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1

Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes  

SciTech Connect

The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of (1-13C)valine (and (2H3)leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1.

Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R. (Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1991-08-01

2

Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function  

PubMed Central

Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF) region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2) and non-canonical (B2 and C1422) HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF?AAA) and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN) were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that this highly conserved three amino acid VGF motif together with the acidic cluster and the proline-rich motif form a previously unrecognized amphipathic surface on Nef. This surface appears to be essential for the majority of Nef functions and thus represents a prime target for the pharmacological inhibition of Nef. PMID:22537596

2012-01-01

3

Conversion of ammonia or urea into essential amino acids, L -leucine, L -valine, and L -isoleucine using artificial cells containing an immobilized multienzyme system and dextran-NAD +  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multienzyme system consisting of leucine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.9), L-lactic dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27), urease (EC 3.5.1.5),\\u000a and dextran-NAD+ was microencapsulated within artificial cells. This system could convert ammonia and urea into essential amino acids,L-leucine,L-valine, andL-isoleucine.L-lactate acted as a cosubstrate for the regeneration of dextran-NADH. Greater concentrations of L-lactate favored the higher\\u000a conversion ratios. The effects of ammonium salts and urea

Kang Fu Gu; Thomas Ming Swi Chang

1990-01-01

4

Asymmetric synthesis of L-2-amino[3-11C]butyric acid, L-[3-11C]norvaline and L-[3-11C]valine.  

PubMed

The short-lived radionuclide 11C (t1/2 = 20.4 min) has been used in the asymmetric synthesis of L-2-amino[3-11C]butyric acid, L-[3-11C]-norvaline and L-[3-11C]valine. The syntheses were performed by alkylation of [(+)-2-hydroxypinanyl-3-idene]-glycine tert-butyl ester under anhydrous conditions in tetrahydrofuran/1,3-dimethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-pyrimidinone with lithiated 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine as base, using the appropriate 11C-alkyl iodides prepared in a one-pot reactor from [11C]carbon dioxide. Following removal of the protecting groups, the -[3-11C]amino acids were obtained in 80-82% enantiomeric excess and in 9-25% radiochemical yields, decay corrected and calculated on the basis of the amount of [11C]carbon dioxide at the start of the syntheses within 50-55 min. PMID:3434082

Antoni, G; Lĺngström, B

1987-08-01

5

BranchedChain Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are synthesized by bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and plants, but are essential for vertebrates including humans, who must receive them from their\\u000a diet. The interest to construct overproducing industrial strains therefore stems from the need to supplement\\u000a the food or feed with these amino acids to use them in medical treatment and as

Miroslav Pátek

6

The quantitative determination of amino acids by microbiological assay  

E-print Network

' b1Mslla. . . , . . . . . . . 11 Tests for Amino Acids Contaminated with Valine 15 Relative Growth hffeot of g- and, 1 Valine for Li Arabinosus. . . . . ~ . 18 V. Assay for Va1ine in Casein VI i VII, Assay for Valine in Gelatin . Recovery..., proline, phenylalanine, serlne, and tyrosine. Arginine and citrulline are interchangeable; one or the other stimulates growth. Thus the sum total of amino aoids either essential or stimulating to I . ~ht 1 1V. Tests showed that the following vitamins...

Norman, William Harvey

2012-06-07

7

Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

2013-06-01

8

NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as L-?-lysine-, L-valine-, L-leucine-, L-isoleucine-, L-methionine-, and L-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(?-l-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ?-PL synthetase and ?-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s. PMID:23817633

Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Arai, Toshinobu; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Kino, Kuniki

2013-08-01

9

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

10

Reaction of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids with valine and hemoglobin.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert toxicity through metabolism to dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular protein and DNA, leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. To date, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular constituents, including amino acids and proteins, resulting in toxicity. Metabolism of carcinogenic monocrotaline, riddelliine, and heliotrine produces dehydromonocrotaline, dehyroriddelliine, and dehydroheliotrine, respectively, as primary reactive metabolites. In this study, we report that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived valine (DHP-valine) adducts. For structural elucidation, DHP-valine adducts were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) to DHP-valine-PITC products. After HPLC separation, their structures were characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, (1)H NMR, and (1)H-(1)H COSY NMR spectral analysis. Two DHP-valine-PITC adducts, designated as DHP-valine-PITC-1 and DHP-valine-PITC-3, had the amino group of valine linked to the C7 position of the necine base, and the other two DHP-valine-PITC products, DHP-valine-PITC-2 and DHP-valine-PITC-4, linked to the C9 position of the necine base. DHP-valine-PITC-1 was interconvertible with DHP-valine-PITC-3, and DHP-valine-PITC-2 was interconvertible with DHP-valine-PITC-4. Reaction of dehydroriddelliine and dehydroheliotrine with valine provided similar results. However, reaction of valine and dehydroretronecine (DHR) under similar experimental conditions did not produce DHP-valine adducts. Reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with rat hemoglobin followed by derivatization with PITC also generated the same four DHP-valine-PITC adducts. This represents the first full structural elucidation of protein conjugated pyrrolic adducts formed from reaction of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids with an amino acid (valine). In addition, it was found that DHP-valine-2 and DHP-valine-4, with the valine amino group linked at the C7 position of the necine base, can lose the valine moiety to form DHP. PMID:25211425

Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Doerge, Daniel R; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

2014-10-20

11

Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals.  

PubMed

Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals. PMID:23583879

Nirmala, L Ruby; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2013-06-01

12

Amino-acid-transport mutant of Nicotiana tabacum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake rates of 16 amino acids were measured in leaf discs from Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Xanthi (wild type) and from two valine-resistant mutants, Valr-1 and Valr-2. For all amino acids tested the uptake rates in Valr-1 were similar to those in the wild type. The Valr-2 mutant showed a reduced uptake of neutral and acidic amino acids, but

A. C. Borstlap; J. Schuurmans; J.-P. Bourgin

1985-01-01

13

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

14

The amino acid sequence of wood duck lysozyme.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of wood duck (Aix sponsa) lysozyme was analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had the highest similarity to duck III lysozyme with four amino acid substitutions, and had eighteen amino acid substitutions from chicken lysozyme. The valine at position 75 was newly detected in chicken-type lysozymes. In the active site, Tyr34 and Glu57 were found at subsites F and D, respectively, when compared with chicken lysozyme. PMID:10052146

Araki, T; Torikata, T

1999-01-01

15

Inhibitors of Branched Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herbicides that inhibit the production of the branched chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are used for total vegetation management and selective weed control in a wide variety of crops.  There are currently four different chemical families that share this MOA.  Before the development of glyphosate-tolerance crop technology, branched chain amino acid inhibitors were the mainstay for several major row crops.  While this is still a very important herbicide MOA, the major increase in herbicide resistance weeds since 1980 has been the direct result selection pressure from these herbicides.  There are currently more weed species resistant to branched chain amino acid inhibitors than any other herbicide MOA.

16

Mechanism of specific influence of L-Glutamic acid on the shape of L-Valine crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific interaction between L-valine (L-Val) and L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) in the process of evaporative crystallization from an aqueous solution has been investigated. It was found that only 2.0% (wt/wt) of L-Glu against the total amount of L-Val was required to induce significant agglomeration of L-Val. Interestingly, the agglomeration was only induced under acidic conditions, suggesting that the electrostatic interaction was an effective factor for the agglomeration process. As well as the electrostatic interaction, the length of the amino acid side chain was identified as another important factor. In addition, we confirmed that the incorporation rate of L-Glu into L-Val crystals was different during the nucleation and crystal growth stages. Based on these results, a mechanism has been proposed for the interaction of L-Glu and L-Val during the agglomeration process.

Yoshiura, Hiromu; Nagano, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Izumi

2013-01-01

17

Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

1989-01-01

18

Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.  

PubMed Central

Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa. PMID:9078264

Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

1997-01-01

19

A Single Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Is Required For Catabolism Of Isoleucine, Valine And Short-Chain Fatty Acids In Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

An acyl-CoA dehydrogenase has been identified as part of the mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway in the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the scdA gene prevented use of butyric acid (C4) and hexanoic acid (C6) as carbon sources and reduced cellular butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity by 7.5-fold. While the mutant strain exhibited wild-type levels of growth on erucic acid (C22:1) and oleic acid (C18:1), some reduction in growth was observed with myristic acid (C14). The ?scdA mutation was found to be epistatic to a mutation downstream in the ?-oxidation pathway (disruption of enoyl-CoA hydratase). The ?scdA mutant was also unable to use isoleucine or valine as a carbon source. Transcription of scdA was observed in the presence of either fatty acids or amino acids. When the mutant was grown in medium containing either isoleucine or valine, organic acid analysis of culture supernatants showed accumulation of 2-oxo acid intermediates of branched chain amino acid catabolism, suggesting feedback inhibition of the upstream branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase. PMID:17656140

Maggio-Hall, Lori A.; Lyne, Paul; Wolff, Jon A.; Keller, Nancy P.

2010-01-01

20

Metabolism of Valine by the Filamentous Fungus Arthrobotrys conoides1  

PubMed Central

Uptake of valine by Arthrobotrys conoides was an active process and was independent of its incorporation into cellular protein. Chemical fractionation of cells supplied with 14C-l-valine for different time intervals revealed that the amino acid initially entered a pool of metabolic intermediates and was extractable with cold trichloroacetic acid. After a 4-min interval, some intracellular valine was incorporated into cell proteins, but most underwent metabolic transformation to a variety of products that included carboxylic acids and other amino acids. Carbon derived from valine was not localized in the lipid or nucleic acid fraction of cells, but some was completely oxidized and recovered as metabolic 14CO2. Autoradiograms of paper and thin-layer chromatograms of acid hydrolysates of cellular protein identified the following amino acids as having originated from valine: glutamate, aspartate, alanine, and leucine. Similar analysis of cold trichloroacetic acid extracts established that 14C supplied as l-valine had been transformed also to ?-ketoisovalerate, isobutyrate, propionate, succinate, malate, oxalacetate, pyruvate, and ?-ketoglutarate. Pathways for transformation of the carbon skeleton of valine to various metabolic products are proposed. Images PMID:5463679

Gupta, Rishab K.; Pramer, David

1970-01-01

21

Amino acid requirements of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

The amino acids required for growth and as energy sources by 10 strains of Legionella pneumophila were determined by using a chemically defined medium. All strains required arginine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine or tyrosine. Most strains (7 of 10) required serine, and two strains had to be supplied proline before growth could be established. All 10 strains used serine and, to a lesser extent, threonine as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The Y serine calculated was 94.9 +/- 8.5 g (dry weight) of cells/mol of serine. Assuming that the value of Y adenosine 5'-triphosphate is 10.5, these results indicate that oxidative catabolism of 1 mol of serine yielded approximately 9 mol of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. This high yield suggests that although serine was the major source of carbon, other amino acids may also be metabolized. PMID:6769947

George, J R; Pine, L; Reeves, M W; Harrell, W K

1980-03-01

22

Formation of Meteoritic Amino Acids: Isovaline and its Isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known for several decades that amino acids, and other complex organics, are found in meteorites. In particular, Murchison (CM) samples contain over seventy amino acids, these being identified by high-level chromatographic methods. Among Murchison's amino acids, isovaline stands out as being both non-biological (non-protein) and having a relatively high abundance. While approximately equal amounts of D- and L- isovaline have been reported in Murchison and other CM meteorites, this molecule's structure appears to prohibit its racemization in aqueous solutions. We recently have investigated the low-temperature solid-phase chemistry of both isovaline and valine with an eye toward each molecule's formation, stability, and possible interconversions of their D and L enantiomers. Ion-irradiated isovalineand valine-containing ices were examined by IR spectroscopy and highly-sensitive liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectral methods to assess both amino-acid destruction and racemization. Samples were studied in the presence and in the absence of water-ice, and the destruction of both isovaline and valine was measured as a function of radiation dose. In addition, we have synthesized isovaline, valine, and their amino acid isomers by solid-phase radiation-chemical pathways other than the oft-invoked Strecker process. This presentation will review and summarize some of our recent findings and place them in a context of related work. - Our work has been supported by a grant to the Goddard Center for Astrobiology through the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Experiments were performed in the Cosmic Ice Laboratory (RLH, MHM) and the Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory (JPD) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Hudson, Reggie; Moore, Marla; Dworkin, Jason

23

Amino acid metabolism of Astacus leptodactylus (Esch.)—II. Biosynthesis of the non-essential amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 1. Incubation of Astacus leptodactylus with U-14C-glucose or 1-14C-acetate induced labelling of ?- and ?-alanine, aspartic and glutamic acids, glutamine, glycine, proline and serine. No radioactivity was incorporated into arginine, asparagine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, ornithine, phenylalanine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine.\\u000a\\u000a2. 2. From the results obtained the biosynthetic pathways for the non-essential amino acids in A. leptodactylus

Willibrordus J. A. Marrewijk; Daniel I. Zandee

1975-01-01

24

Some amino acids as corrosion inhibitors for copper in nitric acid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition effect of five amino acids (AA) on the corrosion of copper in molar nitric solution was studied by using weight loss and electrochemical polarization measurements. Valine (Val) and Glycine (Gly) accelerate the corrosion process; but Arginine (Arg), Lysine (Lys) and Cysteine (Cys) inhibit the corrosion phenomenon. Cysteine is the best inhibitor. Its efficiency increases with the concentration to

K. Barouni; L. Bazzi; R. Salghi; M. Mihit; B. Hammouti; A. Albourine; S. El Issami

2008-01-01

25

Amino acid transport inhibition: brain and behavioral correlates.  

PubMed

In vivo inhibition of uptake 14C-L-valine by brain following subcutaneous administration of either of two gamma-glutamyl cycle enzyme inhibitors, 2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid (ICA), or, L-methionine-S-sulfoximine (MSO) is documented in C57BL/6J mice. Dose related decrease in exploratory activity, impairment of memory for foot shock, and reduced operant responding for food reinforcement parallels the time course for interference with uptake of a large neutral amino acid by these two compounds previously shown to inhibit different enzymes in the gamma-glutamyl cycle subserving active amino acid transport. PMID:981286

Randt, C T; Samuels, S; Fish, I

1976-06-01

26

Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°Cą5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

2009-04-01

27

2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine, an effective peptide antibiotic from the epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90.  

PubMed

The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90, which has been isolated from soybean leaves, belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae, as does the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight on rosaceous plants such as apples and leads to severe economic losses. Since P. agglomerans efficiently antagonizes phytopathogenic bacteria, the P. agglomerans strain C9-1 is used as a biocontrol agent (BlightBan C9-1). Here we describe the bioassay-guided isolation of a peptide antibiotic that is highly active against the plant pathogen E. amylovora and pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, and we elucidate its structure. Bioassay-guided fractionation using anion-exchange chromatography followed by hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography yielded the bioactive, highly polar antibiotic. The compound was identified as 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine by using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This peptide was found to be produced by three of the nine P. agglomerans strains analyzed. Notably, the biocontrol strain P. agglomerans C9-1 also produces 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine. Previously, 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine has been characterized only from Serratia plymuthica. 2-Amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine has been shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans efficiently, but its involvement in the defense of epiphytes against phytopathogenic bacteria has not been investigated so far. PMID:19820144

Sammer, Ulrike F; Völksch, Beate; Möllmann, Ute; Schmidtke, Michaela; Spiteller, Peter; Spiteller, Michael; Spiteller, Dieter

2009-12-01

28

Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women 1,2  

E-print Network

Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women 1,2 Benjamin Caballero, Ray E Gleason, and Richard J Wurtman ABSTRACf Postabsorptive plasma concentrations of the large neutral amino. Plasma concentrations of valine, leucine, and isoleucine were significantly lower in young females than

Wurtman, Richard

29

AMINO ACIDS AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION IN ANEMIA  

PubMed Central

Certain individual amino acids when given to standard anemic dogs cause an increase in new hemoglobin production. Occasional negative experiments are recorded. Glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, phenylalanine, and proline when given in 1 gm. doses daily for 2 weeks, increase hemoglobin output on the average 23 to 25 gm. above the control level. This reaction amounts to 25 to 30 per cent of the new hemoglobin produced by the feeding of 300 gm. liver daily for 2 weeks—a standard liver test. Alanine, valine, isoleucine, and arginine in the same dosage increase the hemoglobin output on the average 13 to 17 gm. per 2 weeks over the control level. Leucine, methionine, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine fall in a middle group with hemoglobin output of about 20 gm. Isovaleric acid, ?-hydroxybutyric acid, glutaric acid, and asparagine have shown positive effects and the butyrate is unusually potent for hemoglobin production (Table 2). The isomeric and dl-synthetic forms of the amino acids are as effectively utilized in this reaction as are the natural forms. PMID:19870982

Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.

1940-01-01

30

Quantification of racemization of amino acids in alkaline-treated duck eggs by micellar capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Duck eggs were pickled in 4.2% NaOH/5% NaCl solution for 20 days to prepare the traditional Chinese Pidan. The extent of racemization of compositional amino acid in egg albumen and yolk over the alkaline pickling period was investigated with micellar capillary electrophoresis (MCE) using beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. The racemization value of amino acids in egg albumen was in the order serine > aspartic acid > glutamic acid > phenylalanine > leucine > valine > threonine = isoleucine, whereas the order in egg yolk was aspartic acid > glutamic acid > phenylalanine > leucine > valine. Therefore, the tendency of amino acid racemization appeared to be closely related to the properties of its residual side chain, as well as the pH and alkaline treating period. Moreover, racemization of most of the amino acids was remarkably induced by the alkaline treatment during the initial pickling period. PMID:10563920

Chang, H M; Tsai, C F; Li, C F

1999-02-01

31

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

32

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

33

DeltapH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves: II. Evidence for Multiple Aliphatic, Neutral Amino Acid Symports.  

PubMed

Proton-coupled aliphatic, neutral amino acid transport was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv Great Western) leaves. Two neutral amino acid symport systems were resolved based on inter-amino acid transport competition and on large variations in the specific activity of each porter in different species. Competitive inhibition was observed for transport competition between alanine, methionine, glutamine, and leucine (the alanine group) and between isoleucine, valine, and threonine (the isoleucine group). The apparent K(m) and K(i) values were similar for transport competition among amino acids within the alanine group. In contrast, the kinetics of transport competition between these two groups of amino acids did not fit a simple competitive model. Furthermore, members of the isoleucine group were weak transport antagonists of the alanine group. These results are consistent with two independent neutral amino acid porters. In support of that conclusion, the ratio of the specific activity of alanine transport versus isoleucine transport varied from two- to 13-fold in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from different plant species. This ratio would be expected to remain relatively stable if these amino acids were moving through a single transport system and, indeed, the ratio of alanine to glutamine transport varied less than twofold. Analysis of the predicted structure of the aliphatic, neutral amino acids in solution shows that isoleucine, valine, and threonine contain a branched methyl or hydroxyl group at the beta-carbon position that places a dense electron cloud close to the alpha-amino group. This does not occur for the unbranched amino acids or those that branch further away, e.g. leucine. We hypothesize that this structural feature of isoleucine, valine, and threonine results in unfavorable steric interactions with the alanine transport system that limits their flux through this porter. Hydrophobicity and hydrated volumes did not account for the observed differences in transport specificity. PMID:16668339

Li, Z C; Bush, D R

1991-08-01

34

Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D\\/L) molecules. We calculate D\\/L ratios for seven biological, alpha-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization

Barbara A. Cohen; Christopher F. Chyba

2000-01-01

35

AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles

WILLIAM B. KINTER; T. HASTINGS WILSON

1965-01-01

36

Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

2011-03-01

37

Study of molecular quantum similarity of enantiomers of amino acids.  

