transport studies L-phenylalanine was also tested. Uptake of L-[1-14C]valine (0.2 mmol/L) was significantly reduced (-50%) by inclusion of 0.2 mmol/L phenylalanine or leucine, and by -70% by inclusion of 1.0 mmol/L phenylalanine or leucine in the perfusate. Transamination of valine decreased by 37 and 48%, and oxidation of valine by 53 and 71%, respectively, when 0.2 or 1.0 mmol/L leucine was included in the perfusate. Tissue concentrations of valine decreased by 43, 48 and 62% in the presence of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mmol/L leucine, respectively; tissue concentrations of leucine, glutamate and alanine increased approximately 11-fold, 1.2-fold and 0.5-fold, respectively, when 1.0 mmol/L leucine was present in the perfusate. Addition of 0.2-1.0 mmol/L leucine did not affect incorporation of valine into heart proteins. We conclude that 1) competition among large neutral amino acids for transport into heart occurs at physiological concentrations of these amino acids in plasma; 2) inhibition of valine uptake by leucine can limit the rate of valine catabolism in heart; and 3) depletion of tissue valine concentration by an excess of leucine did not affect the rate of protein synthesis. PMID:7616305

  3. A detailed study on the decomposition pathways of the amino acid valine upon dissociative electron attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denifl, S.; Flosadóttir, H. D.; Edtbauer, A.; Ingólfsson, O.; Märk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

    2010-10-01

    In the present study we investigate free electron attachment to the amino acid valine. Mass spectra and anion efficiency curves are measured in the electron energy range from about zero eV to about 15 eV and the anionic fragments are analyzed with a double focusing mass spectrometer. The high sensitivity of the present setup allows the detection of 10 fragment anions that have not been reported before and the high mass resolution of our sector field mass spectrometer allows us the separation and identification of isobaric anions. Thus the isobaric ion pairs, CN-/C2H_2^-, and O-/NH_2^-, can be identified and assigned to individual resonances. For some of the heavier fragment anions formed we have studied collision induced dissociation to collect more information on the structures of these anions.

  4. Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer's wort.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    Undesirable butter-tasting vicinal diketones are produced as by-products of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis during wort fermentation. One promising method of decreasing diacetyl production is through control of wort valine content since valine is involved in feedback inhibition of enzymes controlling the formation of diacetyl precursors. Here, the influence of valine supplementation, wort amino acid profile and free amino nitrogen content on diacetyl formation during wort fermentation with the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus was investigated. Valine supplementation (100 to 300 mg L(-1)) resulted in decreased maximum diacetyl concentrations (up to 37 % lower) and diacetyl concentrations at the end of fermentation (up to 33 % lower) in all trials. Composition of the amino acid spectrum of the wort also had an impact on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione production during fermentation. No direct correlation between the wort amino acid concentrations and diacetyl production was found, but rather a negative correlation between the uptake rate of valine (and also other branched-chain amino acids) and diacetyl production. Fermentation performance and yeast growth were unaffected by supplementations. Amino acid addition had a minor effect on higher alcohol and ester composition, suggesting that high levels of supplementation could affect the flavour profile of the beer. Modifying amino acid profile of wort, especially with respect to valine and the other branched-chain amino acids, may be an effective way of decreasing the amount of diacetyl formed during fermentation. PMID:23677441

  5. Amino acid catabolism and antibiotic synthesis: valine is a source of precursors for macrolide biosynthesis in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, L; Zhang, Y X; Hutchinson, C R

    1994-01-01

    Targeted inactivation of the valine (branched-chain amino acid) dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was used to study the role of valine catabolism in the production of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae and spiramycin in Streptomyces ambofaciens. The deduced products of the vdh genes, cloned and sequenced from S. fradiae C373.1 and S. ambofaciens ATCC 15154, are approximately 80% identical over all 363 amino acids and 96% identical over a span of the first N-terminal 107 amino acids, respectively, to the deduced product of the Streptomyces coelicolor vdh gene. The organization of the regions flanking the vdh genes is the same in all three species. Inactivation of the genomic copy of the vdh gene in S. fradiae and S. ambofaciens by insertion of a hygromycin resistance (hyg) gene caused loss of the valine dehydrogenase (Vdh) activity, and thus only one enzyme is responsible for the Vdh activity in these organisms. Analysis of the culture broth by bioassay revealed that the vdh::hyg mutants produce an approximately sixfold-lower level of tylosin and an approximately fourfold-lower level of spiramycin than the wild-type S. fradiae and S. ambofaciens strains, while maintaining essentially identical growth in a defined minimal medium with either 25 mM ammonium ion or 0.05% asparagine as the nitrogen source. The addition of the valine catabolite, propionate or isobutyrate, and introduction of the wild-type vdh gene back to each vdh::hyg mutant reversed the negative effect of the vdh::hyg mutation on spiramycin and tylosin production. These data show that the catabolism of valine is a major source of fatty acid precursors for macrolide biosynthesis under defined growth conditions and imply that amino acid catabolism is a vital source of certain antibiotic precursors in actinomycetes. Images PMID:7928973

  6. A novel method of preparing totally alpha-deuterated amino acids for selective incorporation into proteins. Application to assignment of 1H resonances of valine residues in dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Feeney, J; Birdsall, B; Ostler, G; Carr, M D; Kairi, M

    1990-10-15

    The pyridoxal/2H2O exchange reaction of the alpha-CH of amino acids is known to be accompanied by racemisation: Thus by using a D-amino acid as the starting material any L-amino acid formed in the reaction will be essentially fully deuterated at its alpha-position. We have used this method to prepare alpha-deuterated L-valine and incorporated this biosynthetically into L. casei dihydrofolate reductase. A comparison of the alpha CH-NH fingerprint regions of COSY spectra of deuterated and normal DHFR complexes allows one to identify cross-peaks from 15 of the 16 valine residues. PMID:2121536

  7. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens. PMID:25409658

  8. BranchedChain Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Pátek

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are synthesized by bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and plants, but are essential for vertebrates including humans, who must receive them from their\\u000a diet. The interest to construct overproducing industrial strains therefore stems from the need to supplement\\u000a the food or feed with these amino acids to use them in medical treatment and as

  9. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  10. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on plasma amino acids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Gredal; S. E. Møller

    1996-01-01

    Although the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown, biological findings suggest that the excitatory amino acid glutamate contributes to the pathogenesis of ALS. In previous studies of ALS, the therapeutic effect of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, valine and isoleucine has been evaluated. The present study aimed at investigating the acute effect of BCAAs on plasma glutamate

  11. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  12. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on placental amino acid transfer and insulin and glucagon release in the ovine fetus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Józwik; Cecilia Teng; Randall B. Wilkening; Giacomo Meschia; Janet Tooze; Misoo Chung; Frederick C. Battaglia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Competition for placental amino acid transporters can affect the fetal supply of amino acids. Specifically, the branched-chain amino acids—isoleucine, leucine, and valine—may inhibit the transfer of other amino acids. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of branched-chain amino acids on the umbilical uptake of amino acids. Study Design: Six late-gestation ewes were infused sequentially for 2 hours

  13. Inhibitors of Branched Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Herbicides that inhibit the production of the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are used for total vegetation management and selective weed control in a wide variety of crops.  There are currently four different chemical families that share this MOA.  Before the development of glyphosate-tolerance crop technology, branched chain amino acid inhibitors were the mainstay for several major row crops.  While this is still a very important herbicide MOA, the major increase in herbicide resistance weeds since 1980 has been the direct result selection pressure from these herbicides.  There are currently more weed species resistant to branched chain amino acid inhibitors than any other herbicide MOA.

  14. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  15. Anaerobic Amino Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reggiani; A. Bertani

    2003-01-01

    Anoxic stress induces a strong change in sugar, protein, and amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Sugars are rapidly consumed through the anaerobic glycolysis to sustain energy production. Protein degradation under anoxia is a mechanism to release free amino acids contributing in this way to maintaining the osmotic potential of the tissue under stress. Among free amino acids, a particular

  16. Prebiotic Synthesis of Hydrophobic and Protein Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ring, David; Wolman, Yecheskel; Friedmann, Nadav; Miller, Stanley L.

    1972-01-01

    The formation of amino acids by the action of electric discharges on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia was studied in detail. The presence of glycine, alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, isovaline, leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, norleucine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, allothreonine, ?-hydroxy-?-aminobutyric acid, and ?,?-diaminobutyric acid was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All of the primary ?-amino acids found in the Murchison Meteorite have been synthesized by this electric discharge experiment. PMID:4501592

  17. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  18. An Arabidopsis mutant disrupted in valine catabolism is also compromised in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Peter R; Eastmond, Peter J; Madagan, Kathryn; Graham, Ian A

    2004-07-30

    Characterisation of the Arabidopsis dbr5 mutant, which was isolated on the basis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) resistance, revealed that it is disrupted in the CHY1 gene. CHY1 encodes a peroxisomal protein that is 43% identical to the mammalian beta-hydroxyisobutryl-CoA hydrolase of valine catabolism. We show that 2,4-DB resistance and the associated sucrose dependent seedling growth are due to a large activity decrease of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, which is involved in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. (14)C-feeding studies demonstrate that dbr5 and chy1 seedlings are reduced in valine catabolism. These data support the hypothesis that CHY1 plays a key role in peroxisomal valine catabolism and that disruption of this enzyme results in accumulation of a toxic intermediate, methacrylyl-CoA, that inhibits 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activity and thus blocks peroxisomal beta-oxidation. We also show that CHY1 is repressed in seedlings grown on sugars, which suggests that branched chain amino acid catabolism is transcriptionally regulated by nutritional status. PMID:15280033

  19. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  20. Kidney amino acid transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

  1. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  2. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  3. Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

    1997-02-15

    Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

  4. Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

    1997-01-01

    Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

  5. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  6. Ab initio investigation of the hydration of deprotonated amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Michaux; Johan Wouters; Eric A. Perpète; Denis Jacquemin

    2009-01-01

    The complexation of five deprotonated anionic amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-Aspartic acid, and L-glutamine)\\u000a with one water molecule, has been investigated using a MP2\\/63-11++G(d,p) approach fully accounting for the basis set superposition\\u000a errors. For each amino acid, several energetic minima have been identified, and we provide spectroscopic information allowing\\u000a to discriminate them. Our results strongly suggest that two complexes

  7. Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women 1,2

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women 1,2 Benjamin Caballero, Ray E Gleason, and Richard J Wurtman ABSTRACf Postabsorptive plasma concentrations of the large neutral amino. Plasma concentrations of valine, leucine, and isoleucine were significantly lower in young females than

  8. Quantification of racemization of amino acids in alkaline-treated duck eggs by micellar capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chang, H M; Tsai, C F; Li, C F

    1999-02-01

    Duck eggs were pickled in 4.2% NaOH/5% NaCl solution for 20 days to prepare the traditional Chinese Pidan. The extent of racemization of compositional amino acid in egg albumen and yolk over the alkaline pickling period was investigated with micellar capillary electrophoresis (MCE) using beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. The racemization value of amino acids in egg albumen was in the order serine > aspartic acid > glutamic acid > phenylalanine > leucine > valine > threonine = isoleucine, whereas the order in egg yolk was aspartic acid > glutamic acid > phenylalanine > leucine > valine. Therefore, the tendency of amino acid racemization appeared to be closely related to the properties of its residual side chain, as well as the pH and alkaline treating period. Moreover, racemization of most of the amino acids was remarkably induced by the alkaline treatment during the initial pickling period. PMID:10563920

  9. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  10. Branched-chain Amino Acid Metabolon

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R. Max; Mobley, James A.; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain ?-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain ?-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5?-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5?-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5?-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate. PMID:19858196

  11. Dielectric and vibrational properties of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tulip, P R; Clark, S J

    2004-09-15

    We calculate polarizability tensors and normal mode frequencies for the amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine using density functional perturbation theory implemented within the plane wave pseudopotential framework. It is found that the behavior of the electron density under external fields depends to a large extent on the geometrical structure of the molecule in question, rather than simply on the constituent functional groups. The normal modes are able to help distinguish between the different types of intramolecular hydrogen bonding present, and help to explain why leucine is found in the zwitterionic form for the gaseous phase. Calculated IR spectra show a marked difference between those obtained for zwitterionic and nonzwitterionic molecules. These differences can be attributed to the different chemical and hydrogen bonds present. Effective dynamical charges are calculated, and compared to atomic charges obtained from Mulliken population analysis. It is found that disagreement exists, largely due to the differing origins of these quantities. PMID:15352813

  12. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and BranchedChain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey E. Kazakov; Dmitry A. Rodionov; Eric Alm; Adam Paul Arkin; Inna Dubchak; Mikhail S. Gelfand

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e., isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FAs) as sole carbon and energy sources converting ILV into acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), propanoyl-CoA, and propionyl- CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcrip- tional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The

  13. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  14. Amino Acids as Gustatory Stimuli in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Bruce P.; Bernard, Rudy A.; Kare, Morley R.

    1962-01-01

    Neural activity in intact chorda tympani nerve of rats was studied with an electronic summator. Neural activity increased when amino acid solutions 0.01 M or above passed over the tongue. Response magnitude, at concentrations close to solubility limits for the amino acids tested, was: DL-methionine < DL-tryptophan < DL-valine < DL-alanine < glycine < 0.1 M NaCl. Maximum response magnitudes to 1 M D-, and 1.2 M DL-alanine, and 1.5 M glycine developed in 1 to 3 minutes. Following such stimulation, a 63 per cent reduction in response to 0.1 M NaCl occurred 60 minutes after the first stimulation (medians). The depression was still present 20 hours later. Responses to glycine and alanine were not depressed. Amino acids vs. water preferences were investigated. With ascending concentration sequences, rats selected low concentration DL- and L-alanine and glycine; accepted D-, L-, and DL-tryptophan and low concentration DL-methionine; and rejected high concentration glycine, DL-alanine, and DL-methionine. Descending sequences showed depressed and delayed selection of glycine and DL-alanine, and DL-methionine and D- and L-tryptophan rejection. Both groups rejected DL-valine. It is concluded that glycine and alanine receptor effects differ from those of NaCl, but that all three compounds may affect a common receptor site. Prior exposure to amino acids may modify subsequent neural and/or behavioral responses. PMID:13903994

  15. Piezoelectricity in protein amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    The piezoelectric activity of protein amino acids and their compounds has been measured using the pulse method at a frequency of 10 MHz. It has been established that, at room temperature, the piezoelectric effect is not observed in ?-glycine (achiral amino acid) and protein amino acids of the L modification, namely, methionine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. An assumption has been made that this phenomenon is associated with the enhanced damping of elastic vibrations excited in samples due to the piezoelectric effect.

  16. Branched chain amino acids as source of specific branched chain volatile fatty acids during the fermentation process of fish sauce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Sanceda; E. Suzuki; T. Kurata

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?The source of the formation of branched chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) in fish sauce was investigated. Certain branched\\u000a VFA were derived from the degradation of specific amino acids as iso-butyric acid from valine and iso-valeric acid from leucine. Short and long straight chain VFA were significantly higher in the linoleic acid added sample\\u000a than in the control but did

  17. Dietary management of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism with protein-modified diets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents experiences encountered with protein-modified diets (PMD) in the management of 67 patients, aged 1 day to 14 years, followed in the Pediatric Nutrition Clinic in the past 5 years. All had inborn errors of amino acid metabolism: maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency, propionic acidemia (PPA), or methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). In early infancy, the diet prescription is frequently adjusted to search for the infant's tolerance level of restricted amino acids. The levels must be established when natural foods other than milk are added to the PMD. The amino acids restricted are leucine, isoleucine, and valine in MSUD; leucine in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency; and isoleucine, methionine, threonine, and valine in PPA and MMA. Efficacy of the PMD depends on accuracy in prediction of the restricted amino acid requirement and the willingness and ability of parents and patients to conform to its demands. PMID:1588021

  18. Abiotic Formation of Valine Peptides Under Conditions of High Temperature and High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, ?-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years.

  19. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  20. AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM B. KINTER; T. HASTINGS WILSON

    1965-01-01

    Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles

  1. Relationship between Auxin and Amino Acid Metabolism of Tobacco Protoplast-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marion-Poll, Annie; Caboche, Michel

    1984-01-01

    Single amino acids were found to be highly toxic to protoplast-derived cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cultured at low density in a culture medium containing a low naphthaleneacetic acid concentration (0.05 micromolar). The cytotoxicities of alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, lysine, proline, and valine were reduced when the naphthaleneacetic acid concentration of the culture medium was increased to 1 micromolar. This selective modification of amino acid toxicity by naphthaleneacetic acid could not be correlated with modifications of uptake rates or incorporation of these amino acids into protein or amino acid-auxin conjugates. A mutant clone resistant to high naphthaleneacetic acid concentrations and affected in root morphogenesis did not display, at the cellular level, the naphthaleneacetic acidmediated modification of amino acid cytotoxicity. Images Fig. 7 PMID:16663732

  2. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hutson, S M; Fenstermacher, D; Mahar, C

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-14C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso[1-14C]valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and [1-14C]KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM [1-14C]KIV and alpha-ketoiso[1-14C]caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using [1-14C]leucine and [1-14C]valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of [1-14C]leucine or [1-14C]valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized. Further addition of alpha-ketoglutarate resulted in a significant increase in the rate of labeled leucine or valine transamination, but again most of the labeled keto acid product was oxidized. Thus, catabolism of branched chain amino acids will be favored by a high concentration of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate and low intramitochondrial glutamate. PMID:3346211

  3. Amino acids as natural inhibitors for hydrate formation in CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Chun, Hee Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-07-01

    The motivation for this work was the potential of hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine, l-alanine, and l-valine to be applied as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs). To confirm their capabilities in inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates, three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions for carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the presence of 0.1-3.0 mol % amino acid solutions were determined in the range of 273.05-281.45 K and 14.1-35.2 bar. From quantitative analyses, the inhibiting effects of the amino acids (on a mole concentration basis) decreased in the following order: l-valine > l-alanine > glycine. The application of amino acids as THIs has several potential advantages over conventional methods. First, the environmentally friendly nature of amino acids as compared to conventional inhibitors means that damage to ecological systems and the environment could be minimized. Second, the loss of amino acids in recovery process would be considerably reduced because amino acids are nonvolatile. Third, amino acids have great potential as a model system in which to investigate the inhibition mechanism on the molecular level, since the structure and chemical properties of amino acids are well understood. PMID:21663046

  4. Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

    2011-03-01

    Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

  5. Pseudo-poly(amino acid)s: study on construction and characterization of novel chiral and thermally stable nanostructured poly(ester-imide)s containing different trimellitylimido-amino acid-based diacids and pyromellitoyl-tyrosine-based diol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shadpour Mallakpour; Fatemeh Zeraatpisheh

    2011-01-01

    A new class of chiral and potentially biodegradable poly(ester-imide)s (PEI)s as pseudo-poly(amino acid)s (PAA)s bearing natural\\u000a amino acids in the main chain was synthesized. In this investigation, N,N?-(pyromellitoyl)-bis-(L-tyrosine dimethyl ester) as a biodegradable optically active diphenol and synthesized trimellitic\\u000a anhydride-derived dicarboxylic acids containing different natural amino acids such as S-valine, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine,\\u000a and L-phenylalanine were used for direct polyesterification.

  6. Amino Acids and the Mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola King

    \\u000a This chapter describes some of the important physiological functions of amino acids in the mitochondria and the alterations\\u000a caused by specific pathologies. To some extent all of the featured items are dependent upon the movement of amino acids across\\u000a the highly selective permeability barrier that is the inner mitochondrial membrane. The performance of this transport by specific\\u000a carriers is the

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    This study presents further evidence that amino acids can be synthesized rapidly in hydrothermal solutions from reactants that may have been present in primitive environments. Aqueous NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3] solutions were reacted with C[sub 2]H[sub 2], H[sub 2], and O[sub 2] (formed in situ from CaC[sub 2], Ca, and H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) at 200-275[degrees]C over 0.2-2 h periods to synthesize several amino acids and abundant amines. These amino acid and amine producing reactions were not observed to occur below 150[degrees]C. Amino acids and amines also were synthesized at 210[degrees]C from solutions of NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, NaCN, and H[sub 2]. When NH[sub 4]OH was replaced by NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3], the syntheses predominantly confirmed the recent results of Hennet et al. (1992). Additionally, amino acids and amines were observed to form by reactions among NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, and H[sub 2] at hydrothermal conditions, essentially confirming the results of Fox and Windsor (1970). Inclusion of both carbonate and O[sub 2] in these latter solutions greatly enhanced the production rate of amino acids. The amines synthesized hydrothermally could be significant if they are precursors in the amino acid syntheses either at hydrothermal or later at lower temperatures. These observations provide additional input to the current questions of synthesis, stability, and decomposition of amino acids at hydrothermal conditions, and their possible relevance to the origin of life.

  8. Amino acids and cell regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, R. P.; Goldstein, L.

    1979-01-01

    Free amino play an important role in regulating cell volume in fishes. Four tissues/cells (skeletal muscle, RBC, brain, and myocardium) of the little skate, Raja erinacea, were selected for detailed study because of their special importance or unique advantage as experimental models. Three particular amino acids, beta-alanine, taurine, and sarcosine play a predominant role in all four tissues. As in higher vertebrates, amino acid uptake in skate brain, heart, and RBC is mediated via a Na+-dependent process. Amino acids leave the skate brain rapidly in response to a sudden decrease in plasma osmolality and/or to a simultaneous drop in extracellular Na+ concentration. However, although amino acids are important for volume regulation in normal brain cells, they do not appear to be likely candidates for the unidentified "idiogenic" osmolytes in mammalian brain cells. The high concentration of taurine in skate myocardium is of special interest because of the special role of this amino acid in myocardial contractility. Thus, unlike beta-alanine and sarcosine, taurine may play a dual role in regulating both cell volume and contractility of myocardial cells. The isolated skate atrium is well suited for in vitro studies of these two processes. PMID:395764

  9. Interaction between amino acids on the performances of individually housed piglets.

    PubMed

    Millet, S; Aluwé, M; Ampe, B; De Campeneere, S

    2015-04-01

    Dietary branched-chain amino acid and tryptophan concentrations have been associated with effects on daily feed intake; this study is an extension of that research. We evaluated eight dietary treatments in a Latin square cross-over design with 32 female piglets during 8 weeks (9.9 ± 0.6 kg to 44.9 ± 2.9 kg, mean ± SD). Treatments differed in dietary standardized ileal digestible leucine (10.8 and 21.3 g/kg), valine (7.0 and 7.8 g/kg), isoleucine (6.0 or 7.3 g/kg) and tryptophan (2.0 and 2.5 g/kg) content. A longitudinal model was fitted with the level of valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan and the interactions leucine × tryptophan, valine × leucine, isoleucine × tryptophan as fixed effects. Increasing the dietary leucine content decreased feed intake (-169 g/day) and daily gain (-168 g/day) of the pigs and impaired the feed conversion ratio (+0.49 g/g) (p < 0.01 for all parameters). Adding valine to the high leucine diet counteracted the feed intake reduction partially, while effects on daily gain and feed conversion ratio were largely counteracted by adding extra valine. The positive effect on feed conversion ratio diminished over time (p = 0.001 for age × valine). Adding extra tryptophan to the high leucine diet tended to negatively affect daily gain (p = 0.081) and feed conversion ratio (p = 0.074). Adding extra dietary isoleucine together with extra valine did not further counteract the negative effects of excess dietary leucine. The present results confirmed that, with excess leucine, extra valine benefits performance. Further adding extra tryptophan or isoleucine did not improve performances. PMID:25041548

  10. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  11. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Imanari; M. Kadowaki; S. Fujimura

    2008-01-01

    1.?The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated.2.?Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile +

  12. Purification, Characterization, and Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Trypsin lnhibitor from Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Valdes-Rodriguez; Magdalena Segura-Nieto; Alicia Chagolla-Lopez; Aurora Verver; Norma Martinez-Callardo; Alejandro Blanco-Labra

    1993-01-01

    A protein proteinase inhibitor was purified from a seed extract of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) by precipitation with (NH4)2S04, gel-filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chroma- tography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatog- raphy. It is a 69-amino acid protein with a high content of valine, arginine, and glutamic acid, but lacking in methionine. The inhib- itor has a relative molecular weight of 7400 and

  13. Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of beta-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (beta-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Raju; M. Ramesh; R. Srinivas; S. Chandrasekhar; N. Kiranmai; V. U. M. Sarma

    2011-01-01

    A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived beta-amino acid (beta-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with beta-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2,

  14. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  15. Enhanced electrophoresis separation of non-electroactive amino acids on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip coupled with direct electrochemical detection on a copper electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruping LiangLi; Li Wang; Xiangying Meng; Jingwu Wang; Jianding Qiu

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical determination of amino acids on a Cu electrode was established as an attractive scheme for non-electroactive\\u000a amino acids after microchip electrophoresis separation. Five amino acids (arginine, proline, histidine, valine, and serine)\\u000a achieved efficient separation within 60 s on a titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip, and then successfully detected on a Cu electrode in end-channel detection\\u000a mode.

  16. A novel family of (1-aminoalkyl)(trifluoromethyl)- and -(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acids – analogues of ?-amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Pavlenko, Natalia V; Oos, Tatiana I; Gerus, Igor I; Doeller, Uwe; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Summary A series of novel (1-aminoalkyl)(trifluoromethyl)- and -(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acids – analogues of proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic ?-amino acids were prepared. The synthetic methodology was based on nucleophilic addition of (trifluoromethyl)phosphinic acid or (difluoromethyl)phosphinic acid or its ethyl ester to substrates with C=N or activated C=C double bonds. Analogues of glycine, phenylglycine, alanine, valine, proline, aminomalonic and aspartic acids were thus prepared. Three-component one-pot reactions of (trifluoromethyl)phosphinic acid and dibenzylamine with aldehydes were also tested to prepare the title compounds. PMID:24778725

  17. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  18. Rapid complexing of oxoacylglycerols with amino acids, peptides and aminophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kurvinen, J P; Kuksis, A; Ravandi, A; Sjövall, O; Kallio, H

    1999-03-01

    We prepared model Schiff bases from 2-[9-oxo]nonanoyl glycerol (2-MAG-ALD) and various amino compounds. 2-MAG-ALD was obtained by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of trioleoyl glycerol and reductive ozonolysis of the resulting 2-monooleoyl glycerol. The reaction products were purified by thin-layer chromatography. Schiff bases were synthesized in greater than 50% yield by reacting 2-MAG-ALD with twofold molar excess of valine, Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester and the tripeptides glycyl-glycyl-glycine, glycyl-glycyl-histidine, and glycyl-histidyl-lysine in aqueous methanol and with 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl glycerophosphoethanolamine (PE) in chloroform/methanol for 16 h at room temperature. Prior to analysis the bases were reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol for 30 min at 4 degrees C. Reaction products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/MS). Reduced Schiff bases of 2-MAG-ALD with PE and amino acids were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC/ESI/MS and those with peptides by reversed-phase HPLC/ESI/MS. Single adducts were obtained in all cases and both the alpha-amino group of valine and the epsilon-amino group of Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester were reactive. Molecular ions of reaction products were the only detected ions in the negative ionization mode, whereas in the positive ion mode sodiated molecular ions were also detected. The present study suggests that 2-MAG-ALD may form Schiff base adducts with amino compounds in other aqueous media, such as the intestinal lumen and in the hydrophobic environment of cell membranes. PMID:10230725

  19. In vitro oxidation of branched chain amino acids by porcine mammary tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Richert; R. D. Goodband; M. D. Tokach; J. L. Nelssen

    1998-01-01

    Six (three each of parity 1 and 2) lactating sows (d 10 to 17 of lactation) were used for an in vitro study to determine CO2 production from individual branched-chain amino acids. The first and second productive glands on one side of each sow were biopsied to collect mammary secretory tissue. Uniformly 14C-labeled L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine were included in

  20. Use of branched chain amino acids for treating hepatic encephalopathy: clinical experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Rossi Fanelli; C Cangiano; L Capocaccia; A Cascino; F Ceci; M Muscaritoli; G Giunchi

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of branched chain amino acids in two consecutive clinical studies in patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy was tested. In the preliminary uncontrolled study 19 patients with grade 3-4 hepatic encephalopathy were given an intravenous solution containing leucine 11 g\\/l, isoleucine 9 g\\/l, and valine 8.4 g\\/l in 20% dextrose. A complete recovery of mental state was obtained in

  1. Transport of BranchedChain Amino Acids in Membrane Vesicles of Streptococcus cremoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold J. M. Driessen; Steven de Jong; Wil N. Konings

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics, specificity, and mechanism of branched-chain amino acid transport in Streptococcus cremoris were studied in a membrane system of S. cremoris in which beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase was incorporated as a proton motive force (?p)-generating system. Influx of L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine can occur via a common transport system which is highly selective for the L-isomers of

  2. The turnover of brain monoamines after total hepatectomy in rats infused with branched chain amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mogens Bugge; Finn Bengtsson; Anders Nobin; Bengt Jeppsson; Per Herlin

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of monoamines in the brain of rats in fulminant hepatic failure was studied after administration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a total hepatectomy or a sham operation and infused intravenously for 5 hours with a 10% glucose solution alone or 10% glucose + 0.24 mol\\/l BCAA (0.08 mol\\/l of each valine,

  3. Anticonvulsant activity of cyclopentano amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Zand; Ivan Izquierdo

    1980-01-01

    The hypothesis that certain amino acid analogues possessing a five-membered ring structure or amino acid analogues that can be viewed as fragments derived from such a ring would have anticonvulsant activity was proposed and tested. The compounds 1-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid, 1-amino-3-methylcyclopentane carboxylic acid, 3-aminotetrahydrothiophene carboxylic acid, and a-aminoisobutyric acid were found to protect rats against seizures in the maximal electroshock

  4. An amino acid mixture mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; Menon, Rejeesh; Vaught, Lauren A; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-06-01

    Electrolyte and nutrient absorption occur in villous epithelial cells. Radiation often results in reduced electrolyte and nutrient absorption, which leads to gastrointestinal toxicity. Therefore, the authors studied: (1) radiation-induced changes in glucose and amino acid absorption across ileal tissues and (2) the effect of amino acid mixtures on absorptive capacity. NIH Swiss mice were irradiated (0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 Gy) using a ¹³?Cs source at 0.9 Gy min?¹. Transepithelial short circuit current (I(sc)), dilution potential, and isotope flux determinations were made in Ussing chamber studies and correlated to plasma endotoxin and IL-1? levels. Amino acids that increased electrolyte absorption and improved mucosal barrier functions were used to create a mitigating amino acid mixture (MAAM). The MAAM was given to mice via gastric gavage; thereafter, body weight and survival were recorded. A significant decrease in basal and glucose-stimulated sodium absorption occurred after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 Gy irradiation. Ussing chamber studies showed that paracellular permeability increased following irradiation and that the addition of glucose resulted in a further increase in permeability. Following irradiation, certain amino acids manifested decreased absorption, whereas others were associated with increased absorption. Lysine, aspartic acid, glycine, isoleucine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, tryptophan, and serine decreased plasma endotoxins were selected for the MAAM. Mice treated with the MAAM showed increased electrolyte absorption and decreased paracellular permeability, IL-1? levels, and plasma endotoxin levels. Mice treated with MAAM also had increased weight gain and better survival following irradiation. The MAAM has immediate potential for use in mitigating radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. PMID:24776907

  5. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs...and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

  6. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs...and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

  7. Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

  8. Clinical use of branched-chain amino acids in liver disease, sepsis, trauma, and burns.

    PubMed

    Sax, H C; Talamini, M A; Fischer, J E

    1986-03-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)--leucine, isoleucine, and valine--share unique biochemical properties that may make them useful in altered physiologic states. They can be metabolized independently of liver function to provide energy, other amino acids, or small nitrogenous compounds. This unique ability makes the BCAAs a desirable supplement in liver disease with encephalopathy and, to a lesser extent, in sepsis with hepatic dysfunction. Furthermore, the BCAAs play a role in the regulation of protein synthesis, suggesting beneficial effects in catabolic states such as postoperative stress, trauma, renal failure, and burns. However, initial studies in these areas have presented equivocal results. PMID:3080979

  9. Amino acids and gut function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Wang; S. Y. Qiao; D. F. Li

    2009-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for the absorption of nutrients, but also interacts with a complex external milieu. Most\\u000a foreign antigens enter the body through the digestive tract. Dietary amino acids are major fuels for the small intestinal\\u000a mucosa, as well as important substrates for syntheses of intestinal proteins, nitric oxide, polyamines, and other products\\u000a with enormous biological importance.

  10. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  11. Inhibition of fibroblast proliferation in L-valine reduced selective media.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, V A; Walker, R J; Duggin, G G; Phippard, A; Horvath, J S; Tiller, D J

    1992-01-01

    A selective cell culture medium, D-valine minimal essential medium (92 mg/l), has been developed to inhibit the proliferation of fibroblasts in cell culture (Gilbert & Migeon 1975). Substitution of D-valine for L-valine prevents fibroblast growth due to the absence of D-amino acid oxidase in these cells. Most cell cultures require foetal bovine serum as an essential component of the culture media, however foetal bovine serum contains L-valine, negating the value of D-valine selective media. To overcome this difficulty, we have produced a modified selective media for cell culture, by the dialysis of foetal bovine serum and confirmed its ability to inhibit fibroblast growth whilst still allowing the proliferation of epithelial cells in culture. PMID:1352645

  12. Cyclo(valine-valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M; Bina, X Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu; Bina, James E

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine-valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. PMID:24644247

  13. Cyclo(valine–valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M.; Bina, X. Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine–proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine–valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. PMID:24644247

  14. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

  15. Amino Acid Properties Conserved in Molecular Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicki, Witold R.; Mroczek, Teresa; Cudek, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts – one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications. PMID:24967708

  16. Regulation of valine catabolism in canine tissues: tissue distributions of branched-chain aminotransferase and 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex, methacrylyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Ooiwa, T; Goto, H; Tsukamoto, Y; Hayakawa, T; Sugiyama, S; Fujitsuka, N; Shimomura, Y

    1995-02-23

    To clarify the valine catabolism, the activities of principal enzymes in its catabolic pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase, branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex, methacrylyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase, were measured using canine tissues. After killing of beagle dogs, tissues (liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle and mucosae of digestive organs such as stomach, small intestine and colon) were removed and immediately frozen. Branched-chain aminotransferase activity in liver was the lowest among the tissues measured. In contrast, the activities of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex in liver as well as in kidney were relatively high and the enzyme complex activities were markedly low in small intestine and skeletal muscle. The activities of methacrylyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase were relatively high in all tissues, suggesting that a cytotoxic intermediate, methacrylyl-CoA, is immediately degraded to non-toxic compounds, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate and free CoA. These findings suggest that the consumption of branched-chain amino acids in the absorption site (small intestine) is suppressed in order to supply them to the whole body, in particular to skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle might act as a storage of gluconeogenic amino acids. The high capacity to dispose methacrylyl-CoA produced in the valine catabolism is suggested to play an important role in protecting cells against the toxic effects of methacrylyl-CoA. PMID:7873565

  17. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  18. Amino Acids Composition of Teucrium Nutlet Proteins and their Systematic Significance

    PubMed Central

    JUAN, R.; PASTOR, J.; MILLÁN, F.; ALAIZ, M.; VIOQUE, J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant species are considered as a good source of dietary proteins, although the nutritional quality of proteins depends on their amino acid composition. In this work the protein content and amino acid composition of nutlets of 21 Teucrium taxa (Lamiaceae) from Spain were analysed and their nutritional quality was compared with the minimum values established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). In addition, the amino acid composition was evaluated as a chemical character to clarify the taxonomic complexity in this genus. • Methods Amino acid content of nutlets was determined after derivatization with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Previously, nutlets samples were hydrolysed and incubated in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. • Key Results The protein content was variable, ranging from 6·4 % in T. dunense to 43·8 % in T. algarbiense. According to the FAO values all taxa contain satisfactory amounts of leucine, threonine and valine and are deficient in lysine. The similarity analysis of Teucrium taxa using amino acid composition data did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of this genus. • Conclusions Annual species, such as T. spinosum, T. aristatum and T. resupinatum showed a better balanced amino acid composition. The dendrogram partly matched with the karyological complexity of Teucrium. No correlation between amino acid composition and habitat has been observed, showing that Teucrium nutlet amino acid composition may not be strongly influenced by the environment. PMID:15329333

  19. New salts of amino acids with dimeric cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2010-10-01

    Among salts of amino acids there are compounds with the composition 2A..HX, which consist of dimeric A...A+ cations with short symmetric or asymmetric hydrogen bonds between zwitter-ionic and protonated moieties. These species are materials liable to undergo phase transitions or possess interesting nonlinear optical properties. Here, we report the preparation of 20 new salts with dimeric cations from aqueous solutions, including compounds of glycine, betaine, ?- alanine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-proline, with BF4-, ClO4-, Cl-, Br-, HSeO3-, and HC2O4-; as anions. The prepared salts are characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Some of them are grown in form of good quality single crystals, which allowed the determination of their crystal structure.