PubMed

Molecular quantum similarity is evaluated for enantiomers in the case of molecules showing conformational flexibility, using our earlier proposed Boltzmann weighted similarity index. The conformers of the enantiomers of the amino acids alanine, asparagine, cysteine, leucine, serine, and valine were examined. Next to studying global indices, the evaluation of local similarity is carried out using our earlier proposed local similarity index based on the Hirshfeld partitioning, to further illustrate Mezey's holographic electron density theorem in chiral systems and to quantify dissimilarity of enantiomers. PMID:16610833

Boon, Greet; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Bultinck, Patrick; Geerlings, Paul

2006-04-20

38

Non-racemic amino acids in the Murray and Murchison meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small (1.0–9.2%) l-enantiomer excesses were found in six ?-methyl-?-amino alkanoic acids from the Murchison (2.8–9.2%) and Murray (1.0–6.0%) carbonaceous chondrites by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of their N-trifluoroacetyl or N-pentafluoropropyl isopropyl esters. These amino acids [2-amino-2,3-dimethylpentanoic acid (both diastereomers), isovaline, ?-methyl norvaline, ?-methyl valine, and ?-methyl norleucine] are either unknown or rare in the terrestrial biosphere. Enantiomeric excesses were either not

S. Pizzarello; J. R. Cronin

2000-01-01

39

Electrochemical and XPS studies of decylamides of ?-amino acids adsorption on carbon steel in acidic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion inhibition of steel in hydrochloric acid by decylamides of ?-amino acids derivatives was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. Protection efficiencies of 90% were obtained with 100 ppm of tyrosine and glycine derivatives, while alanine and valine derivatives reached only 80%. The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the modification of the molecular structure of inhibitors. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both the decylamide of tyrosine and glycine acted primarily as anodic type inhibitors, whereas the decylamide of alanine and valine were of the cathodic type. Thermodynamic parameters and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms described the experimental findings. The number of active sites, equilibrium constant, enthalpy and change of free energy were computed for all inhibitors studied. This information suggested that organic molecules were adsorbed and displaced water molecules from the steel surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that species of N, C and O interacted with steel to form a continuous protective film.

Olivares, O.; Likhanova, N. V.; Gómez, B.; Navarrete, J.; Llanos-Serrano, M. E.; Arce, E.; Hallen, J. M.

2006-02-01

40

Stereospecificity of amino acid hydroxamate inhibition of aminopeptidases.  

PubMed

Hydroxamates of amino acids and aliphatic acids are effective inhibitors of Aeromonas proteolytica amino-peptidase (EC 3.4.11.10) and of both the cytosolic (EC 3.4.11.1) and microsomal (EC 3.4.11.2) aminopeptidases of swine kidney. Cytosolic leucine aminopeptidase and the Aeromonas enzyme were inhibited to a greater extent by D isomers than by the L enantiomorphs, manganese-activated kidney cytosolic leucine aminopeptidase being inhibited 10 times more effectively by D-leucine and D-valine hydroxamic acids than by the L isomers. The D isomers of these two compounds inhibited Aeromonas aminopeptidase to an even greater extent with Ki values of 2 X 10(-9) and 5 X 10(-9), respectively, whereas the corresponding L isomers were bound 150 times less tightly. With the Aeromonas enzyme, a comparison of inhibition by racemic mixtures with that of the corresponding L isomers indicated that in all cases the contribution of the D isomer was predominant. Isocaproic hydroxamic acid inhibited this enzyme equally well as L-leucine hydroxamic acid, indicating that the amino group orientation in the D isomer contributes to the binding efficacy. Swine kidney microsomal aminopeptidase was also inhibited by D isomers of leucine and valine hydroxamic acids but in contrast to the other two enzymes, the inhibition was 10-fold less than that observed for the corresponding L isomers. Cytosolic leucine aminopeptidase with either 6 g atoms of zinc per mol or 12 g atoms of zinc per mol was inhibited only slightly by any of the hydroxamic acid compounds; evidently enzyme-bound manganese (or magnesium) is specific for hydroxamate binding to this aminopeptidase. PMID:6643439

Wilkes, S H; Prescott, J M

1983-11-25

41

Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

1998-01-01

42

Energy Absorption and Exposure Buildup Factors of Essential Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

The effective atomic number and effective electron density in amino acids are of significant interest due to their use in various applications. The energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities of essential amino acids such as Leucine (C6H13NO2), Lysine (C6H14N2O2), Methionine (C5H11NO2S), Phenylalanine (C9H11NO2), Threonine (C4H9NO3), Tryptophan (C11H12N2O2), Valine (C5H11NO2), Arginine (C6H14N4O2), and Histidine (C6H9N3O2) were determined theoretically in the energy range 0.015–15?MeV. PMID:24605325

Bursal?oglu, Ertugrul; Balkan, Begum; Kavanoz, H. Birtan; Okutan, Mustafa; Yalc?n, Zeynel

2014-01-01

43

Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated.2.?Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile +

M. Imanari; M. Kadowaki; S. Fujimura

2008-01-01

44

Amino Acid-Derived Enaminones  

PubMed Central

A new reaction for the preparation of enaminones has been discovered. This method employs ?-amino acids as starting materials to allow diversification as well as incorporation of chirality. The ?-amino acids, once converted to ynones, are readily cyclized to the desired six membered enaminone via a two-step, one pot protocol. Although disguised as a 6-endo-dig cyclization, the reagents employed in the transformation play a direct role in bond making and bond breaking, thus changing the mode of addition. PMID:16819843

Turunen, Brandon J.; Georg, Gunda I.

2008-01-01

45

in amino-acid concentration enhanced amino-acid and glucose utilization for lipogenesis, with no  

E-print Network

in amino-acid concentration enhanced amino- acid and glucose utilization for lipogenesis more strongly amino-acid and glucose incorporation into cellular lipids, the glu- cose incorporation showed a synergistic effect between insulin and amino acids for up to 1.59 g/I amino acid in the medium

Boyer, Edmond

46

Investigation of 60Co ?-irradiated L-(-) malic acid, N-methyl- DL-valine and L-glutamic acid ?-ethyl ester by electron paramagnetic resonance technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of ?-irradiated L-(-) malic acid, N-methyl- DL-valine and L-glutamic acid ?-ethyl ester powders have been investigation at room temperature. Radiation damage centres are attributed to HOOCCH 2?HCOOH, (CH 3) 2?CH(NHCH 3)COOH and C 2H 5OCOCH 2CH 2?(NH 2)COOH radicals, respectively. The spectra have been computer simulated. The EPR parameters of the observed radicals have been determined and discussed.

Ba?kan, M. Halim; Ayd?n, Murat; Osmano?lu, ?emsettin

47

Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Valine, leucine and isoleucine form the small group of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) classified by their small branched hydrocarbon residues. Unlike animals, plants are able to de novo synthesize these amino acids from pyruvate, 2-oxobutanoate and acetyl-CoA. In plants, biosynthesis follows the typical reaction pathways established for the formation of these amino acids in microorganisms. Val and Ile are synthesized in two parallel pathways using a single set of enzymes. The pathway to Leu branches of from the final intermediate of Val biosynthesis. The formation of this amino acid requires a three-step pathway generating a 2-oxoacid elongated by a methylene group. In Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae, a homologous three-step pathway is also involved in Met chain elongation required for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, an important class of specialized metabolites in Brassicaceae. This is a prime example for the evolutionary relationship of pathways from primary and specialized metabolism. Similar to animals, plants also have the ability to degrade BCAAs. The importance of BCAA turnover has long been unclear, but now it seems apparent that the breakdown process might by relevant under certain environmental conditions. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge about BCAA metabolism, its regulation and its particular features in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22303262

Binder, Stefan

2010-01-01

48

Effect of whey protein on plasma amino acids in diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein on plasma amino acid levels in a mouse model of type II diabetes, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition and content of amino acids in the whey proteins were analyzed using HPLC. Type I and type II diabetic mouse models were prepared using streptozotocin (STZ) and normal mice were used as a control. The ICR mice in each group were then randomly divided into four subgroups, to which 0, 10, 20 and 40% whey protein, respectively, was administered for four weeks. Changes in the plasma amino acid levels were observed in each group. The proportions of leucine, isoleucine and valine in the whey proteins were 14.40, 5.93 and 5.32% of the total amino acids, respectively, that is, the branched-chain amino acid content was 25.65%. The levels of branched-chain amino acids increased in the plasma of the normal and model mice following the administration of whey proteins by gavage and the amino acid levels increased as the concentration of the administered protein increased. In addition, the branched-chain amino acid levels in the blood of the model mice were higher than those in the normal mice. The levels of plasma amino acids in diabetic mice increased following gavage with whey protein, which is rich in branched-chain amino acids. PMID:24255674

HAN, TING; CAI, DONGLIAN; GENG, SHANSHAN; WANG, YING; ZHEN, HUI; WU, PEIYING

2013-01-01

49

Plasma free amino acid concentrations of breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

Photometric determination of alpha-amino nitrogen in peripheral venous plasma and urine from 20 healthy, full-term infants, 1--5 months of age, showing normal growth and development during an uncomplicated lactation, revealed lower plasma levels than what has been found in adults, or 3.7 +/- 1.1 mg/100 ml, and a urinary excretion of 41 +/- 14 mg/24 hours. Ion-exchange chromatography of deproteinized peripheral venous plasma showed low valine concentrations, an increased glycine/valine ratio and high cystine and very high taurine levels when compared to the levels of healthy American infants of comparable ages fed 3--3.5 g/kg of cow-milk protein. The findings indicate that a formula based on cow-milk protein should optimally contain only 1.0--1.2 g protein/100 ml provided that it is "humanized" not only with regard to the lactalbumin/casein ratio, but also to the cystine and taurine content. The pattern of the plasma concentrations of free amino acids reported in the present investigation may be used as a normal reference for breast-fed infants. PMID:567930

Lindblad, B S; Alfvén, G; Zetterström, R

1978-09-01

50

A novel family of (1-aminoalkyl)(trifluoromethyl)- and -(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acids - analogues of ?-amino acids  

PubMed Central

Summary A series of novel (1-aminoalkyl)(trifluoromethyl)- and -(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acids – analogues of proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic ?-amino acids were prepared. The synthetic methodology was based on nucleophilic addition of (trifluoromethyl)phosphinic acid or (difluoromethyl)phosphinic acid or its ethyl ester to substrates with C=N or activated C=C double bonds. Analogues of glycine, phenylglycine, alanine, valine, proline, aminomalonic and aspartic acids were thus prepared. Three-component one-pot reactions of (trifluoromethyl)phosphinic acid and dibenzylamine with aldehydes were also tested to prepare the title compounds. PMID:24778725

Pavlenko, Natalia V; Oos, Tatiana I; Gerus, Igor I; Doeller, Uwe; Willms, Lothar

2014-01-01

51

Formation of amino acids by cobalt-60 irradiation of hydrogen cyanide solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to study the pathway for the prebiotic origin of amino acids from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) under the action of ionizing radiation considered as an effective source of energy on the primitive earth. The irradiations were performed in a cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 200,000 rad/hr. Seven naturally occurring amino acids are identified among the products formed by the hydrolysis of gamma-irradiated solutions of HCN: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The identity of these amino acids is established by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Control experiments provided evidence that the amino acids are not the result of contamination.

Sweeney, M. A.; Toste, A. P.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1976-01-01

52

Amino Acid and protein metabolism in bermuda grass during water stress.  

PubMed

The ability of Arizona Common and Coastal Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] to synthesize amino acids and proteins during water stress was investigated. Amino acids were continually synthesized during the water stress treatments, but protein synthesis was inhibited and protein levels decreased.Water stress induced a 10- to 100-fold accumulation of free proline in shoots and a 2- to 6-fold accumulation of free asparagine, both of which are characteristic responses of water-stressed plants. Valine levels increased, and glutamic acid and alanine levels decreased.(14)C labeling experiments showed that free proline turns over more slowly than any other free amino acid during water stress. This proline is readily synthesized and accumulated from glutamic acid. It is suggested that during water stress free proline functions as a storage compound.No significant differences were found in the amino acid and protein metabolism of the 2 varieties of Bermuda grass. PMID:16656387

Barnett, N M; Naylor, A W

1966-09-01

53

Addition of amino acid moieties to lapatinib increases the anti-cancer effect via amino acid transporters.  

PubMed

Anti-cancer agents delivered to cancer cells often show multi-drug resistance (MDR) due to expulsion of the agents. One way to address this problem is to increase the accumulation of anti-cancer agents in cells via amino acid transporters. Thus, val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib were newly synthesized by adding valine and tyrosine moieties, respectively, to the parent anti-cancer agent lapatinib without stability issues in rat plasma. Val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib showed enhanced anti-cancer effects versus the parent lapatinib in various cancer cell lines, including human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and lung cancer cells (A549), but not in non-cancerous MDCK-II cells. A glutamine uptake study revealed that both val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib, but not the parent lapatinib, inhibited glutamine transport in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells, suggesting the involvement of amino acid transporters. In conclusion, val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib have enhanced anti-cancer effects, likely due to an increased uptake of the agents into cancer cells via amino acid transporters. The present data suggest that amino acid transporters may be an effective drug delivery target to increase the uptake of anti-cancer agents, leading to one method of overcoming MDR in cancer cells. PMID:24151179

Maeng, Han-Joo; Kim, Eun-Seo; Chough, Chieyeon; Joung, Misuk; Lim, Jee Woong; Shim, Chang-Koo; Shim, Won-Sik

2014-01-01

54

Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Volksch, Beate

2012-01-01

55

Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

2012-12-01

56

Evaluation of channel function after alteration of amino acid residues at the pore center of KCNQ1 channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the electrical charge or the size of the amino acid residue at the pore center of a slowly activation component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel: KCNQ1 was studied. K+ currents were measured after transfection of one of four KCNQ1 mutants: substituting Isoleucine with Lysine, Glutamate, Valine or Glycine and then transfected in COS-7 cells. Both the

Taruna Ikrar; Haruo Hanawa; Hiroshi Watanabe; Yoshiyasu Aizawa; Mahmoud M. Ramadan; Masaomi Chinushi; Minoru Horie; Yoshifusa Aizawa

2009-01-01

57

Quinone-Amino Acid Conjugates Targeting Leishmania Amino Acid Transporters  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1–15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 ľg/mL and 2.5 ľg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

2014-01-01

58

Dietary deficiency of essential amino acids rapidly induces cessation of the rat estrous cycle.  

PubMed

Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to survival until well-balanced amino acid sources are found. PMID:22132231

Narita, Kazumi; Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

2011-01-01

59

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with a fibre-optic probe for the prediction of the amino acid composition in animal feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acids alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, proline, and tyrosine present in feeds with different textures (blocks, tablets, granules and flour (meal) and used in different stages of animal feeding regimes (lactation, growth, maintenance, etc.) were analysed using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe. The method allows immediate control

Inmaculada González-Martín; Noelia Álvarez-García; José Miguel González-Cabrera

2006-01-01

60

Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of lithium salts of Schiff bases amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shift of Schiff bases lithium salts, derivatives of amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-methionine) and 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde in D 2O as well as UV-vis spectra in different solvents have been measured. The results have shown that the lithium salts of the Schiff bases exist in the proton transferred NH form with intramolecular hydrogen bond in water.

Rozwadowski, Z.

2005-10-01

61

The turnover of brain monoamines after total hepatectomy in rats infused with branched chain amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of monoamines in the brain of rats in fulminant hepatic failure was studied after administration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a total hepatectomy or a sham operation and infused intravenously for 5 hours with a 10% glucose solution alone or 10% glucose + 0.24 mol\\/l BCAA (0.08 mol\\/l of each valine,

Mogens Bugge; Finn Bengtsson; Anders Nobin; Bengt Jeppsson; Per Herlin

1987-01-01

62

Mineral nutrition of Aerobacter aerogenes for valine production in a synthetic medium.  

PubMed

The effect of a number of mineral salts, like dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulphate, and sodium chloride, and of some trace elements including iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, and calcium, on the production of valine by Aerobacter aerogenes in a synthetic medium was investigated. It was found that all the mineral salts were necessary for valine formation. Among the trace elements, iron and molybdenum were found to be necessary in minute concentrations for the optimum yield of the amino acid, while all the others had an adverse effect on valine production, even at lower levels. PMID:4013530

Mukhopadhyay, A K; Majumdar, S K

1985-01-01

63

D-Amino acid oxidase: new findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent research on D-amino acid oxidases and D-amino acid metabolism has revealed new, intriguing properties of flavoenzymes and enlighted novel biotechnological uses of this catalyst. Concerning the in vivo function of the enzyme, new findings on the physiological role of D-amino acid oxidase point to a detoxifying function of the enzyme in metabolizing exogenous D-amino acids in animals.

M. S. Pilone; J. H. Dunant

2000-01-01

64

Amino acids of the murchison meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Six of the seven chain isomers of six-carbon acyclic primarya-amino alkanoic acids (leucine isomers) have been either identified or confirmed in hot-water extracts of the Murchison meteorite using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion exchange chromatography. 2-Amino-2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyric acid, pseudoleucine, and 2-methylnorvaline were positively identified by GC-MS. These amino acids have not been previously reported to occur

J. R. Cronin; W. E. Gandy; S. Pizzarello

1981-01-01

65

An amino acid mixture mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.  

PubMed

Electrolyte and nutrient absorption occur in villous epithelial cells. Radiation often results in reduced electrolyte and nutrient absorption, which leads to gastrointestinal toxicity. Therefore, the authors studied: (1) radiation-induced changes in glucose and amino acid absorption across ileal tissues and (2) the effect of amino acid mixtures on absorptive capacity. NIH Swiss mice were irradiated (0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 Gy) using a šł?Cs source at 0.9 Gy min?š. Transepithelial short circuit current (I(sc)), dilution potential, and isotope flux determinations were made in Ussing chamber studies and correlated to plasma endotoxin and IL-1? levels. Amino acids that increased electrolyte absorption and improved mucosal barrier functions were used to create a mitigating amino acid mixture (MAAM). The MAAM was given to mice via gastric gavage; thereafter, body weight and survival were recorded. A significant decrease in basal and glucose-stimulated sodium absorption occurred after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 Gy irradiation. Ussing chamber studies showed that paracellular permeability increased following irradiation and that the addition of glucose resulted in a further increase in permeability. Following irradiation, certain amino acids manifested decreased absorption, whereas others were associated with increased absorption. Lysine, aspartic acid, glycine, isoleucine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, tryptophan, and serine decreased plasma endotoxins were selected for the MAAM. Mice treated with the MAAM showed increased electrolyte absorption and decreased paracellular permeability, IL-1? levels, and plasma endotoxin levels. Mice treated with MAAM also had increased weight gain and better survival following irradiation. The MAAM has immediate potential for use in mitigating radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. PMID:24776907

Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; Menon, Rejeesh; Vaught, Lauren A; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

2014-06-01

66

Amino acids in earthworms: Are earthworms ecosystemivorous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid contents were studied in eight earthworm species (Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, Nicodrilus roseus, N. caliginosus, Dendrobaena octaedra, Eisenia nordenskioldi, Octolasium lacteum, Drawida ghilarovi), plant litter and soil. There are considerable differences in the content of essential amino acids between earthworms and their food (for most amino acids, one order of magnitude; for methionine, up to two orders of

Andrei D. Pokarzhevskii; Dmitrii P. Zaboyev; Gennadii N. Ganin; Stella A. Gordienko

1997-01-01

67

Amino Acid Composition of Rumen Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid analyses were made of 22 strains of rumen bacteria grown in pure culture. The organisms used were selected to represent some of the predominant or- ganisms found in the rumen when either concentrates or roughages are fed. The amino acid results expressed as grams per 100 g total amino acids showed very little variation over the entire range

D. B. Purser; Suzanne M. Buechler

1966-01-01

68

Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1972-01-01

69

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs...and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used as nutrients added to...

2014-04-01

70

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2011-08-09

71

Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids

G. Kminek; O. Botta; D. P. Glavin; J. L. Bada

2002-01-01

72

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

2013-05-21

73

40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. 721... § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. ...generically as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-...

2010-07-01

74

Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

1977-01-01

75

Regulation of intestinal mucosal growth by amino acids.  

PubMed

Amino acids, especially glutamine (GLN) have been known for many years to stimulate the growth of small intestinal mucosa. Polyamines are also required for optimal mucosal growth, and the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, blocks growth. Certain amino acids, primarily asparagine (ASN) and GLN stimulate ODC activity in a solution of physiological salts. More importantly, their presence is also required before growth factors and hormones such as epidermal growth factor and insulin are able to increase ODC activity. ODC activity is inhibited by antizyme-1 (AZ) whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines, thus, providing a negative feedback regulation of the enzyme. In the absence of amino acids mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is inhibited, whereas, mTORC2 is stimulated leading to the inhibition of global protein synthesis but increasing the synthesis of AZ via a cap-independent mechanism. These data, therefore, explain why ASN or GLN is essential for the activation of ODC. Interestingly, in a number of papers, AZ has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, stimulate apoptosis, or increase autophagy. Each of these activities results in decreased cellular growth. AZ binds to and accelerates the degradation of ODC and other proteins shown to regulate proliferation and cell death, such as Aurora-A, Cyclin D1, and Smad1. The correlation between the stimulation of ODC activity and the absence of AZ as influenced by amino acids is high. Not only do amino acids such as ASN and GLN stimulate ODC while inhibiting AZ synthesis, but also amino acids such as lysine, valine, and ornithine, which inhibit ODC activity, increase the synthesis of AZ. The question remaining to be answered is whether AZ inhibits growth directly or whether it acts by decreasing the availability of polyamines to the dividing cells. In either case, evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of AZ synthesis is the mechanism through which amino acids influence the growth of intestinal mucosa. This brief article reviews the experiments leading to the information presented above. We also present evidence from the literature that AZ acts directly to inhibit cell proliferation and increase the rate of apoptosis. Finally, we discuss future experiments that will determine the role of AZ in the regulation of intestinal mucosal growth by amino acids. PMID:23904095

Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

2014-03-01

76

Synthesis of new gold(I) thiolates containing amino acid moieties with potential biological interest.  