  20. Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

    2012-12-01

    The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

  1. Sugar amino acids in designing new molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Srinivasu, Pothukanuri; Tapadar, Subhasish; Mohan, Bajjuri Krishna

    2005-03-01

    Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. This article describes some of our works on various sugar amino acids and many other related building blocks, like furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. used in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies. PMID:16133829

  2. N5-(1-carboxyethyl)-ornithine, a new amino acid from the intracellular pool of Streptococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Curtis, M A; Miller, S P

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular concentrations of amino acids were determined in cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 during growth in complex, spent, and chemically defined media. Glutamic and aspartic acids represented the major constituents of the amino acid pool. However, organisms grown in spent medium or in defined medium supplemented with ornithine also contained unusually high levels of two additional amino acids. One of these amino acids was ornithine. The second compound exhibited properties of a neutral amino acid by coelution with valine from the amino acid analyzer. The compound did not, however, comigrate with valine or any other standard amino acid by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The unknown amino acid was purified by paper and thin-layer chromatography, and its molecular structure was determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This new amino acid was shown to be N5-(1-carboxyethyl)-ornithine. The 14C-labeled compound was formed by cells of S. lactis 133 during growth in spent medium or defined medium containing [14C]ornithine. Formation of the derivative by resting cells required ornithine and the presence of a metabolizable sugar. N5-(1-Carboxyethyl)-ornithine was synthesized chemically from both poly-S-ornithine and (2S)-N2-carbobenzyloxy-ornithine as a 1:1 mixture of two diastereomers. The physical and chemical properties of the amino acid purified from S. lactis 133 were identical to those of one of the synthetic diastereomers. The bis-N-trifluoroacetyl-di-n-butyl esters of the natural and synthetic compounds generated identical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry spectra. A mechanism is suggested for the in vivo synthesis of N5-(1-carboxyethyl)-ornithine, and the possible functions of this new amino acid are discussed. Images PMID:3090017

  3. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  4. Nonprotein Amino Acids from Spark Discharges and Their Comparison with the Murchison Meteorite Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, Yecheskel; Haverland, William J.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1972-01-01

    All the nonprotein amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite are products of the action of electric discharge on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia. These amino acids include ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, norvaline, isovaline, pipecolic acid, ?-alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, sarcosine, N-ethylglycine, and N-methylalanine. In addition, norleucine, alloisoleucine, N-propylglycine, N-isopropylglycine, N-methyl-?-alanine, N-ethyl-?-alanine ?,?-diaminopropionic acid, isoserine, ?,?-diaminobutyric acid, and ?-hydroxy-?-aminobutyric acid are produced by the electric discharge, but have not been found in the meteorite. PMID:16591973

  5. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Alexander, C. M. O. D.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    CR chondrites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites. Three CRs, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577, were analyzed for their amino acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET 92042 and GRA 95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 ppm to 249 ppm. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET 92042 and GRA 95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ?13C values ranging from +31.6‰ to +50.5‰. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin for these compounds. Compared to Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 and GRA 95229, the more aqueously altered GRO 95577 is depleted in amino acids. In both CRs and CMs, the absolute amino acid abundances appear to be related to the degree of aqueous alteration in their parent bodies. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine in the Antarctic CRs also appear to depend on the degree of aqueous alteration.

  6. The Mechanism of Amino Acid Efflux from Seed Coats of Developing Pea Seeds as Revealed by uptake Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelina de Jong; Judith W. Koerselman-Kooij; Jolanda A. M. J. Schuurmans; Adrianus C. Borstlap

    The uptake of amino acids by excised seed coat halves of devel- oping seeds of pea (Pisum sativum 1.) was characterized. The influx of i-valine and i-glutamic acid was proportional to their externa1 concentration, with coefficients of proportionality (k) of 11 .O and 7.1 pmol g-' fresh weight min-' M-', respectively. The influx of i-lysine could be analyzed into a

  7. Amino acids precursors in lunar finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

    1975-01-01

    The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

  8. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A.

    PubMed

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins. PMID:18421168

  9. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  10. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  11. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in heart diseases (ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction).

    PubMed

    Szpetnar, Maria; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Boguszewska, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Acute and chronic ischaemic diseases are among the main death reasons and civilized world menace. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs): valine (Val), leucine (Leu), and isoleucine (Ile) are the main source of nitrogen to glutamine (Gln) and alanine (Ala) synthesis in muscles. In numerous cachexy-producing illnesses such as cancer, sepsis, diverse injuries and heart diseases increased consumption of BCAAs occurs. In myocardial ischemia BCAAs derived from the mobilization of muscle protein may be an important alternative energy substrate for the heart. BCAAs are oxidative energy substrates for the heart and may exert anabolic effects on myocardial protein (8). The aim of our study was to determine branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) concentrations in blood plasma of patients with chronic and acute ischeamic heart disease and to find out changes that those amino acids undergo during the first five days of patients' hospitalization. PMID:16146056

  12. Improvement of L-valine production at high temperature in Brevibacterium flavum by overexpressing ilvEBNrC genes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaohu; Ge, Xiangyang; Wu, Di; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Brevibacterium flavum ATCC14067 was engineered for L: -valine production by overexpression of different ilv genes; the ilvEBN(r)C genes from B. flavum NV128 provided the best candidate for L: -valine production. In traditional fermentation, L: -valine production reached 30.08 ± 0.92 g/L at 31°C in 72 h with a low conversion efficiency of 0.129 g/g. To further improve the L: -valine production and conversion efficiency based on the optimum temperatures of L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes (above 35°C) and the thermotolerance of B. flavum, the fermentation temperature was increased to 34, 37, and 40°C. As a result, higher metabolic rate and L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes activity were obtained at high temperature, and the maximum L: -valine production, conversion efficiency, and specific L: -valine production rate reached 38.08 ± 1.32 g/L, 0.241 g/g, and 0.133 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, at 37°C in 48 h fermentation. The strategy for enhancing L: -valine production by overexpression of key enzymes in thermotolerant strains may provide an alternative approach to enhance branched-chain amino acids production with other strains. PMID:21706252

  13. Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption of essential amino acids in the energy range 1 keV to 20 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Manohara; S. M. Hanagodimath

    2007-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy-absorption (ZPEAeff) of essential amino acids histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine have been calculated by a direct method in the energy region of 1 keV to 20 MeV. The ZPEAeff values have been found to change with energy and composition of the amino acids. The variations of mass energy-absorption coefficient, effective

  14. Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption of essential amino acids in the energy range 1 keV to 20 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Manohara; S. M. Hanagodimath

    2007-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy-absorption (ZPEAeff) of essential amino acids histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine have been calculated by a direct method in the energy region of 1keV to 20MeV. The ZPEAeff values have been found to change with energy and composition of the amino acids. The variations of mass energy-absorption coefficient, effective atomic number

  15. The inhibition effect of some amino acids towards the corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl + 1 M H 2SO 4 solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi; Z. Ghasemi; D. Seifzadeh

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition effect of some amino acids towards the corrosion of aluminum in 1M HCl+1M H2SO4 solution was investigated using weight loss measurement, linear polarization and SEM techniques. The results drawn from the different techniques are comparable. The used amino acids were alanine, leucine, valine, proline, methionine, and tryptophan. The effect of inhibitor concentration and temperature against inhibitor action was

  16. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  17. Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a n...

  18. Mechanisms of myocardial protection by amino acids: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pisarenko, O I

    1996-08-01

    1. Positive inotropic effect of taurine and improvement of cardiac performance of failing heart are mediated through the modulation of Ca2+ movement through the sarcolemma. 2. Cardioprotection with glutamate and aspartate is related to enhanced anaerobic energy formation in mitochondria coupled with succinate formation and, probably, with the relieving of glycolytic flux. During reperfusion, both amino acids replenish the malate-aspartate shuttle reactants, thereby facilitating glucose oxidation. 3. Increased intracellular concentrations of branched chain amino acids (leucine, valine and isoleusine) stimulate formation of acetyl-coenzyme (CoA) and succinyl-CoA and, thus, recovery of oxidative metabolism. 4. Methionine and cysteine enhance force of contraction by N-methylation of membrane phospholipids of the sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Methionine and, to a lesser extent, cysteine may reduce myocardial damage by oxygen radical species. 5. Histidine exerts antioxidant properties as a scavenger of singlet oxygen and OH radicals. High concentrations of histidine provide intracellular buffering to stimulate anaerobic energy formation. PMID:8886480

  19. Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Alp Ikizler; Paul J Flakoll; Robert A Parker; Raymond M Hakim

    1994-01-01

    Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis. Protein and calorie malnutrition are prevalent in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity in this patient population, Concern has been raised that the open pore structure of high flux membranes may induce the loss of more amino acids (AA) compared to low flux membranes. To address

  20. Manure amino acid compounds and their bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids (AA) have long been known to be present in animal manure. Amino acid compounds are widely presumed to be the primary pool of organic nitrogen (N) in soil, which provides nutrition for plant growth through N mineralization. Recent studies have also demonstrated some plants can directly ta...

  1. Role of amino acid transporters in amino acid sensing1234

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) transporters may act as sensors, as well as carriers, of tissue nutrient supplies. This review considers recent advances in our understanding of the AA-sensing functions of AA transporters in both epithelial and nonepithelial cells. These transporters mediate AA exchanges between extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments, delivering substrates to intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters on endosomal (eg, lysosomal) membranes may themselves function as intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters at the cell surface, particularly those for large neutral AAs such as leucine, interact functionally with intracellular nutrient-signaling pathways that regulate metabolism: for example, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which promotes cell growth, and the general control non-derepressible (GCN) pathway, which is activated by AA starvation. Under some circumstances, upregulation of AA transporter expression [notably a leucine transporter, solute carrier 7A5 (SLC7A5)] is required to initiate AA-dependent activation of the mTORC1 pathway. Certain AA transporters may have dual receptor-transporter functions, operating as “transceptors” to sense extracellular (or intracellular) AA availability upstream of intracellular signaling pathways. New opportunities for nutritional therapy may include targeting of AA transporters (or mechanisms that upregulate their expression) to promote protein-anabolic signals for retention or recovery of lean tissue mass. PMID:24284439

  2. Comparative analysis of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives in protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Optimal conditions for protein crystallization are difficult to determine because proteins tend to aggregate in saturated solutions. This study comprehensively evaluates amino acids and amino-acid derivatives as additives for crystallization. This fourth component of the solution increases the probability of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme in various precipitants owing to a decrease in aggregation. These results suggest that the addition of certain types of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives, such as Arg, Lys and esterified and amidated amino acids, is a simple method of improving the success rate of protein crystallization. PMID:20516615

  3. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Brinton, K. L.; McDonald, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  4. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. PMID:24238395

  5. Amino acid metabolism in uremia: insights gained from normal and diabetic man.

    PubMed

    DeFronzo, R A; Felig, P

    1980-07-01

    The physiology of the interorgan exchange of amino acids in healthy subjects and in insulin-dependent diabetics is reviewed and compared with changes observed in patients with chronic renal failure. In contrast to the diabetic, who has elevated fasting branched-chain amino acid levels and diminished muscle uptake of branched-chain amino acid following protein feeding, fasting levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine are decreased in uremia. Furthermore, the decline in branched-chain amino acids following insulin in normal and intracellular levels of leucine and isoleucine have been reported to be normal. With respect to alanine metabolism, the diabetic state is characterized by diminished fasting alanine levels which are due to a 2-fold increase in splanchnic alanine extraction. Accordingly, gluconeogenesis can potentially account for over 30 to 40% of hepatic glucose production compared to 15 to 20% in normal man. In uremia, fasting alanine levels are normal and hepatic alanine uptake is not increased. Similarly, basal hepatic glucose production, as well as suppression of glucose production following insulin, are normal in uremic subjects. Thus, although uremia is characterized by abnormalities in the metabolism of many individual amino acids, it does not appear to share the same disturbances in alanine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism that are associated with insulin deficiency. PMID:6994468

  6. Determination of the D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Cheng, C.-N.; Cronin, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils were measured by using a gas chromatographic technique. The results of two processing procedures were compared to determine the better method. Results of the comparison indicated that the determination of D and L percentages requires amino acid purification if one is to obtain accurate data. It was found that very significant amounts of D-alanine, D-aspartic acid, and D-glutamic acid were present in the contemporary soils studied. Valine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, and phenylalanine generally contained only a trace to very small amounts of the D isomer. It is probable that the D-amino acids from the alanine, aspartic, and glutamic acids are contributed to the soil primarily via microorganisms. The finding of very significant quantities of some D-amino acids (about 5-16%) in present-day soils may alert some investigators of geological sediments to a possible problem in using amino acid racemization as an age-dating technique.

  7. Effects of dietary protein and amino acid levels on the expression of selected cationic amino acid transporters and serum amino acid concentration in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    García-Villalobos, Héctor; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Araiza-Piña, Benedicto A; Htoo, John K; Cervantes-Ramírez, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    The absorption of lysine is facilitated by leucine, but there is no information regarding the effect of crude protein, lysine and leucine levels on the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with 20 pigs (14.9 +/- 0.62 kg initial body weight) to evaluate the effect of two protein levels, and the content of lysine, threonine, methionine and leucine in low crude protein diets on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles and serum concentration of amino acids. Treatments were as follows: (i) wheat-soybean meal diet, 20% crude protein (Control); (ii) wheat diet deficient in lysine, threonine and methionine (Basal diet); (iii) Basal diet plus 0.70% L-lysine, 0.27% L-threonine, 0.10% DL-methionine (Diet LTM); (iv) Diet LTM plus 0.80% L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu). Despite the Basal diet, all diets were formulated to meet the requirements of lysine, threonine and methionine; Diet LTM + Leu supplied 60% excess of leucine. The addition of lysine, threonine and methionine in Diet LTM increased the expression of b(0,+) in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles and decreased CAT-1 in jejunum; the serum concentration of lysine was also increased (p < 0.01). Further addition of L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu) decreased the b(0,+) expression in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (p < 0.05), increased the serum concentration ofleucine and arginine and decreased the concentration of isoleucine (p < 0.05). Pigs fed the Control diet expressed less b(0,+) in jejunum, and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles expressed more CAT-1 in jejunum (p < 0.05) and had lower serum concentration ofisoleucine, leucine and valine (p < 0.05), but higher lysine concentrations (p < 0.01) than those fed Diet LTM. These results indicated that both, the level and the source of dietary amino acids, affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs fed wheat-based diets. PMID:22924173

  8. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  9. Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of ?-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (?-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Raju; M. Ramesh; R. Srinivas; S. Chandrasekhar; N. Kiranmai; V. U. M. Sarma

    2011-01-01

    A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived ?-amino\\u000a acid (?-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and\\u000a negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\u000a n\\u000a ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with ?-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2,

  10. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 for l-valine production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jinyu; Dong, Xunyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an l-valine-producing strain was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 through deletion of the three genes aceE, alaT and ilvA combined with the overexpression of six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnF and brnE. Overexpression of lrp1 alone increased l-valine production by 16-fold. Deletion of the aceE, alaT and ilvA increased l-valine production by 44-fold. Overexpression of the six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnE and brnF in the triple deletion mutant WCC003 further increased l-valine production. The strain WCC003/pJYW-4-ilvBNC1-lrp1-brnFE produced 243mM l-valine in flask cultivation and 437mM (51g/L) l-valine in fed-batch fermentation and lacked detectable amino-acid byproduct such as l-alanine and l-isoleucine that are usually found in the fermentation of l-valine-producing C. glutamicum. PMID:25769288

  11. Amino Acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity.

    PubMed

    Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G; Shub, David A; Ferreiro, Diego U; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E

    2014-11-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

  12. Amino Acid Metabolism Conflicts with Protein Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, David A.; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

  13. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  14. Amino acid biosynthesis in mixed rumen cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, F D; Erfle, J D; Mahadevan, S

    1975-01-01

    Mixed rumen micro-organisms, maintained in continuous culture readily incorporated labelled HCO3- and acetate into amino acids. Labelled propionate, in contrast, was utilized only for isoleucine biosynthesis, but failed to label other amino acids to any significant extent. Evidence was obtained showing that in these mixed, i.e. symbiotic, cultures foward tricarboxylic acid-cycle reactions only proceed to 2-oxoglutarate. 14C distribution in amino acids clearly shows that 2-oxoglutarate is not oxidized further by tricarboxylic acid-cycle enzymes. Instead, acetate is carboxylated to pyruvate which is then carboxylated to oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate equilibrates with fumarate and thereby carbon atoms 1 and 4 as well as carbon atoms 2 and 3 are randomized. Evidence was also obtained for the carboxylation of propionate to 2-oxobutyrate, isovalerate to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, phenylacetate and hydroxyphentlacetate to the corresponding phenyl- and hydroxyphenyl-pyruvic acids and succinate to 2-oxoglutarate. Of the amino acid precursors investigated, only 3-hydroxypyruvate, the precursor of serine, appeared to be synthesized via an oxidative step, i.e. 3-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. Most 2-oxo precursors of amino acids in these organisms appear to be formed via reductive carboxylation of the precursor acid. PMID:1212197

  15. The mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (AtBCAT-1) is capable to initiate degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine in almost all tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Schuster; Stefan Binder

    2005-01-01

    Plants are capable to de novo synthesize the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. Studies in recent years, however, also revealed that plants have the potential to degrade leucine or may be all of the branched-chain amino acids. One of the enzymes participating in both biosynthesis and degradation is the branched-chain aminotransferase, which is in Arabidopsis thaliana encoded by

  16. Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 parts per billion, ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4,100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16,900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis, are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its three month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated from a different type of parent body than the CM's and CI's. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P or D- type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived from these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be re-evaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

  17. Amino acid (GAS:BCAA) ratios in plasma and gut contents of short-term protein depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Suzi?, S; Radunovi?, L J; Jankovi?, V; Segovi?, R

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of total concentrations or molar ratios (moles/1,000 amino acid residues) of three non-essential amino acids (glycine, alanine, serine-GAS) and three essential-branched chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine, leucine-BCAA) were investigated in rat systemic and portal vein plasma and jejunal and ileal gut contents after feeding normoprotein (NP) or protein-free (PF) diets for 7 days. Amino acid analysis of gut content showed that the GAS:BCAA ratio was not significantly altered by the PF diet either in the jejunum or in the ileum. On the contrary, the PF diet, caused a three and four-fold increase in this ratio in the portal and systemic plasma, respectively. The situation was produced by the higher concentrations of GAS, which remained near control levels (portal plasma) or exceeded these values (systemic plasma), in contrast to the decreasing levels of BCAA found in both plasmas of the PF group. PMID:2103638

  18. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  19. Analysis of acetohydroxyacid synthase variants from branched-chain amino acids-producing strains and their effects on the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanfeng; Han, Mei; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-05-01

    Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) controls carbon flux through the branch point and determines the relative rates of the synthesis of isoleucine, valine and leucine, respectively. However, it is strongly regulated by its end products. In this study, we characterized AHAS variants from five branched-chain amino acids-producing strains. Amino acid substitution occurred in both catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Interestingly, AHAS variants reduced sensitivity to feedback inhibition by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Although AHAS with amino acid substitution in regulatory subunit showed higher resistance, amino acid substitution in catalytic subunit could also endow AHAS with resistance to feedback inhibition. In addition, AHAS variants from V2 and L5 displayed about 1.4-fold higher specific activity compared to other AHAS variants. On the other hand, AHAS variant from V1 exhibited the highest resistance to BCAAs, 87% of original activity left even in the presence of 10mM BCAAs. Recombinant Corynebacteriumglutamicum strains were further constructed to investigate the effects of expressing AHAS variants on the synthesis of BCAAs and alanine (main by-product) in C. glutamicum. BCAAs production was increased with the increase of resistance to feedback inhibition, although valine showed a significant increase. For instance, C. g-1BN could accumulate 9.51g/l valine, 0.450g/l leucine and 0.180g/l isoleucine, and alanine was reduced to 0.477g/l. These AHAS variants are important for further improving performance of BCAAs-producing strain. PMID:25697867

  20. Keratinolytic activity of purified alkaline keratinase produced by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Sacc.) and its amino acids profile

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Eman F.; Khalil, Neveen M.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) was used to assess the purity and molecular weight of the previously purified alkaline keratinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The enzyme was homogenous, as seen by a single band of protein, and had an apparent molecular weight of 28.5 kDa. Amino acid profile of the purified keratinase revealed that it was composed of 14 different amino acids with high proportions of glutamic acid (20.86%), alanine (14.52%), glycine (14.21%), leucine (8.59%) and serine (7.81%). The enzyme contained moderate amounts of valine (6.01%), threonine (5.58%) and phenyl alanine (5.22%). The purified enzyme of S. brevicaulis exerted a potent keratinolytic activity and was capable to hydrolyze different keratinaceous materials with highest activity on chicken feathers followed by human nails and human hair. PMID:23961113

  1. [Growth retardation and amino acids. Analysis of maternal plasma and amniotic fluid].

    PubMed

    Bavoux, F; Georges, P; Bouy, M; Leroy, B

    1977-01-01

    We have carried out an analysis of the amino acids in the mother's plasma and in the liquor amnii of 26 pregnant women who delivered either normal premature babies or those with intra-uterine growth failure. The levels found at delivery showed no difference in cases of prematurity in the composition of the substances in the plasma, but the liquor is poor in glycocol (GLY), Tyrosine (TYR), Phenylalanine (PHE). In the case of growth failure a significant drop in the concentration of Threonine (THR), Alanine (ALA), Valine (VAL), Methionine (MET) and Arginine (ARG) was found in the plasma. The liquor amnii however had shown no change in composition. PMID:608919

  2. Temperature dependence of amino acid hydrophobicities.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Richard; Lewis, Charles A; Yuan, Yang; Carter, Charles W

    2015-06-16

    The hydrophobicities of the 20 common amino acids are reflected in their tendencies to appear in interior positions in globular proteins and in deeply buried positions of membrane proteins. To determine whether these relationships might also have been valid in the warm surroundings where life may have originated, we examined the effect of temperature on the hydrophobicities of the amino acids as measured by the equilibrium constants for transfer of their side-chains from neutral solution to cyclohexane (Kw > c). The hydrophobicities of most amino acids were found to increase with increasing temperature. Because that effect is more pronounced for the more polar amino acids, the numerical range of Kw > c values decreases with increasing temperature. There are also modest changes in the ordering of the more polar amino acids. However, those changes are such that they would have tended to minimize the otherwise disruptive effects of a changing thermal environment on the evolution of protein structure. Earlier, the genetic code was found to be organized in such a way that-with a single exception (threonine)-the side-chain dichotomy polar/nonpolar matches the nucleic acid base dichotomy purine/pyrimidine at the second position of each coding triplet at 25 °C. That dichotomy is preserved at 100 °C. The accessible surface areas of amino acid side-chains in folded proteins are moderately correlated with hydrophobicity, but when free energies of vapor-to-cyclohexane transfer (corresponding to size) are taken into consideration, a closer relationship becomes apparent. PMID:26034278

  3. Enzymes of the isoleucine-valine pathway in Acinetobacter.

    PubMed

    Twarog, R

    1972-07-01

    Regulation of four of the enzymes required for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Acinetobacter was studied. A three- to fourfold derepression of acetohydroxyacid synthetase was routinely observed in two different wild-type strains when grown in minimal medium relative to cells grown in minimal medium supplemented with leucine, valine, and isoleucine. A similar degree of synthetase derepression was observed in appropriately grown isoleucine or leucine auxotrophs. No significant derepression of threonine deaminase or transaminase B occurred in either wild-type or mutant cells grown under a variety of conditions. Three amino acid analogues were tested with wild-type cells; except for a two- to threefold derepression of dihydroxyacid dehydrase when high concentrations of aminobutyric acid were added to the medium, essentially the same results were obtained. Experiments showed that threonine deaminase is subject to feedback inhibition by isoleucine and that valine reverses this inhibition. Cooperative effects in threonine deaminase were demonstrated with crude extracts. The data indicate that the synthesis of isoleucine and valine in Acinetobacter is regulated by repression control of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and feedback inhibition of threonine deaminase and acetohydroxyacid synthetase. PMID:4669215

  4. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Bromke, Mariusz A.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated ?-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Roberto; Jeanne-Julien, Louis; René, Adeline; Martinez, Jean; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-06-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated ?-amino acids was performed by asymmetric alkylation. Two methods were investigated and their enantiomeric excess measured and compared. The first route consisted of an enantioselective approach induced by the Corey-Lygo catalyst under chiral phase transfer conditions while the second one involved the hydroxypinanone chiral auxiliary, both implicating Schiff bases as substrate. In all cases, the use of a prochiral Schiff base gave higher enantiomeric excess and yield in the final desired amino acid. PMID:25715756

  6. Polymers from amino acids: development of dual ester-urethane melt condensation approach and mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Anantharaj, S; Jayakannan, M

    2012-08-13

    A new dual ester-urethane melt condensation methodology for biological monomers-amino acids was developed to synthesize new classes of thermoplastic polymers under eco-friendly and solvent-free polymerization approach. Naturally abundant L-amino acids were converted into dual functional ester-urethane monomers by tailor-made synthetic approach. Direct polycondensation of these amino acid monomers with commercial diols under melt condition produced high molecular weight poly(ester-urethane)s. The occurrence of the dual ester-urethane process and the structure of the new poly(ester-urethane)s were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The new dual ester-urethane condensation approach was demonstrated for variety of amino acids: glycine, ?-alanine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine. MALDI-TOF-MS end group analysis confirmed that the amino acid monomers were thermally stable under the melt polymerization condition. The mechanism of melt process and the kinetics of the polycondensation were studied by model reactions and it was found that the amino acid monomer was very special in the sense that their ester and urethane functionality could be selectively reacted by polymerization temperature or catalyst. The new polymers were self-organized as ?-sheet in aqueous or organic solvents and their thermal properties such as glass transition temperature and crystallinity could be readily varied using different l-amino acid monomers or diols in the feed. Thus, the current investigation opens up new platform of research activates for making thermally stable and renewable engineering thermoplastics from natural resource amino acids. PMID:22713137

  7. Plasma amino acid levels and amino acid losses during continuous ambulatory peritoneal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel D Kopple; Michael J Blumenkrantz; Michael R Jones; John K Moran

    Free amino acid losses into dialysate during a 24-h collection period and postahsorptiveplasma amino acid concentrations were measured in 14 studiesin nine clinically stable men undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Patients ingested diets containing 97 ± 18 (SD) g\\/day of protein in a metabolic research unit. Total amino acid losses were 3.4 ± 1.2 g\\/24 h and represented 3.9 ±

  8. Amino acids in atmospheric droplets: perturbation of surface tension and critical supersaturation predicted by computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Hede, T.; Tu, Y.; Leck, C.; Ågren, H.

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric amino acids constitute an important fraction of the water-soluble organic nitrogen compounds in both marine and continental aerosols, and have been confirmed as effective cloud condensation nuclei materials in laboratory tests. We here present a molecular dynamics study of amino acids representative for the remote marine atmospheric aerosol-cloud system, in order to investigate molecular distributions, orientations and induced changes in surface tension, and to evaluate their indirect effects on optical properties of clouds. These L-amino acids, including serine, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine and phenylalanine, are categorized as hydrophilic and hydrophobic according to their affinities to water. Different amino acids show distinct effects on the surface tension; even the same amino acid has different influence on the surface tension for planar and spherical interfaces. The curvature dependence of the surface tension is modelled by a quadratic polynomial function of the inverse of droplet radius, and such relationship is used to improve the Köhler equation in predicting the critical water vapour supersaturation of the droplet activation.

  9. Amino acids in the Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Yanai, K.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite is presented. Hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed water-extracted amino acid samples from exterior, middle and interior portions of the meteorite were analyzed by an amino acid analyzer and by gas chromatography of N-TFA-isopropyl amino acid derivatives. Nine protein and six nonprotein amino acids were detected in the meteorite at abundances between 34 and less than one nmole/g, with equal amounts in interior and exterior portions. Nearly equal abundances of the D and L enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found, indicating the abiotic, therefore extraterrestrial, origin of the amino acids. The Antarctic environment and the uniformity of protein amino acid abundances are discussed as evidence against the racemization of terrestrially acquired amino acids, and similarities between Yamato amino acid compositions and the amino acid compositions of the Murchison and Murray type II carbonaceous chrondrites are indicated.

  10. Adaptational modification of serine and threonine metabolism in the liver to essential amino acid deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2009-03-01

    It is known that plasma serine and threonine concentrations are elevated in rats chronically fed an essential amino acid deficient diet, but the underlying mechanisms including related gene expressions or serine and threonine concentrations in liver remained to be elucidated. We fed rats lysine or valine deficient diet for 4 weeks and examined the mRNA expressions of serine synthesising (3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, PHGDH) and serine/threonine degrading enzymes (serine dehydratase, SDS) in the liver. Dietary deficiency induced marked elevation of hepatic serine and threonine levels associated with enhancement of PHGDH mRNA expression and repression of SDS mRNA expression. Increases in plasma serine and threonine levels due to essential amino acid deficiency in diet were caused by marked increases in hepatic serine and threonine levels. Proteolytic responses to the amino acid deficiency may be lessened by storing amino radicals as serine and inducing anorexia through elevation of threonine. PMID:18584286

  11. Determination of (13)C natural abundance of amino acid enantiomers in soil: methodological considerations and first results.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Bruno; Amelung, Wulf

    2002-01-01

    The application of a combined gas chromatography-combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C/IRMS) method for stable carbon isotope analysis of amino acid enantiomers in soil samples is presented. Triplicate delta(13)C analyses of pentafluoropropionyl (PFP) isopropyl ester derivatives of 27 amino acid enantiomers revealed that discrimination of (13)C during derivatization is different for different amino acid enantiomers and different amounts. Injection of increasing amounts of amino acid derivatives showed that the isotopic signal varied up to 10 per thousand for D-aspartic acid. Correction for the delta(13)C signal of underivatized amino acid enantiomers is possible for all investigated amino acid enantiomers using logarithmic functions. Operating the GC-C/IRMS system in the split-mode (split ratio 1:12) is possible but resulted in a higher isotopic discrimination. The detection limit approached 3 ng for some amino acid enantiomers in the splitless mode, while the lower limit of routine determination exceeded 10 ng injection amount. The upper limit at which accurate stable isotope values were obtained was 200 ng injection amount. Compound-specific delta(13)C analysis of alanine, valine, aspartic and glutamic acid showed that the D-forms were enriched in (13)C relative to the L-forms, suggesting that microbes significantly contributed to the formation of the D-enantiomers in soil. PMID:11948822

  12. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  13. Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

    Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

  14. Amino acid isotopic analysis in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new approach to stable isotopic analysis—referred to as compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA)—has emerged, centering on the measurement of 15N:14N ratios in amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). CSIA has recently been used to generate trophic position estimates among anima...

  15. Detection of non-protein amino acids in the presence of protein amino acids. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapshak, P.; Okaji, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies conducted with the JEOL 5AH amino acid analyzer are described. This instrument makes possible the programming of the chromatographic process. Data are presented showing the separations of seventeen non-protein amino acids in the presence of eighteen protein amino acids. It is pointed out that distinct separations could be obtained in the case of a number of chemically similar compounds, such as ornithine and lysine, N-amidino alanine and arginine, and iminodiacetic acid and S-carboxymethyl cysteine and aspartic acid.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126...triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

  18. Effects of exercise and pacing loads on myocardial amino acid balance in patients with normal and stenotic coronary arteries, with special reference to branched chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Ishihara, T; Fujiwara, M; Tamoto, S; Seki, I; Ohsawa, N

    1993-04-01

    Arterial and coronary sinus differences (A-S) of alanine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, valine and phenylalanine were measured in 7 control subjects and 12 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at rest and during exercise, and in 8 controls and 21 CAD patients at rest and during pacing. Lactate, great cardiac vein flow and oxygen were also measured. However, none of these parameters distinguished CAD from controls. Changes in alanine and glutamate during each load were, for the most part, consistent with previous studies, i.e., a greater release of alanine and uptake of glutamate was observed in the ischemic group. A-S of isoleucine, leucine and valine showed significant positive correlation to that of alanine (r = 0.59, r = 0.89, r = 0.77, respectively, during exercise, and r = 0.57, r = 0.65, r = 0.72, respectively, during pacing). A-S of isoleucine, leucine and valine showed significant positive correlations to each arterial concentration during exercise (r = 0.54, r = 0.62, r = 0.63, respectively), but not during pacing. Although none of the uptakes of the branched chain amino acids (BCAA) were significant, the mean A-S of each BCAA was positive at rest in both controls and CAD, and declined during each load. A-S of leucine was significantly smaller in CAD than in controls during exercise (0.7 +/- 7.0 vs 6.8 +/- 4.1 mumol/l, p < 0.05) and those of leucine and valine were significantly smaller in CAD patients with ischemic electrocardiographic change than in those without electrocardiographic change during pacing (0.1 +/- 5.9 vs 6.1 +/- 5.5, p < 0.05; -3.1 +/- 10.1 vs 9.9 +/- 6.8 mumol/l, p < 0.01, respectively). These results suggest that BCAA, especially leucine and valine, tend to be taken up by human myocardium physiologically and show characteristic changes under myocardial stress similar to those seen with alanine and glutamate. PMID:8497108

  19. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

  20. Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yu. Ponedel’kina; V. N. Odinokov; E. S. Vakhrusheva; M. T. Golikova; L. M. Khalilov; U. M. Dzhemilev

    2005-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9–43% of arylamide groups and 10–33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups.

  1. Diet quality influences isotopic discrimination among amino acids in an aquatic vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-05-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids (? (15)NAA) has recently been employed as a powerful tool in ecological food web studies, particularly for estimating the trophic position (TP) of animal species in food webs. However, the validity of these estimates depends on the consistency of the trophic discrimination factor (TDF; - ?? (15)NAA at each shift of trophic level) among a suite of amino acids within the tissues of consumer species. In this study, we determined the TDF values of amino acids in tadpoles (the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus) reared exclusively on one of three diets that differed in nutritional quality. The diets were commercial fish-food pellets (plant and animal biomass), bloodworms (animal biomass), and boiled white rice (plant carbohydrate), representing a balanced, protein-rich, and protein-poor diet, respectively. The TDF values of two "source amino acids" (Src-AAs), methionine and phenylalanine, were close to zero (0.3-0.5‰) among the three diets, typifying the values reported in the literature (?0.5‰ and ?0.4‰, respectively). However, TDF values of "trophic amino acids" (Tr-AAs) including alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and glutamic acid varied by diet: for example, the glutamic acid TDF was similar to the standard value (?8.0‰) when tadpoles were fed either the commercial pellets (8.0‰) or bloodworms (7.9‰), but when they were fed boiled rice, the TDF was significantly reduced (0.6‰). These results suggest that a profound lack of dietary protein may alter the TDF values of glutamic acid (and other Tr-AAs and glycine) within consumer species, but not the two Src-AAs (i.e., methionine and phenylalanine). Knowledge of how a nutritionally poor diet can influence the TDF of Tr- and Src-AAs will allow amino acid isotopic analyses to better estimate TP among free-roaming animals. PMID:26045955

  2. Diet quality influences isotopic discrimination among amino acids in an aquatic vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids (?15NAA) has recently been employed as a powerful tool in ecological food web studies, particularly for estimating the trophic position (TP) of animal species in food webs. However, the validity of these estimates depends on the consistency of the trophic discrimination factor (TDF; - ??15NAA at each shift of trophic level) among a suite of amino acids within the tissues of consumer species. In this study, we determined the TDF values of amino acids in tadpoles (the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus) reared exclusively on one of three diets that differed in nutritional quality. The diets were commercial fish-food pellets (plant and animal biomass), bloodworms (animal biomass), and boiled white rice (plant carbohydrate), representing a balanced, protein-rich, and protein-poor diet, respectively. The TDF values of two “source amino acids” (Src-AAs), methionine and phenylalanine, were close to zero (0.3–0.5‰) among the three diets, typifying the values reported in the literature (?0.5‰ and ?0.4‰, respectively). However, TDF values of “trophic amino acids” (Tr-AAs) including alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and glutamic acid varied by diet: for example, the glutamic acid TDF was similar to the standard value (?8.0‰) when tadpoles were fed either the commercial pellets (8.0‰) or bloodworms (7.9‰), but when they were fed boiled rice, the TDF was significantly reduced (0.6‰). These results suggest that a profound lack of dietary protein may alter the TDF values of glutamic acid (and other Tr-AAs and glycine) within consumer species, but not the two Src-AAs (i.e., methionine and phenylalanine). Knowledge of how a nutritionally poor diet can influence the TDF of Tr- and Src-AAs will allow amino acid isotopic analyses to better estimate TP among free-roaming animals. PMID:26045955

  3. The Amino Acid Valine Is Secreted in Continuous-Flow Bacterial Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaione Valle; Sandra Da Re; Solveig Schmid; David Skurnik; Richard D'Ari; Jean-Marc Ghigo

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities characterized by distinctive gene expression patterns and profound physiological changes compared to those of planktonic cultures. Here, we show that many gram-negative bacterial biofilms secrete high levels of a small-molecular-weight compound, which inhibits the growth of only Escherichia coli K-12 and a rare few other natural isolates. We demonstrate both genetically and biochemically that this molecule

  4. Terahertz broadband spectroscopic investigations of amino acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, De-chong; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2011-08-01

    We present an experimental terahertz (THz) spectroscopic investigation of amino acid using an air-breakdown-coherent detection (ABCD) system. The strong and ultra-broadband (0.1 to 10THz) terahertz radiations generated by two-color laser induced air plasma and measured by coherent heterodyne detection. The broadband THz reflection spectra of L-Lysine (C6H14N2O2) and L-Arginine (C6H14N2O2) are obtained. To solve the phase-retrieval problem in RTDS, the absorption signatures of the materials are extracted directly from the first derivative of the relative reflectance with respect to frequency. The absorption features of the two amino acids are characterized in the 0.5~6 THz region. It is found that both the two amino acids have an absorption peak at 1.10 THz.

  5. New Glycoprotein-Associated Amino Acid Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Verrey; D. L. Jack; I. T. Paulsen; R. Pfeiffer

    1999-01-01

    .   The L-type amino acid transporter LAT1 has recently been identified as being a disulfide-linked ``light chain'' of the ubiquitously\\u000a expressed glycoprotein 4F2hc\\/CD98. Several LAT1-related transporters have been identified, which share the same putative 12-transmembrane\\u000a segment topology and also associate with the single transmembrane domain 4F2hc protein. They display differing amino acid\\u000a substrate specificities, transport kinetics and localizations such as,

  6. The Genetics of Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Manuel Palacín (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

    2005-04-01

    Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of a heavy (SLC3 family) and a light (SLC7 family) subunit. Mutations in system b0,+ (rBAT-b0,+AT) and in system y+L (4F2hc-y+LAT1) cause the primary inherited aminoacidurias (PIAs) cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, respectively. Recent developments [including the identification of the first Hartnup disorder gene (B0AT1; SLC6A19)] and knockout mouse models have begun to reveal the basis of renal and intestinal reabsorption of amino acids in mammals.