PubMed

The reaction of the gold(I) complex [Au(SpyCOOH)(PPh3)], which contains nicotinic acid thiolate, with several amino acid esters such as glycine methyl ester or the enantiomerically pure L isomers of alanine methyl ester, phenylalanine methyl ester, valine methyl ester, methionine methyl ester, and proline methyl ester produces the gold(I) derivatives with the new thiolate containing amino acid ester ligands [Au{SpyCONHCH(R)COOMe}(PPh3)]. The reaction of these amino acid ester derivatives with LiOH in methanol and acidification with KHSO4 until pH 3-4 afford the corresponding acids, which are water-soluble species. These amino acid compounds can be further coupled with other amines, such as, for example, isopropylamine, to give the corresponding amide derivatives. The species with glycine methyl ester and valine methyl ester have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, showing, in the second case, only one of the enantiomers, which proves that retention of the configuration after reaction occurs. PMID:23688385

Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Bernal, Javier; Villacampa, M Dolores; Cativiela, Carlos; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

2013-06-01

77

Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

1989-01-01

78

New salts of amino acids with dimeric cations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among salts of amino acids there are compounds with the composition 2A..HX, which consist of dimeric A...A+ cations with short symmetric or asymmetric hydrogen bonds between zwitter-ionic and protonated moieties. These species are materials liable to undergo phase transitions or possess interesting nonlinear optical properties. Here, we report the preparation of 20 new salts with dimeric cations from aqueous solutions, including compounds of glycine, betaine, ?- alanine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-proline, with BF4-, ClO4-, Cl-, Br-, HSeO3-, and HC2O4-; as anions. The prepared salts are characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Some of them are grown in form of good quality single crystals, which allowed the determination of their crystal structure.

Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

2010-10-01

79

Amino Acids Composition of Teucrium Nutlet Proteins and their Systematic Significance  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Plant species are considered as a good source of dietary proteins, although the nutritional quality of proteins depends on their amino acid composition. In this work the protein content and amino acid composition of nutlets of 21 Teucrium taxa (Lamiaceae) from Spain were analysed and their nutritional quality was compared with the minimum values established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). In addition, the amino acid composition was evaluated as a chemical character to clarify the taxonomic complexity in this genus. • Methods Amino acid content of nutlets was determined after derivatization with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Previously, nutlets samples were hydrolysed and incubated in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. • Key Results The protein content was variable, ranging from 6ˇ4 % in T. dunense to 43ˇ8 % in T. algarbiense. According to the FAO values all taxa contain satisfactory amounts of leucine, threonine and valine and are deficient in lysine. The similarity analysis of Teucrium taxa using amino acid composition data did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of this genus. • Conclusions Annual species, such as T. spinosum, T. aristatum and T. resupinatum showed a better balanced amino acid composition. The dendrogram partly matched with the karyological complexity of Teucrium. No correlation between amino acid composition and habitat has been observed, showing that Teucrium nutlet amino acid composition may not be strongly influenced by the environment. PMID:15329333

JUAN, R.; PASTOR, J.; MILLÁN, F.; ALAIZ, M.; VIOQUE, J.

2004-01-01

80

The potential of dairy lactic acid bacteria to metabolise amino acids via non-transaminating reactions and endogenous transamination.  

PubMed

The metabolism of amino acids by 22 starter and 49 non-starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied in a system consisting of amino acids and non-growing cells without added amino acceptors such as alpha-ketoglutarate. There were significant inter- and intra-species differences in the metabolism of amino acids. Some amino acids such as alanine, arginine, aspartate, serine and branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were utilised, whereas other amino acids such as glycine, ornithine and citrulline were produced. Alanine and aspartate were utilised by some LAB and accumulated during the incubation of other LAB. Arginine was degraded not only by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (the lactococcal subspecies known to catabolise arginine), but also by pediococci, heterofermentative lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and Lb. fermentum) and some unidentified homofermentative lactobacilli. Serine was utilised predominantly by homofermentative Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum. Of the LAB studied, Lb. brevis and Lb. fermentum were the most metabolically active, utilising alanine, arginine, aspartate, glutamate and branched-chain amino acids. Leuconostocs were the least metabolically active, showing little potential to metabolise amino acids. The formation of ammonia and acetate from amino acid metabolism varied both between species and between strains within species. These findings suggest that the potential of LAB for amino acid metabolism via non-transaminating reactions and endogenous transamination will impact both on the physiology of LAB and on cheese ripening, especially when transamination is rate-limiting in the absence of an exogenous amino acceptor such as alpha-ketoglutarate. PMID:12915037

Liu, S-Q; Holland, R; Crow, V L

2003-09-15

81

Assays of D-amino acid oxidases.  

PubMed

D-Amino acid oxidase and D-aspartate oxidase are two well-known FAD-containing flavooxidases that catalyze the same reaction (the oxidative deamination) on different D-amino acids. D-aspartate oxidase is specific for acidic D-amino acids (i.e., D-aspartate and D-glutamate) and D-amino acid oxidase is active on neutral and polar D-amino acids (a low activity is also detected on basic D-amino acids). The assay of these flavoenzymes is of utmost importance in different fields because D-amino acids are common constituents of bacterial cell walls, are present in foods and because free D-serine and D-aspartic acid were identified in brain and peripheral tissues of mammals. In this chapter, we report on the most used methods employed to assay the activity of D-amino acid oxidase and D-aspartate oxidase. Interestingly, their activity can be followed using different assays, namely D-amino acid or oxygen consumption, ?-keto acid or ammonia production, or using artificial dyes as final indicator of the flavin redox reaction. PMID:21956578

Tedeschi, Gabriella; Pollegioni, Loredano; Negri, Armando

2012-01-01

82

A Stereodivergent Approach to Amino Acids, Amino Alcohols, or  

E-print Network

of r-amino acids, amino alcohols, or oxazolidinones. The sequence includes the SN2 displacement Society Published on Web 07/08/2004 #12;regioselective and stereospecific SN2 displacement of an allylic as a readily available and recyclable chiral auxiliary for a short sequence of reactions that includes as one

Spino, Claude

83

Relationship of maternal amino acids and proteins to fetal growth and mental development.  

PubMed

The relationship of maternal amino acids, proteins, and certain other factors to fetal development (weight and cranial volume at birth and mental and motor scores at 8 months of age) was investigated in 129 gravidas. Maternal prepregnancy weight was significantly related to birth weight and cranial volume in the newborn. Among amino acids, glycine, lysine, and total amino acids were positively correlated with birth weight, whereas valine and threonine showed a negative correlation. Cranial volume at birth was significantly related to the level of glycine and alpha1 globulin. Other protein and amino acids which contributed to cranial volume included threonine, histidine, glutamic acid, and beta globulin, negatively correlated, whereas glutamine was positively correlated. Alpha1 globulin (negatively) and glycine (positively) made significant contributions to motor development. For mental development, alpha 1 globulin and histidine showed a negative correlation, whereas isoleucine was positively correlated. Findings indicated that the concentrations of certain maternal amino acids and proteins in the third trimester of pregnancy correlated significantly with fetal growth and development. This study suggests: (1) specific proteins or amino acids may be responsible for different developmental measures; (2) injudicious dietary restrictions in pregnancy should be avoided; (3) the determination of alpha1 globulin and a few amino acids such as glycine, lysine, and histidine in late pregancy may be used as predictors of fetal growth and development. PMID:52300

Moghissi, K S; Churchill, J A; Kurrie, D

1975-10-15

84

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

E-print Network

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these compounds. In addition, the relative abundances of alpha-AIB and beta-alanine in the Antarctic CR meteorites analyzed appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body.

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-03-05

85

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

E-print Network

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

2008-01-01

86

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate) Nucleotide Oligonucleotide Nucleic Acid Amino Acid Peptid e Polypeptide Protein #12;Table 5. Peptides contain relatively few amino acids linked by peptide bonds: dipeptide, tripeptide, tetrapeptide Structure (1°) sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds 2. Secondary Structure (2°) local

Frey, Terry

87

Influence of triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on renal amino acid handling in rats loaded with various amino acid mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult female rats, the influence of dexamethasone or triiodothyronine on renal amino acid handling was investigated in amino acid loaded animals. Amino acids were administered intravenously as two mixtures, each containing four amino acids to overload amino acid reabsorption capacity. Bolus injections of both mixtures were followed by temporary increase in fractional excretion of the administered amino acids as

Ch. Fleck; R.-P. Nußbaum

1996-01-01

88

Amino acids precursors in lunar finds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

1975-01-01

89

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-01-01

90

Characteristics of amino acid uptake in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have the ability to take up organic nitrogen (N) but this has not been thoroughly studied in agricultural plants. A\\u000a critical question is whether agricultural plants can acquire amino acids in a soil ecosystem. The aim of this study was to\\u000a characterize amino acid uptake capacity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from a mixture of amino acids at concentrations

Sandra Jämtgĺrd; Torgny Näsholm; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2008-01-01

91

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we\\u000areport the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of\\u000awhich show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite.\\u000aEET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content\\u000ausing high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection\\u000a(HPLC-FD) and gas

Z. Martins; C. M. O'D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2008-01-01

92

Preparation and characterisation of new oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base complexes derived from amino acids and aromatic o-hydroxyaldehydes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of mostly new oxovanadium(IV) complexes is described. They contain coordinated Schiff bases, made from natural amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, aspartic acid, and histidine) and salicylaldehyde or such derivatives as 3-, 4-, or 5-methoxy-salicylaldehyde. The coordination sphere is completed by simple ligands like water, 2,2?-bipyridyl or pyridine. The compounds are characterised and the

J. Costa Pessoa; I. Cavaco; I. Correia; M. T. Duarte; R. D. Gillard; R. T. Henriques; F. J. Higes; C. Madeira; I. Tomaz

1999-01-01

93

Serotonergic markers and lowered plasma branched-chain-amino acid concentrations in fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to examine serotonergic markers, i.e. [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics and the availability of plasma tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin (5-HT), and the plasma concentrations of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine, in fibromyalgia. The [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics, B(max) and K(d) values, and tryptophan and the competing amino acids (CAA), known to compete for the same cerebral uptake mechanism (i.e. valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine), were determined in fibromyalgia patients and normal controls. There were no significant differences in the [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics (B(max) and K(d)) between fibromyalgia and control subjects. There were no significant differences in plasma tryptophan or the tryptophan/CAA ratio between fibromyalgia patients and normal controls. In the fibromyalgia patients, there were no significant correlations between [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics or the availability of tryptophan and myalgic or depressive symptoms. Patients with fibromyalgia had significantly lower plasma concentrations of the three BCAAs (valine, leucine and isoleucine) and phenylalanine than normal controls. It is hypothesized that the relative deficiency in the BCAAs may play a role in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia, since the BCAAs supply energy to the muscle and regulate protein synthesis in the muscles. A supplemental trial with BCAAs in fibromyalgia appears to be justified. PMID:11104853

Maes, M; Verkerk, R; Delmeire, L; Van Gastel, A; van Hunsel, F; Scharpé, S

2000-12-01

94

N Carbamoyl Amino Acid Solid–Gas Nitrosation by NO\\/NO x : A New Route to Oligopeptides via ?-Amino Acid N -Carboxyanhydride. Prebiotic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?-N-Carbamoyl amino acid (CAA), whose conditions of formation in a prebiotic hydrosphere have been described previously (Taillades\\u000a et al. 1998), could have been an important intermediate in prebiotic peptide synthesis through reaction with atmospheric NO\\u000a \\u000a x\\u000a \\u000a . Nitrosation of solid CAA (glycine or valine derivative) by a 4\\/1 NO\\/O2 gaseous mixture (1 atm) yields N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) quantitatively in less than

Jacques Taillades; Hélčne Collet; Laurence Garrel; Isabelle Beuzelin; Laurent Boiteau; Henri Choukroun; Auguste Commeyras

1999-01-01

95

Physiological role of d -amino acid- N -acetyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : detoxification of d -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sensitive to d-amino acids: those corresponding to almost all proteinous l-amino acids inhibit the growth of yeast even at low concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM). We have determined that d-amino acid-N-acetyltransferase (DNT) of the yeast is involved in the detoxification of d-amino acids on the basis of the following findings. When the DNT gene was disrupted, the resulting mutant

Geok-Yong Yow; Takuma Uo; Tohru Yoshimura; Nobuyoshi Esaki

2006-01-01

96

Fmoc/Trt-amino acids: comparison to Fmoc/tBu-amino acids in peptide synthesis.  

PubMed

Model peptides containing the nucleophilic amino acids Trp and Met have been synthesized with the application of Fmoc/Trt- and Fmoc/tBu-amino acids, for comparison. The deprotection of the peptides synthesized using Fmoc/Trt-amino acids in all cases leads to crude peptides of higher purity than that of the same peptides synthesized using Fmoc/tBu-amino acids. PMID:9531422

Barlos, K; Gatos, D; Koutsogianni, S

1998-03-01

97

Highly diastereoselective addition of silyl enolates to chiral imines derived from (S)-valine methyl ester using lanthanide triflate  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-pot highly diastereoselective synthesis of ?-amino esters, precursors of ?-amino acids and ?-lactam antibiotics has been accomplished starting from an aldehyde, a chiral amine and a silyl enolate using Yb(OTf)3 as a catalyst at room temperature. Excellent to good levels of diastereoselection have been achieved by the use of (S)-Valine methyl ester as chiral amine.

Pier Giorgio Cozzi; Bruno Di Simone; Achille Umani-Ronchi

1996-01-01

98

Research for amino acids in lunar samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1972-01-01

99

Alteration of free serum amino acids in voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.  

PubMed

Free serum amino acid pools of field voles, Microtus montanus, were determined over a 24 hr period, and compared to values obtained from voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. The majority of amino acids in the control animals demonstrated a diurnal variation, peaking predominantly during the dark portion of the photoperiod. This trend was not evident in the infected animals. In addition, infected voles possessed an apparent state of hypoaminoacidemia, with levels of threonine, serine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tryosine, and tryptophan typically below uninfected values. Alanine and proline, in contrast, were markedly increased at certain time points. Tyrosine (reduced by approximately 50%) and tryptophan (reduced to levels below detection) underwent the most pronounced drop in trypanosome-infected animals, indicating the possibility of a related alteration in pools of derivative biogenic amines in other tissues. This suggests a role for the latter 2 amino acids in the neuropsychiatric syndromes of African trypanosomiasis. PMID:321737

Newport, G R; Page, C R; Ashman, P U; Stibbs, H H; Seed, J R

1977-02-01

100

Changes in the free amino acid contents of honeys during storage at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to establish the changes in the free amino acid contents of floral honeys, honeydew honeys, and blend honeys during storage at room temperature and to test the capacity of the amino acids to distinguish the origin of the honeys after storage. For this purpose, 54 artisanal honeys (39 floral, 5 honeydew, and 10 blend) were studied. Samples were taken from recently collected honeys and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 months after harvesting. The contents of most of the free amino acids were found to decrease with storage time, with the greatest reduction observed in the first 9 months. The contents of the amino acids aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and proline increased in the first few months after storage, reaching maximum values at 6 months, suggesting the possible existence of enzymatic activities. The application of stepwise discriminant analysis to the free amino acid content data demonstrated that the contents of the amino acids valine, beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, serine, isoleucine, alpha-alanine, ornithine, and glutamine correctly assigned 87% of honeys to their group of origin: floral, honeydew, or blend. PMID:17117796

Iglesias, M Teresa; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Polo, M Carmen; de Lorenzo, Cristina; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Pueyo, Encarnación

2006-11-29

101

Comparative study on free amino acid composition of wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

A comparative study on the amino acid composition of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino acid. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino acid contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino acids and a great diversity of palatable sensations. PMID:18942845

Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentăo, Patrícia

2008-11-26

102

The Apollo Program and Amino Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

Fox, Sidney W.

1973-01-01

103

Inhibitors of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will detail the biochemical mechanisms that are affected by herbicides which inhibit a plantâÂÂs ability to synthesize amino acids. The significance of amino acids and proteins will also be described. The herbicide glyphosate, will be studied at length, including the advances made by biotechnology.

104

Evolutionarily Conserved Optimization of Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

E-print Network

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract The ``cognate bias hypothesis'' states that early previously demonstrated reduced cognate bias in amino acid biosyn- thetic pathways. Here we show that cognate bias in amino acid biosynthesis is present in the other domains of life--Archaebacteria and Eukaryota

de Bivort, Benjamin

105

Reduction of large neutral amino acid levels in plasma and brain of hyperleucinemic rats.  

PubMed

Neurological dysfunction is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disorder are poorly known. In the present study we investigated the effect of acute hyperleucinemia on plasma and brain concentrations of amino acids. Fifteen-day-old rats were injected subcutaneously with 6 micromol L-leucine per gram body weight. Controls received saline in the same volumes. The animals were sacrificed 30--120 min after injection, blood was collected and their brain rapidly removed and homogenized. The amino acid concentrations were determined by HPLC using orthophtaldialdehyde for derivatization and fluorescence for detection. The results showed significant reductions of the large neutral amino acids (LNAA) L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-isoleucine, L-valine and L-methionine, as well as L-alanine, L-serine and L-histidine in plasma and of L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine, L-valine and L-methionine in brain, as compared to controls. In vitro experiments using brain slices to study the influence of leucine on amino acid transport and protein synthesis were also carried out. L-Leucine strongly inhibited [14C]-L-phenylalanine transport into brain, as well as the incorporation of the [14C]-amino acid mixture, [14C]-L-phenylalanine and [14C]-L-lysine into the brain proteins. Although additional studies are necessary to evaluate the importance of these effects for MSUD, considering previous findings of reduced levels of LNAA in plasma and CSF of MSUD patients during crises, it may be speculated that a decrease of essential amino acids in brain may lead to reduction of protein and neurotransmiter synthesis in this disorder. PMID:11248401

Araújo, P; Wassermann, G F; Tallini, K; Furlanetto, V; Vargas, C R; Wannmacher, C M; Dutra-Filho, C S; Wyse, A T; Wajner, M

2001-05-01

106

Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Mendel, D. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1993-05-19

107

Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Brinton, K. L.; McDonald, G. D.

1999-01-01

108

Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.  

PubMed

In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. PMID:24238395

Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

2014-03-01

109

Effects of dietary protein and amino acid levels on the expression of selected cationic amino acid transporters and serum amino acid concentration in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The absorption of lysine is facilitated by leucine, but there is no information regarding the effect of crude protein, lysine and leucine levels on the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with 20 pigs (14.9 +/- 0.62 kg initial body weight) to evaluate the effect of two protein levels, and the content of lysine, threonine, methionine and leucine in low crude protein diets on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles and serum concentration of amino acids. Treatments were as follows: (i) wheat-soybean meal diet, 20% crude protein (Control); (ii) wheat diet deficient in lysine, threonine and methionine (Basal diet); (iii) Basal diet plus 0.70% L-lysine, 0.27% L-threonine, 0.10% DL-methionine (Diet LTM); (iv) Diet LTM plus 0.80% L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu). Despite the Basal diet, all diets were formulated to meet the requirements of lysine, threonine and methionine; Diet LTM + Leu supplied 60% excess of leucine. The addition of lysine, threonine and methionine in Diet LTM increased the expression of b(0,+) in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles and decreased CAT-1 in jejunum; the serum concentration of lysine was also increased (p < 0.01). Further addition of L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu) decreased the b(0,+) expression in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (p < 0.05), increased the serum concentration ofleucine and arginine and decreased the concentration of isoleucine (p < 0.05). Pigs fed the Control diet expressed less b(0,+) in jejunum, and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles expressed more CAT-1 in jejunum (p < 0.05) and had lower serum concentration ofisoleucine, leucine and valine (p < 0.05), but higher lysine concentrations (p < 0.01) than those fed Diet LTM. These results indicated that both, the level and the source of dietary amino acids, affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs fed wheat-based diets. PMID:22924173

García-Villalobos, Héctor; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Araiza-Pińa, Benedicto A; Htoo, John K; Cervantes-Ramírez, Miguel

2012-08-01

110

Amino acid transporters: roles in amino acid sensing and signalling in animal cells.  

PubMed Central

Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms. PMID:12879880

Hyde, Russell; Taylor, Peter M; Hundal, Harinder S

2003-01-01

111

Modification of fetal plasma amino acid composition by placental amino acid exchangers in vitro.  

PubMed

Fetal growth is dependent on both the quantity and relative composition of amino acids delivered to the fetal circulation, and impaired placental amino acid supply is associated with restricted fetal growth. Amino acid exchangers can alter the composition, but not the quantity, of amino acids in the intra- and extracellular amino acid pools. In the placenta, exchangers may be important determinants of the amino acid composition in the fetal circulation. This study investigates the substrate specificity of exchange between the placenta and the feto-placental circulation. Maternal-fetal transfer of radiolabelled amino acids and creatinine were measured in the isolated perfused human placental cotyledon. Transfer of L-[14C]serine or L-[14C]leucine, and [3H]glycine, were measured in the absence of amino acids in the fetal circulation (transfer by non-exchange mechanisms) and following 10-20 micromol boluses of unlabelled amino acids into the fetal circulation to provide substrates for exchange (transfer by exchange and non-exchange mechanisms). The ability of fetal arterial boluses of L-alanine and L-leucine to stimulate release of amino acids from the placenta was also determined using HPLC in order to demonstrate the overall pattern of amino acid release. Experiments with radiolabelled amino acids demonstrated increased maternal-fetal transfer of L-serine and L-leucine, but not glycine, following boluses of specific amino acids into the fetal circulation. L-[14C]Leucine, but not L-[14C]serine or [3H]glycine, was transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation by non-exchange mechanisms also (P<0.01). HPLC analysis demonstrated that fetal amino acid boluses stimulated increased transport of a range of different amino acids by 4-7 micromol l(-1) (P<0.05). Amino acid exchange provides a mechanism to supply the fetus with amino acids that it requires for fetal growth. This study demonstrates that these transporters have the capacity to exchange micromolar amounts of specific amino acids, and suggests that they play an important role in regulating fetal plasma amino acid composition. PMID:17478537

Cleal, Jane K; Brownbill, Paul; Godfrey, Keith M; Jackson, John M; Jackson, Alan A; Sibley, Colin P; Hanson, Mark A; Lewis, Rohan M

2007-07-15

112

Amino acids in human and animal nutrition.  

PubMed

Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products. In the last 10 years there has been a marked move away from the extraction of amino acids from natural products, which has been replaced by efficient fermentation processes using nonanimal carbon sources. Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-tryptophan. DL-Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use principally by chemical synthesis, and a pharmaceutical grade is manufactured by enzymatic resolution. Amino acids play an important role in medical nutrition, particularly in parenteral nutrition, where there are high purity requirements for infusion grade products. Amino acids are also appearing more often in dietary supplements, initially for performance athletes, but increasingly for the general population. As the understanding of the effects of the individual amino acids on the human metabolism is deepened, more specialized product mixtures are being offered to improve athletic performance and for body-building. PMID:24676880

Karau, Andreas; Grayson, Ian

2014-01-01

113

Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

2014-01-01

114

Amino Acid Metabolism Conflicts with Protein Diversity  

PubMed Central

The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, David A.; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

2014-01-01

115

Amino Acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity.  

PubMed

The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that natural proteomes minimize amino acid metabolic flux while maximizing sequence entropy. The model explains the relative abundances of amino acids across a diverse set of proteomes. We found that the data are remarkably well explained when the cost function accounts for amino acid chemical decay. More than 100 organisms reach comparable solutions to the trade-off by different combinations of proteome cost and sequence diversity. Quantifying the interplay between proteome size and entropy shows that proteomes can get optimally large and diverse. PMID:25086000

Krick, Teresa; Verstraete, Nina; Alonso, Leonardo G; Shub, David A; Ferreiro, Diego U; Shub, Michael; Sánchez, Ignacio E

2014-11-01

116

[The effect of metabolic acidosis on amino acid and keto acid metabolism in chronic renal failure].  

PubMed

The effect of metabolic acidosis (MA) on amino acid and keto acid metabolism was studied in fourteen patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) under the low protein diet (0.6-0.8 g/kgBW). The comparative study of five patients with renal tubular acidosis was carried out. Each patient was investigated before [MA(+)period] and after correction with sodium bicarbonate administration lasting 10 days [MA(-)period]. The correction of MA improved nitrogen balance and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), keto acids (BCKA), glutamine and alanine concentrations. No effect was however, observed in change of plasma insulin and glucagon. Oral administration of the keto-analogues of BCKA [0.1 g/kgBW of alpha-ketoisovalerates (KIV) and alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KIC)] is made for the purpose of investigating the change in the metabolic conversion rate to amino acids. As a result, MA (+) suppressed an increase in plasma KIV and KIC concentrations. Moreover, an increase in plasma valine and leucine concentrations were suppressed by MA (+). These results suggested that MA stimulates BCKA oxidation and suppresses the protein sparing effect of leucine and KIC, and accelerates the catabolism in CRF under the low protein diet. The correction of MA is ineffective in severe renal failure (serum creatinine above 10.0 mg/dl), because the other uremic factors appear to be affecting protein and amino acid metabolism. Therefore, it might be concluded that MA should be corrected at an earlier stage of CRF. PMID:2051649

Mochizuki, T

1991-02-01

117

Enthalpies of Dilution and Enthalpies of Mixing of Amino Acids with Sucrose in Aqueous Solutions at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enthalpies of mixing of aqueous solutions have been determined for sucrose with six different amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-serine, l-valine, l-proline and l-threonine) at 298.15 K, by using a LKB-2277 flow microcalorimetric system. These results, along with the enthalpies of dilution of these solutes for the initial solutions, were used to determine the enthalpic interaction coefficients (h\\u000a xy, h

Huaji Liu; Ruisen Lin; Honglin Zhang

2006-01-01

118

Dietetic supplementation with branched chain amino acids attenuates the severity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous studies showed that the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin is reduced in rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free\\u000a diet, that have markedly elevated plasma concentrations of valine, leucine and isoleucine. In order to test the role of these\\u000a branched chain amino acids (BCAA) in the beneficial effects of the high-protein diets, rats adapted (15 days) either to a\\u000a balanced synthetic

Décio L. Eizirik; Carla M. Germano; Renato H. Migliorini

1988-01-01

119

Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

1995-01-01

120

The Amino Acid Valine Is Secreted in Continuous-Flow Bacterial Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms are structured communities characterized by distinctive gene expression patterns and profound physiological changes compared to those of planktonic cultures. Here, we show that many gram-negative bacterial biofilms secrete high levels of a small-molecular-weight compound, which inhibits the growth of only Escherichia coli K-12 and a rare few other natural isolates. We demonstrate both genetically and biochemically that this molecule

Jaione Valle; Sandra Da Re; Solveig Schmid; David Skurnik; Richard D'Ari; Jean-Marc Ghigo

2008-01-01

121

Amino acid biosynthesis in mixed rumen cultures.  

PubMed Central

Mixed rumen micro-organisms, maintained in continuous culture readily incorporated labelled HCO3- and acetate into amino acids. Labelled propionate, in contrast, was utilized only for isoleucine biosynthesis, but failed to label other amino acids to any significant extent. Evidence was obtained showing that in these mixed, i.e. symbiotic, cultures foward tricarboxylic acid-cycle reactions only proceed to 2-oxoglutarate. 14C distribution in amino acids clearly shows that 2-oxoglutarate is not oxidized further by tricarboxylic acid-cycle enzymes. Instead, acetate is carboxylated to pyruvate which is then carboxylated to oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate equilibrates with fumarate and thereby carbon atoms 1 and 4 as well as carbon atoms 2 and 3 are randomized. Evidence was also obtained for the carboxylation of propionate to 2-oxobutyrate, isovalerate to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, phenylacetate and hydroxyphentlacetate to the corresponding phenyl- and hydroxyphenyl-pyruvic acids and succinate to 2-oxoglutarate. Of the amino acid precursors investigated, only 3-hydroxypyruvate, the precursor of serine, appeared to be synthesized via an oxidative step, i.e. 3-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. Most 2-oxo precursors of amino acids in these organisms appear to be formed via reductive carboxylation of the precursor acid. PMID:1212197

Sauer, F D; Erfle, J D; Mahadevan, S

1975-01-01

122

Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered three months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 parts per billion, ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4,100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16,900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis, are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its three month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated from a different type of parent body than the CM's and CI's. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P or D- type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived from these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be re-evaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

2002-05-01

123

Amino acid requirements in humans: with a special emphasis on the metabolic availability of amino acids.  

PubMed

Due to advances made in the development of stable isotope based carbon oxidation methods, the determination of amino acid requirements in humans has been an active area of research for the past 2 decades. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method developed in our laboratory for humans has been systematically applied to determine almost all indispensable amino acid requirements in adult humans. Nutritional application of experimentally derived amino acid requirement estimates depends upon the capacity of food proteins to meet the amino acid requirements in humans. Therefore, there is a need to know the proportion of dietary amino acids which are bioavailable, or metabolically available to the body for protein synthesis following digestion and absorption. Although this concept is widely applied in animal nutrition, it has not been applied to human nutrition due to lack of data. We developed a new in vivo method in growing pigs to identify the metabolic availability of amino acids in foods using the IAAO concept. This metabolic availability method has recently been adapted for use in humans. As this newly developed IAAO based method to determine metabolic availability of amino acids in foods is suitable for rapid and routine analysis in humans, it is a major step forward in defining the protein quality of food sources and integrating amino acid requirement data with dietary amino acid availability of foods. PMID:19156481

Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

2009-05-01

124

Landscape patterns of free amino acids in arctic tundra soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of free amino acids were measured in soils from four major ecosystem types in arctic Alaska. Total free amino acid concentrations were several-fold higher than ammonium (the major form of inorganic nitrogen) in water extracts of soils. The dominant free amino acids in these soils were glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and arginine. Concentrations of total amino acids

Knut Kielland

1995-01-01

125

Racemic Resolution of some dl Amino Acids using Aspergillus fumigatus l Amino Acid Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus\\u000a l-amino acid oxidase (l-aao) to cause the resolution of racemic mixtures of dl-amino acids was investigated with dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-tyrosine, and dl-aspartic acid. A chiral column, Crownpak CR+ was used for the analysis of the amino acids. The enzyme was able to cause the\\u000a resolution of the three dl-amino acids resulting in the production of

Susmita SinghBinod; Binod K. Gogoi; Rajib L. Bezbaruah

2011-01-01

126

BIOCHEMISTRY: The 22nd Amino Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In their Perspective, Atkins and Gesteland discuss the discovery of the 22nd amino acid, pyrrolysine, in Archaea (Hao et al., Srinivasan et al.).

John F. Atkins (University of Utah;Department of Human Genetics); Ray Gesteland (University of Utah;Department of Human Genetics)

2002-05-24

127

Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

Bromke, Mariusz A.

2013-01-01

128

Keratinolytic activity of purified alkaline keratinase produced by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Sacc.) and its amino acids profile  

PubMed Central

Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) was used to assess the purity and molecular weight of the previously purified alkaline keratinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The enzyme was homogenous, as seen by a single band of protein, and had an apparent molecular weight of 28.5 kDa. Amino acid profile of the purified keratinase revealed that it was composed of 14 different amino acids with high proportions of glutamic acid (20.86%), alanine (14.52%), glycine (14.21%), leucine (8.59%) and serine (7.81%). The enzyme contained moderate amounts of valine (6.01%), threonine (5.58%) and phenyl alanine (5.22%). The purified enzyme of S. brevicaulis exerted a potent keratinolytic activity and was capable to hydrolyze different keratinaceous materials with highest activity on chicken feathers followed by human nails and human hair. PMID:23961113

Sharaf, Eman F.; Khalil, Neveen M.

2010-01-01

129

Keratinolytic activity of purified alkaline keratinase produced by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Sacc.) and its amino acids profile.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to assess the purity and molecular weight of the previously purified alkaline keratinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The enzyme was homogenous, as seen by a single band of protein, and had an apparent molecular weight of 28.5 kDa. Amino acid profile of the purified keratinase revealed that it was composed of 14 different amino acids with high proportions of glutamic acid (20.86%), alanine (14.52%), glycine (14.21%), leucine (8.59%) and serine (7.81%). The enzyme contained moderate amounts of valine (6.01%), threonine (5.58%) and phenyl alanine (5.22%). The purified enzyme of S. brevicaulis exerted a potent keratinolytic activity and was capable to hydrolyze different keratinaceous materials with highest activity on chicken feathers followed by human nails and human hair. PMID:23961113

Sharaf, Eman F; Khalil, Neveen M

2011-04-01

130

Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR chondrites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites. Three CRs, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577, were analyzed for their amino acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our

Z. Martins; C. M. O. D. Alexander; G. E. Orzechowska; M. L. Fogel; P. Ehrenfreund

2007-01-01

131

Biosensors for D-amino acid detection.  

PubMed

The presence of D-amino acids in foods is promoted by harsh technological processes (e.g., high temperature or extreme pH values) or can be the consequence of adulteration or microbial contamination (D-amino acids are major components of the bacterial cell wall). For this reason, quality control is becoming more and more important both for the industry (as a cost factor) and for consumer protection. For routine food analysis and quality control, simple and easily applicable analytical methods are needed: biosensors can often satisfy these requirements. The use of an enzymatic, stereospecific reaction could confer selectivity to a biosensor for detecting and quantifying D-amino acids in foodstuffs. The flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis is an ideal biocatalyst for this kind of application because of its absolute stereospecificity, very high turnover number with various substrates, tight binding with the FAD cofactor, and broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, alterations in the local brain concentrations of D-serine (predominantly D-amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system) have been related to several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Therefore, quantifying this neuromodulator represents an important task in biological, medical, and pharmaceutical research. Recently, an enzymatic microbiosensor, also using R. gracilis D-amino acid oxidase as biocatalyst, was developed for detecting D-serine in vivo. PMID:21956573

Sacchi, Silvia; Rosini, Elena; Caldinelli, Laura; Pollegioni, Loredano

2012-01-01

132

Enzymatic detection of D-amino acids.  

PubMed

D: -Amino acids play several key roles and are widely diffused in living organisms, from bacteria (in which D-alanine is a component of the cell wall) to mammals (where D-serine is involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system). The study of the biological processes involving D-amino acids and their use as clinical or biotechnological biomarkers requires reliable methods of quantifying them. Although "traditional" analytical techniques have been (and still are) employed for such tasks, enzymatic assays based on enzymes which possess a strict stereospecificity (i.e., that are only active on the D-enantiomers of amino acids) allowed the set-up of low-cost protocols with a high sensitivity and selectivity and suitable for determining the D-amino acid content of complex biological samples. The most exploited enzyme in these assays is D-amino acid oxidase, a flavoenzyme that exclusively oxidizes D-amino acids and possesses with a broad substrate specificity and a high kinetic efficiency. PMID:21956570

Molla, Gianluca; Piubelli, Luciano; Volontč, Federica; Pilone, Mirella S

2012-01-01

133

Supporting Information Amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and resins were from Novabiochem. Gel filtration  

E-print Network

Supporting Information ­1­ Materials Amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and resins were from Analytical HPLC was performed with an Aligent C8 column or a Varian Dynamax C18 column with linear gradients with sinapinic acid (Fluka) as the matrix at the University of Wisconsin­Madison Biophysics Instrumentation

Raines, Ronald T.

134

Cloning a Plant Amino Acid Transporter by Functional Complementation of a Yeast Amino Acid Transport Mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are transported across the plasma membrane of plant cells by proton-amino acid symports. We report here the successful cloning of a neutral amino acid carrier by functional complementation. A histidine transport deletion mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library constructed in a yeast expression vector. Forty transformants, out of 10^5, allowed growth on

Li-Chu Hsu; Tzyy-Jen Chiou; Lishan Chen; Daniel R. Bush

1993-01-01

135

Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava. PMID:23661446

Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

2013-01-01

136

Adaptational modification of serine and threonine metabolism in the liver to essential amino acid deficiency in rats.  

PubMed

It is known that plasma serine and threonine concentrations are elevated in rats chronically fed an essential amino acid deficient diet, but the underlying mechanisms including related gene expressions or serine and threonine concentrations in liver remained to be elucidated. We fed rats lysine or valine deficient diet for 4 weeks and examined the mRNA expressions of serine synthesising (3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, PHGDH) and serine/threonine degrading enzymes (serine dehydratase, SDS) in the liver. Dietary deficiency induced marked elevation of hepatic serine and threonine levels associated with enhancement of PHGDH mRNA expression and repression of SDS mRNA expression. Increases in plasma serine and threonine levels due to essential amino acid deficiency in diet were caused by marked increases in hepatic serine and threonine levels. Proteolytic responses to the amino acid deficiency may be lessened by storing amino radicals as serine and inducing anorexia through elevation of threonine. PMID:18584286

Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

2009-03-01

137

Amino acids in the Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite from Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for the presence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite is presented. Hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed water-extracted amino acid samples from exterior, middle and interior portions of the meteorite were analyzed by an amino acid analyzer and by gas chromatography of N-TFA-isopropyl amino acid derivatives. Nine protein and six nonprotein amino acids were detected in the meteorite at abundances between 34 and less than one nmole/g, with equal amounts in interior and exterior portions. Nearly equal abundances of the D and L enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found, indicating the abiotic, therefore extraterrestrial, origin of the amino acids. The Antarctic environment and the uniformity of protein amino acid abundances are discussed as evidence against the racemization of terrestrially acquired amino acids, and similarities between Yamato amino acid compositions and the amino acid compositions of the Murchison and Murray type II carbonaceous chrondrites are indicated.

Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Yanai, K.

1979-01-01

138

Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. Six amino acid permeases (AAPs) from Arabidopsis mediating transport of a wide spectrum of amino acids were isolated. AAPs are distantly related to plasma membrane amino acid transport systems N and A and to vesicular transporters such as VGAT from mammals. A detailed comparison of

Wolf-N. Fischer; Donald D. F. Loo; Uwe Ludewig; Kathryn J. Boorer; Mechthild Tegeder; Doris Rentsch; Ernest M. Wright

2002-01-01

139

Amino acids derived from Titan tholins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

1986-01-01

140

Amino acids derived from Titan Tholins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An organic heteropolymer(Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N 2/0.1 CH 4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6 N HCI yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivazation to N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and ?- and ?-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was ˜ 10 -2, approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC 2CN, and (CN) 2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat; Schram, Karl H.; Arakawa, Edward T.

1986-10-01

141

Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

142

Theoretical study of X-ray circular dichroism of amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary and rotatory X-ray absorption intensities are computed for chiral amino acids (alanine, cysteine, serine and valine) in order to explore in what way near-edge X-ray absorption and X-ray circular dichrosim (CD) can fingerprint such compounds. It is predicted that ordinary X-ray absorption spectra are quite alike for the different compounds, which is in line with that they contain similar building blocks, of which only one is changed by substitution. X-ray CD spectra are more sensitive and pose better prospects to be used as fingerprints. This seems to hold especially for spectra of unique atoms, like the nitrogen spectra of amino acids, while spectra with contributions from several chemically shifted non-unique atoms, like the carbon atoms, may appear too scrambled to be useful for experiments at moderate resolution.

Plashkevych, Oleksandr; Carravetta, Vincenzo; Vahtras, Olav; Ĺgren, Hans

1998-06-01

143

Rumen effective degradability of amino acids from soybean meal corrected for microbial contamination.  