  7. Characterization of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiendotoxin properties of short peptides with different hydrophobic amino acids at "a" and "d" positions of a heptad repeat sequence.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Sarfuddin; Srivastava, Saurabh; Mishra, Nripendra N; Tripathi, Jitendra K; Shukla, Praveen K; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2013-02-14

    To understand the influence of different hydrophobic amino acids at "a" and "d" positions of a heptad repeat sequence on antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiendotoxin properties, four 15-residue peptides with leucine (LRP), phenylalanine (FRP), valine (VRP), and alanine (ARP) residues at these positions were designed, synthesized, and characterized. Although valine is similarly hydrophobic to leucine and phenylalanine, VRP showed significantly lesser cytotoxicity than LRP and FRP; further, the replacement of leucines with valines at "a" and "d" positions of melittin-heptads drastically reduced its cytotoxicity. However, all four peptides exhibited significant antimicrobial activities that correlate well with their interactions with mammalian and bacterial cell membranes and the corresponding lipid vesicles. LRP most efficiently neutralized the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators like NO, TNF-?, and IL-6 in macrophages followed by FRP, VRP, and ARP. The results could be useful for designing short antimicrobial and antiendotoxin peptides with understanding the basis of their activity. PMID:23324083

  8. Amino acid composition of humic substances in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral amino acid fragments of humic and fulvic acid molecules from tundra soils have been identified and quantified. A significant weight fraction of amino acids has been found in humic acid preparations, which exceeds their content in fulvic acids. Features of the amino acid composition of humic substances along the soil profile and depending on the degree of hydromorphism and the proportions of different (neutral, basic, acidic, cyclic) groups in amino acids have been revealed. The molar ratio between the hydroxy and heterocyclic amino acids reflects the degree of humification of the soil.

  9. Advantages of compound-specific stable isotope measurements over bulk measurements in studies on plant uptake of intact amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sauheitl, Leopold; Glaser, Bruno; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2009-10-30

    Increasing interest in the ability of plants to take up amino acids has given rise to questions on the accuracy of the commonly used bulk method to measure and calculate amino acid uptake. This method uses bulk measurements of 13C and 15N enrichment in plant tissues after application of dual-labelled amino acids but some authors have recommended the use of compound-specific stable isotope (CSI) analysis of the plants' amino acids instead. However, there has never been a direct evaluation of both methods. We conducted a field study applying dual-labelled (13C, 15N) amino acids (glycine, valine, tyrosine and lysine) to soil of a Plantago lanceolata monoculture. Root and shoot samples were collected 24 h after label application and the isotope composition of the plant tissues was investigated using bulk and CSI measurements. Enrichment of 13C in the case of CSI measurements was limited to the applied amino acids, showing that no additional 13C had been incorporated into the plants' amino acid pool via the uptake of tracer-derived C-fragments. Compared with this rather conservative indicator of amino acid uptake, the 13C enrichment of bulk measurements was 8, 5, 1.6 and 6 times higher for fine roots, storage roots, shoot and the whole plant, respectively. These findings show that the additional uptake of tracer-derived C-fragments will result in a considerable overestimation of amino acid uptake in the case of bulk measurements. We therefore highly recommend the use of CSI measurements for future amino acid uptake studies due to their higher accuracy. PMID:19757447

  10. Indole Amines and Amino Acids in Various Brain Regions after Infusion of Branched Chain Amino Acids into Hepatectomized Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jonung; A. Ramzy; P. Herlin; J. H. James; L. Edwards; J. E. Fischer

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine regional changes of amino acids and indole amines in the brain and possible interactions between amino acids and indole amines 18 h after hepatectomy in rats. Hepatectomy and glucose infusion alone resulted in a profound increase of most large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in plasma and in the brain except for the branched-chain amino

  11. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  12. Structual comparison of dermatopontin amino acid sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2010-01-01

    Dermatopontin is a tyrosine-rich acidic extracellular matrix protein of 22 kD with possible functions in cellmatrix interactions\\u000a and matrix assembly. Database of GenBank+EMBL+DDBJ sequences from Nucleotide, Gene, and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Divisions\\u000a was searched with a keyword “dermatopontin” or mouse dermatopontin amino acid sequence. In addition to five mammals previously\\u000a described, five mammalian, two bird, one fish dermatopontin genes

  13. Dialysance of Amino Acids and Related Substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aviram; J. Peters; F. Gulyassy

    1971-01-01

    Summary The losses of amino acids and related compounds have been studied during hemodialysis of patients with the Kiil dialyzer and the Dow Hollow Fiber Artificial Kidney (HFAK). There was a linear relationship with close correlation for both direct dialysance (Dd) and indirect dialysance (Dp) between the two dialyzers, the HFAK being 31–46% more efficient than the Kiil dialyzer in

  14. Manganese alters rat brain amino acids levels

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, M. Camila; Almeida, Isabel; Ramos, Ruben; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M.; Aschner, Michael; Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated with alterations in amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed whole rat brain amino acid content subsequent to 4 or 8 intraperitoneal (ip) injections, with 25 mg MnCl2/kg/day, at 48-hour (h) intervals. We noted a significant increase in glycine brain levels after 4 or 8 Mn injections (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and arginine also after 4 or 8 injections (p<0.001). Significant increases were also noted in brain proline (p<0.01), cysteine (p<0.05), phenylalanine (p<0.01) and tyrosine (p<0.01) levels after 8 Mn injections vs. the control group. These findings suggest that Mn-induced alterations in amino acid levels secondary to Mn affect the neurochemical milieu. PMID:22971893

  15. Amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Vol'pin; Z. N. Parnes; V. S. Romanova

    1998-01-01

    A general method for the synthesis of amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene (ADF) was developed, and the physicochemical\\u000a properties of the compounds obtained were studied. ADF were shown to penetrate into liposomes and to exhibit adjuvant properties\\u000a and antiviral activity.

  16. Industrial Applications of Amino-acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Sadovnikova; Vasilii M. Belikov

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of the use of amino-acids in various branches of industry --- as food additives and surface-active agents, in the production of polymeric materials, in electrochemical manufacture, etc. --- are surveyed on the basis of works of reference and the patent literature up to 1975. A list of 273 references is included. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for

  17. Enhanced production of branched-chain amino acids by Gluconacetobacter europaeus with a specific regional deletion in a leucine responsive regulator.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    Vinegar with increased amounts of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine and isoleucine) is favorable for human health as BCAAs decrease diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia. To construct Gluconacetobacter europaeus which produces BCAAs, leucine responsive regulator (GeLrp) is focused and two Gelrp mutants were constructed. Wild-type KGMA0119 didn't produce significant amount of valine (0.13 mM) and leucine (0 mM) and strain KGMA7110 which lacks complete Gelrp accumulated valine (0.48 mM) and leucine (0.11 mM) but showed impaired growth, and it was fully restored in the presence of essential amino acids. Strain KGMA7203 was then constructed with a nonsense mutation at codon Trp132 in the Gelrp, which leads a specific deletion at an estimated ligand-sensing region in the C-terminal domain. KGMA7203 produced greater quantities of valine (0.80 mM) and leucine (0.26 mM) and showed the same growth characteristics as KGMA0119. mRNA levels of BCAAs biosynthesis genes (ilvI and ilvC) and probable BCAAs efflux pump (leuE) were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Expression rates of ilvI and ilvC in the two Gelrp disruptants were greater than those in KGMA0119. leuE was highly expressed in KGMA7110 only, suggesting that the accumulation in KGMA7110 culture was caused by increased expression of the biosynthesis genes and abnormal enhanced export of amino acids resulting in impaired cell growth. In contrast, KGMA7203 would achieve the high level production through enhanced expression of the biosynthesis genes without enhancing that for the efflux pump. KGMA7203 was considered advantageous for production of vinegar with higher amounts of valine and leucine. PMID:24985571

  18. Synthesis of a conformationally constrained ?-amino acid building block.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Elaine; Pes, Lara; Ortin, Yannick; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Paradisi, Francesca

    2013-02-01

    Conformationally restricted amino acids are important components in peptidomimetics and drug design. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a novel, non-proteinogenic constrained delta amino acid containing a cyclobutane ring, cis-3(aminomethyl)cyclobutane carboxylic acid (ACCA). The synthesis of the target amino acid was achieved in seven steps, with the key reaction being a base induced intramolecular nucleophilic substitution. A small library of dipeptides was prepared through the coupling of ACCA with proteinogenic amino acids. PMID:22851051

  19. Intrashell variations in amino acid concentrations and isoleucine epimerization ratios in fossil Hiatella arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, Julie K.

    1983-09-01

    Twenty-four valves of fossil Hiatella arctica were analyzed to determine if amino acid ratios varied from one region of a shell to another. The ratio of D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine, routinely used as a stratigraphic correlation tool and an indicator of relative age, did not vary significantly between five anatomically different shell parts in Hiatella arctica. Sampling only the hinge or central part of all valves, however, resulted in less variation about the average value. Analyses of only this part of the shell should improve the resolution of stratigraphic units by amino acid geochronology. The absolute concentrations of aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, valine, alloisoleucine, isoleucine, and leucine (in picomoles/milligram of shell) are significantly higher in the hinge and central part of the shell, whereas the outer growth edge appears to have lower levels of amino acids. This is true in both the FREE and TOTAL hydrolysate fractions. The reasons are not clear; however, the high value may be caused by a thin, protein-rich inner layer lining the valve out to the pallial line and/or differences in the proportion of inorganic carbonate to protein produced in different areas during shell growth. Alternatively, it may suggest leaching of the thinner, more vulnerable part of the shell growth edge.

  20. Polymerization of amino acids under high-pressure conditions: Implication to chemical evolution on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.; Ohara, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Abiko, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    2008-12-01

    Prebiotic polymerization of amino acids is the most fundamental reaction to promote the chemical evolution for origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids is the dehydration reaction. This questions as to if submarine hydrothermal conditions, thus hydrated enironments, were appropreate for peptide formations. Our previous experiments implied that non-aqueous and high-pressure environments (more than 20 MPa) would be suitable for polymerization of amino acids (Ohara et al., 2006). This leads to the hypothesis that the first peptides may have formed in the Hadean oceanic crustal environments, where dehydration proceeded with availability of appropriate temperatures and pressures. In the present study, experiments simulating the crustal conditions were performed with various pressures (1-175 MPa) and temperatures (100- 200 C degree) using autoclaves. Purified powders (100 mg) of alanine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid were used in the experiments without mixing water in order to examine the solid-solid reactions. The products were analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. Results indicate that: (1) longer time is required to form peptide compared to those of previous aqueous experiments; (2) pressure has a role to limit the production of melanoidine and cyclic amino acids, which are inhibitors for elongation of peptides; (3) glycine was polymerized up to 11-mer, which was not formed in any previous experiments without catalyses; (4) valine was polymerized up to 3-mer; and (5) aspartic acid was polymerized to 4-mer, accompanied with production of other amino acids. It is noteworthy that high-pressure environments favor all examined polymerization reactions. Such situations would have happened inside of deep oceanic crusts of the early Earth.

  1. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport in Cytoplasmic Membranes of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum CNRZ 1273.

    PubMed

    Winters, D A; Poolman, B; Hemme, D; Konings, W N

    1991-11-01

    Membrane vesicles of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum fused with proteoliposomes prepared from Escherichia coli phospholipids containing beef heart cytochrome c oxidase were used to study the transport of branched-chain amino acids in a strain isolated from a raw milk cheese. At a medium pH of 6.0, oxidation of an electron donor system comprising ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and horse heart cytochrome c resulted in a membrane potential (Deltapsi) of -60 mV, a pH gradient of -36 mV, and an l-leucine accumulation of 76-fold (Deltamu(Leu)/F = 108 mV). Leucine uptake in hybrid membranes in which a Deltapsi, DeltapH, sodium ion gradient, or a combination of these was imposed artificially revealed that both components of the proton motive force (Deltap) could drive leucine uptake but that a chemical sodium gradient could not. Kinetic analysis of leucine (valine) transport indicated three secondary transport systems with K(t) values of 1.7 (0.8) mM, 4.3 (5.9) muM, and 65 (29) nM, respectively. l-Leucine transport via the high-affinity leucine transport system (K(t) = 4.3 muM) was competitively inhibited by l-valine and l-isoleucine (K(i) and K(t) values were similar), demonstrating that the transport system translocates branched-chain amino acids. Similar studies with these hybrid membranes indicated the presence of high-affinity secondary transport systems for 10 other amino acids. PMID:16348591

  2. Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

  3. Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  4. Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  5. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. I - Six carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Gandy, W. E.; Pizzarello, S.

    1981-01-01

    Six of the seven chain isomers of six-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids (leucine isomers) have been either identified or confirmed in hot-water extracts of the Murchison meteorite using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion exchange chromatography. 2-Amino-2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyric acid, pseudoleucine, and 2-methylnorvaline were positively identified by GC-MS. These amino acids have not been previously reported to occur in natural materials and may be uniquely meteoritic in origin. The presence of leucine and isoleucine (including the diastereoisomer, alloisoleucine) was confirmed. Peaks corresponding to norleucine were seen by ion-exchange and gas chromatography but characteristic mass spectra were not obtained. The alpha-branched chain isomers in this series are quantitatively the most significant. These results are compared with literature data on amino acid synthesis by electrical discharge and Fischer-Tropsch-type catalysis. Neither model system produces an amino acid suite that is completely comparable to that found in the Murchison meteorite.

  6. Valine influences production and complex composition of glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 in fermentations of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727.

    PubMed

    Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Jovetic, Srdjan; Feroggio, Marina; Gastaldo, Luciano; Selva, Enrico; Marinelli, Flavia

    2004-01-01

    In actinomycetes the catabolism products of branched chain amino acids provide biosynthetic precursors for the formation of several lipid-containing antibiotics. We have determined in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 the effect of valine on production of glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, which is a complex of factors structurally differing in fatty acid moieties. Addition of valine to minimal medium increased A40926 production and modified complex composition towards a mono-component. Similar results were also obtained in a rich production medium. PMID:15032484

  7. Allied Health Chemistry Laboratory: Amino Acids, Insulin, Proteins, and Skin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, David F.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment specifically designed for allied health students. The students construct molecular models of amino acids, extract amino acids from their skin with hot water, and chromatographically analyze the skin extract and hydrolyzed insulin. (MLH)

  8. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  9. Acute hyperammonemia activates branched-chain amino acid catabolism and decreases their extracellular concentrations: different sensitivity of red and white muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Holecek; Roman Kandar; Ludek Sispera; Miroslav Kovarik

    2011-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is considered to be the main cause of decreased levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), valine, leucine,\\u000a and isoleucine, in liver cirrhosis. In this study we investigated whether the decrease in BCAA is caused by the direct effect\\u000a of ammonia on BCAA metabolism and the effect of ammonia on BCAA and protein metabolism in different types of skeletal

  10. Microwave (MW) irradiated Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR): Expedited synthesis of steroid-amino acid conjugates - A novel class of hybrid compounds.

    PubMed

    Borah, Preetismita; Borah, Juri Moni; Chowdhury, Pritish

    2015-06-01

    Microwave (MW) assisted chemical reactions are currently gaining considerable importance in organic synthesis to contribute in green technology. Considering the importance of peptidomimetic steroid-amino acid conjugates - a novel class of hybrid compounds having diverse biological properties, we report here synthesis of these compounds of alanine and valine methyl esters with seco-steroids (A, B and D ring cleavage) in expedited way by MW promoted Ugi-four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR). PMID:25701096

  11. Simultaneous determination of didanosine and its amino acid prodrug, valdidanosine by hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: Application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongtian Yan; Jin Sun; Jinling Wang; Youjun Xu; Yannan Chang; Ping Meng; Meng Zhu; Qiang Fu; Yongbing Sun; Zhonggui He

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS\\/MS) method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of didanosine and valdidanosine (L-valine amino acid ester prodrug of didanosine) in rat plasma. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was employed to extract the analytes from rat plasma, with high extraction recovery (>85%) for both didanosine

  12. Thermodynamics of the interactions of a homologous series of some amino acids with trimethylamine N-oxide: Volumetric, compressibility, and calorimetric studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinjan Choudhary; Nand Kishore

    2011-01-01

    The values of apparent molar volume V2,? and apparent molar compressibility KS,2,? of glycine, l-alanine, dl-?-amino-n-butyric acid, l-valine, and l-leucine have been determined in the aqueous solution of 1mol·kg?1 and 2mol·kg?1 trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) solutions by density and sound velocity measurements. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been employed to determine the values of heats of dilution q of the aqueous solutions

  13. Branched chain amino acid aminotransferase isoenzymes of Pseudomonas cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Wong; T. G. Lessie

    1979-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia grew rapidly using a mixture of all three branched chain amino acids as carbon source, but failed to use individual branched chain amino acids as sole carbon source. Extracts of bacteria grown on branched chain amino acids had between 2- and 3-fold higher levels of a-ketoglutarate-dependent branched chain amino acid aminotransferase activity than extracts of glucose-grown bacteria. The

  14. Transport and metabolism of amino acids in placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. H. Regnault; Barbra de Vrijer; Frederick C. Battaglia

    2002-01-01

    In all mammalian species, the 20 amino acids of the genetic code are required for net protein accretion. The nutritional supply\\u000a of amino acids for growth is defined as the net umbilical uptake of amino acids, representing the net transfer from maternal\\u000a circulation, through the placenta and then to the fetus, of essential and non-essential amino acids. In considering the

  15. Ozonation of Amino Acids: Ozone Demand and Aldehyde Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hureki; J. P. Croué; B. Legube; M. Doré

    1998-01-01

    This study is related to the ozonation of free and combined amino acids, which present a high reactivity with ozone. Amino acids reactivities studied in the presence or absence of tert-butyl alcohol as radical scavenger were found to be related to their structures. Amino acid side chains seem to be the main sites that are responsible for the high ozone

  16. Protein structures uncovered Amino acids are molecules and are the

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Protein structures uncovered Lysozyme Amino acid Amino acids are molecules and are the building blocks of proteins. Human proteins contain 20 different kinds of amino acids, which are represented below to form a chain. This chain is called the primary structure. If the protein chain doesn't occur

  17. Characteristics of amino acids in soil humic substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangwei Ding; Jingdong Mao; Baoshan Xing

    2001-01-01

    Humic substances are vital environmental materials. However, their size, shape, molecular weight, and structure are still unclear. In order to better understand the factors regulating the dynamics of soil organic matter, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of amino acids in humic substances was determined after 6 M HCl hydrolysis. Amino acids were determined using an amino-acid analyzer coupled with chromatographic techniques.

  18. Regulatory Roles of Amino Acids in Immune Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junya Yoneda; Ayatoshi Andou; Kenji Takehana

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins but are also key regulators of various pathological and physiological processes, including immune responses, in living cells. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects of amino acids are largely unknown. The regulatory roles of amino acids in the immune system can be considered from two perspectives, namely, the enhancement of

  19. Simultaneous Uptake of Multiple Amino Acids by Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El-Naggar; A. de Neergaard; A. El-Araby; H. Høgh-Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has proven that higher plants can utilize amino acids as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) sources. Most studies have focused on single amino acids with or without inorganic N, but a range of amino acids may be expected under conditions where the main N input derives from turnover of organic N sources. This study investigated the uptake of

  20. Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

  1. Unnatural amino acids in novel antibody conjugates.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Trevor J; Smider, Vaughn V

    2014-07-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are an important and emerging drug class for the treatment of cancer. Recent evidence strongly suggests that site-specific drug conjugation results in a homogenous population of molecules with more favorable activity and pharmacokinetic properties than randomly conjugated antibodies. Unnatural amino acids (uAAs) can be incorporated in recombinant proteins to enable unique orthogonal chemistries in comparison to the side chains of the natural 20 amino acids. Thus, uAAs present a novel platform for which to create next-generation antibody-drug conjugates. Furthermore, site-specific conjugation through uAAs can also enpower unique small molecule, bispecific, multispecific and other conjugates that could be important constructs for therapeutics, diagnostics and research reagents. Here, we review the progress in uAA incorporation and conjugate construction through both cell-based and -free approaches. PMID:25163001

  2. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoyao Wu

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators\\u000a of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones\\u000a and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations\\u000a of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione,

  3. Secondary Transport of Amino Acids in Prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jung; T. Pirch; D. Hilger

    2006-01-01

    Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon\\u000a and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction\\u000a and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully\\u000a used as model systems for exploration of transporter structure and

  4. Selection on Amino Acid Substitutions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Foxe, John Paul; Dar, Vaqaar-un-Nisa; Zheng, Honggang; Nordborg, Magnus; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of nucleotide diversity have found an excess of low-frequency amino acid polymorphisms segregating in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting a predominance of weak purifying selection acting on amino acid polymorphism in this inbreeding species. Here, we investigate levels of diversity and divergence at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in 6 circumpolar populations of the outbreeding Arabidopsis lyrata and compare these results with A. thaliana, to test for differences in mutation and selection parameters across genes, populations, and species. We find that A. lyrata shows an excess of low-frequency nonsynonymous polymorphisms both within populations and species wide, consistent with weak purifying selection similar to the patterns observed in A. thaliana. Furthermore, nonsynonymous polymorphisms tend to be more restricted in their population distribution in A. lyrata, consistent with purifying selection preventing their geographic spread. Highly expressed genes show a reduced ratio of amino acid to synonymous change for both polymorphism and fixed differences, suggesting a general pattern of stronger purifying selection on high-expression proteins. PMID:18390851

  5. The inhibition effect of some amino acids towards the corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl + 1 M H 2SO 4 solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Ghasemi, Z.; Seifzadeh, D.

    2005-08-01

    The inhibition effect of some amino acids towards the corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl + 1 M H 2SO 4 solution was investigated using weight loss measurement, linear polarization and SEM techniques. The results drawn from the different techniques are comparable. The used amino acids were alanine, leucine, valine, proline, methionine, and tryptophan. The effect of inhibitor concentration and temperature against inhibitor action was investigated. It was found that these amino acids act as good inhibitors for the corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl + 1 M H 2SO 4 solution. Increasing inhibitor concentration increases the inhibition efficiency and with increasing temperature the inhibition efficiency decreases. It was found that adsorption of used amino acids on aluminum surface follows Langmuir and Frumkin isotherms.

  6. Further evidence of the complexity of the racemization process in fossil shells with implications for amino acid racemization dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimber, R. W. L.; Griffin, C. V.

    1987-04-01

    Simulated aging experiments with shells of Ostrea, Anadara and Katelysia spp from Modern, Holocene and Pleistocene marine sediments in southern South Australia give further insight into the difficulties in using D/L ratios of amino acids for quantitative age determinations. Evidence is given that the progress of racemization, as monitored by changes in D/L ratios with time, is not only non-linear but also may be reversed, demonstrating a decrease in the observed degree of racemization. The observed changes in D/L ratio with time differ according to the age and the genus of shell, and the amino acid examined. Katelysiaspp. gives less variable values than Ostrea or Anadara and similarly valine racemization and isoleucine epimerization are far less variable than aspartic acid racemization.

  7. Further evidence of the complexity of the racemization process in fossil shells with implications for amino acid racemization dating

    SciTech Connect

    Kimber, R.W.L.; Griffin, C.V.

    1987-04-01

    Simulated aging experiments with shells of Ostrea, Anadara and Katelysia spp from Modern, Holocene and Pleistocene marine sediments in southern Australia give further insight into the difficulties in using D/L ratios of amino acids for quantitative age determinations. Evidence is given that the progress of racemization, as monitored by changes in D/L ratios with time, is not only non-linear but also may be reversed, demonstrating a decrease in the observed degree of racemization. The observed changes in D/L ratio with time differ according to the age and the genus of shell, and the amino acid examined. Katelysia spp. gives less variable values than Ostrea or Anadara and similarly valine racemization and isoleucine epimerization are far less variable than aspartic acid racemization.

  8. -HPLC determination of acidic d-amino acids and their N-methyl derivatives in biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tsesarskaia, Mara; Galindo, Erika; Szókán, Gyula; Fisher, George

    2015-01-01

    d-aspartate (d-Asp) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) occur in the neuroendocrine systems of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play a role in hormone release and synthesis, neurotransmission, and memory and learning. N-methyl-d-glutamate (NMDG) has also been detected in marine bivalves. Several methods have been used to detect these amino acids, but they require pretreatment of tissue samples with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) to remove primary amino acids which interfere with the detection of NMDA and NMDG. We report here a one step derivatization procedure with the chiral reagent N-?-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-(d or l)-valine amide, FDNP-Val-NH2, a close analog of Marfey’s reagent but with better resolution and higher molar absorptivity. The diastereomers formed are separated by HPLC on an ODS-Hypersil column eluted with TFA/water – TFA/MeCN. UV absorption at 340 nm permits detection levels as low as 5–10 picomoles. D-Asp, NMDA and NMDG peaks are not obscured by other primary or secondary amino acids; hence pretreatment of tissues with OPA is not required. This method is highly reliable and fast (less than 40 minutes HPLC run). Using this method, we have detected D-Asp, NMDA and NMDG in several biological tissues (octopus brain, optical lobe, and bucchal mass; foot and mantle of the mollusk Scapharca broughtonii), confirming the results of other researchers. PMID:19277955

  9. Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats 

    E-print Network

    Crooks, James Darrell

    1971-01-01

    . These relationships were studied in rats fed diets containing either 0/, 2/, or 4% glutsmic acid. Eight uniformly-14C-labeled amino acids and glucose were injected intraperitoneally, and their relative metabolic activities and distribution into free and protein... of dietary glutamic acid on endogenous pool size;, of the free amino acids were studied. No consistent patterns were observed. The pool sizes of all but four of the free amino acids increased after the ingestion of a meal. Glucose levels decreased...

  10. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations. PMID:24809066

  11. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in starved rats: the role of hepatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Holecek, M; Sprongl, L; Tilser, I

    2001-01-01

    Parameters of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine and valine) and protein metabolism were evaluated using L-[1-(14)C]leucine and alpha-keto[1-(14)C]isocaproate (KIC) in the whole body and in isolated perfused liver (IPL) of rats fed ad libitum or starved for 3 days. Starvation caused a significant increase in plasma BCAA levels and a decrease in leucine appearance from proteolysis, leucine incorporation into body proteins, leucine oxidation, leucine-oxidized fraction, and leucine clearance. Protein synthesis decreased significantly in skeletal muscle and the liver. There were no significant differences in leucine and KIC oxidation by IPL. In starved animals, a significant increase in net release of BCAA and tyrosine by IPL was observed, while the effect on other amino acids was non-significant. We conclude that the protein-sparing phase of uncomplicated starvation is associated with decreased whole-body proteolysis, protein synthesis, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation, and BCAA clearance. The increase in plasma BCAA levels in starved animals results in part from decreased BCAA catabolism, particularly in heart and skeletal muscles, and from a net release of BCAA by the hepatic tissue. PMID:11300224

  12. Contrasting plasma free amino acid patterns in elite athletes: association with fatigue and infection

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, K. J.; Kay, L.; Hjelm, M.

    1998-01-01

    AIM: There is little information on the plasma free amino acid patterns of elite athletes against which fatigue and nutrition can be considered. Therefore the aim was to include analysis of this pattern in the medical screening of elite athletes during both especially intense and light training periods. METHODS: Plasma amino acid analysis was undertaken in three situations. (1) A medical screening service was offered to elite athletes during an intense training period before the 1992 Olympics. Screening included a blood haematological/biochemical profile and a microbial screen in athletes who presented with infection. The athletes were divided into three groups who differed in training fatigue and were considered separately. Group A (21 track and field athletes) had no lasting fatigue; group B (12 judo competitors) reported heavy fatigue at night but recovered overnight to continue training; group C (18 track and field athletes, one rower) had chronic fatigue and had been unable to train normally for at least several weeks. (2) Athletes from each group were further screened during a post- Olympic light training period. (3) Athletes who still had low amino acid levels during the light training period were reanalysed after three weeks of additional protein intake. RESULTS: (1) The pre-Olympics amino acid patterns were as follows. Group A had a normal amino acid pattern (glutamine 554 (25.2) micromol/l, histidine 79 (6.1) micromol/l, total amino acids 2839 (92.1) micromol/l); all results are means (SEM). By comparison, both groups B and C had decreased plasma glutamine (average 33%; p<0.001) with, especially in group B, decreased histidine, glucogenic, ketogenic, and branched chain amino acids (p<0.05 to p<0.001). None in group A, one in group B, but ten athletes in group C presented with infection: all 11 athletes had plasma glutamine levels of less than 450 micromol/l. No intergroup differences in haematological or other blood biochemical parameters, apart from a lower plasma creatine kinase activity in group C than in group B (p<0.05) and a low neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the athletes with viral infections (1.2 (0.17)), were found. (2) During post-Olympic light training, group A showed no significant amino acid changes. In contrast, group B recovered normal amino acid levels (glutamine 528 (41.4) micromol/l, histidine 76 (5.3) micromol/l, and total amino acids 2772 (165) micromol/l) (p<0.05 to p<0.001) to give a pattern comparable with that of group A, whereas, in group C, valine and threonine had increased (p<0.05), but glutamine (441 (24.5) micromol/l) and histidine (58 (5.3) micromol/l) remained low. Thus none in group A, two in group B, but ten (53%) in group C still had plasma glutamine levels below 450 micromol/l, including eight of the 11 athletes who had presented with infection. (3) With the additional protein intake, virtually all persisting low glutamine levels increased to above 500 micromol/l. Plasma glutamine rose to 592 (35.1) micromol/l and histidine to 86 (6.0) micromol/l. Total amino acids increased to 2761 (128) micromol/l (p<0.05 to p<0.001) and the amino acid pattern normalised. Six of the ten athletes on this protein intake returned to increased training within the three weeks. CONCLUSION: Analysis of these results provided contrasting plasma amino acid patterns: (a) a normal pattern in those without lasting fatigue; (b) marked but temporary changes in those with acute fatigue; (c) a persistent decrease in plasma amino acids, mainly glutamine, in those with chronic fatigue and infection, for which an inadequate protein intake appeared to be a factor. ??? PMID:9562160

  13. Editing of errors in selection of amino acids for protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, H; Goldman, E

    1992-01-01

    All living cells must conduct protein synthesis with a high degree of accuracy maintained in the transmission and flow of information from gene to finished protein product. One crucial "quality control" point in maintaining a high level of accuracy is the selectivity by which aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases furnish correctly activated amino acids, attached to tRNA species, as the building blocks for growing protein chains. During selection of amino acids, synthetases very often have to distinguish the cognate substrate from a homolog having just one fewer methyl group in its structure. The binding energy of a methyl group is estimated to contribute only a factor of 100 to the specificity of binding, yet synthetases distinguish such closely related amino acids with a discrimination factor of 10,000 to 100,000. Examples of this include methionine versus homocysteine, isoleucine versus valine, alanine versus glycine, and threonine versus serine. Many investigators have demonstrated in vitro the ability of certain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to edit, that is, correct or prevent incorrect attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules. Several major editing pathways are now established from in vitro data. Further, at least some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have recently been shown to carry out the editing function in vivo. Editing has been demonstrated to occur in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant energy is expended by the cell for editing of misactivated amino acids, which can be reflected in the growth rate. Because of this, cellular levels of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways which yield competing substrates for protein synthesis, must be carefully regulated to prevent excessive editing. High-level expression of recombinant proteins imposes a strain on the biosynthetic capacity of the cell which frequently results in misincorporation of abnormal or wrong amino acids owing in part to limited editing by synthetases. Unbalanced amino acid pools associated with some genetic disorders in humans may also lead to errors in tRNA aminoacylation. The availability of X-ray crystallographic structures of some synthetases, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, allows insights into molecular details of the extraordinary selectivity of synthetases, including the editing function. PMID:1406490

  14. Evolutionary Conservation of Amino Acid Composition in Paralogous Insect Vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of paralogous vitellogenins in 10 insect species representing six orders showed a remarkable degree of conservation of amino acid composition in spite of sequence differences. For example, the correlation between the percentages of the 20 amino acids in two vitellogenins from the beetle Tribolium castaneum was 0.975, even though the two amino acid sequences differed from each other at 49.4% of sites. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrence of reciprocal pairs of amino acids in more distantly related paralogs, and this correlation was generally strongest when both of the amino acids in the pair were nutritionally essential. These results imply that conservation of amino acid composition occurs through amino acid replacements that result in a balanced loss and gain of each amino acid each amino acid residue. Thus insect vitellogenins seem to be subject to an unusual kind of purifying selection, where the amino acid content is conserved rather than the sequence per se, selection apparently arising from the nutritional needs of the developing embryo appears to be responsible for maintaining the balance of amino acids. PMID:20655995

  15. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The ?13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  16. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  17. Amino acid preservation in saline halite core samples: Analogs for Martian dry evaporitic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, J.; Aubrey, A.; Lowenstein, T.; Timofeeff, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent data returned from several Mars spacecraft show substantial evidence for mineral precipitation from bodies of liquid water. Evaporitic minerals such as gypsum, kieserite and poly-hydrated magnesium sulfates have been detected remotely by orbiting spacecraft [1], jarosite has been detected in situ by the MER Opportunity [2], and chlorides are highly abundant upon the surface of Mars [3], often in correlation with siliclastic deposits [4]. Terrestrial environments can provide analogs for these systems identified on the Martian surface, and in-depth characterization of the terrestrial systems can provide valuable insights into processes that may have occurred on Mars during the late Noachian/early Hesperian. This is especially true in ancient playa or evaporative basin environments where deep core sampling offers a method of observing the geochemical diagenetic changes with time within a constrained environment. Deep coring can provide samples upwards of 200 ka within hundreds of meters of core [5]. The analysis of these sections can allow for the determination of preservation of various biosignatures from extinct microbial communities as well as their in situ diagenetic rates. Amino acids are powerful biomarkers that can be used to estimate biomass [6] and determine ages of extinct microbial communities [7]. Preliminary data for a core sample collected from Saline Valley, CA, shows the effect of time on amino acid biosignatures. The core has been dated by U-series: 35 feet, 20.9 ± 1.1 ka; 127 feet, 61.1 ±2.8 ka; 204 feet, 73.9 ±4.8 ka; and 310 feet, 150.3 ± 7.8 ka. The abundance of amino acids is observed to decrease drastically over the first 20 ka and then stabilize, although the overall composition changes. Acidic amino acids along with alanine and valine are the dominant amino acids. The enantiomeric (D/L) ratios generally increase with age because of in situ racemization, although the enantiomeric ratios for alanine and glutamic acid show a decrease in the deepest core section. This may indicate some recent amino acid contribution to the pool of certain amino acids. Racemization rates can be calculated from the equation: ln[(1+D/L)/(1-D/L)] - ln [(1+D/L)/(1-D/L)]t=0 = 2ki(time) where ki is the first-order rate constant for the interconversion of the enantiomers. Using the D/L ratios at the top of the core for the t = 0 term gives kasp = 3.5x10exp-5 y-1 and 1.3x10exp-5 y-1 for the 18 and 70 ka samples, respectively. For valine, the values are kval = 5.6x10exp-6 y-1 and 7.3x10exp-6 y-1. Extrapolating these values to the average surface temperatures on Mars indicates that the chirality of these amino acids would be preserved for billions of years. Thus, closed basin lacustrine and dry desert valley regions with evaporite-rich deposits are suitable environments in the search for preserved biosignatures on Mars. References [1] Bibring, J.P., et al., Science 307, 1576 (2005) [2] Klinghofer, G., et al., Science 306, 1740 (2004) [3] Osterloo, M.M., et al., Science 319, 1651 (2008) [4] Squyres, S.W., et al., Nature 443, E1 (2006) [5] Lowenstein, T.K., et al., Geology 27, 3 (1999) [6] Glavin, D., et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 185,1 (2001) [7] Aubrey, A. D., et al., in preparation, Nature Geo. Sci.

  18. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E. (Institut fuer Botanik and Pharmazeutische Biologie der Universitaet, Wuerzburg (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors.

  19. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

  20. Amino acids of the Nogoya and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Amino acids were found in acid hydrolyzed, hot water extracts of the Nogoya (C2) and Mokoia (C3V) chondrites. About 40 n moles/g of amino acids were found in the Nogoya extract while Mokoia contained less than 1 n mole/g. The amino acid composition of Nogoya differs from that of other C2 chondrites studied earlier. The results from Mokoia are similar to previous data obtained from the C3V chondrite Allende.

  1. Amino acid substitution matrices from protein blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Henikoff, S; Henikoff, J G

    1992-01-01

    Methods for alignment of protein sequences typically measure similarity by using a substitution matrix with scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another. The most widely used matrices are based on the Dayhoff model of evolutionary rates. Using a different approach, we have derived substitution matrices from about 2000 blocks of aligned sequence segments characterizing more than 500 groups of related proteins. This led to marked improvements in alignments and in searches using queries from each of the groups. PMID:1438297

  2. Intercalating amino acid guests into montmorillonite host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, T.; Pálinkó, I.; Kónya, Z.; Kiricsi, I.

    2003-06-01

    The protonated forms of six amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-tryptophane, L-histidine, L-methionine and L-lysine) were ion-exchanged into Na-montmorillonite. A comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the host, the guests and host-guest substances revealed that the guest ions were intercalated successfully. It was verified by X-ray diffractometry and surface measurements as well. The spatial arrangement of the guest ions was modeled by semiempirical quantum chemical method. The intercalated organic ions provide chiral environment within the layers of the host material.

  3. Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids

    E-print Network

    Chambers, James Richard

    1958-01-01

    with ninhydrine. Some Other Methods Tried 24Fromm reported the preparation of silver a-phthalimido carboxylate salts from a-amino carboxylic acids. The silver salts (XXVIII) were then decarboxylated with bromine to yield the bromide? The bromides (XXIX) were... not isolated but were converted to the cyanide. The decarboxylation of a silver salt with bromine is known as the Hunsdiecker-Simonini reaction, H O H R - A - C - OAg + Br2 --? R - A - Br + AgBr + C02 A A/ \\ / \\ o=q p=o o=c__c=o w XVIII XXIX...