PubMed

Rumen degradation kinetics and effective degradability of individual amino acids, total analysed amino acids (TAA) and crude protein (CP) of soybean meal were measured on four rumen-cannulated wethers using the nylon bag technique. Microbial contamination of the incubated residues was corrected using a continuous 15N intraruminal infusion and isolated solid associated bacteria as a reference sample. TAA showed a lower soluble fraction (14.9 vs. 20.8%; P < 0.01), a similar insoluble-degradable fraction (79.0 vs. 79.2%) and a higher degradation rate (11.5 vs. 8.4% x h(-1); P < 0.05) than CP. As a consequence, effective degradability was similar for TAA and CP (74.7 vs. 75.7%). Degradability values of individual amino acids varied moderately (range: +/-6% of TAA degradability). Valine, isoleucine, leucine, alanine, aspartic acid and tyrosine showed significantly lower degradability than TAA, while the opposite effect was observed for histidine, threonine and glutamic acid. Degradability of individual amino acids was related to their soluble fraction (r = 0.877; P<0.001). PMID:11286287

González, J; Rodríguez, C A; Centeno, C; Lamnari, F

2000-01-01

144

Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media  

SciTech Connect

An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 mx0.25 mm, 0.25 {mu}m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 deg. C, 1 min, 6 deg. C/min at 100 deg. C, 4 deg. C/min at 200 deg. C, 20 deg. C/min at 300 deg. C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 deg. C, the injector temperature 200 deg. C and ion source temperature 250 deg. C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 {mu}A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

Iordache, A. [National R and D Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea, 4 Uzinei St., Rm. Valcea, 240050 (Romania); Horj, E.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M. ['Babes-Bolyai' University, 1 M. Kogalniceanu St., Cluj-Napoca, 400084 (Romania); Ani, A. R. [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca-USAMV, 3-5 Manastur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mesaros, C. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 38 Gh. Marinescu St., 540000, Targu Mures (Romania)

2010-08-04

145

Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of

Pascale Ehrenfreund; Zita Martins; Conel Alexander; Grazyna Orzechowska; Marylin Fogel

2008-01-01

146

The amino acid composition of mammalian and bacterial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the amino acid composition of cells. A total of 17 amino acids was analyzed. This method was used to compare the amino acid compositions of the following combinations: primary culture and established cells, normal and transformed cells, mammalian and bacterial cells, andEscherichia coli andStaphylococcus aureus. The amino acid compositions of mammalian

T. Okayasu; M. Ikeda; K. Akimoto; K. Sorimachi

1997-01-01

147

Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: Mechanisms involved in translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only

A. C. Chakrabarti

1994-01-01

148

Use of Plasma Amino Acid Concentration to Identify Limiting Amino Acids for Milk Production1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that an essential amino acid will accumulate in blood plasma only when supplied in excess of require- ment was the basis of an attempt to identify essential amino acids most likely limiting lactation. In a 5 X 5 Latin- square experiment, five lactating cows were fed a corn-based basal ration con- taining 9.070 crude protein. Casein treated with

G. A. Broderick; L. D. Satter; A. E. Harper

1974-01-01

149

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the renal amino acid transport capacity in amino acid loaded rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In anaesthetized adult female rats, the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on renal amino acid handling was investigated in glutamine, arginine (both 50 mg\\/100 g b. wt. per hour), or alanine (90 mg\\/ 100 g b. wt. per hour) loaded animals. Continuous infusions of the three amino acids were followed by an increase in the fractional excretion (FE)

Christian Fleck; J. Pertsch

1998-01-01

150

Synthesis of ( S )-?-amino oleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient synthesis of (S)-?-amino oleic acid was developed. The fully protected FA derivative was obtained in four steps starting from methyl (2S)-2-[bis(tert-butoxycar-bonyl)amino]-5-oxopentanoate. These steps are (i) olefination of the starting aldehyde with the appropriate phosphonate\\u000a anion, (ii) hydrogenation of the double bonds, (iii) controlled reduction of ?-ethyl ester to an aldehyde in the presence\\u000a of ?-methyl ester, and (iv)

Victoria Magrioti; Violetta Constantinou-Kokotou

2002-01-01

151

Economic aspects of amino acids production.  

PubMed

Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised to exercise concepts of the management of complex systems in order to choose the right strategy towards gaining market leadership. PMID:12523391

Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

2003-01-01

152

Amino Acid Recycling in Relation to Protein Turnover 1  

PubMed Central

Methods of measuring amino acid recycling in Lemna minor are described. The extent to which the recycling of individual amino acids may underestimate protein turnover has been measured for a number of amino acids. The methods have been used to study the relationship between protein turnover and amino acid recycling during nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that following the removal of nitrate from the environment, protein turnover is enhanced, the partitioning of amino acids between protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism is relatively constant, but the total amount of amino acids recycling is increased. PMID:16660236

Davies, David D.; Humphrey, Thomas J.

1978-01-01

153

[Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids].  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9-43% of arylamide groups and 10-33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups. PMID:15787219

Ponedel'kina, I Iu; Odinokov, V N; Vakhrusheva, E S; Golikova, M T; Khalilov, L M; Dzhemilov, U M

2005-01-01

154

Free amino acids in brain, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue of voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.  

PubMed

The concentrations of several acidic and neutral amino acids of brain, liver, and skeletal muscle were determined in field voles, Microtus montanus, and compared to values obtained from voles harboring a chronic infection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. All of the amino acids examined were found at comparable levels in brain tissue from both groups of animals with the exception of tyrosine, which was reduced by approximately 45% in the infected voles. Similarly, the only difference noted in liver tissue was 32% decrease of free tyrosine in the infected animals. With respect to muscle tissue, in addition to a 45% reduction of free tyrosine in the infected voles, decreases of a smaller magnitude were also noted for threonine, glutamate, and valine. The relatively specific alteration of free tyrosine concentrations in the investigated tissues of trypanosome-infected animals suggests an alteration in host metabolism of this amino acid and/or parasite utilization. PMID:338875

Newport, G R; Page, C R

1977-12-01

155

Arsenic affects essential and non-essential amino acids differentially in rice grains: inadequacy of amino acids in rice based diet.  

PubMed

Recent breakthroughs in rice arsenic (As) research demonstrate that As accumulation significantly affects trace nutrients in rice grain. In the present study we analyzed the amino acid (AA) profile of sixteen rice genotypes differing in grain As accumulation, grown at three sites with different soil As concentrations, in ascending order, Chinsurahamino acids (EAAs) which were more prominent in high As accumulating rice genotypes (HAARGs). Conversely, non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) showed an increase in low As accumulating rice genotypes (LAARGs) but a decrease in HAARGs. EAAs like isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine also decreased in most of the genotypes. NEAAs like glutamic acid, glycine, proline, and histidine showed an increase in all LAARGs. Likewise, sulfur containing AAs (methionine and cysteine) increased in LAARGs but decreased in HAARGs. Among NEAAs in HAARGs, only arginine and serine showed some induction in most of the genotypes. At the highest As site (Birnagar) total EAAs and NEAAs show significant reduction in HAARGs compared to LAARGs. The study concluded that As accumulation in rice grain alters EAAs and NEAAs differentially, and reduction was more pronounced in HAARGs than in LAARGs. Thus, As tainted rice limits required levels of AAs in rice based diets and therefore cannot alone fulfill the recommended daily intake (RDI) of AAs. PMID:22664651

Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Tripathi, Preeti; Dave, Richa; Kumar, Amit; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Pabodh Kumar; Adhikari, Bijan; Norton, Gareth John; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

2012-10-01

156

Phenylalanine sensitive K562-D cells for the analysis of the biochemical impact of excess amino acid  

PubMed Central

Although it is recognized that the abnormal accumulation of amino acid is a cause of the symptoms in metabolic disease such as phenylketonuria (PKU), the relationship between disease severity and serum amino acid levels is not well understood due to the lack of experimental model. Here, we present a novel in vitro cellular model using K562-D cells that proliferate slowly in the presence of excessive amount of phenylalanine within the clinically observed range, but not phenylpyruvate. The increased expression of the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2) and its adapter protein 4F2 heavy chain appeared to be responsible for the higher sensitivity to phenylalanine in K562-D cells. Supplementation with valine over phenylalanine effectively restored cell proliferation, although other amino acids did not improve K562-D cell proliferation over phenylalanine. Biochemical analysis revealed mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) as a terminal target of phenylalanine in K562-D cell proliferation, and supplementation of valine restored mTORC1 activity. Our results show that K562-D cell can be a potent tool for the investigation of PKU at the molecular level and to explore new therapeutic approaches to the disease. PMID:25373594

Sanayama, Yoshitami; Matsumoto, Akio; Shimojo, Naoki; Kohno, Yoichi; Nakaya, Haruaki

2014-01-01

157

Phenylalanine sensitive K562-D cells for the analysis of the biochemical impact of excess amino acid.  

PubMed

Although it is recognized that the abnormal accumulation of amino acid is a cause of the symptoms in metabolic disease such as phenylketonuria (PKU), the relationship between disease severity and serum amino acid levels is not well understood due to the lack of experimental model. Here, we present a novel in vitro cellular model using K562-D cells that proliferate slowly in the presence of excessive amount of phenylalanine within the clinically observed range, but not phenylpyruvate. The increased expression of the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2) and its adapter protein 4F2 heavy chain appeared to be responsible for the higher sensitivity to phenylalanine in K562-D cells. Supplementation with valine over phenylalanine effectively restored cell proliferation, although other amino acids did not improve K562-D cell proliferation over phenylalanine. Biochemical analysis revealed mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) as a terminal target of phenylalanine in K562-D cell proliferation, and supplementation of valine restored mTORC1 activity. Our results show that K562-D cell can be a potent tool for the investigation of PKU at the molecular level and to explore new therapeutic approaches to the disease. PMID:25373594

Sanayama, Yoshitami; Matsumoto, Akio; Shimojo, Naoki; Kohno, Yoichi; Nakaya, Haruaki

2014-01-01

158

Probing protein stability with unnatural amino acids  

SciTech Connect

Unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, in combination with molecular modeling and simulation techniques, was used to probe the effect of side chain structure on protein stability. Specific replacements at position 133 in T4 lysozyme included (1) leucine (wt), norvaline, ethylglycine, and alanine to measure the cost of stepwise removal of methyl groups from the hydrophobic core, (2) norvaline and O-methyl serine to evaluate the effects of side chain solvation, and (3) leucine, S,S-2-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and S-2-amino-3-cyclopentylpropanoic acid to measure the influence of packing density and side chain conformational entropy on protein stability. All of these factors (hydrophobicity, packing, conformational entropy, and cavity formation) significantly influence protein stability and must be considered when analyzing any structural change to proteins.

Mendel, D.; Ellman, J.A.; Zhiyuh Chang; Veenstra, D.L.; Kollman, P.A.; Schultz, P.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-06-26

159

Fate of dietary sucrose and neosynthesis of amino acids in the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum, reared on different diets  

PubMed

The fate of sucrose, the major nutrient of an aphid's natural food, was explored by radiolabeling in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. To investigate the influence of nitrogen quality of food on amino acid neosynthesis, pea aphids were reared on two artificial diets differing in their amino acid composition. The first (diet A) had an equilibrated amino acid balance, similar to that derived from analysis of aphid carcass, and the other (diet B) had an unbalanced amino acid composition similar to that of legume phloem sap. Aphids grown on either diet expired the same quantity of sucrose carbon as CO(2), amounting to 25-30 % of the ingested sucrose catabolized in oxidation pathways. On diet A, the aphids excreted through honeydew about twice as much sucrose carbon as on diet B (amounting to 12.6 % of the ingested sucrose for diet A and 8.4 % for diet B), while amounts of sucrose carbons incorporated into exuviae were almost identical (1.9 % of the ingested sucrose on diet A and 2.7 % on diet B). There was also no difference in the amounts of sucrose carbon incorporated into the aphid tissues, which represented close to 50 % of the ingested sucrose. Sucrose carbons in the aphid tissues were mainly incorporated into lipids and the quantities involved were the same in aphids reared on either diet. On diet B, we observed neosynthesis of all protein amino acids from sucrose carbons and, for the first time in an aphid, we directly demonstrated the synthesis of the essential amino acids leucine, valine and phenylalanine. Amino acid neosynthesis from sucrose was significantly higher on diet B (11.5 % of ingested sucrose carbons) than on diet A (5.4 %). On diet A, neosynthesis of most of the amino acids was significantly diminished, and synthesis of two of them (histidine and arginine) was completely suppressed. The origin of amino acids egested through honeydew was determined from the specific activity of the free amino acid pool in the aphid. Aphids are able to adjust to variation in dietary amino acids by independent egestion of each amino acid. While more than 80 % of excreted nitrogen was from food amino acids, different amino acids were excreted in honeydew of aphids reared on the two diets. The conversion yields of dietary sucrose into aphid amino acids determined in this study were combined with those obtained previously by studying the fate of amino acids in pea aphids reared on diet A. The origin of all the amino acid carbons in aphid tissues was thus computed, and the metabolic abilities of aphid are discussed from an adaptive point of view, with respect to their symbiotic status. PMID:10482723

Febvay; Rahbe; Rynkiewicz; Guillaud; Bonnot

1999-10-01

160

The Genetics of Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of a heavy (SLC3 family) and a light (SLC7 family) subunit. Mutations in system b0,+ (rBAT-b0,+AT) and in system y+L (4F2hc-y+LAT1) cause the primary inherited aminoacidurias (PIAs) cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, respectively. Recent developments [including the identification of the first Hartnup disorder gene (B0AT1; SLC6A19)] and knockout mouse models have begun to reveal the basis of renal and intestinal reabsorption of amino acids in mammals.

Manuel PalacĂ­n (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology); Virginia Nunes (Institut de Recerca OncolĂ²gica Centre de Genètica Mèdica i Molecular); Mariona Font-LlitjĂÂłs (Institut de Recerca OncolĂ²gica Centre de Genètica Mèdica i Molecular); Maite JimĂŠnez-Vidal (University of Barcelona,Institut de Recerca OncolĂ²gica Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Centre de Genètica Mèdica i Molecular); Joana Fort (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology); Emma Gasol (University of Barcelona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

2005-04-01

161

Measurement of ?(13)C values of soil amino acids by GC-C-IRMS using trimethylsilylation: a critical assessment.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives as derivatization reagents for the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of soil amino acids by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). We used non-proteinogenic amino acids to show that the extraction-derivatization-analysis procedure provides a reliable method to measure ?(13)C values of amino acids extracted from soil. However, we found a number of drawbacks that significantly increase the final total uncertainty. These include the following: production of multiple peaks for each amino acid, identified as di-, tri- and tetra-TMS derivatives; a number of TMS-carbon (TMS-C) atoms added lower than the stoichiometric one, possibly due to incomplete combustion; different TMS-C ?(13)C for di-, tri- and tetra-TMS derivatives. For soil samples, only four amino acids (leucine, valine, threonine and serine) provide reliable ?(13)C values with a total average uncertainty of 1.3?‰. We conclude that trimethylsilyl derivatives are only suitable for determining the (13)C incorporation in amino acids within experiments using (13)C-labelled tracers but cannot be applied for amino acids with natural carbon isotope abundance until the drawbacks described here are overcome and the measured total uncertainty significantly decreased. PMID:25331967

Rubino, Mauro; Milin, Sylvie; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Signoret, Patrick; Hatté, Christine; Balesdent, Jérôme

2014-12-01

162

Uric acid inhibits placental system A amino acid uptake.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0-7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S A; von Versen-Höynck, F; Roberts, J M

2009-02-01

163

Uric Acid Inhibits Placental System A Amino Acid Uptake?  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0?7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S.A.; von Versen-Hoynck, F.; Roberts, J.M.

2009-01-01

164

Nutrient composition and amino acid pattern of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Fabaceae) grown in the Gizan area of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The proximate composition, grain protein, minerals, amino acid and sugar profiles of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp were analyzed. The crude protein was 23%, fat 3.40% and ash 3.60%. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of at least 17 amino acids including most of the essential ones. The essential amino acids valine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine were slightly higher, but sulphur-containing amino acids were lower than recommended in the WHO/FAO requirement pattern. Qualitative phytochemical screening of seeds showed fructose, alpha-glucose, beta-glucose, glycerol, manitol, inositol and some oligosaccharides, e.g. raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose. The grain contained almost similar amount of phosphorus as compared with that of Lebanese and Pakistani cultivars. Calcium was found to be lower as compared to some Indian, Pakistani and Lebanese cultivars. In general the results indicated that the legume is nutritive as staple food, feed and/or fodder. PMID:9713582

Hussain, M A; Basahy, A Y

1998-03-01

165

Characterization of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiendotoxin properties of short peptides with different hydrophobic amino acids at "a" and "d" positions of a heptad repeat sequence.  

PubMed

To understand the influence of different hydrophobic amino acids at "a" and "d" positions of a heptad repeat sequence on antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiendotoxin properties, four 15-residue peptides with leucine (LRP), phenylalanine (FRP), valine (VRP), and alanine (ARP) residues at these positions were designed, synthesized, and characterized. Although valine is similarly hydrophobic to leucine and phenylalanine, VRP showed significantly lesser cytotoxicity than LRP and FRP; further, the replacement of leucines with valines at "a" and "d" positions of melittin-heptads drastically reduced its cytotoxicity. However, all four peptides exhibited significant antimicrobial activities that correlate well with their interactions with mammalian and bacterial cell membranes and the corresponding lipid vesicles. LRP most efficiently neutralized the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators like NO, TNF-?, and IL-6 in macrophages followed by FRP, VRP, and ARP. The results could be useful for designing short antimicrobial and antiendotoxin peptides with understanding the basis of their activity. PMID:23324083

Azmi, Sarfuddin; Srivastava, Saurabh; Mishra, Nripendra N; Tripathi, Jitendra K; Shukla, Praveen K; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

2013-02-14

166

Amino acid metabolism of Lemna minor L  

SciTech Connect

A serious limitation to the use of N(O,S)-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl amino acid derivatives in the analysis of {sup 15}N-labeling kinetics of amino acids in plant tissues, is that the amides glutamine and asparagine undergo acid hydrolysis to glutamate and aspartate, respectively, during derivatization. This led us to consider an alternative procedure for derivatization of glutamine and asparagine with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide in pyridine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry yielded fragment ions (M-57) of mass 417 and 431 for the ({sup 14}N)asparagine and ({sup 14}N)glutamine derivatives, respectively, suitable for monitoring unlabeled, single-{sup 15}N- and double-{sup 15}N-labeled amide species from the ion clusters at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 415 to 423 for asparagine, and m/z 429 to 437 for glutamine. From separate analyses of the specific isotope abundance of the amino-N groups of asparagine and glutamine as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl derivatives, the specific amide-({sup 15}N) abundance of these amino acids was determined.

Rhodes, D.; Rich, P.J.; Brunk, D.G. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

1989-04-01

167

Origin of chirality in protein amino acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss the origin of the chirality of protein amino acids from the point of view of a phase transition from a racemic mixture into an optically pure state. We assume that Bose-Einstein condensation may act as an amplification mechanism. The originals ...