  4. Beneficial effects of l-leucine and l-valine on arrhythmias, hemodynamics and myocardial morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitr?ga, Katarzyna; Zorniak, Micha?; Varghese, Benoy; Lange, Dariusz; No?ynski, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Bia?ka, Szymon; Krzemi?ski, Tadeusz F

    2011-09-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to have a general protective effect on the heart in different animal models as well as in humans. However, so far no attempt has been made to specifically elucidate their influence on arrhythmias. Our study was performed to evaluate whether an infusion of either l-leucine or l-valine in a dose of 1mgkg(-1)h(-1) 10min before a 7-min period of left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 15min of reperfusion, had an effect on arrhythmias measured during the reperfusion phase in the ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias model in rats in vivo. The effect of the infusion of these substances on mean arterial blood pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. Both of the tested amino acids exhibited significant antiarrhythmic properties. l-Leucine reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.05) and l-valine decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (P<0.05). The two amino acids were generally hypotensive. l-Valine lowered blood pressure in all phases of the experiment (P<0.05) while l-leucine lowered this parameter mainly towards the end of occlusion and reperfusion (P<0.05). In addition, 30min infusion of the amino acids in the used dose did not produce any apparent adverse histological changes that were remarkably different from control. In summary, the results of our study suggest that l-leucine and l-valine in the dose that was used attenuates arrhythmias and are hypotensive in their influence. Our findings lend support to the many ongoing investigations into the benefit of the application of l-leucine and l-valine in cardiology like their addition to cardioplegic solutions. PMID:21605982

  5. Effect of hyperinsulinemia on myocardial amino acid uptake in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McNulty, P H; Jacob, R; Deckelbaum, L I; Young, L H

    2000-10-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are oxidative energy substrates for the heart and may exert anabolic effects on myocardial protein. The factors regulating their myocardial uptake in patients with ischemic heart disease are therefore of interest. To examine whether myocardial BCAA utilization is influenced by the circulating insulin concentration, in 10 patients with chronic ischemic heart disease, we measured transmyocardial amino acid balance during fasting and again during a 90-minute euglycemic insulin infusion (plasma insulin, 218+/-25 microU x mL(-1)) with plasma BCAA concentrations held constant by coinfusion. In the fasting state, the myocardial fractional extraction of leucine (8%), isoleucine (9%), and valine (5%) from arterial plasma was slightly greater than that of glucose (3%), while net myocardial BCAA uptake (leucine, 409+/-207 nmol x min(-1); isoleucine, 220+/-144 nmol x min(-1); valine, 407+/-326 nmol x min(-1); and total BCAA uptake, 1.0+/-0.3 micromol x min(-1)) was about 13% that of glucose (8+/-2 micromol x min(-1)). During euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, myocardial glucose uptake increased 3-fold, but there was no change in the arterial-coronary sinus balance or net myocardial uptake of any BCAA under conditions where their plasma concentrations were held constant. Instead, the myocardial uptake of each BCAA correlated positively with its concentration in arterial plasma. These results demonstrate that in patients with cardiovascular disease, myocardial utilization of BCAAs is insensitive to the circulating insulin level and is regulated instead by their availability in arterial plasma. Hyperinsulinemia reduced the magnitude of both net glutamate uptake and alanine release, suggesting a possible salutary effect on myocardial oxidative efficiency. PMID:11079831

  6. Therapeutic use of branched-chain amino acids in burn, trauma, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Bandt, Jean-Pascal; Cynober, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Various experimental studies conducted in the 1970s demonstrated, at least in the physiological situation, the anabolic and/or anticatabolic properties of branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, isoleucine) or their ketoacid derivatives. This led to several clinical studies in the late 1970s and early 1980s that aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of BCAA supplementation in nutritional support of the critically ill. The data on burn, trauma, and sepsis are, however, far from convincing. Besides significant discrepancies in their results and the fact that most of these studies involved very small populations of patients, few of them meet the current standards of therapeutic evaluation. However, some positive results in specific studies suggest that the underlying concept may be correct but that interpretation has been faulty. Indeed, we know now that while the BCAAs possess regulatory properties on protein metabolism, leucine is by far the most potent, while isoleucine and valine are inefficient. However, in the above-mentioned studies, BCAA-supplemented nutrition very frequently supplied almost equivalent amounts of all 3 BCAAs. Moreover, several studies were performed without adequate basal nutritional support, which most probably hampered the correct metabolic utilization of these amino acids. Taken together, these factors mean that the demonstrations of BCAA efficacy were fortunate in the least. In contrast, more recently, leucine was demonstrated to positively affect protein synthesis in an experimental model of sepsis or burn. In parallel, 2 prospective controlled trials of BCAA supplementation in septic patients also demonstrated an improvement in patients' nutritional status and outcome. Thus, we should abandon the concept of BCAA-supplemented nutrition for a more promising leucine-supplemented nutrition that requires further evaluation. PMID:16365104

  7. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

  8. Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces

    E-print Network

    Yang, Dengliang

    2005-11-01

    Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) Langmuir monolayers...

  9. Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Dengliang

    2005-11-01

    Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) ...

  10. The different pH optima and substrate specificities of extracellular and vacuolar invertases from plants are determined by a single amino-acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Goetz, M; Roitsch, T

    1999-12-01

    Different plant invertase isoenzymes are characterized by a single amino-acid difference in a conserved sequence, the WEC-P/V-D box. A proline residue is present in this sequence motif of extracellular invertase sequences, whereas a valine is found at the same position of vacuolar invertase sequences. The role of this distinct difference was studied by substituting the proline residue of extracellular invertase CIN1 from Chenopodium rubrum with a valine residue, by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated gene was heterologously expressed in an invertase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The single amino-acid difference was shown to be the molecular basis for two enzymatic properties of invertase isoenzymes, for both the pH optimum and the substrate specificity. A proline in the WEC-P/V-D box determines the more acidic pH optimum and the higher cleavage rate of raffinose of extracellular invertases, compared to vacuolar invertases that have a valine residue at this position. PMID:10652142

  11. (L)- or (D)-valine tert-butylamide grafted on permethylated beta-cyclodextrin derivatives as new mixed binary chiral selectors: versatile tools for capillary gas chromatographic enantioseparation.

    PubMed

    Stephany, O; Dron, F; Tisse, S; Martinez, A; Nuzillard, J-M; Peulon-Agasse, V; Cardinaël, P; Bouillon, J-P

    2009-05-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of two mixed binary chiral selectors prepared by grafting (L)- or (D)-valine tert-butylamide on permethylated cyclodextrin macrocycle. The enantioselective properties of the new chiral selectors diluted in OV11 polysiloxane (35% phenyl- and 65% methylsiloxane) were investigated by means of injections of 117 racemic mixtures. The mixed chiral selectors with (L)-valine and, to a lesser extent with (D)-valine, were found to have an improved enantioselectivity toward amino acid derivatives by comparison to permethylated cyclodextrin. The enantioseparation capability of these new chiral selectors has proven to be slightly less efficient than Chirasil-L-Val (Alltech) for amino acid derivatives, but it has been extended to include terpenes, lactones, esters, aliphatic compounds and aryl alcohols. PMID:19303600

  12. Nutrient Metabolism Amino Acid Availability Affects Amino Acid Flux and Protein Metabolism

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    growth rate decreased (P 0.05) in sows fed the LD diet. Model estimates of mammary protein synthesis (PS: amino acid uptake protein turnover lactation compartmental kinetic model mammary gland pigs/soybean meal­based diets fed to sows nursing large litters (1,2). When synthetic lysine is provided to meet its

  13. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

  14. Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (<1 ppm). The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ? 13 C values ranging from +31.6% to +50.5%. The highly enriched carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

  15. A Highly Stable d-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus

    PubMed Central

    Furukawara, Makoto; Omae, Keishi; Tadokoro, Namiho; Saito, Yayoi; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a biotechnologically attractive enzyme that can be used in a variety of applications, but its utility is limited by its relatively poor stability. A search of a bacterial genome database revealed a gene encoding a protein homologous to DAO in the thermophilic bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus (RxDAO). The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was a monomeric protein containing noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. This protein exhibited oxidase activity against neutral and basic d-amino acids and was significantly inhibited by a DAO inhibitor, benzoate, but not by any of the tested d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) inhibitors, thus indicating that the protein is DAO. RxDAO exhibited higher activities and affinities toward branched-chain d-amino acids, with the highest specific activity toward d-valine and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward d-leucine. Substrate inhibition was observed in the case of d-tyrosine. The enzyme had an optimum pH range and temperature of pH 7.5 to 10 and 65°C, respectively, and was stable between pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, with a T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the initial enzymatic activity is lost) of 64°C. No loss of enzyme activity was observed after a 1-week incubation period at 30°C. This enzyme was markedly inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by thiol-modifying reagents and diethyl pyrocarbonate, which are known to inhibit certain DAOs. These results demonstrated that RxDAO is a highly stable DAO and suggested that this enzyme may be valuable for practical applications, such as the determination and quantification of branched-chain d-amino acids, and as a scaffold to generate a novel DAO via protein engineering. PMID:25217016

  16. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  17. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  18. From interstellar amino acids to prebiotic catalytic peptides: a review.

    PubMed

    Brack, André

    2007-04-01

    Amino acids were most likely available on the primitive Earth, produced in the primitive atmosphere or in hydrothermal vents. Import of extraterrestrial amino acids may have represented the major supply, as suggested by micrometeorite collections and simulation experiments in space and in the laboratory. Selective condensation of amino acids in water has been achieved via N-carboxy anydrides. Homochiral peptides with an alternating sequence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids adopt stereoselective and thermostable beta-pleated sheet structures. Some of the homochiral beta-sheets strongly accelerate the hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides. The beta-sheet-forming peptides have also been shown to protect their amino acids from racemization. Even if peptides are not able to self-replicate, i.e., to replicate a complete sequence from the mixture of amino acids, the accumulation of chemically active peptides on the primitive Earth appears plausible via thermostable and stereoselective beta-sheets made of alternating sequences. PMID:17443882

  19. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  20. Trophic spectra under the lens of amino acid isotopic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in compound specific isotopic ratio analysis (CSIRA) have allowed researchers to measure trophic fractionation of 15N in specific amino acids, namely glutamic acid and phenylalanine. These amino acids have proven useful in food web studies because of the wide and consistent disparity...

  1. Regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle protein synthesis by individual branched-chain amino acids in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Davis, Teresa A

    2006-04-01

    Skeletal muscle grows at a very rapid rate in the neonatal pig, due in part to an enhanced sensitivity of protein synthesis to the postprandial rise in amino acids. An increase in leucine alone stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonatal pig; however, the effect of isoleucine and valine has not been investigated in this experimental model. The left ventricular wall of the heart grows faster than the right ventricular wall during the first 10 days of postnatal life in the pig. Therefore, the effects of individual BCAA on protein synthesis in individual skeletal muscles and in the left and right ventricular walls were examined. Fasted pigs were infused with 0 or 400 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) leucine, isoleucine, or valine to raise individual BCAA to fed levels. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and indexes of translation initiation were measured after 60 min. Infusion of leucine increased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein-1 and increased (P < 0.05) the amount and phosphorylation of eIF4G associated with eIF4E in longissimus dorsi and masseter muscles and in both ventricular walls. Leucine increased (P < 0.05) the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein (rp)S6 kinase and rpS6 in longissimus dorsi and masseter but not in either ventricular wall. Leucine stimulated (P < 0.05) protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi, masseter, and the left ventricular wall. Isoleucine and valine did not increase translation initiation factor activation or protein synthesis rates in skeletal or cardiac muscles. The results suggest that the postprandial rise in leucine, but not isoleucine or valine, acts as a nutrient signal to stimulate protein synthesis in cardiac and skeletal muscles of neonates by increasing eIF4E availability for eIF4F complex assembly. PMID:16278252

  2. Characterization of Amino Acid Efflux from Isolated Soybean Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Jacob; Schrader, Larry E.

    1984-01-01

    Cells from reproductive soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants were isolated using a mechanical-enzymic technique that produced a high yield of uniform, physiologically active cells. Cells were incubated in a pH 6.0 buffered solution and subjected to various treatments in order to determine the nature of net amino acid efflux. Total net amino acid (ninhydrinreactive substances) efflux was not affected by the following conditions: (a) darkness, (b) aeration, (c) K+ concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 millimolar and (d) pH 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. The Q10 for net amino acid efflux between 10°C and 30°C was 1.6. Thus, it seems that net amino acid efflux requires neither current photosynthetic energy nor a pH/ion concentration gradient. Amino acid analyses of the intra-and extracellular fractions over time showed that each amino acid was exported linearly for at least 210 minutes, but that export rate was not necessarily related to internal amino acid pools. Amino acids that were exported fastest were alanine, lysine, leucine, and glycine. Addition of the inhibitor p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonic acid, 3(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, or carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone increased the rate of total amino acid efflux but had specific effects on the efflux of certain amino acids. For example, p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonic acid greatly enhanced efflux of ?-aminobutyric acid, which is not normally exported rapidly even though a high concentration normally exists within cells. The data suggest that net amino acid efflux is a selective diffusional process. Because net efflux is the result of simultaneous efflux and influx, we propose that efflux is a facilitated diffusion process whereas influx involves energy-dependent carrier proteins. PMID:16663380

  3. Effects of hypoxia on plasma amino acids of fetal sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Walker; A. J. Gentry; L. R. Green; M. A. Hanson; L. Bennet

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   Secondary amino acid disturbances from circulatory responses during hypoxia may cause problems in interpreting plasma amino\\u000a acid profiles of sick babies investigated for possible inherited defects. Systematic studies to characterise them are difficult\\u000a in man. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on plasma amino acids by studying 9 late gestation fetal sheep in utero during 11 one hour episodes

  4. Amino acid sequence of the human fibronectin receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Scott Argraves; Shintaro Suzuki; Hiroharu Arai; Katie Thompson; Michael D. Pierschbacher; Erkki Ruoslahti

    1987-01-01

    The amino acid sequence deduced from eDNA of the human placental fibronectin receptor is reported. The receptor is composed of two subunits: an 0t subunit of 1,008 amino acids which is processed into two polypeptides disulfide bonded to one another, and a 13 subunit of 778 amino acids. Each subunit has near its COOH terminus a hydrophobic segment. This and

  5. Biotechnology applications of amino acids in protein purification and formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arakawa; K. Tsumoto; Y. Kita; B. Chang; D. Ejima

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Amino acids are widely used in biotechnology applications. Since amino acids are natural compounds, they can be safely used\\u000a in pharmaceutical applications, e.g., as a solvent additive for protein purification and as an excipient for protein formulations.\\u000a At high concentrations, certain amino acids are found to raise intra-cellular osmotic pressure and adjust to the high salt\\u000a concentrations of the surrounding

  6. Pseudoephedrine-Directed Asymmetric ?-Arylation of ?-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Rachel C; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Mas Roselló, Josep; Clayden, Jonathan

    2015-07-27

    Available ?-amino acids undergo arylation at their ??position in an enantioselective manner on treatment with base of N'-aryl urea derivatives ligated to pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary. In?situ silylation and enolization induces diastereoselective migration of the N'-aryl group to the ??position of the amino acid, followed by ring closure to a hydantoin with concomitant explulsion of the recyclable auxiliary. The hydrolysis of the hydantoin products provides derivatives of quaternary amino acids. The arylation avoids the use of heavy-metal additives, and is successful with a range of amino acids and with aryl rings of varying electronic character. PMID:26083236

  7. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  8. N-Benzoyl amino acids as LFA-1\\/ICAM inhibitors 1: amino acid structure–activity relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Burdick; Ken Paris; Kenneth Weese; Mark Stanley; Maureen Beresini; Kevin Clark; Robert S. McDowell; James C. Marsters; Thomas R. Gadek

    2003-01-01

    The association of ICAM-1 with LFA-1 plays a critical role in several autoimmune diseases. N-2-Bromobenzoyl l-tryptophan, compound 1, was identified as an inhibitor to the formation of the LFA-1\\/ICAM complex. The SAR of the amino acid indicates that the carboxylic acid is required for inhibition and that l-histidine is the most favored amino acid.

  9. Effect of DNA interaction involving antioxidative 4-aminoantipyrine incorporating mixed ligand complexes having alpha-amino acid as co-ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Natarajan; Sakthivel, Arunagiri; Selvaganapathy, Muthusamy; Mitu, Liviu

    2014-02-01

    Few new mixed ligand transition metal complexes of the stoichiometry [ML(A)2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), L = FFAP (furfurylidene-4-aminoantipyrine) and A = amino acid (glycine/alanine/valine), have been designed, synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of the complexes in DMF at 10-3 M concentration shows that they are non-electrolytes. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA indicates that the valine mixed ligand complexes are having higher binding constant than alanine and glycine mixed ligand complexes. This analysis reveals that binding constant depends on the size of the alkyl group present in the amino acid. The binding constants of valine mixed ligand complexes are in the order of 104 to 105 M-1 revealing that the complexes interact with DNA through moderate intercalation mode. The metal complexes exhibit effective cleavage of pUC19 DNA but it is not preceded via radical cleavage and superoxide anion radical. They are good antimicrobial agents than the free ligand. On comparing the IC50 values, [Ni(L)(Gly)2] is considered as a potential drug to eliminate the hydroxyl radical.

  10. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Prof. William Martin, Prof. Eörs Szathmáry (nominated by Dr. Gáspár Jékely) and Dr. Ádám Kun (nominated by Dr. Sandor Pongor) PMID:22325238

  11. Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong; Nijveen, Harm

    2014-07-01

    Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

  12. Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  13. Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-09-01

    The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550°C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached ~150°C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550°C. ?-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures >550°C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed.

  14. Survival of amino acids in micrometeorites during atmospheric entry.

    PubMed

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L

    2001-01-01

    The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 degrees C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approximately 150 degrees C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 degrees C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures > 550 degrees C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. PMID:12448989

  15. Ugi reactions with trifunctional ?-amino acids, aldehydes, isocyanides and alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivar Ugi; Anton Demharter; Werner Hörl; Thomas Schmid

    1996-01-01

    1,1?-iminodicarboxylic acid derivatives, which are similar to many natural substances can be synthesized in excellent yields and with high stereoselectivity by a one-pot reaction of ?-amino acids, aldehydes, isocyanides and alcohols.

  16. Terrestrial evolution of polymerization of amino acids - Heat to ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sets of amino acids containing sufficient trifunctional monomer are thermally polymerized at temperatures such as 65 deg; the amino acids order themselves. Various polymers have diverse catalytic activities. The polymers aggregate, in aqueous solution, to cell-like structures having those activities plus emergent properties, e.g. proliferatability. Polyamino acids containing sufficient lysine catalyze conversion of free amino acids, by ATP, to small peptides and a high molecular weight fraction. The lysine-rich proteinoid is active in solution, within suspensions of cell-like particles, or in other particles composed of lysine-rich proteinoid and homopolyribonucleotide. Selectivities are observed. An archaic polyamino acid prelude to coded protein synthesis is indicated.

  17. Transport of branched-chain amino acids in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus cremoris.

    PubMed

    Driessen, A J; de Jong, S; Konings, W N

    1987-11-01

    The kinetics, specificity, and mechanism of branched-chain amino acid transport in Streptococcus cremoris were studied in a membrane system of S. cremoris in which beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase was incorporated as a proton motive force (delta p)-generating system. Influx of L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine can occur via a common transport system which is highly selective for the L-isomers of branched chain amino acids and analogs. The pH dependency of the kinetic constants of delta p-driven L-leucine transport and exchange (counterflow) was determined. The maximal rate of delta p-driven transport of L-leucine (Vmax) increased with increasing internal pH, whereas the affinity constant increased with increasing external pH. The affinity constant for exchange (counterflow) varied in a similar fashion with pH, whereas Vmax was pH independent. Further analysis of the pH dependency of various modes of facilitated diffusion, i.e., efflux, exchange, influx, and counterflow, suggests that H+ and L-leucine binding and release to and from the carrier proceed by an ordered mechanism. A kinetic scheme of the translocation cycle of H+-L-leucine cotransport is suggested. PMID:2822669

  18. Far infrared spectra of solid state aliphatic amino acids in different protonation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivella, Aurélien; Gaillard, Thomas; Stote, Roland H.; Hellwig, Petra

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared spectra of zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic forms of aliphatic amino acids in solid state have been studied experimentally. Measurements were done on glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-isoleucine powder samples and film samples obtained from dried solutions prepared at pH ranging from 1 to 13. Solid state density functional theory calculations were also performed, and detailed potential energy distributions were obtained from normal mode results. A good correspondence between experimental and simulated spectra was achieved and this allowed us to propose an almost complete band assignment for the far infrared spectra of zwitterionic forms. In the 700-50 cm-1 range, three regions were identified, each corresponding to a characteristic set of normal modes. A first region between 700 and 450 cm-1 mainly contained the carboxylate bending, rocking, and wagging modes as well as the ammonium torsional mode. The 450-250 cm-1 region was representative of backbone and sidechain skeletal bending modes. At last, the low wavenumber zone, below 250 cm-1, was characteristic of carboxylate and skeletal torsional modes and of lattice modes. Assignments are also proposed for glycine cationic and anionic forms, but could not be obtained for all aliphatic amino acids due to the lack of structural data. This work is intended to provide fundamental information for the understanding of peptides vibrational properties.

  19. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.

    1999-01-01

    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg N.kg-1.d-1 and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) N.kg-1.d-1 for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  20. Amino-acid-based peritoneal dialysis solution improves amino-acid transport into skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Asola; K Virtanen; K Någren; S Helin; M Taittonen; H Kastarinen; B Anderstam; J Knuuti; K Metsärinne; P Nuutila

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities of amino-acid (AA) and protein metabolism are known to occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein malnutrition may contribute to impaired prognosis of dialysis patients. A crucial step in protein metabolism is AA transport into the cells. We compared the effects of an AA-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution to glucose-based solutions on skeletal muscle AA uptake. Thirteen nondiabetic PD

  1. Amino Acid Racemization and the Preservation of Ancient DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinar, Hendrik N.; Hoss, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    The extent of racemization of aspartic acid, alanine, and leucine provides criteria for assessing whether ancient tissue samples contain endogenous DNA. In samples in which the D/L ratio of aspartic acid exceeds 0.08, ancient DNA sequences could not be retrieved. Paleontological finds from which DNA sequences purportedly millions of years old have been reported show extensive racemization, and the amino acids present are mainly contaminates. An exception is the amino acids in some insects preserved in amber.

  2. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P?valine, phenylalanine, and methionine were lower in the QPM diets than those of maize (white and yellow) (all P?valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and proline (P?

  3. Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism. Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of part...

  4. Two types of amino acid substitutions in protein evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Miyata; Sanzo Miyazawa; Teruo Yasunaga

    1979-01-01

    Summary The frequency of amino acid substitutions, relative to the frequency expected by chance, decreases linearly with the increase in physico-chemical differences between amino acid pairs involved in a substitution. This correlation does not apply to abnormal human hemoglobins. Since abnormal hemoglobins mostly reflect the process of mutation rather than selection, the correlation manifest during protein evolution between substitution frequency

  5. The amino acid sequence of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelis Schüller; Jaap J. Beintema; Jaap Broos; Janneke Meulenberg

    1985-01-01

    Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue. Turtle ribonuclease binds much more weakly to the affinity chromatography matrix used than mammalian ribonucleases. The amino acid sequence was determined from overlapping peptides obtained from three different digests. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein determined by others and homology were used as additional evidence for several overlaps.

  6. Structure property relationships of amino acids and some dipeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pogliani

    1994-01-01

    A molecular connectivity model of the crystal densities and specific rotations of some natural amino acids and of the longitudinal relaxation rates of some natural amino acids and cyclic dipeptides is presented. While crystal densities and relaxation rates are better described by a set of three valence molecular connectivity indices {Dv,0Xv,1Xv}, specific rotations are better described by a set of

  7. The effects of nucleotide substitution on amino acid substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanyan, V.G.; Yakovleva, S.V.; Krovatsky, Yu.V.; Esipova, N.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1993-12-31

    The aim of the work consists of modeling Dayhoff matrix from the experimentally estimated matrix of nucleotide substitutions. The close resemblance observed between the Dayhoff matrix and the modeling matrix suggests that frequencies of transitions and transversions in genome determine the frequencies of amino acids substitutions. The substitutions apparently are not a consequence of selection of interchangeable amino acids substitutions.

  8. EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

  9. The Fate of Amino Acids During Simulated Meteoritic Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marylène Bertrand; Sjerry van der Gaast; Faith Vilas; Friedrich Hörz; Gerald Haynes; Annie Chabin; Andre Brack; Frances Westall

    2009-01-01

    Delivery of prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids and peptides, in meteoritic\\/micrometeoritic materials to early Earth during the first 500 million years is considered to be one of the main processes by which the building blocks of life arrived on Earth. In this context, we present a study in which the effects of impact shock on amino acids and a

  10. Molecular Diversity of Novel Amino Acid Based Dendrimers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer

    1997-01-01

    We have expanded the recently introduced methodology for the preparation of a novel amino acid based dendrimer in order to be able to synthesize a diversity of dendrimers. For this purpose different hydroxybenzoic acids and amino alcohols were used to prepare the required monomers, necessary for construction of the respective dendrimers. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  12. Evidence for amino-acid: proton cotransport in Ricinus cotyledons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Robinson; Harry Beevers

    1981-01-01

    During germination and early growth of the castor-bean (Ricinus communis L.), protein in the endosperm is hydrolyzed and the amino acids are transferred into the cotyledons and then via the translocation stream to the axis of the growing seedling. The cotyledons retain the ability to absorb amino acids after removal of the endosperm and hypocotyl, exhibiting rates of transport up

  13. Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy M. Becker; Guoyao Wu; Joseph A. Galanko; Wunian Chen; Angela R. Maynor; Carl L. Bose; J. Marc Rhoads

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether premature infants who have necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have deficiencies in glutamine (GLN) and arginine (ARG), which are essential to intestinal integrity. Study design: A 4-month prospective cohort study of serum amino acid and urea levels in premature infants was done. Serum amino acid and urea levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods, respectively,

  14. Vitreous Amino Acid Concentrations in Patients With Glaucoma Undergoing Vitrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Honkanen; Sankar Baruah; M. Bridget Zimmerman; Cheryl L. Khanna; Yaffa K. Weaver; Joanna Narkiewicz; Rafiq Waziri; Karen M. Gehrs; Thomas A. Weingeist; H. Culver Boldt; James C. Folk; Stephen R. Russell; Young H. Kwon; Hiroaki Isono; Shoji Kishi; Yasutaka Kimura; Naoya Hagiwara; Naoki Konishi; Hitoshi Fujii; Siavash Yazdanfar; Andrew M. Rollins; Joseph A. Izatt; Barbara Nemesure; Suh-Yuh Wu; Anselm Hennis; M. Cristina Leske

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To measure vitreous concentrations of glu- tamate and other amino acids in patients with glaucoma undergoing vitrectomy. Methods: Undiluted vitreous samples were collected from patients undergoing vitrectomy at the University of Iowa (Iowa City) between 1997 and 1998 (n=69). Vitreous concentrations of 16 amino acids, including glutamate, were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Patients with a history of diabetes

  15. Interaction of metal ions and amino acids - Possible mechanisms for the adsorption of amino acids on homoionic smectite clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Loew, G. H.; Lawless, J.

    1983-01-01

    A semiempirical molecular orbital method is used to characterize the binding of amino acids to hexahydrated Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), a process presumed to occur when they are adsorbed in the interlamellar space of homoionic smectite clays. Five alpha-amino acids, beta-alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were used to investigate the metal ion and amino acid specificity in binding. It was assumed that the alpha, beta, and gamma-amino acids would bind as bidentate anionic ligands, forming either 1:1 or 1:2 six-coordinated five, six, and seven-membered-ring chelate complexes, respectively. Energies of complex formation, optimized geometries, and electron and spin distribution were determined; and steric constraints of binding of the amino acids to the ion-exchanged cations in the interlamellar spacing of a clay were examined. Results indicate that hexahydrated Cu(2+) forms more stable complexes than hexahydrated Ni(2+) with all the amino acids studied. However, among these amino acids, complex formation does not favor the adsorption of the biological subset. Calculated energetics of complex formation and steric constraints are shown to predict that 1:1 rather than 1:2 metal-amino acid complexes are generally favored in the clay.

  16. Amino acids and osmolarity in honeybee drone haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, B; Crailsheim, K

    1999-01-01

    In the haemolymph of honeybee drones, concentrations of free amino acids were higher than in worker haemolymph, with different relative proportions of individual amino acids. The overall concentration of free amino acids reached its highest level at the 5th day after adult drone emergence, and after the 9th day only minor changes in the concentration and distribution of free amino acids were observed. This coincides with the age when drones reach sexual maturity and change their feeding behaviour. Levels of essential free amino acids were high during the first 3 days of life and thereafter decreased. Osmolarity was lowest at emergence (334 +/- 42 mOsm), increased until the age of 3 days (423 +/- 32 mOsm) and then stayed generally constant until the 16th day of life. Only 25-day-old drones had significantly higher osmolarity (532 +/- 38 mOsm). The overall change in osmolarity during a drone's lifetime was about 40%. PMID:10524277

  17. Synthesis of amino acids by arc-discharge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huaibin, Shi; Chunlin, Shao; Zengliang, Yu

    2001-10-01

    Discharge was performed against ammonia water using a graphite rod as the anode and a silver thread as the cathode under an Ar atmosphere. HPLC and thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analyses showed that three kinds of amino acids were produced in the reaction mixture. As the graphite anode is the solitary source of carbon in the system, it is considered that amino acids have been produced by synthetic reaction between graphite and ammonia water. Thus, our results provide a possible way of formation of amino acids from elemental carbon on the primitive earth. In addition, the mechanism for the production of amino acids is discussed and the yields of different amino acids are presented.

  18. Supernovae, neutrinos and the chirality of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Richard N; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the (14)N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

  19. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

  20. Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Helinck; Dominique Le Bars; Daniel Moreau; Mireille Yvon

    2004-01-01

    Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus ther- mophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine,

  1. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  2. Amino acid composition of early stages of cephalopods and effect of amino acid dietary treatments on Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Villanueva; J. Riba; C. Ru??z-Capillas; A. V. González; M. Baeta

    2004-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed to provide a first look at the amino acid composition of the early stages of cephalopods and follow possible effects of certain dietary treatments. Amino acid profiles of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, squid Loligo vulgaris and octopus, Octopus vulgaris hatchlings and wild juveniles of L. vulgaris and O. vulgaris were analysed. Cephalopod hatchlings showed high

  3. Influence of some exogenous amino acids on the production of maize embryogenic callus and on endogenous amino acid content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Claparols; M. A. Santos; J. M. Torné

    1993-01-01

    The effects of four exogenous amino acids (proline, glycine, asparagine and serine) on the production of maize embryogenic callus and on its endogenous amino acid content have been investigated. For this purpose, an established embryogenic line of Type 1 callus from the inbred W64Ao2 has been used. From the results it may be concluded that a concentration of proline exceeding

  4. Using the radial distributions of physical features to compare amino acid environments and align amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Altman, R B; Chang, J T

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the microenvironments surrounding the twenty amino acids. Our analysis includes comparison of amino acid environments with random control environments as well as with each of the other amino acid environments. We describe the amino acid environments with a set of 21 features summarizing atomic, chemical group, residue, and secondary structural features. The environments are divided into radial shells of 1 A thickness to represent the distance of the features from the amino acid C beta atoms. We make the results of our analysis available graphically over the world wide web. To illustrate the validity and utility of our analysis, we used the amino acid comparative profiles to construct a substitution matrix, the WAC matrix, based on a simple summary of the computed environmental differences. We compared our matrix to BLOSUM62 and PAM250 in BLAST searches with query sequences selected from 39 protein families found in the PROSITE database. Although BLOSUM62 was the most sensitive matrix overall, our matrix was more sensitive for some families, and exhibited overall performance similar to PAM250. Our results suggest that the radial distribution of biochemical and biophysical features is useful for comparing amino acid environments, and that similarity matrices based on the geometric distribution of features around amino acids may produce improved search sensitivity. PMID:9390315

  5. Acute heat stress up-regulates neuropeptide Y precursor mRNA expression and alters brain and plasma concentrations of free amino acids in chicks.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Bahry, Mohammad A; Hui, Yang; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2015-09-01

    Heat stress causes an increase in body temperature and reduced food intake in chickens. Several neuropeptides and amino acids play a vital role in the regulation of food intake. However, the responses of neuropeptides and amino acids to heat-stress-induced food-intake regulation are poorly understood. In the current study, the hypothalamic mRNA expression of some neuropeptides related to food intake and the content of free amino acids in the brain and plasma was examined in 14-day-old chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature (HT; 40±1°C for 2 or 5h) or to a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1°C). HT significantly increased rectal temperature and plasma corticosterone level and suppressed food intake. HT also increased the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) precursor mRNA, while no change was observed in pro-opiomelanocortin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, or corticotropin-releasing hormone precursor mRNA. It was further found that the diencephalic content of free amino acids - namely, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, valine and serine - was significantly higher in HT chicks with some alterations in their plasma amino acids in comparison with CT chicks. The induction of NPY and ASIP expression and the alteration of some free amino acids during HT suggest that these changes can be the results or causes the suppression of food intake. PMID:25933935

  6. Accurate determination of the amino acid content of selected feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2009-01-01

    The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to accurately determine the content of amino acids in five different feedstuffs. These values were compared with 24-h hydrolysis values determined for the same feedstuffs. Overall, approximately two-thirds of the amino acids determined in this study (aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine) using 24-h hydrolysis were in good agreement (<3% difference). When examined across feedstuffs, the concentration of serine was underestimated by the 24-h hydrolysis method by 4.8%, while the concentrations of histidine and lysine were overestimated by 3.9% and 3.1%, respectively. PMID:18946798

  7. Functional amino acids in nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    The recent years have witnessed growing interest in biochemistry, physiology and nutrition of amino acids (AA) in growth, health and disease of humans and other animals. This results from the discoveries of AA in cell signaling involving protein kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and gaseous molecules (i.e., NO, CO and H2S). In addition, nutritional studies have shown that dietary supplementation with several AA (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glutamate, leucine, and proline) modulates gene expression, enhances growth of the small intestine and skeletal muscle, or reduces excessive body fat. These seminal findings led to the new concept of functional AA, which are defined as those AA that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, lactation, and reproduction of the organisms. Functional AA hold great promise in prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders), intrauterine growth restriction, infertility, intestinal and neurological dysfunction, and infectious disease (including viral infections). PMID:23595206

  8. Synthesis of bicyclic tertiary alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Jon-Paul; Whitaker, Regina C; Miller, Craig H; Bhatti, Balwinder S

    2006-12-22

    Novel bicyclic alpha-amino acids, exo and endo-1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carboxylic acid, and 1-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylic acid have been readily synthesized for the generation of neuronal nicotinic receptor ligands. Alkylation of glycine-derived Schiff bases or nitroacetates with cyclic ether electrophiles, followed by acid-induced ring opening and cyclization in NH4OH, allowed for the preparation of substantial quantities of the three tertiary bicyclic alpha-amino acids. PMID:17168622

  9. The Fate of Amino Acids During Simulated Meteoritic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; van der Gaast, Sjerry; Vilas, Faith; Hörz, Friedrich; Haynes, Gerald; Chabin, Annie; Brack, Andre; Westall, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Delivery of prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids and peptides, in meteoritic/micrometeoritic materials to early Earth during the first 500 million years is considered to be one of the main processes by which the building blocks of life arrived on Earth. In this context, we present a study in which the effects of impact shock on amino acids and a peptide in artificial meteorites composed of saponite clay were investigated. The samples were subjected to pressures ranging from 12-28.9 GPa, which simulated impact velocities of 2.4-5.8 km/s for typical silicate-silicate impacts on Earth. Volatilization was determined by weight loss measurement, and the amino acid and peptide response was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For all compounds, degradation increased with peak pressure. At the highest shock pressures, amino acids with an alkyl side chain were more resistant than those with functional side chains. The peptide cleaved into its two primary amino acids. Some chiral amino acids experienced partial racemization during the course of the experiment. Our data indicate that impact shock may act as a selective filter to the delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids via carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Amino acid composition of human uterine fluid: association with age, lifestyle and gynaecological pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kermack, Alexandra J.; Finn-Sell, Sarah; Cheong, Ying C.; Brook, Nicholas; Eckert, Judith J.; Macklon, Nick S.; Houghton, Franchesca D.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do the amino acid levels of human uterine fluid vary with age, BMI, phase of menstrual cycle, benign pathology or diet? SUMMARY ANSWER The levels of 18 amino acids in human uterine fluid were shown to be affected only by maternal diet. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Murine, bovine and ovine uterine amino acid content has been reported, but no reliable data on the human exist. Murine studies have demonstrated that the intrauterine periconceptional nutritional environment is affected by maternal diet. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Uterine secretions were aspirated from 56 women aged 18–45 years. The women were recruited preoperatively from gynaecological theatre operating schedules or hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy) lists. A proportion of these women had proven fertility; however, the majority were being investigated for subfertility. The BMI, gynaecological history and dietary pattern of these women were also assessed. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the concentrations of 18 amino acids within the uterine fluid and blood serum. The results were analysed against the women's stage of cycle, age, BMI and diet. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The profile of 18 amino acids in uterine fluid was described. In total, human uterine fluid was observed to contain an amino acid concentration of 3.54 mM (interquartile range: 2.27–6.24 mM). The relative concentrations of 18 amino acids were not significantly altered by age, BMI, cycle phase or the presence of specific benign gynaecological pathologies. However, a diet identified by a validated scoring system as being less healthy was associated with higher concentrations of asparagine (P = 0.018), histidine (P = 0.011), serine (P = 0.033), glutamine (P = 0.049), valine (P = 0.025), phenylalanine (P = 0.019), isoleucine (P = 0.025) and leucine (P = 0.043) in the uterine fluid compared with a healthier diet, defined as one with a higher intake of fresh vegetables, fruit, whole-grain products and fish and a low intake of red and processed meat and high fat dairy products. There were no significant correlations between serum amino acid concentrations and those in the uterine fluid. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Our results enabled us to detect the effect of diet on the concentrations of amino acids in human uterine fluid; however, the study may not have had sufficient numbers to detect mild effects of BMI or age. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings increase our understanding of the nutritional environment encountered by the preimplantation embryo, and indicate how periconceptional diet may alter this. Given the importance of early embryo environment for programming of development and future health, this information may aid in the development of nutritional interventions aimed at optimizing the preimplantation phase of human embryo development in vivo. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was funded by the NIHR, the Medical Research Council (G0701153) and the University of Southampton and was supported by the NIHR BRC in Nutrition and Southampton University NHS Foundation Trust. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. PMID:25697730

  11. Purification, characterization, and complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes-Rodriguez, S; Segura-Nieto, M; Chagolla-Lopez, A; Verver y Vargas-Cortina, A; Martinez-Gallardo, N; Blanco-Labra, A

    1993-01-01

    A protein proteinase inhibitor was purified from a seed extract of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, gel-filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It is a 69-amino acid protein with a high content of valine, arginine, and glutamic acid, but lacking in methionine. The inhibitor has a relative molecular weight of 7400 and an isoelectric point of 7.5. It is a serine proteinase inhibitor that recognizes chymotrypsin, trypsin, and trypsin-like proteinase activities extracted from larvae of the insect Prostephanus truncatus. This inhibitor belongs to the potato-I inhibitor family, showing the closest homology (59.5%) with the Lycopersicum peruvianum trypsin inhibitor, and (51%) with the proteinase inhibitor 5 extracted from the seeds of Cucurbita maxima. The position of the lysine-aspartic acid residues present in the active site of the amaranth inhibitor are found in almost the same relative position as in the inhibitor from C. maxima. PMID:8290633

  12. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  13. Metabolic Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Valine and Ammonium Pulses during Four-Stage Continuous Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Clement, T.; Perez, M.; Mouret, J. R.; Sanchez, I.; Sablayrolles, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen supplementation, which is widely used in winemaking to improve fermentation kinetics, also affects the products of fermentation, including volatile compounds. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic response of yeast to nitrogen additions remain unclear. We studied the consequences for Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism of valine and ammonium pulses during the stationary phase of four-stage continuous fermentation (FSCF). This culture technique provides cells at steady state similar to that of the stationary phase of batch wine fermentation. Thus, the FSCF device is an appropriate and reliable tool for individual analysis of the metabolic rerouting associated with nutrient additions, in isolation from the continuous evolution of the environment in batch processes. Nitrogen additions, irrespective of the nitrogen-containing compound added, substantially modified the formation of fermentation metabolites, including glycerol, succinate, isoamyl alcohol, propanol, and ethyl esters. This flux redistribution, fulfilling the requirements for precursors of amino acids, was consistent with increased protein synthesis resulting from increased nitrogen availability. Valine pulses, less efficient than ammonium addition in increasing the fermentation rate, were followed by a massive conversion of this amino acid in isobutanol and isobutyl acetate through the Ehrlich pathway. However, additional routes were involved in valine assimilation when added in stationary phase. Overall, we found that particular metabolic changes may be triggered according to the nature of the amino acid supplied, in addition to the common response. Both these shared and specific modifications should be considered when designing strategies to modulate the production of volatile compounds, a current challenge for winemakers. PMID:23417007

  14. Amino acids as promoieties in prodrug design and development.

    PubMed

    Vig, Balvinder S; Huttunen, Kristiina M; Laine, Krista; Rautio, Jarkko

    2013-10-01

    Prodrugs are biologically inactive agents that upon biotransformation in vivo result in active drug molecules. Since prodrugs might alter the tissue distribution, efficacy and the toxicity of the parent drug, prodrug design should be considered at the early stages of preclinical development. In this regard, natural and synthetic amino acids offer wide structural diversity and physicochemical properties. This review covers the use of amino acid prodrugs to improve poor solubility, poor permeability, sustained release, intravenous delivery, drug targeting, and metabolic stability of the parent drug. In addition, practical considerations and challenges associated with the development of amino acid prodrugs are also covered. PMID:23099277

  15. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on protein turnover.

    PubMed

    May, M E; Buse, M G

    1989-05-01

    Amino acid availability rapidly regulates protein synthesis and degradation. Increasing amino acid concentrations above the levels found in post-absorptive plasma stimulates protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner at the level of mRNA translation-initiation and inhibits protein degradation by inhibiting lysosomal autophagy. The anabolic effects of insulin on protein synthesis and protein degradation are exerted at the same sites (i.e., peptide chain initiation and lysosomal stabilization) allowing for a rapid synergistic response when both amino acids and insulin increase after a protein-containing meal. In perfused liver preparations, protein anabolic effects are exerted by a group of amino acids acting in concert. The BCAA are among the amino acids required for stimulation of hepatic protein synthesis, but there is no evidence that BCAA or leucine alone are effective. Leucine alone is an important inhibitor of hepatic protein degradation, but maximal inhibition requires in addition several other regulatory amino acids. In heart and skeletal muscle in vitro, increasing the concentration of the three BCAA or of leucine alone reproduces the effects of increasing the supply of all amino acids in stimulating protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation. Skeletal muscle is the largest repository of metabolically active protein and a major contributor to total body nitrogen balance. Supplying energy alone (i.e., carbohydrate and lipids) cannot prevent negative nitrogen balance (net protein catabolism) in animals or humans; only provision of amino acids allows the attainment of nitrogen balance. In rats and in humans nourished parenterally, provision of balanced amino acid solutions or of only the three BCAA cause similar improvements in nitrogen balance for several days. There is some evidence that infusions of leucine alone can stimulate muscle protein synthesis in vivo; the effect may be transitory and was not observed by all investigators; provisions of excess leucine alone does not seem to affect total body or muscle protein degradation in vivo. In postabsorptive rats, in vivo, infusion of the three BCAA together stimulates muscle protein synthesis as much as the infusion of a complete amino acid mixture or of a mixture of essential amino acids; the in vivo effect requires coinfusion of glucose or of small (physiological) doses of insulin, suggesting synergism between insulin and amino acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2656154

  16. Beyond the Canonical 20 Amino Acids: Expanding the Genetic Lexicon*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Travis S.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to genetically encode unnatural amino acids beyond the common 20 has allowed unprecedented control over the chemical structures of recombinantly expressed proteins. Orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs have been used together with nonsense, rare, or 4-bp codons to incorporate >50 unnatural amino acids into proteins in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and mammalian cell lines. This has allowed the expression of proteins containing amino acids with novel side chains, including fluorophores, post-translational modifications, metal ion chelators, photocaged and photocross-linking moieties, uniquely reactive functional groups, and NMR, IR, and x-ray crystallographic probes. PMID:20147747

  17. Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of ?-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (?-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, B.; Ramesh, M.; Srinivas, R.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Kiranmai, N.; Sarma, V. U. M.

    2011-04-01

    A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived ?-amino acid (?-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with ?-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2, whereas these processes are absent for the peptides with L-amino acids at the N-terminus. Instead, the presence of L-amino acids at the N-terminus results in characteristic retro-Mannich reaction involving elimination of imine. A good correlation has been observed between the conformational structure of the peptides and the abundance of y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions in MS n spectra. In the case of tetrapeptide isomers that are reported to form helical structures in solution phase, no y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions are observed when the corresponding amide -NH- participates in the helical structures. In contrast, significant y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions are formed when the amide -NH- is not involved in the H-bonding. In the case of tetra- and hexapeptides, it is observed that abundant b{n/+} ions are formed, presumably with stable oxazolone structures when the C-terminus of the b{n/+} ions possessed L-amino acid and the ?-Nda- at the C-terminus appears to prevent the cyclization process leading to the absence of corresponding b{n/+} ions.

  18. Regulation of valine catabolism in canine tissues: tissue distributions of branched-chain aminotransferase and 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex, methacrylyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Ooiwa; Hidemi Goto; Yoshihisa Tsukamoto; Tetsuo Hayakawa; Satoru Sugiyama; Noriaki Fujitsuka; Yoshiharu Shimomura

    1995-01-01

    To clarify the valine catabolism, the activities of principal enzymes in its catabolic pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase, branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex, methacrylyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase, were measured using canine tissues. After killing of beagle dogs, tissues (liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle and mucosae of digestive organs such as stomach, small intestine and colon) were removed and immediately frozen.

  19. Amino acid turnover by human oocytes is influenced by gamete developmental competence, patient characteristics and gonadotrophin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hemmings, K.E.; Maruthini, D.; Vyjayanthi, S.; Hogg, J.E.; Balen, A.H.; Campbell, B.K.; Leese, H.J.; Picton, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can amino acid profiling differentiate between human oocytes with differing competence to mature to metaphase II (MII) in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocytes which remained arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) displayed differences in the depletion/appearance of amino acids compared with oocytes which progressed to MII and patient age, infertile diagnosis and ovarian stimulation regime significantly affected oocyte amino acid turnover during IVM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Amino acid profiling has been proposed as a technique which can distinguish between human pronucleate zygotes and cleavage stage embryos with the potential to develop to the blastocyst stage and implant to produce a pregnancy and those that arrest. Most recently, the amino acid turnover by individual bovine oocytes has been shown to be predictive of oocyte developmental competence as indicated by the gamete's capacity to undergo fertilization and early cleavage divisions in vitro. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was conducted between March 2005 and March 2010. A total of 216 oocytes which were at the GV or metaphase I (MI) stages at the time of ICSI were donated by 67 patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS The research was conducted in university research laboratories affiliated to a hospital-based infertility clinic. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and the depletion/appearance of amino acids was measured during the final 6 h of IVM. Amino acid turnover was analysed in relation to oocyte meiotic progression, patient age, disease aetiology and controlled ovarian stimulation regime. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The depletion/appearance of key amino acids was linked to the maturation potential of human oocytes in vitro. Oocytes which arrested at the GV stage (n = 9) depleted significantly more valine and isoleucine than those which progressed to MI (n = 32) or MII (n = 107) (P < 0.05). Glutamate, glutamine, arginine and valine depletion or appearance differed in MII versus degenerating oocytes (n = 20) (P < 0.05). Glutamine, arginine, methionine, phenylalanine, total depletion and total turnover all differed in oocytes from patients aged < 35 years versus patients ?35 years (P < 0.05). MII oocytes obtained following ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH depleted more isoleucine (P < 0.05) and more alanine and lysine (P < 0.05) appeared than oocytes from hMG-stimulated cycles. MII oocytes from patients with a polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology (n = 33) depleted more serine (P < 0.05) than oocytes from women with normal ovaries (n = 61). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Immature oocytes collected at the time of ICSI were used as the model for human oocyte maturation. These oocytes have therefore failed to respond to the ovulatory hCG trigger in vivo (they are meiotically incompetent), and have limited capacity to support embryo development in vitro. The lack of cumulus cells and stress of the conditions in vitro may have influenced turnover of amino acids, and owing to the small sample sizes further studies are required to confirm these findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The findings provide support for the hypothesis that oocyte metabolism reflects oocyte quality. Longitudinal studies are required to link these functional metabolic indices of human oocyte quality with embryo developmental competence. Oocyte amino acid profiling may be a useful tool to quantify the impact of new assisted reproduction technologies (ART) on oocyte quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This project was funded by the UK Biology and Biotechnology Research Council (BB/C007395/1) and the Medical Research Council (G 0800250). K.E.H was in receipt of a British Fertility Society/Merck Serono studentship. H.J.L. is a shareholder in Novocellus Ltd, a company which seeks to devise a non-invasive biochemical test of embryo health. PMID:23335609

  20. Mutagenesis studies on the sensitivity of Escherichia coli acetohydroxyacid synthase II to herbicides and valine.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y T; Duggleby, R G

    2000-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 4.1.3.18, also known as acetolactate synthase) isoenzyme II from Escherichia coli is inhibited by sulphonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides, although it is much less sensitive than the plant enzyme. This isoenzyme is also unusual in that it is not inhibited by valine. Mutating S100 (Ser(100) in one-letter amino acid notation) of the catalytic subunit to proline increases its sensitivity to sulphonylureas, but not to imidazolinones. Mutating P536 to serine, as found in the plant enzyme, had little effect on the properties of the enzyme. Mutating E14 of the regulatory subunit to glycine, either alone or in combination with the H29N (His(29)-->Asn) change, did not affect valine-sensitivity. PMID:10926827

  1. How amino acids and peptides shaped the RNA world.

    PubMed

    van der Gulik, Peter T S; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a "pure RNA ribosome" evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems "RNA only", we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the "RNA world" view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  2. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    van der Gulik, Peter T.S.; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The “RNA world” hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a “pure RNA ribosome” evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems “RNA only”, we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the “RNA world” view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  3. Research Paper An Examination of the Carbon Isotope Effects Associated with Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES H. SCOTT; DIANE M. O'BRIEN; DAVID EMERSON; HENRY SUN; GENE D. McDONALD; ANTONIO SALGADO; MARILYN L. FOGEL

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (? 13C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glu- tamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here

  4. Polymers with complexing properties. Simple poly(amino acids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roque, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The free amino (0.3 equiv/residue) and carboxyl (0.5 equiv/residue) groups of thermal polylysine increased dramatically on treatment with distilled water. The total hydrolysis of such a polymer was abnormal in that only about 50% of the expected amino acids were recovered. Poly (lysine-co-alanine-co-glycine) under usual conditions hydrolyzed completely in 8 hours; whereas, when it was pretreated with diazomethane, a normal period of 24 hours was required to give (nearly) the same amounts of each free amino acid as compared with those obtained from the untreated polymer. The amino groups of the basic thermal poly(amino acids) were sterically hindered. The existence of nitrogen atoms linking two or three chains and reactive groups (anhydride, imine) were proposed.

  5. Identification of core amino acids stabilizing rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Rader, A J; Anderson, Gülsüm; Isin, Basak; Khorana, H Gobind; Bahar, Ivet; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2004-05-11

    Rhodopsin is the only G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) whose 3D structure is known; therefore, it serves as a prototype for studies of the GPCR family of proteins. Rhodopsin dysfunction has been linked to misfolding, caused by chemical modifications that affect the naturally occurring disulfide bond between C110 and C187. Here, we identify the structural elements that stabilize rhodopsin by computational analysis of the rhodopsin structure and comparison with data from previous in vitro mutational studies. We simulate the thermal unfolding of rhodopsin by breaking the native-state hydrogen bonds sequentially in the order of their relative strength, using the recently developed Floppy Inclusion and Rigid Substructure Topography (FIRST) method [Jacobs, D. J., Rader, A. J., Kuhn, L. A. & Thorpe, M. F. (2001) Proteins 44, 150-165]. Residues most stable under thermal denaturation are part of a core, which is assumed to be important for the formation and stability of folded rhodopsin. This core includes the C110-C187 disulfide bond at the center of residues forming the interface between the transmembrane and the extracellular domains near the retinal binding pocket. Fast mode analysis of rhodopsin using the Gaussian network model also identifies the disulfide bond and the retinal ligand binding pocket to be the most rigid region in rhodopsin. Experiments confirm that 90% of the amino acids predicted by the FIRST method to be part of the core cause misfolding upon mutation. The observed high degree of conservation (78.9%) of this disulfide bond across all GPCR classes suggests that it is critical for the stability and function of GPCRs. PMID:15123809

  6. Studies on the mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase 

    E-print Network

    Kurtz, Kevin Anthony

    2000-01-01

    . The measured []V/K[] isotope effects decrease at higher pH and increase in D?O suggesting that the unprotonated form of the amino group is the substrate for D-amino acid oxidase. However, the results are inconclusive due to poor precision....

  7. Partial Molar Volumes of Some of ?-Amino Acids in Binary Aqueous Solutions of MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O at 298.15 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bairagi C. Mallick; Nand Kishore

    2006-01-01

    The apparent molar volume, V\\u000a o\\u000a ?, 2, of glycine, alanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, valine and leucine have been determined in aqueous solutions of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mol?dm?3 magnesium sulfate, and the partial specific volume from density measurements at 298.15 K. These data have been used to calculate the infinite dilution apparent molar volume, V\\u000a o\\u000a 2,m\\u000a , group contribution

  8. Investigation of the solid-state conductivity and the potentiometric stability constant relationships of new amino acid-Schiff bases and their complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nur?en Sarì; Perihan Gürkan

    2003-01-01

    CuII, NiII and CoII complexes of new tridentate amino acid-Schiff bases derived from furfural and DL-alanine, DL-valine and DL-phenylalanine were prepared and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic, (i.r., u.v.–vis., 1H-n.m.r and 13C-n.m.r) techniques, molar conductivity, magnetic and thermal measurements. Protonation constants of the Schiff bases and stability constants of the complexes have been determined potentiometrically in water. Solid-state conductivities of the

  9. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  10. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (?IU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon. PMID:25049498

  11. Guanine- Formation During the Thermal Polymerization of Amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Caw, B. K.; Munoz, E. F.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Young, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    The action of heat on a mixture of amino acids was studied as a possible abiological pathway for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Guanine was detected. This result is significant in the context of chemical evolution.

  12. Amino acid utilization by Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Rodolfo Eduardo

    1938-01-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done on the growth of A. aerogenes and E. coli in synthetic media, but little work has been undertaken on the utilization by these organisms of amino acids as comparative sources of ...

  13. Epitope mapping of human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bratland, Eirik; Wolff, Anette S Bøe; Haavik, Jan; Kämpe, Olle; Sköldberg, Filip; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Bredholt, Geir; Knappskog, Per M; Husebye, Eystein S

    2007-02-16

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) is a rare hereditary condition considered a model disease for organ specific autoimmunity. A wide range of autoantibodies targeting antigens present in the affected organs have been identified. Autoantibodies against aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) are present in about 50% of APS I patients. In order to increase our understanding of autoantibody specificity in APS I, the aim of the present study was to localize target regions on AADC recognized by sera from APS I patients. Using several complementing strategies, we have shown that autoantibodies against AADC mainly recognize conformational epitopes. The major antigenic determinants were detected N-terminally to amino acid residue 237. Replacement of amino acids 227-230 (ERDK) with alanine residues reduced the reactivity towards AADC by >80% in all patient sera tested, suggesting that amino acids 227-230 are an important part of an immunodominant epitope. PMID:17194446

  14. Multicomponent cascade reactions of unprotected carbohydrates and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Benjamin; Linke, Michael; Mahrwald, Rainer

    2015-06-01

    Herein an operationally simple multicomponent reaction of unprotected carbohydrates with amino acids and isonitriles is presented. By the extension of this Ugi-type reaction to an unprotected disaccharide a novel glycopeptide structure was accessible. PMID:25952697

  15. Synthesis and catalytic application of amino acid based dendritic macromolecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Gossage; Johann T. B. H. Jastrzebski; Jeroen van Ameijde; Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer; Rob M. J. Liskamp; Gerard van Koten

    1999-01-01

    The use of amino acid based dendrimers as molecular scaffolds for the attachment of catalytically active organometallic Ni “pincer” complexes, via a urea functionality, is described; the dendrimer catalysts have comparable activity to their mononuclear (NCN)NiX analogues.

  16. Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

    2000-02-01

    Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

  17. A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

    2006-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. PMID:16911515

  18. Amino Acid Content of Noncell and Cell Wall Fractions in Feedstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Muscato; C. J. Sniffen; U. Krishnamoorthy; P. J. Van Soest

    1983-01-01

    Total and phosphate buffer insoluble amino acids were determined for corn grain and silage, dried brewer's grain, timothy hay, and soybean meal. In addition, amino acid compositions of the acid detergent residue and neutral deter- gent residue were determined, and soluble amino acids were estimated for each feedstuff. Variation of amino acid con- centrations among protein fractions as percent of

  19. Amino acid uptake in deciduous and coniferous taiga ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Kielland; Jack McFarland; Karl Olson

    2006-01-01

    We measured in situ uptake of amino acids and ammonium across deciduous and coniferous taiga forest ecosystems in interior Alaska to examine the idea that late successional (coniferous) forests rely more heavily on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), than do early successional (deciduous) ecosystems. We traced 15N-NH4+ and 13C-15N-amino acids from the soil solution into plant roots and soil pools over

  20. Non-canonical amino acids in protein engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A James Link; Marissa L Mock; David A Tirrell

    2003-01-01

    Methods for engineering proteins that contain non-canonical amino acids have advanced rapidly in the past few years. Novel amino acids can be introduced into recombinant proteins in either a residue-specific or site-specific fashion. The methods are complementary: residue-specific incorporation allows engineering of the overall physical and chemical behavior of proteins and protein-like macromolecules, whereas site-specific methods allow mechanistic questions to

  1. Production of Amino Acids: Physiological and Genetic Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Krämer

    2005-01-01

    Large scale fermentative production of l-amino acids is still an important goal of modern biotechnology. Very large amounts of l-glutamate and l-lysine, as well as significant quantities of l-threonine and l-phenylalanine and other amino acids for the application in food, feed, and for pharmaceutical purposes are currently produced by fermentation using mainly the two organisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli.

  2. Extraterrestrial amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Glavin; Andrew D. Aubrey; Michael P. Callahan; Jason P. Dworkin; Jamie E. Elsila; Eric T. Parker; Jeffrey L. Bada; Peter Jenniskens; Muawia H. Shaddad

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD\\/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD\\/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to

  3. Branchedchain amino acid aminotransferase along the rabbit and rat nephron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen B Burch; Natalie Cambon; Oliver H Lowry

    1985-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase along the rabbit and rat nephron. The activity of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.42) is reported for four or five different segments of the rat and rabbit nephron as well as for patches from the papilla. In the rat the levels ranged 40-fold, from a high in the thick ascending limb of Henle to a

  4. Plasma Amino-acids in the Nigerian Nutritional Ataxic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Osuntokun; J. E. Durowoju; H. McFarlane; J. Wilson

    1968-01-01

    Investigation of nine patients with tropical ataxic neuropathy showed an absence or diminution of sulphur-containing amino-acids—cysteine and methionine—and a variable concentration of most other essential amino-acids. The pattern was unlike that found in kwashiorkor. The levels of serum cholesterol and total protein were normal, and the serum vitamin B12 levels were normal or high. Plasma thiocyanate concentration was high.All the

  5. Histidine, an Essential Amino Acid for Adult Dogs1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUNO CIANCIARUSO; MICHAEL R. JONES; JOEL D. KOPPLE

    Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to eval uate whether histidine is an essential amino acid. Dogs were tube-fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous amino acid diets which provided either no histidine or 67 mg histidine\\/kg body weight\\/day. The histidine-free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5.6 ± 3.6 (so) days and to six dogs for 59.2 ± 6.0 days. In

  6. Measurement of endogenous amino acid losses in poultry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Siriwan; W. L. Bryden; Y. Mollah; E. F. Annison

    1993-01-01

    1. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were determined in broiler chickens and in cannulated cross?bred layer strain cockerels using either a nitrogen?free diet, regression analysis or a 48 h fast.2. Endogenous amino acid flows to the ileum in fasted cockerels were significantly lower than those obtained both by feeding the nitrogen?free diet, and from regression analysis in either broilers or

  7. Expression and transcriptional regulation of amino acid transporters in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; D. R. Bush

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Recent studies have shown that there are more than 50 amino acid transporter genes in the Arabidopsis genome. This abundance of amino acid transporters implies that they play a multitude of fundamental roles in plant growth\\u000a and development. Current research on the expression and regulation (i.e., tissue-specific expression and regulation of expression\\u000a in response to nutrient and environmental changes) of

  8. Polypeptide having an amino acid replaced with N-benzylglycine

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Alexander R. (Livermore, CA); Young, Janis D. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to one or more polypeptides having useful biological activity in a mammal, which comprise: a polypeptide related to bradykinin of four to ten amino acid residues wherein one or more specific amino acids in the polypeptide chain are replaced with achiral N-benzylglycine. These polypeptide analogues have useful potent agonist or antagonist pharmacological properties depending upon the structure. A preferred polypeptide is (N-benzylglycine.sup.7)-bradykinin.

  9. Genomic Regions Associated with Amino Acid Composition in Soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Panthee; V. R. Pantalone; A. M. Saxton; D. R. West; C. E. Sams

    2006-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the single largest source of protein in animal feed. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate\\u000a genomic regions controlling amino acid composition in soybean. It is important to study the genetics of amino acid composition\\u000a to achieve improvements through breeding. The objectives of this study were to determine the ratios between essential to

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids in proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton Roque Bugs; Raquel Kely Bortoleto-Bugs; Marinônio Lopes Cornélio

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) to study the presence of aromatic amino acid in proteins.\\u000a We examined the aromatic amino acids in six proteins with well-known structures using absorption spectra of near ultraviolet\\u000a PAS over the wavelength range 240–320 nm. The fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties that govern\\u000a the absorption of light and a

  11. Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes. PMID:22303247

  12. Improving phylogenetic inference with a semiempirical amino acid substitution model.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Stefan; Schneider, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Amino acid substitution matrices describe the rates by which amino acids are replaced during evolution. In contrast to nucleotide or codon models, amino acid substitution matrices are in general parameterless and empirically estimated, probably because there is no obvious parametrization for amino acid substitutions. Principal component analysis has previously been used to improve codon substitution models by empirically finding the most relevant parameters. Here, we apply the same method to amino acid substitution matrices, leading to a semiempirical substitution model that can adjust the transition rates to the protein sequences under investigation. Our new model almost invariably achieves the best likelihood values in large-scale comparisons with established amino acid substitution models (JTT, WAG, and LG). In particular for longer alignments, these likelihood gains are considerably larger than what could be expected from simply having more parameters. The application of our model differs from that of mixture models (such as UL2 or UL3), as we optimize one rate matrix per alignment, whereas mixture models apply the variation per alignments site. This makes our model computationally more efficient, while the performance is comparable to that of UL3. Applied to the phylogenetic problem of the origin of placental mammals, our new model and the UL3 mixed model are the only ones of the tested models that cluster Afrotheria and Xenarthra into a clade called Atlantogenata, which would be in correspondence with recent findings using more sophisticated phylogenetic methods. PMID:23002090

  13. The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids from various hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, D.; Miller, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids using an atmosphere of CH4+N2+H2O+NH3 has been investigated with variable pNH3. The amino acids produced using higher hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, butane, and isobutane) instead of CH4 were also investigated. There was considerable range in the absolute yields of amino acids, but the yields relative to glycine (or alpha-amino-n-butyric acid) were more uniform. The relative yields of the C3 to C6 aliphatic alpha-amino acids are nearly the same (with a few exceptions) with all the hydrocarbons. The glycine yields are more variable. The precursors to the C3-C6 aliphatic amino acids seem to be produced in the same process, which is separate from the synthesis of glycine precursors. It may be possible to use these relative yields as a signature for a spark discharge synthesis provided corrections can be made for subsequent decomposition events (e.g. in the Murchison meteorite).

  14. Transport Function of Rice Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Margaret R; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    The transport function of four rice (Oryza sativa) amino acid permeases (AAPs), OsAAP1 (Os07g04180), OsAAP3 (Os06g36180), OsAAP7 (Os05g34980) and OsAAP16 (Os12g08090), was analyzed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiology. OsAAP1, OsAAP7 and OsAAP16 functioned, similarly to Arabidopsis AAPs, as general amino acid permeases. OsAAP3 had a distinct substrate specificity compared with other rice or Arabidopsis AAPs. OsAAP3 transported the basic amino acids lysine and arginine well but selected against aromatic amino acids. The transport of basic amino acids was further analyzed for OsAAP1 and OsAAP3, and the results support the transport of both neutral and positively charged forms of basic amino acids by the rice AAPs. Cellular localization using the tandem enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter pHusion showed that OsAAP1 and OsAAP3 localized to the plasma membrane after transient expression in onion epidermal cells or stable expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25907566

  15. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane. PMID:25201567

  16. Evaluation of Amino Acids as Turfgrass Nematicides1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Luc, John E.; Crow, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog at rates of 224 and 448 kg amino acid/ha reduced the number of Belonolaimus longicaudatus mixed life-stages and Meloidogyne incognita J2 in soil, whereas L-threonine and lysine were not effective in reducing the number of either nematode. Futhermore, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog were equally effective against B. longicaudatus at rates of 112, 224, and 448 kg amino acid/ha, and the highest rate (448 kg amino acid/ha) of all amino acids was more effective in reducing the number of B. longicaudatus than the lower rate. However, phytotoxicity was observed on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) treated with 448 kg amino acid/ha of methionine hydroxyl analog and DL methionine. In addition, in one of two field experiments on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) turf percentage green cover was increased and the number of B. longicaudatus was reduced by 224 kg amino acid/ha of DL-methionine and potassium methionate compared to untreated controls in one of two trials. PMID:22736861

  17. Detection of trace amino acid biomarkers in ice from extreme environments with the Mars Organic Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarajah, Christine; Jayarajah, Christine; Botta, Oliver; Aubrey, Andrew; Parker, Eric; Bada, Jeffrey; Mathies, Richard

    A portable microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) system named the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has been developed to analyze fluorescently-labeled biomarkers including amino acids, amines, nucleobases, and amino sugars with the goal of life detection on Mars (1,2). This system consists of a multilayer microfabricated glass wafer containing electrophoresis channels as well as microfluidic valves and pumps for sample manipulation, a confocal laser excitation and fluorescence detection system, and integrated CE power supplies. The MOA has been successfully field tested in the Panoche Valley, CA and in the Atacama Desert, Chile, detecting amino acids at the ppb levels (3). In addition, this technology has been shown to be effective in screening the formation of biogenic amines during fermentation (4). The MOA is a part of the Urey instrument package that has been selected for the 2013 European ExoMars mission by ESA. The identification of recent gully erosion sites, observations of ice on and beneath the surface of Mars, and the discovery of large reservoirs of sub-surface ice on Mars point to water-ice as an important target for astrobiological analyses (5). In addition, the ice moons Europa and Enceladus are of astrobiological interest due to the possibility that they may contain liquid water under their ice crusts. Consequently, we explore here the use of the MOA instrument for the analysis of amino acids in polar ice samples. Soil extracts as well as concentrated icecore samples tend to be highly saline and inhomogeneous. Furthermore, brine pockets in ice form potential refugia for extant extra-terrestrial life, rendering near surface ice a key target for the search for a record of past life on the planet (6). Therefore, we have determined the effect of salinity on sample injection parameters in ice-core samples retrieved from Greenland. The amino acids valine, alanine/serine, glycine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were found in the parts-per-billion range from these ice-core samples. Chiral analysis of these samples yielded D/L ratios of 0.51/0.09 for alanine/serine and 0.14/0.06 for aspartic acid. Individual amino acids in the parts-per-trillion range were found in Antarctic ice samples collected from the surface of a meteorite collection area. The distinct amino acid and amine content of these samples indicates that further biomarker characterization of ice samples as a function of sampling location, depth, and structural features will be highly informative. The rapid sensitive analysis capabilities demonstrated here establish the feasibility of using the MOA to analyze the biomarker content of ice samples in planetary exploration. 1. Skelley, A. M.; Scherer, J. R.; Aubrey, A. D.; Grover, W. H.; Ivester, R. H. C., Ehrenfreund, P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 2005, 192, 1041-1046. 2. Skelley, A. M., Cleaves, H. J., Jayarajah, C. N., Bada, J. L. and Mathies, R. A., Astrobiology 2006, 6, 824-837. 3. Skelley, A. M., Aubrey, A. D., Willis, P. A., Amashukeli, X., Ehrenfreuend, P. , Bada, J. L., Grunthaner, F. J. and Mathies, R. A. Journal of Geophysical Research 2007, 112, G04S11 4. Jayarajah, C.N., Skelley, A.M., Fortner, A.D., and Mathies, R.A., Analytical Chemistry, 2007, 79, 21, 8162-8169. 5. Sanderson, K., Nature 2006, 414. 800-801. 6. Price, B.P. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 2000, 97, 1247-1251.

  18. Enantiomeric enrichment of ?-amino acid derivatives: recrystallization of N-Fmoc ?-amino acid tert-butyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J O'Donnell; Francisca Delgado

    2001-01-01

    The optical purity of products derived from enantioselective reactions of the benzophenone imine of glycine tert-butyl esters can often be improved by conversion to the N-Fmoc ?-amino acid tert-butyl esters followed by simple recrystallization.

  19. Effect of chemical composition of sunflower seed meal on its true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Villamide, M J; San Juan, L D

    1998-12-01

    The effect of chemical composition of sunflower seed meal (SFSM) on TMEn and true amino acid digestibility (TAAD) was studied. In Experiment 1, the excretion pattern of three SFSM samples force-fed (30 g) to 10 adult cockerels (Hy-Line) each was followed for 84 h to determine the time interval for complete excretion of SFSM. Type of SFSM did not affect the excretion pattern of DM and energy (P=0.438, and P=0.189, respectively). Dry matter and energy excreted every 12 h decreased linear and quadratically (P < 0.001) with collection time. No differences were found from 48 h collection time on. So, an excreta collection period of 48 h was considered adequate for determining the TMEn of SFSM. In Experiment 2, 135 adult cockerels were force-fed to determine the TMEn of 11 samples of SFSM. Type of SFSM affected TMEn (P < 0.001), which ranged from 1,558 to 2,023 kcal/kg DM for SFSM of 31 to 42% CP, respectively. The TMEn was highly correlated (P < 0.001) to hemicellulose (r=-0.90), acid detergent lignin (r=-0.84), neutral detergent fiber (r=-0.82), and CP (r=0.77). Four prediction equations are proposed, the most practical being: TMEn (kcal/kg DM)=2,816.8 - 109.5 hemicellulose (%DM), RSD=70.2. Three out of the 11 samples of SFSM were selected for determining TAAD and the effect of endogenous amino acid correction. The methodology used was that of the TMEn assay, but one more estimation of amino acid endogenous excretion was made using a N-free diet with 85% cornstarch and 15% cellulose. Endogenous amino acid excretion was greater for roosters fed the N-free diet than those deprived of feed, resulting in a higher digestibility (from 0.7 to 2.7%, P < 0.05) only for six amino acids: threonine, valine, alanine, proline, and aspartic and glutamic acids. No interaction was detected (P=0.94) between type of SFSM and method of estimation of endogenous amino acid excretion. The TAAD of SFSM increased significantly (P < 0.001) with the CP content, total TAAD being 86, 88, and 89% for SFSM of 32, 35, and 37% CP, respectively. Attention should be paid when including high fiber-low protein SFSM in poultry diets to balance its lesser digestible amino acids contribution, mainly in lysine (from 0.77 to 1.06% for SFSM of 32 and 37% CP, respectively). PMID:9872592

  20. Exploring DNA binding and nucleolytic activity of few 4-aminoantipyrine based amino acid Schiff base complexes: A comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, N.; Sakthivel, A.; Pravin, N.

    A series of novel Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized from Schiff base(s), obtained by the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with furfural and amino acid (glycine(L1)/alanine(L2)/valine(L3)) and respective metal(II) chloride. Their structural features and other properties were explored from the analytical and spectral methods. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The intrinsic binding constants for the above synthesized complexes are found to be in the order of 102 to 105 indicating that most of the synthesized complexes are good intercalators. The binding constant values (Kb) clearly indicate that valine Schiff-base complexes have more intercalating ability than alanine and glycine Schiff-base complexes. The results indicate that the complexes bind to DNA through intercalation and act as efficient cleaving agents. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal assay indicates that these complexes are good antimicrobial agents against various pathogens. The IC50 values of [Ni(L1)2] and [Zn(L1)2] complexes imply that these complexes have preferable ability to scavenge hydroxyl radical.

  1. Exploring DNA binding and nucleolytic activity of few 4-aminoantipyrine based amino acid Schiff base complexes: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Sakthivel, A; Pravin, N

    2014-05-01

    A series of novel Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized from Schiff base(s), obtained by the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with furfural and amino acid (glycine(L1)/alanine(L2)/valine(L3)) and respective metal(II) chloride. Their structural features and other properties were explored from the analytical and spectral methods. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The intrinsic binding constants for the above synthesized complexes are found to be in the order of 10(2) to 10(5) indicating that most of the synthesized complexes are good intercalators. The binding constant values (Kb) clearly indicate that valine Schiff-base complexes have more intercalating ability than alanine and glycine Schiff-base complexes. The results indicate that the complexes bind to DNA through intercalation and act as efficient cleaving agents. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal assay indicates that these complexes are good antimicrobial agents against various pathogens. The IC50 values of [Ni(L1)2] and [Zn(L1)2] complexes imply that these complexes have preferable ability to scavenge hydroxyl radical. PMID:24566120

  2. Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids 

    E-print Network

    Chambers, James Richard

    1958-01-01

    chloride and sodium hydroxide, rapid stirring was continued for another 30 minutes. This solution was then made acidic to congo red with 6 N hydro? chloric acid, extracted with 13 ml. of diethyl ether to remove unreacted benzoyl chloride and any benzoic... acid is insoluble in ethyl alcohol but its hydrochloride is soluble; therefore, the free acid can be obtained easily by dissolving the hydro? chloride in ethyl alcohol and precipitating the free acid (III) with butene oxide, A 0 + CH...