J. Chela Flores

1994-01-01

168

Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

Barcz, Aleksy; Szyma?ski, Zbigniew

169

Plasma amino acids: screening, quantitation, and interpretation\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the steady-state concen- tration of amino acids in human plasma has accumulated steadily in recent years, partly as the result of new methodology, but also because of the relevance of this information to human health and disease. There are two areas in particular that have both served and benefited from the growth and application of this knowledge. One

Charles R. Scriver; Carol L. Clow; Peter Lamin

170

Growth response of Avena sativa in amino-acids-rich soils converted from phenol-contaminated soils by Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of phenol in laboratory-contaminated soil was investigated using the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study showed that the phenol degradation caused by C. glutamicum was greatly enhanced by the addition of 1% yeast extract. From the toxicity test using Daphnia magna, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects after the phenol was removed using C. glutamicum. Additionally, the treatment of the phenolcontaminated soils with C. glutamicum increased various soil amino acid compositions, such as glycine, threonine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. This phenomenon induced an increase in the seed germination rate and the root elongation of Avena sativa (oat). This probably reflects that increased soil amino acid composition due to C. glutamicum treatment strengthens the plant roots. Therefore, the phenol-contaminated soil was effectively converted through increased soil amino acid composition, and additionally, the phenol in the soil environment was biodegraded by C. glutamicum. PMID:22534303

Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Bit-Na; Choi, Yong Woo; Yoo, Kye Sang; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

2012-04-01

171

Acute effects of acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism in perfused rat liver  

PubMed Central

Acidosis is frequently associated with protein wasting and derangements in amino acid metabolism. As its effect on protein metabolism is significantly modulated by other abnormal metabolic conditions caused by specific illnesses, it is difficult to separate out the effects on protein metabolism solely due to acidosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using a model of isolated perfused rat liver, the direct response of hepatic tissue to acidosis. We have compared hepatic response to perfusion with a solution of pH 7.2 and 7.4 (controls). Parameters of protein and amino acid metabolism were measured using both recirculation and single-pass technique with 4,5-[3H]leucine, [1–14C]leucine and [1–14C]ketoisocaproate (ketoleucine) as tracers and on the basis of difference of amino acid levels in perfusion solution at the beginning and end of perfusion. In liver perfused with a solution of pH 7.2, we observed higher rates of proteolysis, protein synthesis, amino acid utilization and urea production. Furthermore, the liver perfused with a solution of pH 7.2 released a higher amount of proteins to perfusate than the liver perfused with a solution of pH 7.4. Enhanced decarboxylation of ketoisocaproate in liver perfused by a solution of a lower pH indicates increased catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine and isoleucine), decreased reamination of branched-chain keto acids to corresponding essential amino acids and increased ketogenesis from leucine. PMID:14632632

Holecek, Milan; Safranek, Roman; Rysava, Radana; Kadlcikova, Jana; Sprongl, Ludek

2003-01-01

172

D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

Fujii, Noriko

2002-04-01

173

Production of valine by a Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

A bacterium isolated from Burdwan (India) soil was found to accumulate L-valine in the growth medium and identified to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. The strain is able to grow and accumulate valine in a purely synthetic medium, but supplementation of the synthetic medium with either Casamino acids or yeast extract or with both, significantly improves the yield. The entire fermentation period can be divided into a growth phase and a production phase, which can be prolonged by adjustment of pH to the neutral range. Among the different carbon and nitrogen sources tested glucose at 8.5% and L-glutamic acid at 0.8%, respectively, were found most suitable. Cane sugar molasses tested as a substitute for glucose significantly stimulated growth but valine production was less. Different vitamins tested stimulated growth and valine yield and an inoculum level of 10% (v/v) of the medium was found to be optimal. The yield of valine under optimal conditions was found to be 4.53 g per litre of the medium. Valine has been isolated in crystalline form from the fermented broth by ion exchange resin chromatography and found to be a pure sample of the L-isomer. PMID:27903

Chattopadhyay, S P; Banerjee, A K

1978-01-01

174

Branched-chain amino acids alleviate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a prevalent disease in countries around the world. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine cannot be synthesized by the body and have been shown to promote muscle buildup; thus, it is logical to suggest that BCAAs can reduce fat deposition in the body. We used gonadectomized rats fed a high-fat diet to investigate the effects of BCAAs on lipid metabolism over an 8-week experimental period. Body composition, tissue histology, plasma lipid indices, and hormone levels were examined. We demonstrated that the body weights of rats were not significantly decreased but the mesenteric fat was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in BCAA-treated rats. In addition, BCAAs decreased plasma lipid levels and fat deposition in the liver. At week 4, when the untreated rats displayed macrovesicular steatosis, BCAA-treated rats had only macrovesicular droplets in their hepatocytes. At week 8, when the untreated rat livers displayed profound inflammation and cirrhosis, BCAA-treated rat livers remained in the macrovesicular stage of steatosis. BCAAs induced higher blood glucose and plasma insulin levels (p < 0.05). BCAAs also improved liver blood flow by increasing mean arterial blood pressure and decreasing portal pressure, which helped delay the change in blood flow pattern to that of cirrhosis. BCAAs also induced the skeletal muscle to express higher levels of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase E1?, which indicates an enhanced metabolic capacity of BCAAs in muscle tissue. This study clearly demonstrates the effects of BCAAs on the amelioration of fat deposition in rats fed a high-fat diet. PMID:23855271

Li, Tianrun; Geng, Leiluo; Chen, Xin; Miskowiec, Miranda; Li, Xuan; Dong, Bing

2013-08-01

175

Compartmentalization of amino acids in surfactant aggregates. Partitioning between water and aqueous micellar sodium deodecanoate and between hexane and dodecylammonium propionate trapped water in hexane.  

PubMed

Cationic amino acids, arginine and lysine partition differentially from water into aqueous micellar sodium dodecanoate. Conversely, partitioning of serine, glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, alanine, proline, valine, leucine, phenylalanine and isoleucine do not vary appreciably. Partitioning from neat hexane into dodecylammonium propionate trapped water in hexane is, however, dependent upon both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These results imply that the interior of dedecylammonium propionate aggregates is negatively charged and is capable of hydrogen bonding in addition to providing a hydrophobic enviroment. The solubilities of amino acids in neat hexane substantiate the previously derived amino acid hydrophobicity scale. Relevance of partitioning in these systems to the postulated selective amino acid compartmentalization is discussed. PMID:1206727

Fendler, J H; Nome, F; Nagyvary, J

1975-11-01

176

Criteria for distinguishing biogenic and abiogenic amino acids - Preliminary considerations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Criteria to determine the mode of origin of amino acids can be established by consideration of their structure, enantiometric distribution, composition, and relative abundance. A population of dominantly protein amino acids with one enantiomeric configuration most likely had a biological origin. Biological amino acids do racemize, however, so the absence of optical activity would not rule out the possibility that the amino acids in a racemic mixture were originally synthesized biologically. For racemic amino acids, therefore, structure, composition and relative abundance become important in ascertaining the origin of these compounds. Abiotically synthesized amino acids have a population composed of both protein and nonprotein structures present as racemic mixtures.

Kvenvolden, K. A.

1973-01-01

177

Evolution from amino acids - Lunar occurrence of their precursors.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the present state of experimentally based concepts of organic evolution from amino acids. Earlier studies of the synthesis of amino acid precursors from meteoritic material, lunar dust, and terrestrial lava are briefly summarized, and laboratory experiments in which polymers of amino acids were obtained either by direct heating of dry amino acids or by heating aqueous solutions of mixtures of amino acids are described. In particular, a process is described by which alpha-amino acids were made to react to form linear chains of proteinoids. It is concluded that a proteinoid microsystem was a common ancestor of all life on earth.

Fox, S. W.

1972-01-01

178

Studies on the biochemical composition, energetics and essential amino acids of three mudskippers in Xiamen Harbour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made on the contents of protein, lipid, glycogen (PLG) and water, and on caloric values and amino acids, in muscle of three mudskippers Periophthalmus cantonensis, Scarteiaos viridis and Boleophthalmus pectinirostris collected from Haicang, Xiamen. The essential amino acids (EAA) for these fishes were also studied with radioisotopic trace method. The results showed: (1) The content of each component in tested fish muscles differed slightly, and protein was the most important component making up from 6.685% to 9.891% of the wet weight (about 44.21% 50.45% of dry weight); (2) Energy calculated from the sum of protein, lipid and glycogen in wet muscle was low (<4.3kJ/g) in these fishes, especially in B. pectinirostris (<3.1 kJ/g); the ratios of energy to protein content ( E/P) also were low (<39.873 45.535kJ/g); (3) Seventeen amino acids were determined in these three fishes. The content of the same amino acid (among the seventeen) tested in different species and sexes varied slightly. The amounts of methionine, phenylalanine lysine, arginine, histidine, threonine isoleucine and leucine which are indispensable for the needs of human beings and animals were relatively high, accounting for 47.35% 48.06% of the total amino acid content. (4) Leucine, isoleucine, arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, threonine, and valine, are essential in the diet of the three mudskippers as the radioisotopic trace method using D-[U-14C]-glucose showed little or no radioactivity was incorporated into these ten amino acids.

Wang, Jun; Su, Yong-Quan

1995-12-01

179

Studies on the biochemical composition, energetics and essential amino acids of three mudskippers in Xiamen Harbour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made on the contents of protein, lipid, glycogen (PLG) and water, and on caloric values and amino acids, in muscle of three mudskippers Periophthalmus cantonensis, Scarteiaos viridis and Boleophthalmus pectinirostris collected from Haicang, Xiamen. The essential amino acids (EAA) for these fishes were also studied with radioisotopic trace method. The results showed: (1) The content of each component in tested fish muscles differed slightly, and protein was the most important component making up from 6.685% to 9.891% of the wet weight (about 44.21%-50.45% of dry weight); (2) Energy calculated from the sum of protein, lipid and glycogen in wet muscle was low (<4.3kJ/g) in these fishes, especially in B. pectinirostris (<3.1 kJ/g); the ratios of energy to protein content ( E/P) also were low (<39.873-45.535kJ/g); (3) Seventeen amino acids were determined in these three fishes. The content of the same amino acid (among the seventeen) tested in different species and sexes varied slightly. The amounts of methionine, phenylalanine lysine, arginine, histidine, threonine isoleucine and leucine which are indispensable for the needs of human beings and animals were relatively high, accounting for 47.35%-48.06% of the total amino acid content. (4) Leucine, isoleucine, arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, threonine, and valine, are essential in the diet of the three mudskippers as the radioisotopic trace method using D-[U-14C]-glucose showed little or no radioactivity was incorporated into these ten amino acids.

Jun, Wang; Yong-Quan, Su

1995-12-01

180

Brain-blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

2014-01-01

181

Using pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein subcellular location: approached with amino acid composition distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  In the Post Genome Age, there is an urgent need to develop the reliable and effective computational methods to predict the\\u000a subcellular localization for the explosion of newly found proteins. Here, a novel method of pseudo amino acid (PseAA) composition,\\u000a the so-called “amino acid composition distribution” (AACD), is introduced. First, a protein sequence is divided equally into\\u000a multiple segments. Then,

J.-Y. Shi; S.-W. Zhang; Q. Pan; G.-P. Zhou

2008-01-01

182

Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

183

Polymerization of amino acids under high-pressure conditions: Implication to chemical evolution on the early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prebiotic polymerization of amino acids is the most fundamental reaction to promote the chemical evolution for origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids is the dehydration reaction. This questions as to if submarine hydrothermal conditions, thus hydrated enironments, were appropreate for peptide formations. Our previous experiments implied that non-aqueous and high-pressure environments (more than 20 MPa) would be suitable for polymerization of amino acids (Ohara et al., 2006). This leads to the hypothesis that the first peptides may have formed in the Hadean oceanic crustal environments, where dehydration proceeded with availability of appropriate temperatures and pressures. In the present study, experiments simulating the crustal conditions were performed with various pressures (1-175 MPa) and temperatures (100- 200 C degree) using autoclaves. Purified powders (100 mg) of alanine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid were used in the experiments without mixing water in order to examine the solid-solid reactions. The products were analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. Results indicate that: (1) longer time is required to form peptide compared to those of previous aqueous experiments; (2) pressure has a role to limit the production of melanoidine and cyclic amino acids, which are inhibitors for elongation of peptides; (3) glycine was polymerized up to 11-mer, which was not formed in any previous experiments without catalyses; (4) valine was polymerized up to 3-mer; and (5) aspartic acid was polymerized to 4-mer, accompanied with production of other amino acids. It is noteworthy that high-pressure environments favor all examined polymerization reactions. Such situations would have happened inside of deep oceanic crusts of the early Earth.

Kakegawa, T.; Ohara, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Abiko, H.; Nakazawa, H.

2008-12-01

184

Geochemistry of amino acids in some Florida peat accumulations—II. Amino acid distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of amino acids in some Florida peats have been compared with distributions in plants living now at the surface of the peats and in surface litter. Quantitative determinations were made by gas chromatography of volatile derivatives of both protein and non-protein amino acids. The latter. found also in mineral soils, are believed to represent bacterial cell constituents and/or anabolites. ?,?-diaminopimelic acid, a constituent of the mureide complex of bacterial cell walls, was found in peats and surface litter, as were other acids believed in soil ecosystems to result from the living processes of microorganisms. The protein amino acids in peats do not show a distinctive signature of any particular kind of organism, but the nature and concentrations of the non-protein acids support the inference that the higher plant constituents are extensively re-worked and that essentially all of the amino acid material in peats is microbial in proximate origin. Thus microbial amino acids appear to be quite significant participants in the input to coalification.

Casagrande, Daniel J.; Given, P. H.

1980-10-01

185

Metabolic effects of inhibitors of two enzymes of the branched-chain amino acid pathway in Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed Central

The metabolic effects of inhibitors of two enzymes in the pathway for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids were examined in Salmonella typhimurium mutant strain TV105, expressing a single isozyme of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), AHAS isozyme II. One inhibitor was the sulfonylurea herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SMM), which inhibits this isozyme and AHAS of other organisms, and the other was N-isopropyl oxalylhydroxamate (IpOHA), which inhibits ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI). The effects of the inhibitors on growth, levels of several enzymes of the pathway, and levels of intermediates of the pathway were measured. The intracellular concentration of the AHAS substrate 2-ketobutyrate increased on addition of SMM, but a lack of correlation between increased ketobutyrate and growth inhibition suggests that the former is not the immediate cause of the latter. The levels of the keto acid precursor of valine, but not of the precursor of isoleucine, were drastically decreased by SMM, and valine, but not isoleucine, partially overcame SMM inhibition. This apparent stronger effect of SMM on the flux into the valine arm, as opposed to the isoleucine arm, of the branched-chain amino acid pathway is explained by the kinetics of the AHAS reaction, as well as by the different roles of pyruvate, ketobutyrate, and the valine precursor in metabolism. The organization of the pathway thus potentiates the inhibitory effect of SMM. IpOHA has strong initial effects at lower concentrations than does SMM and leads to increases both in the acetohydroxy acid substrates of KARI and, surprisingly, in ketobutyrate. Valine completely protected strain TV105 from IpOHA at the MIC. A number of explanations for this effect can be ruled out, so that some unknown arrangement of the enzymes involved must be suggested. IpOHA led to initial cessation of growth, with partial recovery after a time whose duration increased with the inhibitor concentration. The recovery is apparently due to induction of new KARI synthesis, as well as disappearance of IpOHA from the medium. PMID:8576056

Epelbaum, S; Chipman, D M; Barak, Z

1996-01-01

186

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

187

Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-01-01

188

Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.  

PubMed

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-10-01

189

Enantioseparation of N-derivatized amino acids by micro-liquid chromatography using carbamoylated quinidine functionalized monolithic stationary phase.  

PubMed

In order to obtain satisfactory column permeability, efficiency and selectivity for micro-HPLC, a capillary monolithic column containing O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine (MQD) as chiral selector was re-optimized. The monolithic column was used to successfully enantioresolve a wide range of N-derivatized amino acids including alanine, leucine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, valine, serine, isoleucine, tryptophan, and cysteine. The influence of mobile phase parameters, such as the organic solvent type and concentration, the apparent pH, and buffer concentration, on retention and enantioseparation of N-derivatized amino acids has been investigated. 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-amino acids and 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl-amino acids were resolved into enantiomers with exceptionally high selectivity and resolution. The chemoselectivity of the monolithic column for a multicomponent mixture of N-derivatized amino acids was also investigated. A mixture of three pairs of 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl-amino acids could be fully resolved in 22.5min. PMID:24999069

Wang, Qiqin; Feng, Jun; Han, Hai; Zhu, Peijie; Wu, Huihui; Marina, Maria Luisa; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

2014-10-10

190

Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

2014-01-01

191

Second-Tier Test for Quantification of Alloisoleucine and BranchedChain Amino Acids in Dried Blood Spots to Improve Newborn Screening for Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) relies on finding increased concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine by tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). D-Alloisoleucine (allo- Ile)istheonlypathognomonicmarkerofMSUD,butit cannot be identified by existing screening methods be- causeitisnotdifferentiatedfromisobaricaminoacids. Furthermore, newborns receiving total parenteral nu- trition often have increased concentrations of BCAAs. To improve the specificity of newborn

Devin Oglesbee; Karen A. Sanders; Jean M. Lacey; Mark J. Magera; Bruno Casetta; Kevin A. Strauss; Silvia Tortorelli; Piero Rinaldo; Dietrich Matern

192

Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanyl- methyl ester, 200 mg\\/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g\\/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and

Hidehiko Yokogoshi; Carolyn H Roberts; Benjamin Caballero; Richard J Wurtman

193

Amino acid composition of Lesquerella seed meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed meals from 14 species ofLesquerella, family Cruciferae, were analyzed for 18 amino acids. Lysine and methionine contents ranged, respectively, from 331 to 440,\\u000a and 72 to 94 mg. per g. of nitrogen. When compared with 9 species ofBrassica (rape, mustard),Lesquerella seeds were higher in lysine and lower in methionine. Thirteen unidentified substances were detected by the ion-exchange chromatographic\\u000a method

Roger Wayne Miller; C. H. Van Etten; I. A. Wolff

1962-01-01

194

Amino Acid Biosynthetic Cost and Protein Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein products of highly expressed genes tend to favor amino acids that have lower average biosynthetic costs (i.e., they\\u000a exhibit metabolic efficiency). While this trend has been observed in several studies, the specific sites where cost-reducing\\u000a substitutions accumulate have not been well characterized. Toward that end, weighted costs in conserved and variable positions\\u000a were evaluated across a total of 9,119

Esley M. Heizer Jr; Michael L. Raymer; Dan E. Krane

195

Creatinine Inhibits D-Amino Acid Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) activity by various uremic retention products and guanidino compounds was investigated. Creatinine (CTN) was found to inhibit DAO at a similar concentration in the sera of uremic patients. The inhibition was competitive and the Ki value was 2.7 mM. Moreover, CTN was shown to interact with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a coenzyme of DAO.

Y. Nohara; J. Suzuki; T. Kinoshita; M. Watanabe

2002-01-01

196

Effect of phosphate and amino acids on echinomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces echinatus.  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces echinatus produces only echinomycin (quinomycin A), in contrast to other streptomycetes, which produce families of quinoxaline antibiotics differing in the amino acid composition of the oligopeptide (quinomycins A, B, B0, C, D, and E) or the structure of the sulfur-containing cross bridge (triostins A, B, and C). Attempts were made to establish conditions for directed biosynthesis with S. echinatus. The lability of the peptide lactone to alkaline pH was obviated by using high levels of phosphate or HEPES [4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethane-sulfonic acid] buffer in the production medium. Maintaining the pH below 7.5 resulted in an apparent stimulation of production. Amino acids which serve as structural components or as precursors of echinomycin were employed singly or in combination with nitrate in a chemically defined medium. Based on specific yield (micrograms of echinomycin per milligram of mycelia [dry weight]), D- and L-serine, D-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine produced equivalent yields of antibiotic which were approximately twofold greater than yields obtained with nitrate alone. In contrast, L-alanine, beta-alanine, and L-threonine produced a three- to fourfold stimulation of production. Although the other amino acids diminished antibiotic production, L-isoleucine, which ostensibly was inhibitory to production, supported the accumulation of a quinoxaline antibiotic in which the cross-bridge sulfur lacked a methyl group. PMID:6660849

Formica, J V; Waring, M J

1983-01-01

197

Temperature dependence of amino acid transport in brain slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in amino acid influx and exit in incubated slices when the temperature was lowered from 37 to 20°C was observed with all 16 amino acids examined at two concentrations (1 mM and 10 ľM). The temperature dependence of cellular amino acid influx observed in slices in vitro contrasts with the absence of temperature dependence of capillary amino acid

M. Banay-Schwartz; K. Lajtha; H. Sershen; A. Lajtha

1977-01-01

198

Structure and Function of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters (CATs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAT proteins (CAT for cationic amino acid transporter) are amongst the first mammalian amino acid transporters identified\\u000a on the molecular level and seem to be the major entry path for cationic amino acids in most cells. However, CAT proteins mediate\\u000a also efflux of their substrates and thus may also deplete cells from cationic amino acids under certain circumstances. The

E. I. Closs; J.-P. Boissel; A. Habermeier; A. Rotmann

2006-01-01

199

Synthetic approaches to obtain amino acid adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate.  