  3. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed. PMID:21886093

  4. Functional Analysis of Fructosyl-Amino Acid Oxidases of Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Shin-ichi; Karino, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Katsuragi, Tohoru; Tani, Yoshiki

    2004-01-01

    Three active fractions of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FAOD-Ao1, -Ao2a, and -Ao2b) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae strain RIB40. N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of FAOD-Ao2a corresponded to those of FAOD-Ao2b, suggesting that these two isozymes were derived from the same protein. FAOD-Ao1 and -Ao2 were different in substrate specificity and subunit assembly; FAOD-Ao2 was active toward N?-fructosyl N?-Z-lysine and fructosyl valine (Fru-Val), whereas FAOD-Ao1 was not active toward Fru-Val. The genes encoding the FAOD isozymes (i.e., FAOAo1 and FAOAo2) were cloned by PCR with an FAOD-specific primer set. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that FAOD-Ao1 was 50% identical to FAOD-Ao2, and each isozyme had a peroxisome-targeting signal-1, indicating their localization in peroxisomes. The genes was expressed in Escherichia coli and rFaoAo2 showed the same characteristics as FAOD-Ao2, whereas rFaoAo1 was not active. FAOAo2 disruptant was obtained by using ptrA as a selective marker. Wild-type strain grew on the medium containing Fru-Val as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources, but strain ?faoAo2 did not grow. Addition of glucose or (NH4)2SO4 to the Fru-Val medium did not affect the assimilation of Fru-Val by wild-type, indicating glucose and ammonium repressions did not occur in the expression of the FAOAo2 gene. Furthermore, conidia of the wild-type strain did not germinate on the medium containing Fru-Val and NaNO2 as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, suggesting that Fru-Val may also repress gene expression of nitrite reductase. These results indicated that FAOD is needed for utilization of fructosyl-amino acids as nitrogen sources in A. oryzae. PMID:15466528

  5. Splanchnic and peripheral glucose and amino acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wahren, John; Felig, Philip; Cerasi, Erol; Luft, Rolf

    1972-01-01

    Splanchnic and leg exchange of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and individual plasma amino acids was studied in diabetics 24 hr after withdrawal of insulin and in healthy controls. Measurements were made in the basal postabsorptive state and during the administration of glucose at a rate of 2 mg/kg per min for 45 min. In the basal state, net splanchnic glucose production did not differ significantly between diabetics and controls. However, splanchnic uptake of alanine and other glycogenic amino acids was 1½-2 times greater in the diabetics, while lactate and pyruvate uptake was increased by 65-115%. Splanchnic uptake of these glucose precursors could account for 32% of hepatic glucose output in the diabetics, as compared to 20% in the controls. This increase in precursor uptake was a consequence of a two- to threefold increment in fractional extraction of these substrates inasmuch as arterial levels of alanine, glycine, and threonine were reduced in the diabetics, while the levels of the remaining substrates were similar in the two groups. Peripheral output of alanine and other glycogenic amino acids as reflected in arterio-femoral venous differences was similar in both groups. An elevation in arterial valine, leucine, and isoleucine was observed in the diabetics, but could not be accounted for on the basis of alterations in splanchnic or peripheral exchange of these amino acids. Administration of glucose (2 mg/kg per min) for 45 min resulted in an 80% reduction in splanchnic glucose output in controls, but failed to inhibit hepatic glucose release in the diabetics despite a twofold greater increment in arterial glucose levels. In both groups no consistent changes in arterial glucagon were observed during the infusion. It is concluded that in nonketotic diabetics (a) total splanchnic output of glucose is comparable to controls, but the relative contribution of gluconeogenesis may be increased by more than 50%; (b) accelerated splanchnic uptake of glucose precursors is a consequence of increased hepatic extraction of available substrates rather than a result of augmented substrate supply; and (c) the failure of glucose infusion to inhibit hepatic glucose output suggests that the exquisite sensitivity of the liver to the infusion of glucose in normal man is a consequence of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Images PMID:5032528

  6. Amino acid sequences of two ferredoxins from pokeweed, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, S; Hase, T; Wada, K; Matsubara, H; Suzuki, K; Takaichi, S

    1978-05-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ferredoxins isolated from pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, were determined. Tryptic peptides of maleyl-carboxymethyl-ferredoxin I and carboxymethyl-ferredoxin II were prepared and analyzed. The large peptides were further digested with staphylococcal protease and chymotrypsin. Ferredoxins I and II were composed of 96 and 98 amino acid residues, respectively. Though ferredoxin I lacks tryptophan and methionine, ferredoxin II contains both of them. In a comparison of the amino acid sequences with those of other higher plant ferredoxins, ferredoxin I is one residue shorter than others at the carboxyl-terminus and ferredoxin II one longer than others at the amino-terminus. Ferredoxins I and II differ in 23 sites from each other and in 27 to 37 sites from other higher plant ferredoxins. This suggests that duplication of the ferredoxin gene occurred after the divergence of pokeweed from other higher plants. A phylogenetic tree including all other ferredoxins was constructed. PMID:659398

  7. A unified nomenclature and amino acid numbering for human PTEN.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Rafael; Baker, Suzanne J; Barata, Joao T; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Cid, Victor J; Chin-Sang, Ian D; Davé, Vrushank; den Hertog, Jeroen; Devreotes, Peter; Eickholt, Britta J; Eng, Charis; Furnari, Frank B; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Gericke, Arne; Hopkins, Benjamin; Jiang, Xeujun; Lee, Seung-Rock; Lösche, Mathias; Malaney, Prerna; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Molina, María; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Parsons, Ramon; Pinton, Paolo; Rivas, Carmen; Rocha, Rafael M; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Ross, Alonzo H; Serrano, Manuel; Stambolic, Vuk; Stiles, Bangyan; Suzuki, Akira; Tan, Seong-Seng; Tonks, Nicholas K; Trotman, Lloyd C; Wolff, Nicolas; Woscholski, Rudiger; Wu, Hong; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2014-07-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a major brake for cell transformation, mainly due to its phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] phosphatase activity that directly counteracts the oncogenicity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTEN mutations are frequent in tumors and in the germ line of patients with tumor predisposition or with neurological or cognitive disorders, which makes the PTEN gene and protein a major focus of interest in current biomedical research. After almost two decades of intense investigation on the 403-residue-long PTEN protein, a previously uncharacterized form of PTEN has been discovered that contains 173 amino-terminal extra amino acids, as a result of an alternate translation initiation site. To facilitate research in the field and to avoid ambiguities in the naming and identification of PTEN amino acids from publications and databases, we propose here a unifying nomenclature and amino acid numbering for this longer form of PTEN. PMID:24985344

  8. A Unified Nomenclature and Amino Acid Numbering for Human PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Rafael; Baker, Suzanne J.; Barata, Joao T.; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Cid, Victor J.; Chin-Sang, Ian D.; Davé, Vrushank; den Hertog, Jeroen; Devreotes, Peter; Eickholt, Britta J.; Eng, Charis; Furnari, Frank B.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Gericke, Arne; Hopkins, Benjamin; Jiang, Xeujun; Lee, Seung-Rock; Lösche, Mathias; Malaney, Prerna; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Molina, María; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Parsons, Ramon; Pinton, Paolo; Rivas, Carmen; Rocha, Rafael M.; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Serrano, Manuel; Stambolic, Vuk; Stiles, Bangyan; Suzuki, Akira; Tan, Seong-Seng; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Wolff, Nicolas; Woscholski, Rudiger; Wu, Hong; Leslie, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a major brake for cell transformation, mainly due to its phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] phosphatase activity that directly counteracts the oncogenicity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTEN mutations are frequent in tumors and in the germ line of patients with tumor predisposition or with neurological or cognitive disorders, which makes the PTEN gene and protein a major focus of interest in current biomedical research. After almost two decades of intense investigation on the 403-residue-long PTEN protein, a previously uncharacterized form of PTEN has been discovered that contains 173 amino-terminal extra amino acids, as a result of an alternate translation initiation site. To facilitate research in the field and to avoid ambiguities in the naming and identification of PTEN amino acids from publications and databases, we propose here a unifying nomenclature and amino acid numbering for this longer form of PTEN. PMID:24985344

  9. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations.

  10. Plasma amino acids and protein levels in chronic renal failure and changes caused by oral supplements of essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Young, G A; Keogh, J B; Parsons, F M

    1975-06-01

    1. Plasma amino acids and six proteins have been measured in patients with chronic renal failure receiving low protein diets before and after oral supplementation with essential amino acids. 2. All the patients on low protein diets had a lower percentage of essential amino acids in their plasma than normal subjects but after supplementation, plasma levels increased significantly with minimal increase in non-essential amino acids or urea nitrogen. 3. Mean levels of plasma transferrin, complement C3 and globulin Gc were lower and plasma prealbumin higher in patients than in normal subjects. Plasma complement C4 and albumin were not different from normal. 4. Seven out of nine patients who tolerated the supplementation showed a significant increase in plasma transferrin, prealbumin and complement C3 but not in complement C4, globulin Gc or albumin. 5. Correlations between the percentage of essential amino acids and each of plasma transferrin, prealbumin and complement C3 and also between several of the plasma proteins further substantiate their value in the assessment of dietary intake in chronic renal failure. 6. The value of amino acid supplementation on low protein diets in chronic renal failure is discussed in relation to these observations. PMID:1132152

  11. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints. PMID:20413233

  12. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains. PMID:24480298

  13. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase of the total quantity of amino acids after acid hydrolysis, due to the formation/release of amino acids during the whole water extraction / liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, could have hidden a loss of amino acids. Thus, in extraterrestrial material studies involving liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, the quantities of total amino acids may have been underestimated.

  14. Transitioning enantioselective indicator displacement assays for alpha-amino acids to protocols amenable to high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Leung, Diana; Anslyn, Eric V

    2008-09-17

    Enantioselective indicator displacement assays (eIDAs) for alpha-amino acids were conducted in a 96-well plate format to demonstrate the viability of the technique for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of enantiomeric excess (ee) values. Chiral receptors [Cu(II)(1)](2+) and [Cu(II)(2)](2+) with the indicator chrome azurol S were implemented for the eIDAs. Enantiomeric excess calibration curves were made using both receptors and then used to analyze true test samples. These results were compared to those previously obtained with a conventional UV-vis spectrophotometer, and they showed little to no loss of accuracy, while the speed of analysis was increased. A sample of valine of unknown ee was synthesized through an asymmetric reaction to produce a realistic reaction sample, which was analyzed using receptor [Cu(II)(1)](2+). The experimentally determined ee using our eIDA was compared to that obtained by chiral HPLC and (1)H NMR chiral shift reagent analysis. This gave errors of 4.7% and 12.0%, respectively. In addition to the use of ee calibration curves, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used to determine the % L-amino acid of the test samples and of the sample of valine of unknown ee from the asymmetric reaction. This method obtained errors of 5.9% and 2.2% compared to chiral HPLC and (1)H NMR chiral shift reagent analysis, respectively. The technique using calibration curves for the determination of ee on a 96-well plate allows one to determine 96 ee values in under a minute, enabling its use for HTS of asymmetric reactions with acceptable accuracy. PMID:18714993

  15. Closed-system behaviour of the intra-crystalline fraction of amino acids in mollusc shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. H. Penkman; D. S. Kaufman; D. Maddy; M. J. Collins

    2008-01-01

    When mollusc shells are analysed conventionally for amino acid geochronology, the entire population of amino acids is included, both inter- and intra-crystalline. This study investigates the utility of removing the amino acids that are most susceptible to environmental effects by isolating the fraction of amino acids encapsulated within mineral crystals of mollusc shells (intra-crystalline fraction). Bleaching, heating and leaching (diffusive

  16. Dietary peptides increase endogenous amino acid losses from the gut in adults1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J Moughan; Christine A Butts; Angela M Rowan; Amélie Deglaire

    Background:Accurateestimatesofendogenousilealtotalnitrogen and amino acid flows are necessary to ascertain true dietary amino acid digestibility coefficients and for the factorial estimation of di- etary amino acid requirements. Objective: The objective was to ascertain endogenous amino acid lossesfromthesmallbowelinhumansubjectsconsumingaprotein- free diet or a diet with enzyme-hydrolyzed casein (EHC; MW 5000) as the sole source of nitrogen. Design: The subjects were 8 men and

  17. 2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Giri

    2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 2Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 3Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;2/17/05 4Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from

  18. Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Tomaši?; Branimir Bertoša; Sanja Tomi?; Milan Šoški?; Volker Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded

  19. Complete Amino Acid Sequence of alpha -tubulin from Porcine Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ponstingl; E. Krauhs; M. Little; T. Kempf

    1981-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of alpha -tubulin from porcine brain was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of eight sets of overlapping peptides. It comprises 450 residues plus a COOH-terminal tyrosine that is present only in 15% of the material. A region of 40 residues at the COOH-terminus is highly acidic, mainly due to 16 glutamyl residues. This high

  20. Synthesis of a novel amino acid based dendrimer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer; Peter G. J. van der Meer; Rob M. J. Liskamp

    1997-01-01

    An easy accessible dendrimer monomer 3,5-bis(2-tert-butyloxycarbonyl aminoethoxy) benzoic acid methyl ester 1 was designed. The monomer was converted to both the “surface” and “braching” monomer in a versatile synthesis of a novel amino acid based dendrimer by the covergent method, using the well established and high-yielding BOP-peptide coupling method.

  1. Involvement of cationic amino acid transporter 1 in L-arginine transport in rat retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zakoji, Nobuyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a known relaxant, is produced in cells from L-arginine (L-Arg). Because the relaxation of retinal pericytes alters the microcirculatory hemodynamics, it is important to understand the manner of NO production in retinal pericytes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism(s) of uptake of L-Arg in retinal pericytes using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal pericyte cell line (TR-rPCT1 cells) which expresses the mRNAs of endothelial NO synthase and inducible NO synthase. L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells exhibited Na(+)-independence and concentration-dependence with a Km of 28.9 µM. This process was strongly inhibited by substrates of cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), such as L-ornithine and L-lysine. In contrast, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-glutamine, which are substrates of cation/neutral amino acid transport systems, such as system y(+)L, system B(0,+), and system b(0,+), did not strongly inhibit L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells. In addition, the expression of mRNA and protein of CAT1 in TR-rPCT1 cells was observed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. Taking these results into consideration, it appears that CAT1 is involved in L-Arg uptake by retinal pericytes and this is expected to play an important role in the relaxation of retinal pericytes, thereby modulating the microcirculatory hemodynamics in the retina. PMID:25747984

  2. Distribution, industrial applications, and enzymatic synthesis of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuzhen; Ma, Qinyuan; Zhu, Hailiang

    2015-04-01

    D-Amino acids exist widely in microbes, plants, animals, and food and can be applied in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics. Because of their widespread applications in industry, D-amino acids have recently received more and more attention. Enzymes including D-hydantoinase, N-acyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase, D-amino acid amidase, D-aminopeptidase, D-peptidase, L-amino acid oxidase, D-amino acid aminotransferase, and D-amino acid dehydrogenase can be used for D-amino acids synthesis by kinetic resolution or asymmetric amination. In this review, the distribution, industrial applications, and enzymatic synthesis methods are summarized. And, among all the current enzymatic methods, D-amino acid dehydrogenase method not only produces D-amino acid by a one-step reaction but also takes environment and atom economics into consideration; therefore, it is deserved to be paid more attention. PMID:25758960

  3. DNA binding mode of novel tetradentate amino acid based 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, N.; Sobha, S.; Selvaganapathy, M.; Mahalakshmi, R.

    2012-10-01

    Few transition metal complexes of tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands containing 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine and amino acids (alanine/valine) abbreviated to KHL1/KHL2 have been synthesized. All the metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The Schiff bases KHL1/KHL2 are found to act as tetradentate ligands using N2O2 donor set of atoms leading to a square-planar geometry for the complexes around the metal ions. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through minor groove binding mode. The studies on mechanism of photocleavage reveal that singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2rad -) may play an important role in the photocleavage. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Culvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by MIC method.

  4. Borna Disease Virus Infection Perturbs Energy Metabolites and Amino Acids in Cultured Human Oligodendroglia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Jia, Jianmin; Liu, Xia; Zheng, Peng; Ma, Lihua; Li, Wenjuan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Liu; Wang, Mingju; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Background Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear. Methodology Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n?=?14) and matched control cells (n?=?14). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups. Findings Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (?-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate) and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine). Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups. Conclusion Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell’s metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation. PMID:22970281

  5. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  6. Formation Mechanism of Coamorphous Drug-Amino Acid Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Katrine Tarp; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Cornett, Claus; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Two coamorphous drug-amino acid systems, indomethacin-tryptophan (Ind-Trp) and furosemide-tryptophan (Fur-Trp), were analyzed toward their ease of amorphization and mechanism of coamorphization during ball milling. The two mixtures were compared to the corresponding amorphization of the pure drug without amino acid. Powder blends at a 1:1 molar ratio were milled for varying times, and their physicochemical properties were investigated using XRPD, (13)C solid state NMR (ssNMR), and DSC. Comilling the drug with the amino acid reduced the milling time required to obtain an amorphous powder from more than 90 min in the case of the pure drugs to 30 min for the coamorphous powders. Amorphization was observed as reductions in XRPD reflections and was additionally quantified based on normalized principal component analysis (PCA) scores of the ssNMR spectra. Furthermore, the evolution in the glass temperature (Tg) of the coamorphous systems over time indicated complete coamorphization after 30 min of milling. Based on the DSC data it was possible to identify the formation mechanism of the two coamorphous systems. The Tg position of the samples suggested that coamorphous Ind-Trp was formed by the amino acid being dissolved in the amorphous drug, whereas coamorphous Fur-Trp was formed by the drug being dissolved in the amorphous amino acid. PMID:26057950

  7. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  8. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  9. Crystallization of Amino Acids on a 21-well Circular PMMA Platform using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design and the use of a circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) crystallization platform capable of processing 21 samples in Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC). The PMMA platforms were modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to generate a microwave-induced temperature gradient between the solvent and the SNFs due to the marked differences in their physical properties. Since amino acids only chemisorb on to silver on the PMMA platform, SNFs served as selective and heterogeneous nucleation sites for amino acids. Theoretical simulations for electric field and temperature distributions inside a microwave cavity equipped with a PMMA platform were carried out to determine the optimum experimental conditions, i.e., temperature variations and placement of the PMMA platform inside a microwave cavity. In addition, the actual temperature profiles of the amino acid solutions were monitored for the duration of the crystallization experiments carried out at room temperature and during microwave heating. The crystallization of five amino acids (L-threonine, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-serine and L-valine HCl) at room temperature (control experiment) and using MA-MAEC were followed by optical microscopy. The induction time and crystal growth rates for all amino acids were determined. Using MA-MAEC, for all amino acids the induction times were significantly reduced (up to ~8-fold) and the crystal growth rates were increased (up to ~50-fold) as compared to room temperature crystallization, respectively. All crystals were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction, which demonstrated that the crystal structures of all amino acids grown at room temperature and using MA-MAEC were similar. PMID:24855565

  10. Behavioral effects of alpha-alkylated amino acid analogs in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Brückner, Hans; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Although a series of amino acid analogs have been shown to modulate brain function, information on the pharmacology of alpha-alkylated amino acids (AAAA) is limited. In particular there is no information on the effect of these amino acid analogs (AAA) on the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension test and the forced swim test. It was therefore the aim of the study to test a series of AAAA in these paradigms in order to explore behavioral activities of this compound class. 10 male mice per group aged between 10 and 14 weeks were used. Vehicle-treated controls were used in addition to intraperitoneal injections of 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight of each, alpha-amino-isobutyic acid (AIB), isovaline (IVA), alpha-propyl-alanine (APA), alpha-butyl-alanine (ABA), alpha-pentyl-alanine (APnA), alpha-ethylphenylglycine (AEPG) and alpha-methyl-valine (AMV). The elevated plus maze (EPM), the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) were used for behavioral testing. There were dose-dependent results: all compounds increased time and pathlength in the open arm of the EPM at least at one dose administered. In the TST and in the FST only the 100mg dose was showing an effect. The results show pharmacological activity modifying the EPM in low doses suggesting the use in treatment of behavioral traits and symptoms represented by or linked to the EPM including anxiety-related behavior including depression. Compounds acting at higher doses may be used to induce behavioral changes and thus serve as neurobiological-neuropharmacological tools. PMID:23756141

  11. Genome economization in the endosymbiont of the wood roach Cryptocercus punctulatus due to drastic loss of amino acid synthesis capabilities.

    PubMed

    Neef, Alexander; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli; Silva, Francisco J; Pignatelli, Miguel; Moya, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Cockroaches (Blattaria: Dictyoptera) harbor the endosymbiont Blattabacterium sp. in their abdominal fat body. This endosymbiont is involved in nitrogen recycling and amino acid provision to its host. In this study, the genome of Blattabacterium sp. of Cryptocercus punctulatus (BCpu) was sequenced and compared with those of the symbionts of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, BBge and BPam, respectively. The BCpu genome consists of a chromosome of 605.7 kb and a plasmid of 3.8 kb and is therefore approximately 31 kb smaller than the other two aforementioned genomes. The size reduction is due to the loss of 55 genes, 23 of which belong to biosynthetic pathways for amino acids. The pathways for the production of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine/threonine/valine, methionine, and cysteine have been completely lost. Additionally, the genes for the enzymes catalyzing the last steps of arginine and lysine biosynthesis, argH and lysA, were found to be missing and pseudogenized, respectively. These gene losses render BCpu auxotrophic for nine amino acids more than those corresponding to BBge and BPam. BCpu has also lost capacities for sulfate reduction, production of heme groups, as well as genes for several other unlinked metabolic processes, and genes present in BBge and BPam in duplicates. Amino acids and cofactors that are not synthesized by BCpu are either produced in abundance by hindgut microbiota or are provisioned via a copious diet of dampwood colonized by putrefying microbiota, supplying host and Blattabacterium symbiont with the necessary nutrients and thus permitting genome economization of BCpu. PMID:22094859

  12. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose Substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Weber

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters - intermediates

  13. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose Substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Weber

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded a-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters – intermediates

  14. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

  15. Intra- and extracellular amino acid concentrations in portacaval-shunted rabbits. Role of hyperammonemia and effects of branched-chain amino acid-enriched parenteral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Leweling; U. Staedt; J.-P. Striebel; R. Zeitz; E. Holm

    1989-01-01

    Summary Intra- and extracellular amino acid concentrations were measured in rabbits in order to elucidate the possible role of hyperammonemia in lowering the postabsorptive plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and to assess the effects of BCAA-enriched total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the amino acid pattern of muscle. The pathophysiological part of this paper deals with portacaval anastomosis (PCA)

  16. Cystine is the first limiting amino acid for utilization of endogenous amino acids in chicks fed a protein-free diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M. Webel; David H. Baker

    1999-01-01

    Three bioassays were conducted to determine the limiting order of amino acids for endogenous amino acid utilization in chicks fed a protein-free diet. The studies were conducted during the period 10 to 21 d posthatching. Experiment 1 was a deletion assay in which a protein-free basal diet was supplemented with an amino acid mixture containing methionine, cystine, threonine, arginine, phenylalanine

  17. Uniquely Localized Intra-Molecular Amino Acid Concentrations at the Glycolytic Enzyme Catalytic/Active Centers of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota are Associated with Their Proposed Temporal Appearances on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, J. Dennis; Gerard, David; Pearl, Dennis K.

    2013-04-01

    The distributions of amino acids at most-conserved sites nearest catalytic/active centers (C/AC) in 4,645 sequences of ten enzymes of the glycolytic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota are similar to the proposed temporal order of their appearance on Earth. Glycine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamic acid and possibly lysine often described as prebiotic, i.e., existing or occurring before the emergence of life, were localized in positional and conservational defined aggregations in all enzymes of all Domains. The distributions of all 20 biologic amino acids in most-conserved sites nearest their C/ACs were quite different either from distributions in sites less-conserved and further from their C/ACs or from all amino acids regardless of their position or conservation. The major concentrations of glycine, e.g., perhaps the earliest prebiotic amino acid, occupies ?16 % of all the most-conserved sites within a volume of ?7-8 Å radius from their C/ACs and decreases linearly towards the molecule's peripheries. Spatially localized major concentrations of isoleucine, leucine and valine are in the mid-conserved and mid-distant sites from their C/ACs in protein interiors. Lysine and glutamic acid comprise ?25-30 % of all amino acids within an irregular volume bounded by ?24-28 Å radii from their C/ACs at the most-distant least-conserved sites. The unreported characteristics of these amino acids: their spatially and conservationally identified concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota, suggest some common structural organization of glycolytic enzymes that may be relevant to their evolution and that of other proteins. We discuss our data in relation to enzyme evolution, their reported prebiotic putative temporal appearances on Earth, abundances, biological "cost", neighbor-sequence preferences or "ordering" and some thermodynamic parameters.

  18. Comparative 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient, l-Valine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum?†

    PubMed Central

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    l-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by 13C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an l-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for l-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP. PMID:21784914

  19. Amino acids in a Fischer Tropsch type synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. L.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    One postulation is described for the presence of organic compounds in meteorites which states that they were formed during the condensation of the solar nebula. A viable laboratory simulation of these conditions can be modeled after the industrial Fischer Tropsch reaction, which is known to produce organic compounds called hydrocarbons. In this simulation, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and ammonia is heated in the presence of iron meteorite. The reaction products for amino acids, a class of organic compounds important to life, were examined. A large number of these compounds is found in meteorites and other chemical evolution experiments, but only small quantities of a few amino acids were found in the present simulation work. These results are at odds with the existing literature in which many amino acids were reported.

  20. Luminal Heterodimeric Amino Acid Transporter Defective in Cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Rahel; Loffing, Jan; Rossier, Grégoire; Bauch, Christian; Meier, Christian; Eggermann, Thomas; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Kühn, Lukas C.; Verrey, François

    1999-01-01

    Mutations of the glycoprotein rBAT cause cystinuria type I, an autosomal recessive failure of dibasic amino acid transport (b0,+ type) across luminal membranes of intestine and kidney cells. Here we identify the permease-like protein b0,+AT as the catalytic subunit that associates by a disulfide bond with rBAT to form a hetero-oligomeric b0,+ amino acid transporter complex. We demonstrate its b0,+-type amino acid transport kinetics using a heterodimeric fusion construct and show its luminal brush border localization in kidney proximal tubule. These biochemical, transport, and localization characteristics as well as the chromosomal localization on 19q support the notion that the b0,+AT protein is the product of the gene defective in non-type I cystinuria. PMID:10588648

  1. Simple, high-yield synthesis of polyhedral carborane amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, S.B.; Kasar, R.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-02-07

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of binary cancer therapy that offers the potential of delivering spatially selective, high linear energy transfer radiation to the target cells while sparing surrounding normal tissue. We have demonstarted a versatile, general method for the conversion of o- ,m-, and p-carborane to their corresponding Boc-protected amino acids. Heterobifunctional polyhedral carboranes are exceedingly rare in the literature, and the amino acids prepared by this general method may prove to be valuable synthons for use in the synthesis of tumor-seeking compounds for BNCT or PDT. Morever, these conformationally constrained amino acids should be particularly interesting for use in peptide synthesis. The dihedral angle between the carbon atoms of these polyhedra increases in the order 60{degree} (ortho), 110{degree} (meta), and 180{degree} (para), allowing the peptide chemist to select a desired conformation. 11 refs.

  2. Expression of catfish amino acid taste receptors in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Getchell, T V; Grillo, M; Tate, S S; Urade, R; Teeter, J; Margolis, F L

    1990-04-01

    We demonstrate that poly (A+)RNA isolated from catfish barbels directs the expression of functional amino acid taste receptors in the Xenopus oocyte. The activity of these receptors is monitored in ovo by the two electrode voltage clamp technique. Specific conductance changes recorded in response to amino acid stimulation are analogous to those recorded electrophysiologically from intact catfish barbels. These responses exhibit specificity, reproducibility, rapid onset and termination, and desensitization to repetitive stimulation. A functional assay system that encompasses the full complement of transduction events from the ligand-receptor interaction to subsequent conductance changes is necessary to identify molecular components responsible for these events. Our results demonstrate that the Xenopus oocyte can be used to characterize and identify clones coding for amino acid taste receptors analogous to its use in studying receptor molecules for other neuroactive compounds. PMID:1697041

  3. Sugar amino acids and their uses in designing bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar K; Ghosh, Subhash; Jayaprakash, Sarva

    2002-02-01

    In search of new molecular entities for discovering new drugs and materials, organic chemists are looking for innovative approaches that try to imitate nature in assembling quickly large number of distinct and diverse molecular structures from 'nature-like' and yet unnatural designer building blocks using combinatorial approach. The main objective in developing such libraries is to mimic the diversities displayed in structures and properties of natural products. The unnatural building blocks used in these assemblies are carefully designed to manifest the structural diversities of the monomeric units used by nature like amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleosides to build its arsenal. Compounds made of such unnatural building blocks are also expected to be more stable toward proteolytic cleavage in physiological systems than their natural counterparts. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to nature's molecular arsenal. Recent advances in the area of combinatorial chemistry give an unprecedented technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acid-based libraries exploiting the diversities of carbohydrate molecules and well-developed solid-phase peptide synthesis methods. This review describes the development of sugar amino acids as a novel class of peptidomimetic building blocks and their applications in creating large number of structurally diverse peptide-based molecules many of which display interesting three-dimensional structures as well as useful biological properties. PMID:11945118

  4. Determination of the Enantiomeric Purity of Commercial L-[U-14C] Valine: An Experiment Utilizing Reversed-Phase Thin-Layer Chromatography and Liquid Scintillation Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Joseph W.

    1998-10-01

    The enantiomeric purity of commercial L-[U-14C]valine was determined. The process involved sequential dilution with nonradioactive DL-valine, N-dansylation using dansyl chloride, and resolution using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography in the presence of b-cyclodextrin, a chiral mobile phase additive. Liquid scintillation counting of the bands corresponding to DNS-D- and L-valine gave the enantiomeric purity, as well as the percent radiochemical yield. Because the derivatization reaction proceeded without racemization, the results corresponded to the relative amounts of radioactive D- and L-valine in the commercial sample. The analyses were easily performed using less than 1 ?Ci of L-[U-14C]valine per pair of students. This laboratory experiment provides students with valuable experience in handling radioisotopes, illustrates the use of liquid scintillation counting as a sensitive detection method, reinforces important stereochemical relationships, and can be applied to the analysis of other radioactive amino acids.

  5. AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN HUMAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Tankersley, Robert W.

    1964-01-01

    Tankersley, Robert W., Jr. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond). Amino acid requirements of herpes simplex virus in human cells. J. Bacteriol. 87:609–613. 1964.—Progressive infection of human cells minimally infected with herpes simplex virus requires 11 of the amino acids of Eagle's medium, and glutamine. Lysine is not required, but rather exerts a partially inhibitory effect upon virus multiplication. Infected cells deprived of arginine support neither cytopathogenic effects nor virus replication; when arginine is replaced, a prompt and extensive infection follows. The effect of nutritional deficiencies on virus infection is discussed. PMID:14127578

  6. Amino acid preferences of small, naturally occurring polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Villar, H O; Koehler, R T

    2000-03-01

    An analysis of amino acid composition of small, naturally occurring peptides ranging in size from 3 to 50 residues has been carried out. The purpose of the study is to determine whether differential trends in amino acid usage exist for small peptides compared to larger polypeptides and proteins. Results indicate that Cys, Trp, and Phe are substantially more frequent in peptides compared to their abundance in proteins at large. Aliphatic hydrophobic residues, particularly Leu and Ile, are somewhat underrepresented, while the frequency of Glu is significantly reduced. The shorter peptides are also more frequently neutral and become increasingly charged as their size increases. PMID:10679627

  7. A Topological Description of Hubs in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gaci, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Once we have compared this type of graphs to the general model of scale-free networks, we analyze the existence of nodes which highly interact, the hubs. We describe these nodes taking into account their position in the primary structure to study their apparition frequency in the folded proteins. Finally, we observe that their interaction level is a consequence of the general rules which govern the folding process. PMID:20585353

  8. Syntheses of IAA- and IPA-amino acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Khelashvili, Levan; Munawar, Munawar Ali

    2008-11-21

    Amino acid derivatives of IAA and IPA are prepared conveniently and efficiently by coupling of readily available 2a-b with diverse free amino acids 3a-g and (3c+3c') to give compounds 4a-j, (4c+4c') and (4h+4h') in 38-70% yields. Similarly, 2a-b afforded IAA and IPA peptide conjugates 6a-b in 32-40% yields. Complete retention of chirality was supported by NMR and HPLC analysis. PMID:18939870

  9. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  10. Enthalpy pair coefficients of interaction for DL-valine in aqueous solutions of polyatomic alcohols at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    Integral enthalpies of dissolution ?sol H m of DL-valine are measured via calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and 1,2-propylene glycol. Standard values of the enthalpies of dissolution (?sol H ?) and transfer (?tr H ?) of amino acid from water to mixed solvent are calculated from the resulting experimental data. The enthalpy coefficients for pair interactions hxy of amino acid with polyatomic alcohol molecules are calculated using the McMillan-Meyer theory and have positive values. The obtained results are discussed in light of the theory of the predomination of various types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of the dissolution of amino acids.

  11. Expanded Cellular Amino Acid Pools Containing Phosphoserine, Phosphothreonine, and Phosphotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adding nonstandard amino acids to the genetic code of E. coli expands the chemical and biological functional space for proteins. This is accomplished with engineered, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA pairs that require a nonstandard amino acid in sufficient intracellular quantities to support protein synthesis. While cotranslational insertion of phosphoserine into proteins has been accomplished, conditions that modulate intracellular phosphoamino acid concentrations are still poorly understood. Here we used genetic and metabolic engineering to increase the free intracellular levels of phosphoserine in E. coli. We show that deletion of the phosphoserine phosphatase serB elevates the intracellular levels of phosphoserine within ranges comparable to those of standard amino acids. These new conditions improved insertion of phosphoserine into recombinant proteins. Surprisingly, we also observed dramatic increases in intracellular levels of phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine when WT cells were grown in LB with supplemented phosphothreonine and serB deficient cells were grown in low phosphate media with supplemented phosphotyrosine, respectively. These findings remove a major barrier for further expansion of the genetic code with additional phosphorylated amino acids. PMID:24646179

  12. A Search for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Engrand, Cécile; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Maurette, Michel

    1998-10-01

    Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) in the 100-400 ?m size range are the dominant mass fraction of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth today. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based technique exploited at the limits of sensitivity has been used to search for the extraterrestrial amino acids ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline in AMMs. Five samples, each containing about 30 to 35 grains, were analyzed. All the samples possess a terrestrial amino acid component, indicated by the excess of the L-enantiomers of common protein amino acids. In only one sample (A91) was AIB found to be present at a level significantly above the background blanks. The concentration of AIB (~280 ppm), and the AIB/isovaline ratio (>=10), in this sample are both much higher than in CM chondrites. The apparently large variation in the AIB concentrations of the samples suggests that AIB may be concentrated in rare subset of micrometeorites. Because the AIB/isovaline ratio in sample A91 is much larger than in CM chondrites, the synthesis of amino acids in the micrometeorite parent bodies might have involved a different process requiring an HCN-rich environment, such as that found in comets. If the present day characteristics of the meteorite and micrometeorite fluxes can be extrapolated back in time, then the flux of large carbonaceous micrometeorites could have contributed to the inventory of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth.

  13. A search for extraterrestrial amino acids in carbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites.

    PubMed

    Brinton, K L; Engrand, C; Glavin, D P; Bada, J L; Maurette, M

    1998-10-01

    Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) in the 100-400 microns size range are the dominant mass fraction of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth today. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based technique exploited at the limits of sensitivity has been used to search for the extraterrestrial amino acids alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline in AMMs. Five samples, each containing about 30 to 35 grains, were analyzed. All the samples possess a terrestrial amino acid component, indicated by the excess of the L-enantiomers of common protein amino acids. In only one sample (A91) was AIB found to be present at a level significantly above the background blanks. The concentration of AIB (approximately 280 ppm), and the AIB/isovaline ratio (> or = 10), in this sample are both much higher than in CM chondrites. The apparently large variation in the AIB concentrations of the samples suggests that AIB may be concentrated in rare subset of micrometeorites. Because the AIB/isovaline ratio in sample A91 is much larger than in CM chondrites, the synthesis of amino acids in the micrometeorite parent bodies might have involved a different process requiring an HCN-rich environment, such as that found in comets. If the present day characteristics of the meteorite and micrometeorite fluxes can be extrapolated back in time, then the flux of large carbonaceous micrometeorites could have contributed to the inventory of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth. PMID:9742723

  14. D-amino acids inhibit initial bacterial adhesion: thermodynamic evidence.

    PubMed

    Xing, Su-Fang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Taylor, Alicia A; Walker, Sharon L; Wang, Yi-Fu; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in a self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix that can adhere to inert or living surfaces. D-Amino acids were previously identified as self-produced compounds that mediate biofilm disassembly by causing the release of the protein component of the polymeric matrix. However, whether exogenous D-amino acids could inhibit initial bacterial adhesion is still unknown. Here, the effect of the exogenous amino acid D-tyrosine on initial bacterial adhesion was determined by combined use of chemical analysis, force spectroscopic measurement, and theoretical predictions. The surface thermodynamic theory demonstrated that the total interaction energy increased with more D-tyrosine, and the contribution of Lewis acid-base interactions relative to the change in the total interaction energy was much greater than the overall nonspecific interactions. Finally, atomic force microscopy analysis implied that the hydrogen bond numbers and adhesion forces decreased with the increase in D-tyrosine concentrations. D-Tyrosine contributed to the repulsive nature of the cell and ultimately led to the inhibition of bacterial adhesion. This study provides a new way to regulate biofilm formation by manipulating the contents of D-amino acids in natural or engineered systems. PMID:25333717

  15. Effects of thyroid hormone and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and plasma amino acids in man.

    PubMed

    Adlerberth, A; Jagenburg, R; Lindstedt, G; Stenström, G; Hasselgren, P O

    1986-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on alterations in protein metabolism induced by administration of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) to man. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and plasma concentrations of amino acids were measured in seven healthy subjects following 1 weeks's administration of T3 alone or T3 in combination with the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent metoprolol or the non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent propranolol. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and plasma concentrations of valine, methionine, lysine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, and total essential and branched chain amino acids increased following administration of T3, probably in part reflecting accelerated muscle proteolysis. Neither metoprolol nor propranolol normalized 3-methylhistidine excretion or plasma concentrations of amino acids during T3 treatment. The results indicate that metabolic alterations induced by T3 and giving rise to enhanced 3-methylhistidine excretion and elevated concentrations of plasma amino acids are not normalized by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. PMID:3093243

  16. Amino acid compositional shifts during streptophyte transitions to terrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Richard W; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Across the streptophyte lineage, which includes charophycean algae and embryophytic plants, there have been at least four independent transitions to the terrestrial habitat. One of these involved the evolution of embryophytes (bryophytes and tracheophytes) from a charophycean ancestor, while others involved the earliest branching lineages, containing the monotypic genera Mesostigma and Chlorokybus, and within the Klebsormidiales and Zygnematales lineages. To overcome heat, water stress, and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which must have accompanied these transitions, adaptive mechanisms would have been required. During periods of dehydration and/or desiccation, proteomes struggle to maintain adequate cytoplasmic solute concentrations. The increased usage of charged amino acids (DEHKR) may be one way of maintaining protein hydration, while increased use of aromatic residues (FHWY) protects proteins and nucleic acids by absorbing damaging UV, with both groups of residues thought to be important for the stabilization of protein structures. To test these hypotheses we examined amino acid sequences of orthologous proteins representing both mitochondrion- and plastid-encoded proteomes across streptophytic lineages. We compared relative differences within categories of amino acid residues and found consistent patterns of amino acid compositional fluxuation in extra-membranous regions that correspond with episodes of terrestrialization: positive change in usage frequency for residues with charged side-chains, and aromatic residues of the light-capturing chloroplast proteomes. We also found a general decrease in the usage frequency of hydrophobic, aliphatic, and small residues. These results suggest that amino acid compositional shifts in extra-membrane regions of plastid and mitochondrial proteins may represent biochemical adaptations that allowed green plants to colonize the land. PMID:21153633

  17. [Utilization of 15N-labeled urea in laying hens. 7. 15N-incorporation into the amino acids of different muscle types].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K

    1987-01-01

    3 colostomized laying hybrids received 1% 15N labelled urea with 96.06 atom-% 15N excess (15N') with a commercial ration over a period of 6 days. After the application of the same ration with unlabelled urea on the following 2 days the animals were butchered. In the muscles of the breast, the leg and the heart, the labelling of total nitrogen and the incorporation of urea 15N' into 15 amino acids of the 3 different kinds of muscles were ascertained. On average, significant differences could be ascertained between the atom-% 15N of the muscles of the skeleton and those of the heart. The 15N' of the breast and leg muscles was 0.25 and 0.34 atom-% resp.; that of the cardial proteins 0.71 atom-% 15N'. The incorporation of urea 15N into the basic amino acids is low and varies both between the kinds of muscles and between the amino acids. On average the highest level of labelling was found among the essential amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine; the average atom-% 15N' for the muscles of the breast is 0.13, of the leg 0.17, and of the heart 0.27; the 15N' quota of branched chain amino acids in the total 15N' of the respective muscle is accordingly 6.0%, 5.0% and 4.5%. The non-essential amino acids, particularly glutamic acid, are more highly labelled in the muscles than the essential ones. A 15N' for glutamic acid of 0.24 atom-% in the breast muscles, of 0.27 atom-% in those of the legs and of 0.64 atom-% in the heart muscle could be detected. The average quota of the 15N' of these acid amino acids in the 15N' for breast, leg and heart muscles is 7.4, 6.2 and 6.7 resp. The quota of the 15N' in the 6 non-essential amino acids in the total 15N' in all 3 kinds of muscles is approximately two thirds and in the 9 essential ones one third of the total 15N'. Although the results show that there is a certain incorporation of 15N' from urea into the amino acids of the muscle proteins, their contribution to meeting the demands is to be considered irrelevant. PMID:3689127

  18. Correlation between Fibroin Amino Acid Sequence and Physical Silk Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Fedic; Michal Zurovec; Frantisek Sehnal

    2003-01-01

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were se- quenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephe- stia kuehniella), and Indian

  19. Statistical modeling of correlatively expressed functional amino acids in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern maize breeding and selection for large starchy kernels may have contributed to reduced contents of essential amino acids which represents a serious nutritional problem for humans and animals. A large number (1,348) of germplasm accessions belonging to 13 populations and classified into four h...