PubMed

4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important isocyanate used in the chemical industry. Lung sensitization and asthma are the main types of damage after exposure to MDI. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. It is therefore necessary to have sensitive and specific biomarkers such as blood protein adducts to monitor people exposed to isocyanates. For the discovery of new isocyanate adducts with blood proteins present in vivo, new synthetic standards are needed. To achieve this, we developed five methods to obtain amino acid adducts of MDI. We synthesized and isolated MDI adducts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine, and valine. The new adducts were characterized by LC-MS/MS and NMR. We synthesized the corresponding isotope-labeled MDI adducts to develop analytical methods using LC-MS/MS. Glutathione adducts of isocyanates are an important way of transportation of the reactive isocyanates to distant sites from the original site of exposure. Therefore, we used N-acetyl-cysteine adducts of MDI as reactants: N-acetyl-S-[[4-(4-aminobenzyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-cysteine (MDI-AcCys) and N-acetyl-S-[[4-(4-acetylaminobenzyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-cysteine (AcMDI-AcCys). MDI-AcCys or AcMDI-AcCys formed adducts with albumin, N(?)-acetyl lysine, and valine. Isotope-labeled albumin adducts (= d(4)-MDI-albumin) were synthesized from d(4)-MDI-AcCys and albumin. d(4)-MDI-albumin can be used as an internal standard to analyze biological samples. Such an internal standard will not correct only for the extraction recovery of the adducts but also for the potential variation of the enzymatic digestions used in the procedure to analyze albumin adducts of MDI. The synthetic procedures described in this manuscript will be applicable to the synthesis of amino acid adducts from other isocyanates. PMID:23181454

Sabbioni, Gabriele; Dongari, Nagaraju; Schneider, Siegfried; Kumar, Anoop

2012-12-17

200

Acute effect of amino acid peritoneal dialysis solution on vascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oral ingestion of proteins or amino acids is associ- ated with endothelial dysfunction. The effect of commercial amino acid peritoneal dialysis solutions on vascular function is unknown. Objective: We compared the acute effect of intraperitoneal amino acid administration with that of intraperitoneal glucose adminis- tration on vascular function in peritoneal dialysis patients. Design: In an open-label randomized, controlled, crossover

Andreas Vychytil; Manuela Födinger; Johannes Pleiner; Marcus Mullner; Peter Konner; Sonja Skoupy; Claudia Röhrer; Michael Wolzt; Gere Sunder-Plassmann

201

Prediction of nuclear receptors with optimal pseudo amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors are involved in multiple cellular signaling pathways that affect and regulate processes such as organ development and maintenance, ion transport, homeostasis, and apoptosis. In this article, an optimal pseudo amino acid composition based on physicochemical characters of amino acids is suggested to represent proteins for predicting the subfamilies of nuclear receptors. Six physicochemical characters of amino acids were

Qing-Bin Gao; Zhi-Chao Jin; Xiao-Fei Ye; Cheng Wu; Jia He

2009-01-01

202

Genetic Engineering of Amino Acid Metabolism in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are not only building blocks of proteins but also participate in many metabolic networks that control growth and adaptation to the environment. In young plants, amino acid biosynthesis is regulated by a compound metabolic network that links nitrogen assimilation with carbon metabolism. This network is strongly regulated by the metabolism of four central amino acids, namely glutamine, glutamate,

Shmuel Galili; Rachel Amir; Gad Galili

2008-01-01

203

Protein structures uncovered Amino acids are molecules and are the  

E-print Network

Protein structures uncovered Lysozyme Amino acid Amino acids are molecules and are the building by various geometric shapes and colours. Primary Structure Amino acids link together in a specific sequence to form a chain. This chain is called the primary structure. If the protein chain doesn't occur

Rambaut, Andrew

204

Amino acids and osmolarity in honeybee drone haemolymph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the haemolymph of honeybee drones, concentrations of free amino acids were higher than in worker haemolymph, with different relative proportions of individual amino acids. The overall concentration of free amino acids reached its highest level at the 5th day after adult drone emergence, and after the 9th day only minor changes in the concentration and distribution of free

B. Leonhard; K. Crailsheim

1999-01-01

205

A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water

K. L. F. Brinton; J. L. Bada; J. R. Arnold

1993-01-01

206

Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates  

E-print Network

Rapid and Precise Determination of Cellular Amino Acid Flux Rates Using HPLC with Automated synthesis may consume larger quantities of amino acids than other cell types. HPLC with precolumn. Experimental HPLC The ZORBAX Eclipse Plus amino acid analysis (AAA) method was performed using an Agilent 1100

Wikswo, John

207

Design and Characterization of Auxotrophy-Based Amino Acid Biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that – upon deletion – should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for

Felix Bertels; Holger Merker; Christian Kost

2012-01-01

208

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

209

FgIlv5 is required for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and full virulence in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

In this study, we characterized FgIlv5, a homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae keto-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) from the important wheat head scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. KARI is a key enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA, including leucine, isoleucine and valine) biosynthetic pathway that exists in a variety of organisms from bacteria to fungi and higher plants, but not in mammals. The FgILV5 deletion mutant ?FgIlv5-4 failed to grow when the culture medium was nutritionally limited for BCAAs. When grown on potato-dextrose agar plates, ?FgIlv5-4 exhibited a significant decrease in aerial hyphae formation and red pigmentation. Conidia formation was also blocked in ?FgIlv5-4. Exogenous addition of 1 mM isoleucine and valine was able to rescue the defects of mycelial growth and conidial morphogenesis. Cellular stress assays showed that ?FgIlv5-4 was more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stresses than the wild-type strain. In addition, virulence of ?FgIlv5-4 was dramatically reduced on wheat heads, and a low level of deoxynivalenol production was detected in ?FgIlv5-4 in wheat kernels. The results of this study indicate that FgIlv5 is involved in valine and isoleucine biosynthesis and is required for full virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:24493249

Liu, Xin; Wang, Jian; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

2014-04-01

210

Stimulation of renal amino acid reabsorption after treatment with triiodothyronine or dexamethasone in amino acid loaded rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In adult female anaestetized rats, the influence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone on renal amino acid handling was investigated in leucine (20mg\\/100g b.wt.) or glutamine (45mg\\/100g b.wt.) loaded animals. Bolus injections of both amino acids were followed by temporary increase in fractional excretion of the administered amino acids as well of the endogenous amino acids which were not administered.

Ch. Fleck; M. Aurich; M. Schwertfeger

1997-01-01

211

Synthesis and mass spectrometric identification of the major amino acid adducts formed between sulphur mustard and haemoglobin in human blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to develop methods for the verification of alleged exposure to sulphur mustard, we synthesized and characterized\\u000a three amino acid adducts presumably formed by alkylation of haemoglobin: 4-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-l-aspartate, 5-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-l-glutamate and N1- and N3-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-l-histidine. Suitable derivatization methods for GC\\/MS analysis were developed for these adducts as well as for the cysteine\\u000a and the N-terminal valine adduct. Incubation

Daan Noort; Albert G. Hulst; Hendrik C. Trap; Leo P. A. de Jong; Hendrik P. Benschop

1997-01-01

212

Amino acid and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the concentrations of amino acids and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in subretinal fluid (SRF) of cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The relevance of the results with postoperative anatomic and functional success in RRD was investigated. Methods Fifty-three patients were included in this prospective study. The study group consisted of 46 patients who had scleral buckling surgery with the diagnosis of RRD, and SRF was obtained during the surgery. The control specimens consisted of vitreous samples of seven patients who were diagnosed with pars plana vitrectomy without RRD. Study cases were divided into three groups, corresponding to the duration of retinal detachment. Clinical characteristics, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomic status at month 6, were recorded. Concentrations of 15 selected amino acids were quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography, and VEGF levels were measured with enzyme immunoassay. Results When compared with the control group, SRF concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and glycine increased significantly in the study group (p<0.05). Statistical analysis showed that concentrations of alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine decreased (p<0.05). SRF levels of glutamine, taurine, and serine had no significant change. SRF VEGF levels were significantly higher than the vitreous samples of the controls (p<0.001). Time-dependent changes and interactions between VEGF and amino acids were observed. There was no correlation between the concentrations of amino acids or VEGF with the parameters of BCVA and anatomical success. Conclusions Significant changes occur in concentrations of amino acids and VEGF in SRF of cases with RRD. Our results suggest that several mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:25352742

Buyukuysal, Rifat Levent; Gelisken, Oner; Buyukuysal, Cagatay; Can, Basak

2014-01-01

213

Time-Resolved Transcriptome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Responding to Valine, Glutamate, and Glutamine  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can restructure their transcriptional output to adapt to environmental conditions by sensing endogenous metabolite pools. In this paper, an Agilent customized microarray representing 4,106 genes was used to study temporal transcript profiles of Bacillus subtilis in response to valine, glutamate and glutamine pulses over 24 h. A total of 673, 835, and 1135 amino-acid-regulated genes were identified having significantly changed expression at one or more time points in response to valine, glutamate, and glutamine, respectively, including genes involved in cell wall, cellular import, metabolism of amino-acids and nucleotides, transcriptional regulation, flagellar motility, chemotaxis, phage proteins, sporulation, and many genes of unknown function. Different amino acid treatments were compared in terms of both the global temporal profiles and the 5-minute quick regulations, and between-experiment differential genes were identified. The highlighted genes were analyzed based on diverse sources of gene functions using a variety of computational tools, including T-profiler analysis, and hierarchical clustering. The results revealed the common and distinct modes of action of these three amino acids, and should help to elucidate the specific signaling mechanism of each amino acid as an effector. PMID:19763274

Ye, Bang-Ce; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Hui; Yu, Wen-Bang; Liu, Bao-Hong; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Yin, Chun-Yun; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Si-Liang

2009-01-01

214

Hamster d -amino-acid oxidase cDNA: rodents lack the 27th amino acid residue in d -amino-acid oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The nucleotide sequence of cDNA that encodes hamster d-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) was determined. The cDNA consisted of 1,590 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail. It had an open reading\\u000a frame for a protein consisting of 346 amino acid residues. The number of the amino acid residues is the same as that of the\\u000a rat DAO. However, the hamster DAO has one

M. Tsuchiya; A. Kurabayashi; R. Konno

2003-01-01

215

Some of the amino acid chemistry going on in the Laboratory of Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Some of the chemistry of amino acids going on in our laboratory (Laboratoire des Amino acides Peptides et Protéines) is described as well as some mass spectrometry methodology for their characterization particularly on solid supports. Several aspects are presented including: (i) the stereoselective synthesis of natural and unnatural amino acids using 2-hydroxypinan-3-one as chiral auxiliary; (ii) the stereoselective synthesis

S. Bouifraden; C. Drouot; M. El Hadrami; F. Guenoun; L. Lecointe; N. Mai; C. Pothion; M. Sadoune; B. Sauvagnat; M. Amblard; J. L. Aubagnac; M. Calmes; P. Chevallet; J. Daunis; C. Enjalbal; J. A. Fehrentz; F. Lamaty; J. P. Lavergne; R. Lazaro; V. Rolland; M. L. Roumestant; Ph. Viallefont; Y. Vidal; J. Martinez

1999-01-01

216

Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog  

PubMed Central

Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues. PMID:25210846

Fu, Mingchuan; Huang, Zhuoran; Mao, Yuanhui; Tao, Shiheng

2014-01-01

217

Beneficial effects of l-leucine and l-valine on arrhythmias, hemodynamics and myocardial morphology in rats.  

PubMed

Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to have a general protective effect on the heart in different animal models as well as in humans. However, so far no attempt has been made to specifically elucidate their influence on arrhythmias. Our study was performed to evaluate whether an infusion of either l-leucine or l-valine in a dose of 1mgkg(-1)h(-1) 10min before a 7-min period of left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 15min of reperfusion, had an effect on arrhythmias measured during the reperfusion phase in the ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias model in rats in vivo. The effect of the infusion of these substances on mean arterial blood pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. Both of the tested amino acids exhibited significant antiarrhythmic properties. l-Leucine reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.05) and l-valine decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (P<0.05). The two amino acids were generally hypotensive. l-Valine lowered blood pressure in all phases of the experiment (P<0.05) while l-leucine lowered this parameter mainly towards the end of occlusion and reperfusion (P<0.05). In addition, 30min infusion of the amino acids in the used dose did not produce any apparent adverse histological changes that were remarkably different from control. In summary, the results of our study suggest that l-leucine and l-valine in the dose that was used attenuates arrhythmias and are hypotensive in their influence. Our findings lend support to the many ongoing investigations into the benefit of the application of l-leucine and l-valine in cardiology like their addition to cardioplegic solutions. PMID:21605982

Mitr?ga, Katarzyna; Zorniak, Micha?; Varghese, Benoy; Lange, Dariusz; No?ynski, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Bia?ka, Szymon; Krzemi?ski, Tadeusz F

2011-09-01

218

Amino acid-dependent stability of the acyl linkage in aminoacyl-tRNA.  

PubMed

Aminoacyl-tRNAs are the biologically active substrates for peptide bond formation in protein synthesis. The stability of the acyl linkage in each aminoacyl-tRNA, formed through an ester bond that connects the amino acid carboxyl group with the tRNA terminal 3'-OH group, is thus important. While the ester linkage is the same for all aminoacyl-tRNAs, the stability of each is not well characterized, thus limiting insight into the fundamental process of peptide bond formation. Here, we show, by analysis of the half-lives of 12 of the 22 natural aminoacyl-tRNAs used in peptide bond formation, that the stability of the acyl linkage is effectively determined only by the chemical nature of the amino acid side chain. Even the chirality of the side chain exhibits little influence. Proline confers the lowest stability to the linkage, while isoleucine and valine confer the highest, whereas the nucleotide sequence in the tRNA provides negligible contribution to the stability. We find that, among the variables tested, the protein translation factor EF-Tu is the only one that can protect a weak acyl linkage from hydrolysis. These results suggest that each amino acid plays an active role in determining its own stability in the acyl linkage to tRNA, but that EF-Tu overrides this individuality and protects the acyl linkage stability for protein synthesis on the ribosome. PMID:24751649

Peacock, Jacob R; Walvoord, Ryan R; Chang, Angela Y; Kozlowski, Marisa C; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming

2014-06-01

219

AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE  

PubMed Central

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of everted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C14- or H3-labeled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorptive cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles per liter of cells. Quantitative data were obtained by microdensitometry of C14 autoradiographs. Similar, though less striking, results were obtained with the sugars: galactose, 3-0-methylglucose, ?-methylglucoside, and 6-deoxyglucose. In all cases the marked "step-up" in concentration occurred near the brush border of the cell, and a "step-down" in concentration occurred at the basal pole of the cell. Known inhibitors of intestinal absorption, e.g., phlorizin in the case of sugars, blocked the concentrative step at the luminal border of the absorptive cell. It is inferred from these data that active transport systems for sugars and amino acids reside in the brush border region of the cell. Additional evidence suggests that the basal membrane of the cell may be the site of both a diffusion barrier and a weak transport system directed into the cell. PMID:19866662

Kinter, William B.; Wilson, T. Hastings

1965-01-01

220

Seed mycoflora of Ephedra aphylla and amino acid profile of seed-borne Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven seed samples of Ephedra aphylla were collected from different rangelands in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia during seed production season of 2010. They were assessed to determine the incidence of seedborne fungal flora using both agar plate and blotter paper methods. The investigation of the seeds yielded thirty four fungal species belonging to twelve genera, which are new record to seed-brone mycoflora of E. aphylla in Saudi Arabia. The agar plate method was found superior over blotter methods. The genus Aspergillus was the most prevalent one followed by Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Chaetomium. Only eighteen isolates of A. flavus (? 28.6% of total isolates) were able to produce aflatoxins. Mycelial amino acids profile of selected aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus was investigated and five amino acids, namely cystein, lysine, praline, tryptophan and valine were common in mycelia and all of them were aflatoxins producers. Based on the dissimilarity coefficient between the isolates and their amino acids patterns, high diversity among the population of A. flavus has been recorded. PMID:22982635

Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed F

2012-09-01

221

Amino-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence of the Silkworm Prothoracicotropic Hormone: Homology with Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular forms of prothoracicotropic hormone were isolated from the head of the adult silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the amino acid sequence of 19 amino acid residues in the amino terminus of these prothoracicotropic hormones was determined. These residues exhibit significant homology with insulin and insulin-like growth factors.

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Hironori Ishizaki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki

1984-01-01

222

Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

1985-01-01

223

Tuning gelation kinetics and mechanical rigidity of ?-hairpin peptide hydrogels via hydrophobic amino acid substitutions.  

PubMed

Self-assembling peptide hydrogels with faster gelation kinetics and higher mechanical rigidity are favorable for their practical applications. A design strategy to control the folding, self-assembly, and hydrogelation of ?-hairpin peptides via hydrophobic amino acid substitutions has been explored in this study. Isoleucine has higher hydrophobicity and stronger propensity for ?-sheet hydrogen bonding than valine. After the valine residues of MAX1 (VKVKVKVKV(D)PPTKVKVKVKV-NH2) were replaced with isoleucines, oscillatory rheometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the variants had clearly faster self-assembly and hydrogelation rates and that the resulting gels displayed higher mechanical stiffness. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the parent MAX1 and its variants all formed networks of long and entangled fibrils with the similar diameters of ?3 nm, suggesting little effect of hydrophobic substitutions on the self-assembled morphology. The MAX1I8 (IKIKIKIKV(D)PPTKIKIKIKI-NH2) hydrogel showed the fastest gelation rate (within 5 min) and the highest gel rigidity with the series, supporting the homogeneous cell distribution within its 3D scaffold. In addition, the MAX1I8 hydrogel showed quick shear-thinning and rapid recovery upon cessation of shear strain, and the MTT and immunological assays indicated its low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. These features are highly attractive for its widespread use in 3D cell culturing and regenerative medical treatments. PMID:25087842

Chen, Cuixia; Gu, Yanfeng; Deng, Li; Han, Shuyi; Sun, Xing; Chen, Yucan; Lu, Jian R; Xu, Hai

2014-08-27

224

Regulation of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium: Isolation of Regulatory Mutants  

PubMed Central

5?,5?,5?-Trifluoro-dl-leucine inhibited the activity of ?-isopropylmalate synthetase (the initial enzyme unique to leucine biosynthesis) as well as the growth of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutants of S. typhimurium resistant to the analogue were isolated and characterized. In most cases, they overproduced and excreted leucine or leucine, valine, and isoleucine as a result of an alteration in the regulation of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Biochemical and genetic tests allowed the mutants to be grouped into three classes: I, a moderately large group (13%) which had high, constitutive leucine biosynthetic enzyme levels and mutant sites linked to the leucine operon (operator constitutive); II, a single mutant in which the mutant site was linked to the leucine operon and in which ?-isopropylmalate synthetase was not inhibited by leucine (feedback negative); III, a majority type which had constitutive levels of leucine, valine, and isoleucine biosynthetic enzymes and mutant sites unlinked to the leucine operon. Mutants of class I provide important evidence for the concept of an operon organization of genes involved in leucine biosynthesis. The properties of class III mutants indicate that there is some element involved in regulation which is common to the three pathways. Images PMID:4887507

Calvo, J. M.; Freundlich, M.; Umbarger, H. E.

1969-01-01

225

Biosynthesis of amino acids in Clostridium pasteurianum  

PubMed Central

1. Clostridium pasteurianum was grown on a synthetic medium with the following carbon sources: (a) 14C-labelled glucose, alone or with unlabelled aspartate or glutamate, or (b) unlabelled glucose plus 14C-labelled aspartate, glutamate, threonine, serine or glycine. The incorporation of 14C into the amino acids of the cell protein was examined. 2. In both series of experiments carbon from exogenous glutamate was incorporated into proline and arginine; carbon from aspartate was incorporated into glutamate, proline, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, glycine and serine. Incorporations from the other exogenous amino acids indicated the metabolic sequence: aspartate ? threonine ? glycine ? serine. 3. The following activities were demonstrated in cell-free extracts of the organism: (a) the formation of aspartate by carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate or pyruvate, followed by transamination; (b) the individual reactions of the tricarboxylic acid route to 2-oxoglutarate from oxaloacetate; glutamate dehydrogenase was not detected; (c) the conversion of aspartate into threonine via homoserine; (d) the conversion of threonine into glycine by a constitutive threonine aldolase; (e) serine transaminase, phosphoserine transaminase, glycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. This last activity was abnormally high. 4. The combined evidence indicates that in C. pasteurianum the biosynthetic role of aspartate and glutamate is generally similar to that in aerobic and facultatively aerobic organisms, but that glycine is synthesized from glucose via aspartate and threonine. PMID:5419750

Dainty, R. H.; Peel, J. L.

1970-01-01

226

Amino acids, precursors for cationic and anionic intercalation synthesis and characterization of amino acid pillared materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and characterization of amino acid pillared materials are reported in this contribution. Host substances were Na-montmorillonite for cationic and hydrotalcite for anionic pillaring. Guest molecules were L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. The pillared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, BET measurements and FT-IR spectroscopy. Pillaring was successful: the layers propped open and the basal distances increased significantly. For hydrotalcite this increase was always significantly larger than for montmorillonite. This fact indicated that the spatial arrangement of the amino acid moieties is widely different. A model for this arrangement is given.

Fudala, Á.; Pálinkó, I.; Kiricsi, I.

1999-05-01

227

From one amino acid to another: tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smal- ler number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the tRNA, which is then converted to the cognate

Kelly Sheppard; Jing Yuan; Michael J. Hohn; Brian Jester; Kevin M. Devine; Dieter Soll

2008-01-01

228

Review: Taurine: A "very essential" amino acid  

PubMed Central

Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

Shen, Wen

2012-01-01

229

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

230

Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.  