  20. Complete Amino Acid Sequence of beta -tubulin from Porcine Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Krauhs; Melvyn Little; Tore Kempf; Renate Hofer-Warbinek; Wolfgang Ade; Herwig Ponstingl

    1981-01-01

    The primary structure of porcine brain beta -tubulin was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of six sets of overlapping peptides. The protein consists of 445 amino acid residues and has a minimum of six positions that are heterogeneous, indicating at least two beta -tubulins in porcine brain. Comparison of the optimally aligned sequences of beta -tubulin and beta

  1. Persistent biases in the amino acid composition of prokaryotic proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Géraldine Pascal; Claudine Médigue; Antoine Danchin

    2006-01-01

    Summary Correspondence analysis of 28 proteomes selected to span the entire realm of prokaryotes revealed universal biases in the proteins' amino acid distribution. Integral Inner Membrane Proteins always form an individual cluster, which can then be used to predict protein localisation in unknown proteomes, independently of the organism's biotope or kingdom. Orphan proteins are consistently rich in aromatic residues. Another

  2. Progress Toward an Enceladus Amino Acid Sampler Astrobiology Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. P.; Willis, P. A.; Blacksberg, J.

    2012-12-01

    The development of a new astrobiolgoy instrument for exploring the trace chemical composition of the Enceladus jets and plume, and the e-ring of Saturn is presented. The Enceladus amino acid sampler (EAAS) allows for detection of amino acids using optical Raman spectroscopy integrated with a sample pre-concentration system. The pre-concentration process facilitates the delivery of a sample to a mass spectrometer for detection of specific amino acids. The initial EAAS design utilizes lab-on-a-breadboard components where a sample inlet, sample outlet, reagents, controllers, pumps, valves and pre-concentration column for the EAAS prototype are all assembled on a 5" x 7" breadboard. The pre-concentration process is controlled using automation scripts and software. An optical window allows a Raman spectrometer to directly monitor the pre-concentration of amino acids in a filter/column loaded with of a strong cation exchange resin. Initial samples to demonstrate EAAS simulate the conditions of Don Juan Pond, one of the coldest and saltiest bodies of liquid water on Earth, located in the Wright Valley of Antarctica. This EAAS development is an important step toward a new type of astrobiology science instrument that is capable of operating on a spacecraft in flight or in orbit.

  3. Inter-domain linker prediction using amino acid compositional index.

    PubMed

    Shatnawi, Maad; Zaki, Nazar

    2015-04-01

    Protein chains are generally long and consist of multiple domains. Domains are distinct structural units of a protein that can evolve and function independently. The accurate and reliable prediction of protein domain linkers and boundaries is often considered to be the initial step of protein tertiary structure and function predictions. In this paper, we introduce CISA as a method for predicting inter-domain linker regions solely from the amino acid sequence information. The method first computes the amino acid compositional index from the protein sequence dataset of domain-linker segments and the amino acid composition. A preference profile is then generated by calculating the average compositional index values along the amino acid sequence using a sliding window. Finally, the protein sequence is segmented into intervals and a simulated annealing algorithm is employed to enhance the prediction by finding the optimal threshold value for each segment that separates domains from inter-domain linkers. The method was tested on two standard protein datasets and showed considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art domain linker prediction methods. PMID:25677918

  4. Origins of amino acid transporter loci in trypanosomatid parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P Jackson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large amino acid transporter gene families were identified from the genome sequences of three parasitic protists, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major. These genes encode molecular sensors of the external host environment for trypanosomatid cells and are crucial to modulation of gene expression as the parasite passes through different life stages. This study provides a comprehensive phylogenetic account

  5. Analysis and survival of amino acids in Martian regolith analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, James R. C.; Loes Ten Kate, Inge; Martins, Zita; Nørnberg, Per; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the native amino acid composition of two analogs of Martian soil, JSC Mars-1 and Salten Skov. A Mars simulation chamber has been built and used to expose samples of these analogs to temperature and lighting conditions similar to those found at low latitudes on the Martian surface. The effects of the simulated conditions have been examined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Exposure to energetic ultraviolet (UV) light in vacuum appears to cause a modest increase in the concentration of certain amino acids within the materials, which is interpreted as resulting from the degradation of microorganisms. The influence of low temperatures shows that the accretion of condensed water on the soils leads to the destruction of amino acids, supporting the idea that reactive chemical processes involving H2O are at work within the Martian soil. We discuss the influence of UV radiation, low temperatures, and gaseous CO2 on the intrinsic amino acid composition of Martian soil analogs and describe, with the help of a simple model, how these studies fit within the framework of life detection on Mars and the practical tasks of choosing and using Martian regolith analogs in planetary research.

  6. The Application of Electrodialysis to Desalting an Amino Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente; González-García, José; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; Bonete, Pedro; Inglés, Marina

    2000-11-01

    One of the main difficulties in preparing pharmaceutical products is isolating them from aqueous solutions of high salt concentration, as a high purity must be obtained. Several methods that employ organic solvents are normally used. In this paper, a novel method, electrodialysis, is presented together with its application to the desalting of an industrial effluent comprising an amino acid (p-hydroxyphenylglycine) with a high salt content (ammonium sulfate and sodium dihydrogenphosphate). It was possible to remove more than 70% of the initial salt content. From this solution with a low salt content, it is possible to isolate the amino acid with a higher purity. This experiment will enable the student to gain a useful knowledge of this technique and to work with typical figures of merit of electrodialysis such as current efficiency, electrical energy consumption, production of the process, removal of salt, and loss of amino acid. In addition the student learns the use of chromatographic techniques applied to the analysis of amino acids (HPLC) and salts (IC).

  7. Studies on the amino acid requirements of horses

    E-print Network

    Word, James Dewey

    1968-01-01

    , Best t al. (1952) showed tha' in n!cn ther, !ias a si?i!if cant diurnal cycle ir he ind! . dial. Fish? (1965) iias connie'cd that crea . I nine excre. in??!as !!oi. sonata;t i n 11 rats and varies with protein intake and amino acid intake. Most...

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-01-01

    Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. PMID:24927904

  9. Beta-Amino acid analogs of an insect neuropeptide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect neuropeptides of the insect kinin class share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence FX1X2WG-NH2 (X2 = P,S) and regulate such critical physiological processes as water balance and digestive enzyme release. Incorporation of beta-amino acids in peptides can enhance both resistance to peptid...

  10. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Edgar P.

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Amino Acids-Based Trimethoprim Salts

    PubMed Central

    ElShaer, Amr; Hanson, Peter; Worthington, Tony; Lambert, Peter; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2012-01-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor which prevents the conversion of dihydrofolic acid into tetrahydrofolic acid, resulting in the depletion of the latter and leading to bacterial death. Oral bioavailability of TMP is hindered by both its low solubility and low permeability. This study aims to prepare novel salts of TMP using anionic amino acids; aspartic and glutamic acid as counter ions in order to improve solubility and dissolution. TMP salts were prepared by lyophilisation and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both the amino acids formed salts with TMP in a 1:1 molar ratio and showed a 280 fold improvement in solubility. Investigation of the microbiological activity of the prepared salts against TMP sensitive Escherichia coli showed that the new salts not only retained antibacterial activity but also exhibited higher zone of inhibition which was attributed to improved physicochemical characters such as higher solubility and dissolution. The results are an important finding that could potentially impact on faster onset of antibacterial activity and reduced therapeutic dose when administered to patients. Studies are underway investigating the effect of ion-pairing TMP with amino acids on the permeability profile of the drug. PMID:24300187

  12. A study of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gaull, Gerald E.; Gaitonde, M. K.

    1967-01-01

    1. In a study of the metabolism of l-[35S]methionine in vivo, the labelled sulphur compounds of rat liver and brain were separated first by ion-exchange chromatography into two fractions containing (i) free sulphur amino acids such as methionine, cystathionine, cyst(e)ine and homocyst(e)ine and (ii) glutathione. 2. Two-dimensional paper chromatography with butan-1-ol–acetic acid or propionic acid–water in the first direction and 80% acetone or acetone–ethyl methyl ketone–water in the second direction was found superior to other solvent systems for separating the sulphur amino acids. 3. At 10min. after injection of [35S]methionine only a small part of the 35S was found combined in free methionine or other free sulphur amino acids. 4. Evidence was obtained of the presence of adenosyl[35S]methionine and adenosyl[35S]homocysteine in perchloric acid extracts of rat liver and brain. 5. The trans-sulphuration pathway was active in brain as well as in liver. PMID:6030290

  13. Changes in amino acids and essential fatty acids during early larval rearing of dentex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tulli; E. Tibaldi

    1997-01-01

    Samples of fertilized dentex, Dentex dentex, eggs and larvae fed enriched rotifers and Artemia according to standard hatchery procedures were analysed for free, total amino acid and fatty acid contents. Egg free amino acids (53 nmol ind-1) and total lipids (13.5 (µg ind-1) levels were considerably reduced in the newly hatched larvae (6.0 nmol and 5.7 (µg ind-1 respectively) while

  14. Transduction mechanisms for the taste of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Brand, J G; Teeter, J H; Kumazawa, T; Huque, T; Bayley, D L

    1991-05-01

    Amino acids are important taste stimuli for a variety of animals. One animal model, the channel catfish, I. punctatus, possesses sensitive taste receptor systems for several amino acids. Neurophysiological and biochemical receptor binding studies suggest the presence of at least three receptor pathways: one is a relatively nonspecific site(s) responsive to short-chain neutral amino acids such as L-alanine (L-ALA); another is responsive to the basic amino acid L-arginine (L-ARG); still another is a low affinity site for L-proline (L-PRO). Several possible transduction pathways are available in the taste system of this animal model for these amino acids. One of these, formation of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and cyclic AMP (cAMP), is mediated by GTP-binding regulatory proteins, while another involves ion channels directly activated by stimuli. L-ALA is a potent stimulus to cAMP and IP3 accumulation, while L-ARG at low concentrations is without effect. On the other hand, L-ARG and L-PRO, but not L-ALA, are able to activate stimulus-specific and cation-selective channels in taste epithelial membranes reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers at the tips of patch pipettes. Preliminary studies using mouse taste tissue demonstrate that monosodium-L-glutamate (MSG) did not enhance production of IP3 or cAMP. However, in reconstitution experiments using taste epithelium of mouse, conductance changes due to MSG are observed. The specificity of this channel(s) and its uniqueness have yet to be determined. PMID:1679559

  15. Adding ?-Ketoglutarate to Semi-hard Cheese Curd Highly Enhances the Conversion of Amino acids to Aroma Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yvon; S. Berthelot; J. C. Gripon

    1998-01-01

    St Paulin type cheeses made with three different starters were supplemented with alpha;-ketoglutarate, the main alpha;-ketoacid acceptor for amino acid transamination. Amino acid catabolism was monitored during ripening by free amino acid analysis and by analysis of metabolites produced from radiolabelled amino acids introduced as tracer into cheese curd. Also, odour development in cheese was evaluated by sniffing. Amino acid

  16. New syntheses of aminoalkylphosphonic acids 

    E-print Network

    DeBardeleben, John Frederick

    1963-01-01

    to remove any remaining benzoic acid, The aqueous layer was evaporated on a steam bath in vacuum. To the residue 100 ml, of ethyl alcohol was added. The resulting mixture was filtered while hot to remove sodium chloride. The alcohol was removed by dis.... Only three ? valine (VIII a), leucine (VIII b), and isoleucine (VIII c) ? corresponded to naturally occurring amino carboxylic acids. Mono- and dialkylmalonamidic acids (IX) were caused to react with sodium hypobromite, yielding the desired amino...

  17. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism and pharmacological effects of branched-chain amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiharu Shimomura; Taro Murakami; Masaru Nagasaki; Takashi Honda; Hidemi Goto; Katsuhiro Kotake; Tsuyoshi Kurokawa; Toshiaki Nonami

    2004-01-01

    Significant evidence of the pharmacological and physiological effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has accumulated, attracting the interest of not only clinicians but also basic medical researchers. We summarize here the characteristic features of BCAA catabolism, focusing on the initial two enzymes in the pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase and branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. In addition, we describe a unique characteristic

  18. Amino acid derivatives are substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2 (slc36a2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel Edwards; Catriona M. H. Anderson; Kelly M. Gatfield; Mark P. Jevons; Vadivel Ganapathy; David T. Thwaites

    2011-01-01

    The H+-coupled amino acid transporter PAT2 (SLC36A2) transports the amino acids proline, glycine, alanine and hydroxyproline. A physiological role played by PAT2 in amino acid reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule is demonstrated by mutations in SLC36A2 that lead to an iminoglycinuric phenotype (imino acid and glycine uria) in humans. A number of proline, GABA and tryptophan derivatives were examined

  19. Complexes of polyadenylic acid and the methyl esters of amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaled, M. A.; Mulins, D. W., Jr.; Swindle, M.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study of amino acid methyl esters binding to polyadenylic acid supports the theory that the genetic code originated through weak but selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides. NMR, insoluble complex analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy are used to illustrate a correlation between the hydrophybicities of A amino acids and their binding constants, which, beginning with the largest, are in the order of Phe (having nominally a hydrophobic AAA anticodon), Ile, Leu, Val and Gly (having a hydrophilic anticodon with no A). In general, the binding constants are twice the values by Reuben and Polk (1980) for monomeric AMP, which suggests that polymer amino acids are interacting with only one base. No real differences are found betwen poly A binding for free Phe, Phe methyl ester or Phe amide, except that the amide value is slightly lower.

  20. Regulation of adipose branched chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated blood branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. One possibility is that under these conditions there is a reduced cellular utilization and/or lower complete oxidation of BCAAs. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a...

  1. The origin of conserved protein domains and amino acid repeats via adaptive competition for control over amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Rorick, Mary M; Wagner, Günter P

    2010-01-01

    Some proteins, such as homeodomain transcription factors, contain highly conserved regions of sequence. It has recently been suggested that multiple functional domains overlap in the homeodomain, together explaining this high conservation. However, the question remains why so many functional domains cluster together in one relatively small and constrained region of the protein. Here we have modeled an evolutionary mechanism that can produce this kind of clustering: conserved functional domains are displaced from the parts of the molecule that are undergoing adaptive evolution because novel functions generally out-compete conserved functions for control over the identity of amino acid residues. We call this model COAA, for Competition Over Amino Acids. We also studied the evolution of amino acid repeats (a.k.a. homopeptides), which are especially prevalent in transcription factors. Repeats that are encoded by non-homogenous mixtures of synonymous codons cannot be explained by replication slippage alone. Our model provides two explanations for their origin, maintenance, and over-representation in highly conserved proteins. We demonstrate that either competition between multiple functional domains for space within a sequence, or reuse of a sequence for many functions over time, can cause the evolution of amino acid repeats. Both of these processes are characteristic of multifunctional proteins such as homeodomain transcription factors. We conclude that the COAA model can explain two widely recognized features of transcription factor proteins: conserved domains and a tendency to accumulate homopeptides. PMID:20024539

  2. Kinetic fractionation of stable nitrogen isotopes during amino acid transamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, Stephen A.; Estep, Marilyn L. Fogel; Engel, Michael H.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-10-01

    This study evaluates a kinetic isotope effect involving 15N, during the transamination reactions catalyzed by glutamic oxalacetic transaminase. During the transfer of amino nitrogen from glutamic acid to oxaloacetate to form aspartic acid, 14NH 2 reacted 1.0083 times faster than 14NH 2. In the reverse reaction transferring NH 2 from aspartic acid to ?-ketoglutarate, 14NH 2 was incorporated 1.0017 times faster than 15NH 2. Knowledge of the magnitude and sign of these isotope effects will be useful in the interpretation of the distribution of 15N in biological and geochemical systems.

  3. Oligomerization of Negatively-Charged Amino Acids by Carbonyldiimidazole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    The carbonyldiimidazole-induced oligomerizations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and 0-phospho-serine are amongst the most efficient reported syntheses of biopolymers in aqueous solution. The dependence of the yields of products on the concentrations of reagents, the temperature and the enantiomeric composition of the substrate amino acids are reported. Catalysis by metal ions, particularly by Mg(2+), is described. These reactions do not generate significant amounts of material in the size-range of several tens of residues that are thought to be needed for a polymer to function as a genetic material.

  4. Cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics, parallel catalyst screening for aziridination

    E-print Network

    Li, Shih-ming

    1996-01-01

    of the hydantoin intermediate under basic conditions or of the o(- 2,28-30 cyano compounds with acidic conditions resulted in the formation of a mixture of amino acids. The pure cis- and trans- isomers obtained by these methods were isolated by recrystallization... was acidified with 50% sulfuric acid, extracted again with ether (8 x 25 mL). The ether extracts were washed with water, dried over MgSO4, and concentrated. Recrystallization from ether give the title compound as colorless crystal. Yield: mp: 11. 5 g (31...

  5. Thermodynamic studies of ionic hydration and interactions for amino acid ionic liquids in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K.

    PubMed

    Dagade, Dilip H; Madkar, Kavita R; Shinde, Sandeep P; Barge, Seema S

    2013-01-31

    Amino acid ionic liquids are a special class of ionic liquids due to their unique acid-base behavior, biological significance, and applications in different fields such as templates in synthetic chemistry, stabilizers for biological macromolecules, etc. The physicochemical properties of these ionic liquids can easily be altered by making the different combinations of amino acids as anion along with possible cation modification which makes amino acid ionic liquids more suitable to understand the different kinds of molecular and ionic interactions with sufficient depth so that they can provide fruitful information for a molecular level understanding of more complicated biological processes. In this context, volumetric and osmotic coefficient measurements for aqueous solutions containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Emim]) based amino acid ionic liquids of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are reported at 298.15 K. From experimental osmotic coefficient data, mean molal activity coefficients of ionic liquids were estimated and analyzed using the Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models. The hydration numbers of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions were obtained using activity data. Pitzer ion interaction parameters are estimated and compared with other electrolytes reported in the literature. The nonelectrolyte contribution to the aqueous solutions containing ionic liquids was studied by calculating the osmotic second virial coefficient through an application of the McMillan-Mayer theory of solution. It has been found that the second osmotic virial coefficient which includes volume effects correlates linearly with the Pitzer ion interaction parameter estimated independently from osmotic data as well as the hydrophobicity of ionic liquids. The enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, explained using the Starikov-Nordén model of enthalpy-entropy compensation, and partial molar entropy analysis for aqueous [Emim][Gly] solutions are made by using experimental Gibb's free energy data and literature enthalpy data. This study highlights that the hydrophobic interaction persists even in the limit of infinite dilution where the hydration effects are usually dominant, implying importance of hydrophobic hydration. Analysis of the results further shows that the hydration of amino acid ionic liquids occurs through the cooperative H-bond formation with the kosmotropic effect in contrast to the usual inorganic salts or hydrophobic salts like tetraalkylammonium halides. PMID:23293839

  6. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Shishova, Ekaterina Y.; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Emig, Francis A.; Ash, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of human arginase I. Specifically, we focus on: (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values, but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is: water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis. PMID:19093830

  7. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Shishova, E.; Di Costanzo, L; Emig, F; Ash, D; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of arginase I. Specifically, we focus on (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis.

  8. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 CNRS, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-06-10

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee {sub L}) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee {sub L} that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee {sub L} in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: ?-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee {sub L} = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee {sub L} = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee {sub L} depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  9. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, outlining a new possibility for selective targeting of essential amino acid absorption mechanisms to control medically and economically important arthropods and other invertebrate organisms. PMID:22230793

  10. Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi?, Ana; Bertosa, Branimir; Tomi?, Sanja; Soski?, Milan; Magnus, Volker

    2007-06-22

    The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded quantitative correlations with k: retention on a C18 reversed-phase column (experimental approach) and the distance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic poles of the molecules (in silico approach). Most compounds examined are possible metabolic precursors of IAA, an experimental tumor therapeutic. PMID:17459401

  11. Contributions of all 20 amino acids at site 96 to the stability and structure of T4 lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Mooers, Blaine H M; Baase, Walter A; Wray, Jonathan W; Matthews, Brian W

    2009-01-01

    To try to resolve the loss of stability in the temperature-sensitive mutant of T4 lysozyme, Arg 96 ? His, all of the remaining 18 naturally occurring amino acids were substituted at site 96. Also, in response to suggestions that the charged residues Lys85 and Asp89, which are 5–8 Å away, may have important effects, each of these amino acids was replaced with alanine. Crystal structures were determined for many of the variants. With the exception of the tryptophan and valine mutants R96W and R96V, the crystallographic analysis shows that the substituted side chain following the path of Arg96 in wildtype (WT). The melting temperatures of the variants decrease by up to ?16°C with WT being most stable. There are two site 96 replacements, with lysine or glutamine, that leave the stability close to that of WT. The only element that the side chains of these residues have in common with the WT arginine is the set of three carbon atoms at the C?, C?, and C? positions. Although each side chain is long and flexible with a polar group at the distal position, the details of the hydrogen bonding to the rest of the protein differ in each case. Also, the glutamine replacement lacks a positive charge. This shows that there is some adaptability in achieving full stabilization at this site. At the other extreme, to be maximally destabilizing a mutation at site 96 must not only eliminate favorable interactions but also introduce an unfavorable element such as steric strain or a hydrogen-bonding group that remains unsatisfied. Overall, the study highlights the essential need for atomic resolution site-specific structural information to understand and to predict the stability of mutant proteins. It can be very misleading to simply assume that conservative amino acid substitutions cause small changes in stability, whereas large stability changes are associated with nonconservative replacements. PMID:19384988

  12. Comparative metabolic profiling reveals the key role of amino acids metabolism in the rapamycin overproduction by Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohua; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Wen, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin is an important natural macrolide antibiotic with antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer activity produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. In this study, a mutant strain obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis displayed higher rapamycin production capacity compared to the wild-type S. hygroscopicus ATCC 29253. To gain insights into the mechanism of rapamycin overproduction, comparative metabolic profiling between the wild-type and mutant strain was performed. A total of 86 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pattern recognition methods, including principal component analysis, partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were employed to determine the key biomarkers. The results showed that 22 potential biomarkers were closely associated with the increase of rapamycin production and the tremendous metabolic difference was observed between the two strains. Furthermore, metabolic pathway analysis revealed that amino acids metabolism played an important role in the synthesis of rapamycin, especially lysine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, glutamate, arginine and ornithine. The inadequate supply of amino acids, or namely "nitrogen starvation" occurred in the mutant strain. Subsequently, the exogenous addition of amino acids into the fermentation medium of the mutant strain confirmed the above conclusion, and rapamycin production of the mutant strain increased to 426.7 mg/L after adding lysine, approximately 5.8-fold of that in the wild-type strain. Finally, the results of real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays demonstrated that dihydrodipicolinate synthase involved with lysine metabolism played vital role in the biosynthesis of rapamycin. These findings will provide a theoretical basis for further improving production of rapamycin. PMID:25840873

  13. Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus

    E-print Network

    Kwon, Hyuk Jung

    2005-08-29

    ;-amino acids in allantoic fluid during early gestation. Serine (16.5 mM) contributed about 60% of total ?-amino acids in allantoic fluid on Day 140 of gestation. Maximal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginase activities and highest rates...

  14. Predicting the Functional Effect of Amino Acid Substitutions and Indels

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yongwook; Sims, Gregory E.; Murphy, Sean; Miller, Jason R.; Chan, Agnes P.

    2012-01-01

    As next-generation sequencing projects generate massive genome-wide sequence variation data, bioinformatics tools are being developed to provide computational predictions on the functional effects of sequence variations and narrow down the search of casual variants for disease phenotypes. Different classes of sequence variations at the nucleotide level are involved in human diseases, including substitutions, insertions, deletions, frameshifts, and non-sense mutations. Frameshifts and non-sense mutations are likely to cause a negative effect on protein function. Existing prediction tools primarily focus on studying the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions through examining amino acid conservation at the position of interest among related sequences, an approach that is not directly applicable to insertions or deletions. Here, we introduce a versatile alignment-based score as a new metric to predict the damaging effects of variations not limited to single amino acid substitutions but also in-frame insertions, deletions, and multiple amino acid substitutions. This alignment-based score measures the change in sequence similarity of a query sequence to a protein sequence homolog before and after the introduction of an amino acid variation to the query sequence. Our results showed that the scoring scheme performs well in separating disease-associated variants (n?=?21,662) from common polymorphisms (n?=?37,022) for UniProt human protein variations, and also in separating deleterious variants (n?=?15,179) from neutral variants (n?=?17,891) for UniProt non-human protein variations. In our approach, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the human and non-human protein variation datasets is ?0.85. We also observed that the alignment-based score correlates with the deleteriousness of a sequence variation. In summary, we have developed a new algorithm, PROVEAN (Protein Variation Effect Analyzer), which provides a generalized approach to predict the functional effects of protein sequence variations including single or multiple amino acid substitutions, and in-frame insertions and deletions. The PROVEAN tool is available online at http://provean.jcvi.org. PMID:23056405

  15. Fatty acid, amino acid and trace mineral composition of Eleusine coracana (Pwana) seeds from northern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane R. Fernandez; Dorothy J. Vanderjagt; Mark Millson; Yung-Sheng Huang; Lu-Te Chuang; Andrzej Pastuszyn; Robert H. Glew

    2003-01-01

    In northern Nigeria the seeds of the cereal Eleusine coracana (finger millet), called ‘pwana’ by the Birom and ‘tamba’ by the Hausa, are used as a supplemental food taken in the form of tea or a porridge-like meal. Seeds were analyzed for fatty acid, amino acid and mineral contents. They contained 12 mg\\/g total fatty acid, 42% of which was

  16. Comparative functional genomics of amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Pastink

    2009-01-01

    The amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria used as starters in industrial fermentations has profound effects on the quality of the fermented foods. The work described in this PhD thesis was initiated to use genomics technologies and a comparative approach to link the gene content of some well-known lactic acid bacteria to flavor formation and to increase our general

  17. Use of silicone fluids in studies of cellular amino acids.

    PubMed

    Yi, P N; Rhee, T; Fenn, J O; Jarrett, J H; Wallace, K M

    1986-03-01

    In numerous cellular studies, cells labeled with radioisotopes have been separated from the labeling medium by an aqueous solution in order to determine the quantity of internalized labels; however, the aqueous wash tends to remove significant labeling from the cells. Therefore, in order to preserve all of the internalized labels, non-aqueous medium such as silicone fluids may be used. The termination of the labeling is achieved in the silicone method when, upon centrifugation, the cells separate from the medium and enter the silicone fluid to sediment to the tube bottom. This sedimentation of cells placed above a layer of silicone fluid exhibits a critical dependence on the centrifugal force, and gives rise to an uncertainty of only 2 s in determining the time of separation of cells from the medium using General Electric F-50 silicone fluid and a modified Beckman J2-21 centrifuge. It is therefore possible to determine the kinetics of incorporation of labeled amino acids into intracellular pools and proteins. In particular, since this silicone wash method determines the size of the total pool and the aqueous wash method determines the size of the acid-extractable pool, the simultaneous measurements of the size of both pools leads to the determination of the kinetics of labeling of the free amino acid pool. Among many possible applications and extensions of these methods, the studies of formation of intracellular pools and relations among different pools of transported molecules, such as water and amino acids, appear promising. PMID:3086420

  18. Chiral mobile phase in ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids: exploring the copper(II) salt anion effect with a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Carotti, Andrea; Ianni, Federica; Rubiño, Maria Eugenia García; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-12-21

    With the use of a chiral ligand-exchange chromatography (CLEC) system operating with the O-benzyl-(S)-serine [(S)-OBS] [1,2] as the chiral mobile phase (CMP) additive to the eluent, the effect of the copper(II) anion type on retention (k) and separation (?) factors was evaluated, by rationally changing the following experimental conditions: salt concentration and temperature. The CLEC-CMP analysis was carried out on ten amino acidic racemates and with nine different cupric salts. While the group of analytes comprised both aliphatic (leucine, isoleucine, nor-leucine, proline, valine, nor-valine, and ?-methyl-valine) and aromatic (1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, phenylglycine, and tyrosine) species, representative organic (formate, methanesulfonate, and trifluoroacetate) and inorganic (bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) Cu(II) salts were selected as the metal source into the eluent. This route of investigation was pursued with the aim of identifying analogies among the employed Cu(II) salts, by observing the variation profile of the selected chromatographic parameters, upon a change of the above experimental conditions. All the data were collected and analyzed through a statistical approach (PCA and k-means clustering) that revealed the presence of two behavioral classes of cupric salts, sharing the same variation profile for k and ? values. Interestingly, this clustering can be explained in terms of ESP (electrostatic surface potential) balance (ESP(bal)) values, obtained by an ab initio calculation operated on the cupric salts. The results of this appraisal could aid the rational choice of the most suitable eluent system, to succeed in the enantioseparation of difficult-to-resolve compounds, along with the eventual scale-up to a semi-preparative level. PMID:22926052

  19. Analysis of endogenous d -amino acid-containing peptides in Metazoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Bai; Sarah Sheeley; Jonathan V. Sweedler

    2009-01-01

    Peptides are chiral molecules with their structure determined by the composition and configuration of their amino acid building\\u000a blocks. The naturally occurring amino acids, except glycine, possess two chiral forms. This allows the formation of multiple\\u000a peptide diastereomers that have the same sequence. Although living organisms use l-amino acids to make proteins, a group of d-amino acid-containing peptides (DAACPs) has

  20. Kinetic studies of dipeptide-based and amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Wery?ski; Jacek Waniewski; Tao Wang; Björn Anderstam; Bengt Lindholm; Jonas Bergström

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic studies of dipeptide-based and amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis solutions.BackgroundDipeptide-based peritoneal dialysis solutions may have potential advantages compared with the glucose or amino acid-based solutions. Dipeptides may hydrolyze in the peritoneal cavity, generating constituent amino acids and thereby increasing the osmolality of the dialysate. Dipeptides can also be a valuable source of amino acids, which are poorly soluble in water,

  1. Clinical use of amino acids as dietary supplement: pros and cons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco S. Dioguardi

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen supply is pivotal for the maintenance of life. Amino acids can be utilized to synthesize both glucose and lipids.\\u000a The opposite, i.e., production of amino acids from either one of them, is not possible in the absence of other amino acids\\u000a as donors of nitrogen. The quality of amino acid content in protein has been re-evaluated recently, and the

  2. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-12-17

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  3. A practical recipe for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Mann; Shao-En Ong

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple, robust, yet powerful approach in mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics. SILAC labels cellular proteomes through normal metabolic processes, incorporating non-radioactive, stable isotope-containing amino acids in newly synthesized proteins. Growth medium is prepared where natural (“light”) amino acids are replaced by “heavy” SILAC amino acids. Cells grown in

  4. A practical recipe for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-En Ong; Matthias Mann

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple, robust, yet powerful approach in mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics. SILAC labels cellular proteomes through normal metabolic processes, incorporating non-radioactive, stable isotope-containing amino acids in newly synthesized proteins. Growth medium is prepared where natural (''light'') amino acids are replaced by ''heavy'' SILAC amino acids. Cells grown in

  5. Novel nanostructure amino acid-based poly(amide-imide)s enclosing benzimidazole pendant group in green medium: fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Dinari, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, several novel optically active nanostructure poly(amide-imide)s (PAI)s were synthesized via step-growth polymerization reaction of chiral diacids based on pyromellitic dianhydride-derived dicarboxylic acids containing different natural amino acids such as L-alanine, S-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine, and L-phenylalanine with 2-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-benzimidazole under green conditions using molten tetrabutylammonium bromide. The new optically active PAIs were achieved in good yields and moderate inherent viscosity up to 0.41 dL/g. The synthesized polymers were characterized with FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. These polymers show high solubility in organic polar solvents due to the presence of amino acid and benzimidazole pendant group at room temperature. FE-SEM results show that, these chiral nanostructured PAIs have spherical shapes and the particle size is around 20-80 nm. On the basis of TGA data, such PAIs are thermally stable and can be classified as self-extinguishing polymers. In addition due to the existence of amino acids in the polymer backbones, these macromolecules are not only optically active but also could be biodegradable and thus may well be classified under environmentally friendly materials. PMID:22327513

  6. Characteristics and formation of amino acids and hydroxy acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Cooper, G. W.; Pizzarello, S.

    1995-01-01

    Eight characteristics of the unique suite of amino acids and hydroxy acids found in the Murchison meteorite can be recognized on the basis of detailed molecular and isotopic analyses. The marked structural correspondence between the alpha-amino acids and alpha-hydroxy acids and the high deuterium/hydrogen ratio argue persuasively for their formation by aqueous phase Strecker reactions in the meteorite parent body from presolar, i.e., interstellar, aldehydes, ketones, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide. The characteristics of the meteoritic suite of amino acids and hydroxy acids are briefly enumerated and discussed with regard to their consonance with this interstellar-parent body formation hypothesis. The hypothesis has interesting implications for the organic composition of both the primitive parent body and the presolar nebula.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass...screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  9. Stereochemistry of amino acids in surface samples of a marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    In two surface samples of marine sediment, the percentages of D-alanine and D-aspartic acid are significantly higher than the other D-amino acids and are similar to the range found in soils. The percentage of D-glutamic acid is also higher than the other amino acids but less than D-alanine and D-aspartic acid. These D-amino acids may come mainly from bacteria.

  10. The excitation of mammalian central neurones by amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J G; Hicks, T P; McLennan, H; Richardson, T L; Wheal, H V

    1979-01-01

    1. The relative potencies of a number of analogues of L-glutamate as excitants of thalamic neurones in the rat have been compared. The most powerful compounds were kainate, ibotenate and (+/-)cis-1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane. The D- and L-isomers of glutamate and aspartate were also compared. Whereas D-glutamate is approximately one-half as active as the L-form, D-aspartate is more potent than L-aspartate. 2. Computer analysis has indicated that ibotenate and cis-1-amino-1,3-dicarboxy-cyclopentane have relatively fixed and similar C alpha-N, Comega-N and C alpha-Comega interatomic distances which can also be achieved by glutamate in certain conformations of the molecule, but not by aspartate. 3. Parallel examination of the antagonists glutamate diethylester and D-alpha-aminoadipate has shown that the former preferentially reduces L-glutamate effects while the latter blocks the actions of other amino acid excitants more readily than those of L-glutamate. 4. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that at least two populations of neuronal receptors for the excitatory amino acids exist. PMID:439027

  11. Adsorption characteristics of amino acids on to calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    He, Junbin; Lin, Rihui; Long, Han; Liang, Yuwei; Chen, Yangyang

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption of amino acids on to calcium oxalate found in urinary calculus has been studied and the adsorption characteristics were analyzed. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the kinetics data. The pseudo-second-order model best described the dynamic behavior of the adsorption process. The uptake of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were found to decrease as solution pH increasing from 4 to 8. The experimental data obtained at different pH conditions were analyzed and fitted by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Sips isotherm models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Error analysis (correlation coefficient, residual root mean square error and chi-square test) showed that the Langmuir I isotherm model and the non-linear form of Sips isotherm model should be primarily adopted for fitting the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity of glutamic acid and aspartic acid onto calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are 0.059 and 0.066?mol/g at pH 4, respectively. These studies have the vital significance for research aimed at exploring the role of urinary amino acids effect the formation process of calcium oxalate crystals found in urinary calculus and for potential application in the design of synthetic peptides used for urinary calculi therapy. PMID:26021431

  12. SYMPOSIUM: NUTRIENT UPTAKE ACROSS THE MAMMARY GLAND Amino Acid Transport Systems in Bovine Mammary Tissue 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRAIG R. BAUMRUCKER

    Nutrient provision to the lactating mammary gland involves three factors: blood nutrient concentration, blood flow, and cellular uptake. This paper reviews uptake of amino acids by bovine mammary tissue relative to interorgan blood flows, red blood cell contribution, arteriovenous differences, specific mammary amino acid transport systems, and glutathione and ~\\/-glutamyl transpeptidase. Recent studies with ruminant amino acid blood fluxes and

  13. Oral amino acid administration in patients with diabetes mellitus: supplementation or metabolic therapy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Aquilani

    2004-01-01

    Amino acids are essential for body protein synthesis. Moreover, they can be used to produce energy within the cells. For protein turnover, normal plasma amino acid concentration enhances proteolytic suppression by insulin; furthermore, hyperaminoacidemia can stimulate protein synthesis both in the presence of baseline insulin and in hyperinsulinemic subjects with type 1 diabetes. In humans, the availability of amino acids

  14. Nature's starships. I. Observed abundances and relative frequencies of amino acids in meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: cobbak@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Origins Institute, McMaster University, ABB 241, 1280 Main Street, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  15. Solid state radiolysis of non-proteinaceous amino acids in vacuum: astrochemical implications

    E-print Network

    Solid state radiolysis of non-proteinaceous amino acids in vacuum: astrochemical implications´miai Kiado´, Budapest, Hungary 2012 Abstract The analysis of the amino acids present in Murchison meteorite and in other carbonaceous chondrites has revealed the presence of 66 different amino acids. Only eight

  16. Novel preparation of chiral ?-amino acids using the Mitsunobu-Tsunoda reaction.

    PubMed

    Noisier, Anaïs F M; Harris, Craig S; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-09-11

    An efficient synthesis of racemic or optically active ?-amino acids by modified-Mitsunobu alkylation of a racemic or chiral glycine template from alcohols was developed. Libraries of amino acids were prepared in moderate to good yield with good to high enantioselectivity. This simple method widens the scope for preparation of structurally diverse amino acids. PMID:23877629

  17. An Evaluation of the FAO Amino Acid Reference Pattern in Human Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIAN E. SWENDSEID; CHERYL L. HARRIS; ANDSTEWART G. TUTTLE

    each amino acid needed for nitrogen equi librium was determined using dietary con ditions wherein the essential amino acids were proportioned as in whole egg pro teins, with the exception of the amino acid under study, and the total nitrogen was maintained at a constant and ade quate level. It appears that the require ments of young women for at

  18. Amino acid current through anion channels in cultured human glial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Roy

    1995-01-01

    During volume regulation in hypotonic media, glial cells release a large portion of their amino acids. These amino acid losses appear to be mediated by a diffusion type of transport and a swelling-activated chloride channel seems to be involved. The objective of this project was to provide direct evidence that amino acids could diffuse through a Cl- channel. Using a

  19. Occurrence and Bacterial Cycling of d Amino Acid Isomers in an Estuarine Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels O. G. Jørgensen; Mathias Middelboe

    2006-01-01

    Abundance of d isomers of amino acids has been used in studies of organic matter diagenesis to determine the contribution of bacterial biomass to the organic matter, especially in marine sediments. However, fluxes of d amino acids in pelagic waters are poorly known. Here we present seasonal changes (March–September) in concentrations of dominant d amino acids in the pool of

  20. Nature's Starships. I. Observed Abundances and Relative Frequencies of Amino Acids in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2014-03-01

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  1. Amino Acid Mixture Improves Training Efficiency in Athletes1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Ohtani; Masaaki Sugita; Kimiaki Maruyama

    This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods of time (10, 30, and 90 d). Outcome variables included

  2. Correlating Mineralogy and Amino Acid Contents of Milligram-Scale Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrite Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron, S.; Berger, Eve L.; Locke, Darren R.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in most of the carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances of amino acids, as well as their structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that there is a link between parent-body conditions, mineralogy and the synthesis and preservation of amino acids (and likely other organic molecules). However, elucidating specific causes for the observed differences in amino acid composition has proven extremely challenging because samples analyzed for amino acids are typically much larger ((is) approximately 100 mg powders) than the scale at which meteorite heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences, (is) approximately 1-mg or smaller samples). Thus, the effects of differences in mineralogy on amino acid abundances could not be easily discerned. Recent advances in the sensitivity of instrumentation have made possible the analysis of smaller samples for amino acids, enabling a new approach to investigate the link between mineralogical con-text and amino acid compositions/abundances in meteorites. Through coordinated mineral separation, mineral characterization and highly sensitive amino acid analyses, we have performed preliminary investigations into the relationship between meteorite mineralogy and amino acid composition. By linking amino acid data to mineralogy, we have started to identify amino acid-bearing mineral phases in different carbonaceous meteorites. The methodology and results of analyses performed on the Murchison meteorite are presented here.

  3. Contribution of Amino Acid Catabolism to the Tissue Specific Persistence of Campylobacter jejuni in a Murine

    E-print Network

    Galan, Jorge E

    Contribution of Amino Acid Catabolism to the Tissue Specific Persistence of Campylobacter jejuni and growth is limited. Some amino acids have been shown to serve as carbon sources both in vitro and in vivo. These results further emphasize the importance of amino acid utilization in C. jejuni colonization of various

  4. Genetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-

    E-print Network

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41), in which we identified a novel amino-acidGenetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-Dependent Isocitrate

  5. Corrosion control of Cu–Ni alloys in neutral chloride solutions by amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waheed A. Badawy; Khaled M. Ismail; Ahlam M. Fathi

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of Cu–Ni alloys was investigated in aqueous chloride solutions using amino acids as environmentally safe materials. The corrosion rate was calculated in absence and presence of the corrosion inhibitor using polarization and impedance techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the different amino acids was also calculated.The experimental results have shown that a simple amino acid like glycine can

  6. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HARVEST TIME AND SULFUR FERTILIZATION ON AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF LENTIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yucel Kesli; M. Sait Adak

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sulfur (S) fertilization and harvest time on amino acid composition of seeds of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) at two different sites were studied. The aim of this study was to determine amino acid content of seed protein and to increase low levels of sulfur amino acids and trytophan in lentil seeds, which are major components for

  7. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  8. Plasma-enhanced copolymerization of amino acid and synthetic monomers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle D; Young, Seth L; Jiang, Hao; Jakubiak, Rachel; Bunning, Timothy J; Naik, Rajesh R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2012-01-24

    In this paper we report the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for the simultaneous deposition and copolymerization of an amino acid with other organic and inorganic monomers. We investigate the fundamental effects of plasma-enhanced copolymerization on different material chemistries in stable ultrathin coatings of mixed composition with an amino acid component. This study serves to determine the feasibility of a direct, facile method for integrating biocompatible/active materials into robust polymerized coatings with the ability to plasma copolymerize a biological molecule (L-tyrosine) with different synthetic materials in a dry, one-step process to form ultrathin coatings of mixed composition. This process may lead to a method of interfacing biologic systems with synthetic materials as a way to enhance the biomaterial-tissue interface and preserve biological activity within composite films. PMID:22176716

  9. Aromatic Amino Acids-Guanidinium Complexes through Cation-? Interactions.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sanz, Ana A; Rozas, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Continuing with our interest in the guanidinium group and the different interactions than can establish, we have carried out a theoretical study of the complexes formed by this cation and the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan and tyrosine) using DFT methods and PCM-water solvation. Both hydrogen bonds and cation-? interactions have been found upon complexation. These interactions have been characterized by means of the analysis of the molecular electron density using the Atoms-in-Molecules approach as well as the orbital interactions using the Natural Bond Orbital methodology. Finally, the effect that the cation-? and hydrogen bond interactions exert on the aromaticity of the corresponding amino acids has been evaluated by calculating the theoretical NICS values, finding that the aromatic character was not heavily modified upon complexation. PMID:26007180

  10. A single amino acid gates the KcsA channel.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Minako; Okuno, Daichi; Onishi, Yukiko; Ide, Toru

    2014-08-01

    The KcsA channel is a proton-activated potassium channel. We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) acts as a pH-sensor, and the charged states of certain negatively charged amino acids in the CPD play an important role in regulating the pH-dependent gating. Here, we demonstrate the KcsA channel is constitutively open independent of pH upon mutating E146 to a neutrally charged amino acid. In addition, we found that rearrangement of the CPD following this mutation was not large. Our results indicate that minimal rearrangement of the CPD, particularly around E146, is sufficient for opening of the KcsA channel. PMID:25019991

  11. Amino acid nutrition of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus): development of an improved test diet and determination of the total sulfur amino acid requirement 

    E-print Network

    Moon, Hae Young

    1990-01-01

    AMINO ACID NUTRITION OF THE RED DRUM (SCIAENOPS OCELLATUS): DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TEST DIET AND DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL SULFUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENT A Thesis by HAE YOUNG MOON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences AMINO ACID NUTRITION OF THE RED DRUM (SCIAENOPS OCELLATUS): DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TEST DIET...

  12. A mutation in amino acid permease AAP6 reduces the amino acid content of the Arabidopsis sieve elements but leaves aphid herbivores unaffected

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Hunt; Stefano Gattolin; H. John Newbury; Jeffrey S. Bale; Hua-Ming Tseng; David A. Barrett; Jeremy Pritchard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the amino acid permease gene AAP6 in regulating phloem amino acid composition and then to determine the effects of this altered diet on aphid performance. A genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) was produced in which the function of the amino acid permease gene AAP6 (At5g49630) was abolished. Plants homozygous

  13. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hutson; D. Fenstermacher; C. Mahar

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-¹⁴C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-¹⁴C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular

  14. Unnatural amino acids: better than the real things?

    PubMed Central

    Minnihan, Ellen C; Yokoyama, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to the development of technology for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, with nonsense codon suppression and expressed protein ligation emerging as two of the most promising methods. Recent research advances in which these methods have been applied to study protein function and mechanism are briefly highlighted, and the potential of the methods for efficient, widespread future use in vitro and in vivo is critically evaluated. PMID:20948602

  15. A New Approach to Clustering the Amino Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry E. Stanfel

    1996-01-01

    Each amino acid is represented by a vector of numerical measurements for the attributes of volume, area, hydrophilicity, polarity, hydrogen bonding, shape, and charge. Inter-residue distances are then calculated according to common metrics, and we introduce a new clustering objective function derived from information-theoretic considerations. The arguments of the function are the inter-object distances of the things to be clustered:

  16. Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Murkovic; Karin Derler

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in green coffee is of the utmost importance since these two classes of compounds act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. During the course of the Maillard reaction potentially harmful substances like acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural accrue as well. The carbohydrates were analysed by anion-exchange chromatography

  17. ?-Keratins in crocodiles reveal amino acid homology with avian keratins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changjiang Ye; Xiaobing Wu; Peng Yan; George Amato

    2010-01-01

    The DNA sequences encoding ?-keratin have been obtained from Marsh Mugger (Crocodylus palustris) and Orinoco Crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius). Through the deduced amino acid sequence, these proteins are rich in glycine, proline and serine. The central region of\\u000a the proteins are composed of two beta-folded regions and show a high degree of identity with ?-keratins of aves and squamates.\\u000a This central

  18. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Callahan; A. Aubrey; J. L. Bada; J. P. Dworkin; J. E. Elsila; D. P. Glavin; E. Parker; P. Jenniskens

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of meteorite fragments from the 2008 TC3 asteroid impact, collectively named Almahata Sitta, revealed a rare, anomalous polymict ureilite containing large carbonaceous grains (Jenniskens et al. 2009). Here we report the first amino acid analysis of a meteorite from an F-type asteroid as part of the Almahata Sitta meteorite sample analysis consortium. A single fragment (piece #4, 1.2

  19. Protein and amino acid requirements in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AV Kurpad; M Vaz

    2000-01-01

    Estimates of protein and amino acid requirements in this paper are proposed for healthy elderly people. The estimate of protein requirement was based on nitrogen (N) balance, as well as functional indicators such as immune function or muscle strength. Data suggest that the protein requirement for nitrogen equilibrium in the elderly, is greater than 0.8 gm\\/kg body weight\\/day. There do

  20. Large neutral amino acids supplementation in phenylketonuric patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rocha; F. Martel

    2009-01-01

    Summary  Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism that results in severe mental retardation if not treated early\\u000a and appropriately. The traditional treatment, consisting of a low-phenylalanine diet, is usually difficult to maintain throughout\\u000a adolescence and adulthood, resulting in undesirable levels of blood phenylalanine and consequent neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity\\u000a of phenylalanine is enhanced by its transport mechanism across the

  1. Importance of proline and other amino acids during honeybee flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Micheu; K. Crailsheim; B. Leonhard

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   The levels of proline and other amino acids in the haemolymph and other body parts of honeybee foragers were investigated\\u000a by HPLC analysis. The concentrations of proline in the blood of glucose-fed or -injected bees finishing their exhaustive tethered\\u000a flights on a roundabout were significantly reduced compared to bees that were fed and rested for one hour. This indicates

  2. Metabolic design in amino acid producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Sahm; Lothar Eggeling; Bernd Eikmanns; Reinhard Krämer

    1995-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of amino acids, e.g. of l-glutamate and l-lysine. In the last 10 years, genetic engineering and amplification of relevant structural genes have become fascinating methods for the construction of strains with desired genotypes. By cloning and expressing the various genes of the l-lysine pathway in C. glutamicum we could

  3. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  4. Evaluating standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-L. Yin; T.-J. Li; R.-L. Huang; Z.-Q. Liu; X. F. Kong; W.-Y. Chu; B.-E. Tan; D.-Deng; P. Kang; F.-G. Yin

    2008-01-01

    The ileal digestibility coefficient (CSID) of amino acids (AA) and crude protein (CP) in 40 feedstuffs for growing pigs were determined with the protein-free (PF) and enzyme-hydrolyzed casein (EHC) methods. The 40 feedstuffs that were used earlier were 10 samples of cereals and cereal by-products, 12 samples of legumes, 6 samples of animal protein feedstuff and 12 samples of oil

  5. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties.

    PubMed

    Fedic, Robert; Zurovec, Michal; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2003-09-12

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were sequenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). The amino acid repeats are species-specific, evidently a diversification of an ancestral region of 43 residues, and include three types of regularly dispersed motifs: modifications of GSSAASAA sequence, stretches of tripeptides GXZ where X and Z represent bulky residues, and sequences similar to PVIVIEE. No concatenations of GX dipeptide or alanine, which are typical for Bombyx silkworms and Antheraea silk moths, respectively, were found. Despite different repeat structure, the silks of G. mellonella and E. kuehniella exhibit similar tensile strength as the Bombyx and Antheraea silks. We suggest that in these latter two species, variations in the repeat length obstruct repeat alignment, but sufficiently long stretches of iterated residues get superposed to interact. In the pyralid H-fibroins, interactions of the widely separated and diverse motifs depend on the precision of repeat matching; silk is strong in G. mellonella and E. kuehniella, with 2-3 types of long homogeneous repeats, and nearly 10 times weaker in P. interpunctella, with seven types of shorter erratic repeats. The high proportion of large amino acids in the H-fibroin of pyralids has probably evolved in connection with the spinning habit of caterpillars that live in protective silk tubes and spin continuously, enlarging the tubes on one end and partly devouring the other one. The silk serves as a depot of energetically rich and essential amino acids that may be scarce in the diet. PMID:12816957

  6. Proteome analysis using selective incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy D. Veenstra; Suzana Martinovi?; Gordon A. Anderson; Ljiljana Paša-Toli?; Richard D. Smith

    2000-01-01

    A method is described for identifying intact proteins from genomic databases using a combination of accurate molecular mass\\u000a measurements and partial amino acid content. An initial demonstration was conducted for proteins isolated from Escherichia coli (E. coli) using a multiple auxotrophic strain of K12. Proteins extracted from the organism grown in natural isotopic abundance minimal\\u000a medium and also minimal medium

  7. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  8. Towards a Mathematical Foundation of Immunology and Amino Acid Chains

    E-print Network

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.

  9. Amino acid sequence and comparative antigenicity of chicken metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Fullmer, C S; Garvey, J S

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of metallothionein (MT) from chicken liver is reported. The primary structure was determined by automated sequence analysis of peptides produced by limited acid hydrolysis and by trypsin digestion. The comparative antigenicity of chicken MT was determined by radioimmunoassay using rabbit anti-rat MT polyclonal antibody. Chicken MT consists of 63 amino acids as compared to 61 found in MTs from mammals. One insertion (and two substitutions) occurs in the amino-terminal region, a region considered invariant among mammalian MTs. Eighteen of the 20 cysteines in chicken MT were aligned with cysteines from other mammalian sequences. Two cysteines near the carboxyl terminus are shifted by one residue due to the insertion of proline in that region. Overall, the chicken protein showed approximately equal to 68% sequence identity in a comparison with various mammalian MTs. The affinity of the polyclonal antibody for chicken MT was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to that of a mammalian MT (rat MT isoforms). This reduced affinity is attributed to major substitutions in chicken MT in the regions of the principal determinants of mammalian MTs. Theoretical analysis of the primary structure predicted the secondary structure to consist of reverse turns and random coils with no stable beta or helix conformations. There is no evidence that chicken MT differs functionally from mammalian MTs. PMID:2448773

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of aromatic amino acids in proteins.

    PubMed

    Bugs, Milton Roque; Bortoleto-Bugs, Raquel Kely; Cornélio, Marinônio Lopes

    2008-02-01

    This paper concerns the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) to study the presence of aromatic amino acid in proteins. We examined the aromatic amino acids in six proteins with well-known structures using absorption spectra of near ultraviolet PAS over the wavelength range 240-320 nm. The fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties that govern the absorption of light and a subsequent release of heat to generate a transient pressure wave was used to test the concept of monitoring aromatic amino acids with this method. Second derivative spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region of proteins was also used to study the regions surrounding the aromatics and the percentage area in each band was related in order to determine the contribution in function of the respective molar extinction coefficients for each residue. Further investigation was conducted into the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I), with the purpose of identifying the aromatics that participate in the interaction. The clear changes in the second derivative and curve-fitting procedures suggest that initial SDS binding to the tryptophan located in the dimer interface and above 10 SDS an increased intensity between 260 and 320 nm, demonstrating that the more widespread tyrosine and phenylalanine residues contribute to the SDS/BthTx-I interactions. These results demonstrate the potential of near UV-PAS for the investigation of membrane proteins/detergent complexes in which light scattering is significant. PMID:17805525

  11. The radiolysis and radioracemization of amino acids on silica surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Lemmon, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of experiments on the radioracemization of amino acids in the presence of silica surfaces such as may have been found on the prebiotic earth. L-leucine and a DL-leucine mixture deposited on samples of 1-quartz and an amorphous silica preparation (Syloid 63) was subjected to Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation, then analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the radiolysis and racemization rates. The quartz surface is found to have a marginal efficacy in enhancing radiolysis when compared with a crystalline L-leucine control, although enhancing radioracemization symmetrically by a factor of two. Both the radiolysis and radioracemization of L-leucine and DL-leucine on a Syloid-63 silica surface are observed to increase with increasing radiation dose, and to be substantially greater than in the crystalline controls. Additional experiments with the nonprotein amino acid isovaline deposited on Syloid 63 confirm the greater radiolysis susceptibility of amino acids deposited on silica with respect to the crystalline state, although racemization is not observed. The observations suggest that the presence of a silica surface would have a deleterious effect on any mechanism for the origin of molecular chirality relying on stereoselective beta-radiolysis.

  12. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  13. Identification of key amino acid residues in Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase.

    PubMed

    Sarçabal, P; Remaud-Simeon, M; Willemot, R; Potocki de Montalk, G; Svensson, B; Monsan, P

    2000-05-26

    Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea catalyzes the synthesis of an amylose-like polymer from sucrose. Sequence alignment revealed that it belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13. Site-directed mutagenesis enabled the identification of functionally important amino acid residues located at the active center. Asp-294 is proposed to act as the catalytic nucleophile and Glu-336 as general acid base catalyst in amylosucrase. The conserved Asp-401, His-195 and His-400 residues are critical for the enzymatic activity. These results provide strong support for the predicted close structural and functional relationship between the sucrose-glucosyltransferases and enzymes of the alpha-amylase family. PMID:10828446

  14. Essential amino acid usage and evolutionary nutrigenomics of eukaryotes--insights into the differential usage of amino acids in protein domains and extra-domains.

    PubMed

    Santana-Santos, L; Prosdocimi, F; Ortega, J M

    2008-01-01

    Nutrigenomics studies the effects of nutrients on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of organisms, and here an evolutionary standpoint on this new discipline is presented. It is well known that metazoan organisms are unable to synthesize all amino acids necessary to produce their proteins and that these essential amino acids (EAA) must be acquired from the diet. Here, we tested the hypothesis that conserved regions such as protein domains (DM) have different essentiality indexes and use different sets of amino acids when compared to extra-domains (ED) and proteins without mapped domains (WD). We found that auxotrophic organisms have a tendency to use less EAAs in DM than do prototrophic ones. Looking into the amino acid usage of eukaryotic proteins downloaded from KEGG and COG, we showed that WD have a usage of amino acids closer to DM, which suggests that proteins without mapped domains behave as large domains. Using an ED index that shows the proportion of prevalent amino acids in ED, a differential usage of amino acids in domains versus extra-domains was demonstrated. Protein domains were shown to be enriched with a higher number of EAA, and it may be related to the fact that these amino acids had lost their biosynthetic pathways in metazoans during a great amino acid pathway deletion, followed by a nutritional constraint that may have happened close to the conquest of the terrestrial environment. Thus, the proportion of EAA outside domains could have decreased during evolution due to nutritional constraints. PMID:18949703

  15. Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

  16. Dog bites man or man bites dog? The enigma of the amino acid conjugations

    PubMed Central

    Beyo?lu, Diren; Smith, Robert L.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to assist in the regulation of body stores of amino acids, such as glycine, glutamate, and, in certain invertebrates, arginine, that are key neurotransmitters in the CNS. As such, the amino acid conjugations are not so much detoxication reactions, rather they are homeostatic and neuroregulatory processes. Experimental data have been culled in support of this hypothesis from a broad range of scientific and clinical literature. Such data include the low detoxication value of amino acid conjugations and the Janus nature of certain amino acids that are both neurotransmitters and apparent conjugating agents. Amino acid scavenging mechanisms in blood deplete brain amino acids. Amino acids glutamate and glycine when trafficked from brain are metabolized to conjugates of aromatic acids in hepatic mitochondria and then irreversibly excreted into urine. This process is used clinically to deplete excess nitrogen in cases of urea cycle enzymopathies through excretion of glycine or glutamine as their aromatic acid conjugates. Untoward effects of high-dose phenylacetic acid surround CNS toxicity. There appears to be a relationship between extent of glycine scavenging by benzoic acid and psychomotor function. Glycine and glutamine scavenging by conjugation with aromatic acids may have important psychosomatic consequences that link diet to health, wellbeing, and disease. PMID:22227274

  17. Use of N?amino acid isotope dilution techniques to determine endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta in growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vince M. Gabert; Nuria Canibe; Henry Jørgensen; Bjørn O. Eggum; Willem C. Sauer

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the contribution of endogenous amino acids (AA) to total AA, using the N?AA and N?leucine isotope dilution techniques, in ileal digesta from growing pigs. Four barrows, initial body weight (BW) 33.8 ± 1.0 kg, were fitted with a simple T?cannula at the distal ileum and one catheter in each of the external jugular

  18. Symmetrical and Thermodynamic Properties of Phenotypic Graphs of Amino Acids Encoded by the Primeval RNY Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Marco V.; Zamudio, Gabriel S.; Palacios-Pérez, Miryam; Bobadilla, Juan R.; de Farías, Sávio Torres

    2015-06-01

    The 12 different types of graphs of the 8 amino acids encoded by the presumably primeval RNY code are derived. The symmetry groups of these graphs are analyzed and coincide with the corresponding values of polar requirement for each amino acid. The symmetry groups at the codon level are partially carried over as a group or subgroup at the amino acid level. Measures of centrality of the 12 graphs indicate that all amino acids were equally relevant irrespective of its chronological order of its appearance. The elimination of any amino acid would be strongly selected against and therefore the genetic code at this stage was already frozen.

  19. Symmetrical and Thermodynamic Properties of Phenotypic Graphs of Amino Acids Encoded by the Primeval RNY Code.

    PubMed

    José, Marco V; Zamudio, Gabriel S; Palacios-Pérez, Miryam; Bobadilla, Juan R; de Farías, Sávio Torres

    2015-06-01

    The 12 different types of graphs of the 8 amino acids encoded by the presumably primeval RNY code are derived. The symmetry groups of these graphs are analyzed and coincide with the corresponding values of polar requirement for each amino acid. The symmetry groups at the codon level are partially carried over as a group or subgroup at the amino acid level. Measures of centrality of the 12 graphs indicate that all amino acids were equally relevant irrespective of its chronological order of its appearance. The elimination of any amino acid would be strongly selected against and therefore the genetic code at this stage was already frozen. PMID:25796391

  20. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  1. Dietary protein and amino acids-consideration of the undigestible fraction.

    PubMed

    Moughan, Paul J; Ravindran, V; Sorbara, J O B

    2014-09-01

    A case is made for the application of true ileal amino acid digestibility and true ileal reactive lysine digestibility (lysine availability) in poultry nutrition. Technical aspects of the true ileal digestibility assays are reviewed, as are factors influencing amino acid digestibility in the broiler. There is considerable variation in amino acid digestibility and lysine availability both within and among diverse feedstuffs. Differences in mean amino acid digestibility among feedstuffs, and the variability in the digestibility of an amino acid within a feedstuff should both be taken into account during least-cost dietary formulation. PMID:25037823

  2. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  3. Osmolarity-sensitive release of free amino acids from cultured kidney cells (MDCK)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sánchez Olea; H. Pasantes-Morales; A. Lázaro; M. Cereijido

    1991-01-01

    Summary The amino acid pool of MDCK cells was essentially constituted by alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, serine, taurine, lysine, ß-alanine and glutamine. Upon reductions in osmolarity, free amino acids were rapidly mobilized. In 50% hyposmotic solutions, the intracellular content of free amino acids decreased from 69 to 25mm. Glutamic acid, taurine and ß-alanine were the most sensitive to hyposmolarity, followed

  4. Morphology and Structure of Amino-fatty Acid Intercalated Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Larry; Sumera, Florentino

    2015-04-01

    Natural clays and its modified forms have been studied for their wide range of applications, including polymer-layered silicate, catalysts and adsorbents. For nanocomposite production, montmorillonite (MMT) clays are often modified with organic surfactants to favor its intermixing with the polymer matrix. In the present study, Na+-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was subjected to organo-modification with a protonated 12-aminolauric acid (12-ALA). The amount of amino fatty acid surfactants loaded was 25, 50, 100 and 200% the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na+-MMT (25CEC-AMMT, 50CEC-AMMT, 100CEC-AMMT and 200CEC-AMMT). Fatty acid-derived surfactants are an attractive resource of intercalating agents for clays due to their renewability and abundance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the occurrence of intercalation of 12-ALA and their molecular structure in the clay's silicates. XRD analysis revealed that the interlayer spacing between the alumino-silicate layers increased from 1.25 nm to 1.82 nm with increasing ALA content. The amino fatty acid chains were considered to be in a flat monolayer structure at low surfactant loading, and a bilayered to a pseudotrilayered structure at high surfactant loading. On the other hand, FTIR revealed that the alkyl chains adopt a gauche conformation, indicating their disordered state based on their CH2symmetric and asymmetric vibrations. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) allows the determination of the moisture and organic content in clays. Here, TGA revealed that the surfactant in the clay was thermally stable, with Td ranging from 353° C to 417° C. The difference in the melting behavior of the pristine amino fatty acids and confined fatty acids in the interlayer galleries of the clay were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimerty (DSC). The melting temperatures (Tm) of the amino fatty acid in the clay were initially found to be higher than those of the free amino fatty acid, but decreased with increasing surfactant loading. This suggested that the amino fatty acid may be tethered to the clay structure via ionic interaction and/or ion-dipole attraction. Significant changes in the clay morphology, particle size and surface charge were observed after organo-modification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the organo-clays have a disordered and flaky morphology, while the unmodified MMT appeared to be dispersed spherical grains. The effective (Z) diameter of Na+-MMT was found to be ~520 nm, but increased up to ~937 nm upon intercalation of 12-ALA. The zeta potential (?) of the clay materials, on the other hand, ranged from -33 mV for undmodified MMT to -16 mv (200CEC-AMMT clay). The possible occupational hazards of working with nanoclays should also be explored. Presently, the MTT-dye reduction assay was performed to determine cell viability of mouse monocyte-macrophages (J774A.1) after direct exposure to the clays. The cytotoxicity of the clays exhibited a chemistry and dose dependent response, with unmodified Na+-MMT as the most cytotoxic while the organo-clays exhibited low toxicity. These results demonstrated the successful intercalation of the surfactant for the production of organophilic clay materials for a wide range of applications.

  5. Effect of Oral Supplementation with Branched-chain Amino Acid (BCAA) during Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Double-Blind Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ik Jae; Bae, Jung Im; You, Sei Hwan; Rhee, Yumie; Lee, Jong Ho

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The present study evaluated whether oral supplementation with a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) improves the biochemical and amino acid profiles of liver tumor patients undergoing radiotherapy. Materials and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: a group given oral supplementation with BCAA granules (LIVACT granules; Samil Pharm Co., Korea, each granule containing L-isoleucine 952 mg, L-leucine 1,904 mg, and L-valine 1,144 mg) during radiotherapy, or a placebo group. Physical and biochemical examinations and measurements, including subjective symptoms, Child-Pugh class, body mass index, plasma albumin concentration, and plasma amino acid profiles were monitored. Results Fifty were enrolled between November 2005 and November 2006. We also analyzed data from 37 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in order to evaluate a more homogenous group. The two groups of patients were comparable in terms of age, gender, Child-Pugh score, and underlying hepatitis virus type. Serum albumin, total protein, liver enzymes, and cholesterol showed a tendency to increase in the BCAA group. In this group, the percentage of cases that reverted to normal serum albumin levels between 3 and 10 weeks after administration of BCAA was significantly higher (41.18%) than in the placebo group (p=0.043). Conclusion Oral supplementation with a BCAA preparation seems to help HCC patients undergoing radiotherapy by increasing the BCAA concentration. PMID:21509160

  6. Volatile profiling reveals intracellular metabolic changes in Aspergillus parasiticus: veA regulates branched chain amino acid and ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine); we also identified alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and lipid-derived volatiles. The number and quantity of the volatiles produced depended on media composition, time of incubation, and light-dark status. A block in aflatoxin biosynthesis or disruption of the global regulator veA affected the volatile profile. In addition to its multiple functions in secondary metabolism and development, VeA negatively regulated catabolism of branched chain amino acids and synthesis of ethanol at the transcriptional level thus playing a role in controlling carbon flow within the cell. Finally, we demonstrated that volatiles generated by a veA disruption mutant are part of the complex regulatory machinery that mediates the effects of VeA on asexual conidiation and sclerotia formation. Conclusions 1) Volatile profiling provides a rapid, effective, and powerful approach to identify changes in intracellular metabolic networks in filamentous fungi. 2) VeA coordinates the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with catabolism of branched chain amino acids, alcohol biosynthesis, and ?-oxidation of fatty acids. 3) Intracellular chemical development in A. parasiticus is linked to morphological development. 4) Understanding carbon flow through secondary metabolic pathways and catabolism of branched chain amino acids is essential for controlling and customizing production of natural products. PMID:20735852

  7. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability. PMID:26056817

  8. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters, the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters-intermediates capable of forming peptides. A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  9. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose Substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-06-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded ?-hydroxy acid thioesters (Weber, 1984a, b), the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters - intermediates capable of forming peptides (Weber and Orgel 1979). A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40°C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  10. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. PMID:23567135

  11. Function and evolutionary diversity of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) in regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1 were initially identified as plant volatile elicitors and research has been focused on this apparent ecological disadvantage rather than on possible benefit for the caterpillar itself. Recently, we demonstrated that...

  12. (R)-?-Aminoadipic Acid: A Versatile Precursor for the Synthesis of D-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The ready accessibility of (R)-?-aminoadipic acid by enzymatic cleavage of cephalosporin C (CephC) in the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) on a large scale makes it a favorable chiral pool building block for the synthesis of unusual amino acids. A route for the synthesis of C-5-alkenyl and C-6-alkylidene derivatives of (R)-pipecolic acid is described which utilizes (R)-?-aminoadipic acid as the enantiomerically pure starting material. Moreover, the synthesis of azido and triazolyl derivatives of (R)-?-aminoadipic acid is reported. PMID:24222844

  13. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of an unusual amino acid (2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid) isolated from the seeds of Crotalaria juncea.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Janki; Singh, Vinay Kr; Shrivastava, Atul; Chaturvedi, Upma; Bhatia, Gitika; Arya, K R; Awasthi, S K; Narender, T

    2013-12-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery programme on Indian medicinal plants, we isolated an unusual amino acid, i.e. 2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid (1) from the seeds of Crotalaria juncea. The 2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid (1) showed dose dependent lipid lowering activity in the in vivo experiments and also showed good in vitro antioxidant activity. The cyclized compound, 3-amino-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (2) showed better lipid lowering and antioxidant profile than the parent compound 1. PMID:24035223

  14. Effects of basic pH on amino acid racemization and leaching in freshwater mollusk shell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin A. Orem; Darrell S. Kaufman

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the variables that affect the rate of racemization is imperative for improving the reliability of amino acid geochronology. In this paper the influence of basic pH on amino acid racemization and leaching of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser), and alanine (Ala) in freshwater mollusk shell is addressed. Shell fragments of modern Margaritifera falcata were immersed in

  15. Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on plasma and muscle concentrations of amino acids during prolonged submaximal exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Blomstrand; Sonja Ek; Eric A Newsholme

    1996-01-01

    On two occasions, seven male endurance-trained cyclists performed sustained exhaustive exercise with reduced muscle glycogen stores. During exercise, the subjects were supplied in random order with an aqueous solution of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or flavored water (placebo). Ingestion of BCAA caused the concentration of these amino acids to increase by 135% in the plasma and by 57% in muscle

  16. [Effect of a varying body allowance of protein and essential amino acids on the pool of free amino acids in the blood and tissues].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedzhanov, E K

    1988-01-01

    The pool of free amino acids in the blood and tissues was studied, basing on the protein amount in the diet and its qualitative composition, in 60 male WAG rats (bw 130-150 g), using gas-liquid chromatography. Three levels of casein were used in the ration (8.25 and 64% by mass). Incomplete protein of vegetable origin--wheat gluten was given instead of casein in an amount of 25%. The data obtained evidence that alanine circulation in deficiency of protein and essential amino acids is lowered which is associated with the inhibition of transamination of branched amino acids into glutamate. Deficiency of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan in wheat gluten, when it is given to rats, leads to a decrease of these amino acids' pool in the skeletal muscles and blood that indicates the development of their deficiency in the body. The use of the relevant protein in the animals' diet resulted in disorders oi gluconeogenic amino acids (serine, glycine, proline), aspartate and cysteine metabolism. The protein excess leads to the growth of most amino acids' pool. Thus, metabolism of amino acids and their content in the tissue depend on the direction of the amino acid metabolic processes and their concentration in the food ration. PMID:3388806

  17. Synthesis of quaternary ?-methyl ?-amino acids by asymmetric alkylation of pseudoephenamine alaninamide pivaldimine.

    PubMed

    Hugelshofer, Cedric L; Mellem, Kevin T; Myers, Andrew G

    2013-06-21

    The utility of pseudoephenamine as a chiral auxiliary for the alkylative construction of quaternary ?-methyl ?-amino acids is demonstrated. The method is notable for the high diastereoselectivities of the alkylation reactions, for its versatility with respect to electrophilic substrate partners, and for its mild hydrolysis conditions, which provide ?-amino acids without salt contaminants. Alternatively, ?-amino esters can be obtained by direct alcoholysis. PMID:23746325

  18. Carbohydrate and amino acid analyses of Giardia muris cysts.

    PubMed

    Manning, P; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L

    1992-01-01

    Intact Giardia muris cysts were subjected to consecutive chloroform/methanol and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractions, and to amyloglucosidase treatment. The SDS-insoluble, amyloglucosidase-fast cyst walls (ACW) were further incubated with chymotrypsin, trypsin, papain, or pronase. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy revealed no discernible change in the ultrastructure of the filamentous layer of the cyst wall following any of these treatments. Affinity for cyst wall-specific monoclonal antibody (Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, OH) was also retained after all treatments. Periodic acid-Schiff staining and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of intact and treated cyst hydrolysates showed a significant reduction in the amount of glucose associated with the cyst (72 nmoles/10(6) intact cysts vs 1.9 nmoles/10(6) ACW) as a result of amyloglucosidase treatment, indicating that glucose is stored within Giardia as an SDS-insoluble polymer. Galactosamine was identified by GC/MS as the predominant sugar associated with both the ACW and the proteinase treated ACW (42 nmoles/10(6) ACW). High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids from intact and treated cyst hydrolysates revealed a marked reduction, but not elimination, of detectable quantities of identifiable amino acid residues (255 nmoles/10(6) intact cysts vs 6.8 nmoles/10(6) proteinase treated ACW). These results suggest that the filamentous layer of the cyst wall is primarily a carbohydrate peptide complex. PMID:1578402

  19. Evolution of an amino acid based prodrug approach: stay tuned.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Ivan S; Kashemirov, Boris A; Hilfinger, John M; McKenna, Charles E

    2013-02-01

    Certain acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) such as (S)-HPMPC (cidofovir, Vistide) and (S)-HPMPA have been shown to be active against a broad spectrum of DNA and retroviruses. However, their poor absorption as well as their toxicity limit the utilization of these therapeutics in the clinic. Nucleoside phosphonates are poorly absorbed primarily due to the presence of the phosphonic acid group, which ionizes at physiological pH. When dosed intravenously they display dose-limiting nephrotoxicity due to their accumulation in the kidney. To overcome these limitations, nucleoside phosphonate prodrug strategies have taken center stage in the development pathway and a number of different approaches are at various stages of development. Our efforts have focused on the development of ANP prodrugs in which a benign amino acid promoiety masks a phosphonate P-OH via a hydroxyl side chain. The design of these prodrugs incorporates multiple chemical groups (the P-X-C linkage, the amino acid stereochemistry, the C-terminal and N-terminal functional groups) that can be tuned to modify absorption, pharmacokinetic and efficacy properties with the goal of improving overall prodrug performance. PMID:23339402

  20. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.