PubMed

Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental conditions, we conclude that a systems approach is necessary to unravel the full effects of amino acid biosynthetic cost in complex biological systems. PMID:20808905

Barton, Michael D; Delneri, Daniela; Oliver, Stephen G; Rattray, Magnus; Bergman, Casey M

2010-01-01

231

Evolutionary Systems Biology of Amino Acid Biosynthetic Cost in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental conditions, we conclude that a systems approach is necessary to unravel the full effects of amino acid biosynthetic cost in complex biological systems. PMID:20808905

Barton, Michael D.; Delneri, Daniela; Oliver, Stephen G.; Rattray, Magnus; Bergman, Casey M.

2010-01-01

232

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

233

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the snythesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

234

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, Jr., Jefferson W. (San Francisco, CA)

1983-01-01

235

Organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of ?(3)-amino acid derivatives.  

PubMed

?(3)-Amino acid derivatives are an essential resource for pharmaceutical production, medicinal chemistry, and biochemistry. In this article, recent developments in versatile organocatalysis, i.e., Brřnsted acid catalysis, Brřnsted base catalysis, Lewis acid catalysis, Lewis base catalysis, and phase-transfer catalysis, for the asymmetric synthesis of ?(3)-amino acid derivatives will be presented. PMID:23748260

Kim, Sun Min; Yang, Jung Woon

2013-08-01

236

The Central Enzymes of the Aspartate Family of Amino Acid  

E-print Network

, and dipicolinic acid, important for sporulation in Gram-positive bacteria. During evolution members of the animalThe Central Enzymes of the Aspartate Family of Amino Acid Biosynthesis RONALD E. VIOLA* Department The aspartate pathway (Figure 1) uses L-aspartic acid as the precursor for the biosynthesis of the amino acids

Viola, Ronald

237

Amino acid preservation in saline halite core samples: Analogs for Martian dry evaporitic regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent data returned from several Mars spacecraft show substantial evidence for mineral precipitation from bodies of liquid water. Evaporitic minerals such as gypsum, kieserite and poly-hydrated magnesium sulfates have been detected remotely by orbiting spacecraft [1], jarosite has been detected in situ by the MER Opportunity [2], and chlorides are highly abundant upon the surface of Mars [3], often in correlation with siliclastic deposits [4]. Terrestrial environments can provide analogs for these systems identified on the Martian surface, and in-depth characterization of the terrestrial systems can provide valuable insights into processes that may have occurred on Mars during the late Noachian/early Hesperian. This is especially true in ancient playa or evaporative basin environments where deep core sampling offers a method of observing the geochemical diagenetic changes with time within a constrained environment. Deep coring can provide samples upwards of 200 ka within hundreds of meters of core [5]. The analysis of these sections can allow for the determination of preservation of various biosignatures from extinct microbial communities as well as their in situ diagenetic rates. Amino acids are powerful biomarkers that can be used to estimate biomass [6] and determine ages of extinct microbial communities [7]. Preliminary data for a core sample collected from Saline Valley, CA, shows the effect of time on amino acid biosignatures. The core has been dated by U-series: 35 feet, 20.9 ą 1.1 ka; 127 feet, 61.1 ą2.8 ka; 204 feet, 73.9 ą4.8 ka; and 310 feet, 150.3 ą 7.8 ka. The abundance of amino acids is observed to decrease drastically over the first 20 ka and then stabilize, although the overall composition changes. Acidic amino acids along with alanine and valine are the dominant amino acids. The enantiomeric (D/L) ratios generally increase with age because of in situ racemization, although the enantiomeric ratios for alanine and glutamic acid show a decrease in the deepest core section. This may indicate some recent amino acid contribution to the pool of certain amino acids. Racemization rates can be calculated from the equation: ln[(1+D/L)/(1-D/L)] - ln [(1+D/L)/(1-D/L)]t=0 = 2ki(time) where ki is the first-order rate constant for the interconversion of the enantiomers. Using the D/L ratios at the top of the core for the t = 0 term gives kasp = 3.5x10exp-5 y-1 and 1.3x10exp-5 y-1 for the 18 and 70 ka samples, respectively. For valine, the values are kval = 5.6x10exp-6 y-1 and 7.3x10exp-6 y-1. Extrapolating these values to the average surface temperatures on Mars indicates that the chirality of these amino acids would be preserved for billions of years. Thus, closed basin lacustrine and dry desert valley regions with evaporite-rich deposits are suitable environments in the search for preserved biosignatures on Mars. References [1] Bibring, J.P., et al., Science 307, 1576 (2005) [2] Klinghofer, G., et al., Science 306, 1740 (2004) [3] Osterloo, M.M., et al., Science 319, 1651 (2008) [4] Squyres, S.W., et al., Nature 443, E1 (2006) [5] Lowenstein, T.K., et al., Geology 27, 3 (1999) [6] Glavin, D., et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 185,1 (2001) [7] Aubrey, A. D., et al., in preparation, Nature Geo. Sci.

Bada, J.; Aubrey, A.; Lowenstein, T.; Timofeeff, M.

2008-12-01

238

Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline,

E. J. Crapster-Pregont; H. J. Cleaves; R. M. Hazen

2008-01-01

239

Behavioral responses in rats submitted to chronic administration of branched-chain amino acids.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn metabolism error caused by a deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to an accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, as well as their corresponding ?-keto and ?-hydroxy acids. Previous reports suggest that MSUD patients are at high risk for chronic neuropsychiatric problems. Therefore, in this study, we assessed variables that suggest depressive-like symptoms (anhedonia as measured by sucrose intake, immobility during the forced swimming test and body and adrenal gland weight) in rats submitted to chronic administration of BCAA during development. Furthermore, we determined if these parameters were sensitive to imipramine and N-acetylcysteine/deferoxamine (NAC/DFX). Our results demonstrated that animals subjected to chronic administration of branched-chain amino acids showed a decrease in sucrose intake without significant changes in body weight. We also observed an increase in adrenal gland weight and immobility time during the forced swimming test. However, treatment with imipramine and NAC/DFX reversed these changes in the behavioral tasks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a link between MSUD and depression in rats. Moreover, this investigation reveals that the antidepressant action of NAC/DFX and imipramine might be associated with their capability to maintain pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis. PMID:24214724

Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Gabriela C; Furlanetto, Camila B; Dominguini, Diogo; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, Joăo; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

2014-01-01

240

Formation and transformation of amino acids and amino acid precursors by high-velocity impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in extraterrestrial bodies such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites. It is plausible that these extraterrestrial bodies carried organic compounds such as amino acids or their precursors to the early Earth. It is claimed, however, that these extraterrestrial organics were destroyed during impacts to the Earth. We therefore examined possible transformation of amino acids and their precursors during high-velocity impacts by using a rail gun "HYPAC" in ISAS. Starting materials used in the impact experiments were (i) aqueous solution of glycine (10 mM or 1.0 M), and (ii) a mixture of ammonia, methanol and water. The target materials were sealed in stainless steel capsules, and shocked by impact with a polycarbonate projectile accelerated with "HYPAC" to the velocities of 2.5 - 7.0 km/s. A part of the products was acid-hydrolyzed. Both hydrolyzed an unhydrolyzed products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. When an aqueous solution containing ammonia, methanol and water was shocked by impact at the velocity of 6.4 km/s, a number of amino acids (e.g., serine and glycine) were detected after hydrolysis. The present results suggest that amino acid precursors could be formed during cometary impacts. When glycine solution was used as a starting material, about 40 % of glycine was recovered even after 6 km/s impact. Methylamine and ammonia, which are known as pyrolytic products of glycine, were detected, besides them, diketopiperazine and an unidentified product whose molecular weight was 134, were detected, while no glycine peptides were identified in them. It was shown that the impact processes resulted in the formation of amino acid condensates. Thermal stability of glycine precursor is comparable with glycine. The present results suggest that organic material could survive and/or formed during an impact process. Most of organic compounds in comets and carbonaceous chondrites were complex organic compounds. Laboratory simulations suggest that they contain precursors of amino acids. We are examining possible alteration of such complex precursors of amino acids by high-velocity impacts.

Kaneko, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamori, A.

241

Fatty Acid Production from Amino Acids and ?-Keto Acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2†  

PubMed Central

Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and ?-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of ?-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and ?-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from ?-keto acids only. BL2 also converted ?-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and ?-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event. PMID:15528496

Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C.

2004-01-01

242

Correlations of Amino Acids with Secondary Structure Types: Connection with Amino Acid Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlations of primary and secondary structures were analyzed using\\u000aproteins with known structure from Protein Data Bank. The correlation values of\\u000aamino acid type and the eight secondary structure types at distant position\\u000awere calculated for distances between -25 and 25. Shapes of the diagrams\\u000aindicate that amino acids polarity and capability for hydrogen bonding have\\u000ainfluence on the

Miodrag V. ivkovi?; V. Beljanski; Milos V. Beljanski; Snezana D. Zaric

2005-01-01

243

A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

1993-01-01

244

Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces  

E-print Network

Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) Langmuir monolayers...

Yang, Dengliang

2005-11-01

245

Determination of ?-aminonitriles, ?-amino acid amides and ?-amino acids by means of HPLC, post-column reaction and fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous assay of intermediate (?-aminonitrile and ?-amino acid amide) and end products\\u000a (?-amino acid) in process streams of ?-amino acid synthesis. Applications are given for Ala, Val and Leu. ?-Aminonitriles\\u000a were stable in a phosphate buffer pH 3, which was subsequently used for sample handling and chromatography. The ?-aminonitrile,\\u000a the corresponding acid amide

A. L. L. Duchateau; M. G. Crombach

1987-01-01

246

Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (<1 ppm). The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the ?-amino acids glycine, isovaline, ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB), and alanine, with ? 13 C values ranging from +31.6% to +50.5%. The highly enriched carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of ?-AIB and ?-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

247

Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

248

Synthesis, Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis, and Aqueous Solubility of Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Various water-soluble L-valine-, L-glutamate-, and glycine ester prodrugs of two 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues (3-CTAs), designated N5 and N5-2OH, were synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors since the water solubilities of the parental compounds proved to be insufficient in preclinical studies. The amino acid ester prodrugs were prepared and stored as hydrochloride salts. The water solubilities of these amino acid ester prodrugs, evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.4, improved 48 to 6600 times compared with parental N5 and N5-2OH. The stability of the amino acid ester prodrugs was evaluated in PBS at pH 7.4, Bovine serum, and Bovine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The rate of the hydrolysis in all three incubation media depended primarily on the amino acid promoiety and, to a lesser extend, on the site of esterification at the deoxyribose portion of the 3-CTAs. In general, 3'-amino acid ester prodrugs were less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis than 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs and the stabilities of the latter decreased in the following order: 5'-valine > 5'-glutamate > 5'-glycine. The rate of the hydrolysis of the 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs in Bovine CSF was overall higher than in PBS and somewhat lower than in Bovine serum. Overall, 5'-glutamate ester prodrug of N5 and the 5'-glycine ester prodrugs of N5 and N5-2OH appeared to be the most promising candidates for preclinical BNCT studies. PMID:22889558

Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Abd alla, Mosaad S. M.; Tjarks, Werner

2012-01-01

249

Geochemistry of amino acids in shells of the clam Saxidomus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of amino acids and their corresponding d l enantiomeric ratios have been measured in shells of the bivalve mollusk Saxidomus from eleven localities, ranging in age from modern to probably more than 500,000 yr, along the Pacific coast of North America. Natural logarithms of amino acid concentrations correlate well with d l ratios, and the relationship provides a possible guide to the selection of fossils for use in amino acid dating. The relative order of the extents of racemization of amino acids at any given time appears to change with increasing sample age. Application of the amino acid dating method to shells from Whidbey Island, Washington, yields an age of about 80,000 yr, in contrast to the previously determined radiocarbon age of 36,000 yr which was measured on some shell carbonate and considered a minimum age. The amino acid age is compatible with the geologic record in the area. ?? 1980.

Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; McMenamin, M.A.; Straham, S.E.

1980-01-01

250

Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approx. 150 C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures less than 550 C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. Key Words: Amino acids-Exogenous delivery-Micrometeorites-Sublimation.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

251

Lattice resolution and solution kinetics on surfaces of amino acid crystals: an atomic force microscope study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report atomic force microscopy (AFM) results on six amino acid crystal surfaces: glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-phenylalanine. Samples were grown by slow evaporation of concentrated aqueous solutions. All samples contained crystalline areas where the AFM showed extended molecularly flat sheets (up to hundreds of nm in size) separated by steps a single molecule thick. The ordered lattice of each amino acid could be imaged on the sheets. Images revealed periodicities corresponding to bulk terminations in most cases, as well as other periodicities which probably correspond to molecular structure within the unit cell. Step motion kinetics were also imaged in situ during dissolution of L-leucine in flowing propanol. Steps oriented along the <010> direction traveled with speeds that were independent of both interstep distance and solvent flow rate for flow rates above 20 ?l/s, indicating a reaction rate limited process. Orthogonal bends along the <001> direction moved at speeds one to ten times that of steps, with narrow bends moving faster than wide. We speculate that these speed differences were caused by anisotropy in reaction kinetics coupled with partially saturated boundary layers near wide bends.

Manne, S.; Cleveland, J. P.; Stucky, G. D.; Hansma, P. K.

1993-05-01

252

Peptidology: short amino acid modules in cell biology and immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Short amino acid motifs, either linear sequences or discontinuous amino acid groupings, can interact with specific protein\\u000a domains, so exerting a central role in cell adhesion, signal transduction, hormone activity, regulation of transcript expression,\\u000a enzyme activity, and antigen-antibody interaction. Here, we analyze the literature for such critical short amino acid motifs\\u000a to determine the minimal peptide length involved in biologically

G. Lucchese; A. Stufano; B. Trost; A. Kusalik; D. Kanduc

2007-01-01

253

Amino acid sequence of the human fibronectin receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequence deduced from eDNA of the human placental fibronectin receptor is reported. The receptor is composed of two subunits: an 0t subunit of 1,008 amino acids which is processed into two polypeptides disulfide bonded to one another, and a 13 subunit of 778 amino acids. Each subunit has near its COOH terminus a hydrophobic segment. This and

W. Scott Argraves; Shintaro Suzuki; Hiroharu Arai; Katie Thompson; Michael D. Pierschbacher; Erkki Ruoslahti

1987-01-01

254

Simplifying pyridoxal: practical methods for amino acid dynamic kinetic resolution.  

PubMed

Metal complexes of picolinaldehyde are identified as low-cost and environmentally benign catalysts, providing high reaction rates and turnovers for the racemization of amino acids. These pyridoxal surrogates demonstrate activity toward a variety of amino acid esters. Applications to chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolutions provide access to amino acids in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities, demonstrating their compatibility with protease-mediated transformations. PMID:20364829

Felten, Albert E; Zhu, Gangguo; Aron, Zachary D

2010-05-01

255

BAT1, a bidirectional amino acid transporter in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis thaliana At2g01170 gene is annotated as a putative gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) permease based on its sequence similarity to a\\u000a yeast GABA transporting gene (UGA4). A cDNA of At2g01170 was expressed in yeast and analyzed for amino acid transport activity. Both direct measurement of amino\\u000a acid transport and yeast growth experiments demonstrated that the At2g01170 encoded-protein exhibits

Ekrem Dündar; Daniel R. Bush

2009-01-01

256

Which Amino Acids Should Be Used in Prebiotic Chemistry Studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of amino acids on minerals and their condensation under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic earth is\\u000a a well studied subject. However, which amino acids should be used in these experiments is still an open question. The main\\u000a goal of this review is to attempt to answer this question. There were two sources of amino acids for the

Dimas A. M. Zaia; Cássia Thaďs B. V. Zaia; Henrique De Santana

2008-01-01

257

STEREOSELECTIVE WAY TO DERIVATIVES OF N-PHOSPHORYLATED AMINO ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereoselective synthesis of the N-phosphor (V) substituted amino acids (2, 3) via the N-phosphor (III) derivatives of amino acids (1) are described. The diastereoisomers of N-phosphor (V) amino acids are separated by crystallization or column chromatography and used as starting compounds for preparation of chiral N-chloroamides. The prepared compounds have been characterized by NMR spectra and HPLC.

Oleg I. Kolodiazhnyi; Evgen V. Grishkun; Sergei V. Galushko; Oleg R. Golovatyi

1995-01-01

258

[Amino acid loss during dialysis treatment].  

PubMed

Protein-calorie malnutrition is a widespread complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with increased mortality. The pathogenesis of malnutrition is multifactorial. Intradialytic amino acid (AA) loss is considered one of the cofactors in the complex mechanisms that lead to malnutrition in HD patients. It has been documented that in each dialysis session there is a 6-8 gram loss of AA into the dialysate, which worsens with the use of high-flux membranes. The intradialytic AA loss is variably compensated by reduction of liver synthesis and increased AA release from muscle stores. In malnourished HD patients the serum AA concentration, especially branched-chain AA (BCAA), is correlated with nutritional status and anorexia, whereas BCAA supplementation improves the nutritional parameters and increases appetite. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of alterations of AA metabolism in the pathogenesis of malnutrition and the potential beneficial effects of BCAA supplementation or alternative treatments in malnourished patients. PMID:21341242

Borrelli, Silvio; De Nicola, Luca; Sagliocca, Adelia; Liberti, Maria Elena; Santangelo, Sara; Donnarumma, Gerardo; Garofalo, Carlo; Pacilio, Mario; Zamboli, Pasquale; Minutolo, Roberto; Conte, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

259

Synthesis of alpha-amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method is described for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(OSOCl)CN, R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(Cl)CN and [R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(CN)O][sub 2]SO wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art. No Drawings

Davis, J.W. Jr.

1983-01-25

260

Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats  

PubMed Central

Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

Nijveen, Harm

2014-01-01

261

Which Amino Acids Should Be Used in Prebiotic Chemistry Studies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of amino acids on minerals and their condensation under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic earth is a well studied subject. However, which amino acids should be used in these experiments is still an open question. The main goal of this review is to attempt to answer this question. There were two sources of amino acids for the prebiotic earth: (1) exogenous—meaning that the amino acids were synthesized outside the earth and delivered to our planet by interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), meteorites, comets, etc. and (2) endogenous—meaning that they were synthesized on earth in atmospheric mixtures, hydrothermal vents, etc. For prebiotic chemistry studies, the use of a mixture of amino acids from both endogenous and exogenous sources is suggested. The exogenous contribution of amino acids to this mixture is very different from the average composition of proteins, and contains several non-protein amino acids. On the other hand, the mixture of amino acids from endogenous sources is seems to more closely resemble the amino acid composition of terrestrial proteins.

Zaia, Dimas A. M.; Zaia, Cássia Thaďs B. V.; de Santana, Henrique

2008-12-01

262

Utilization of sorghum grain protein and amino acids by cattle  

E-print Network

' 52. 01 values Eol all observations on the grain. a TABLE 16. TRUE DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS FOR THE TEST GRAINS. Amino Acids TE I~14 626 7078 8-398 3197 608 610 625 Ration A Asp. Thr. Sor. Glu. Pro. Gly. Ala. Val. Cys. Met. Iles... ' 52. 01 values Eol all observations on the grain. a TABLE 16. TRUE DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS FOR THE TEST GRAINS. Amino Acids TE I~14 626 7078 8-398 3197 608 610 625 Ration A Asp. Thr. Sor. Glu. Pro. Gly. Ala. Val. Cys. Met. Iles...

Henderson, Glen Ray

2012-06-07

263

Design and Characterization of Auxotrophy-Based Amino Acid Biosensors  

PubMed Central

Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that – upon deletion – should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ?hisL and ?tdcC) both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used. PMID:22829942

Bertels, Felix; Merker, Holger; Kost, Christian

2012-01-01

264

Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Recent findings Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Summary Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:21076291

Yarandi, Shadi S.; Zhao, Vivian M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

265

Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease  

E-print Network

Intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by amino acid abundance. When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino ...

Cain, Natalie Elaine

266

Amino acids regulate the transcription, internal sorting, and intrinsic activity of the general amino acid permease (GAP1) in S. cerevisiae  

E-print Network

The high capacity general amino acid permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GAP1) is regulated such that it actively imports amino acids into the cell from the extracellular medium only when internal amino acid levels are ...

Risinger, April L. (April Lynn)

2007-01-01

267

Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

2008-10-31

268

Effect of DNA interaction involving antioxidative 4-aminoantipyrine incorporating mixed ligand complexes having alpha-amino acid as co-ligand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few new mixed ligand transition metal complexes of the stoichiometry [ML(A)2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), L = FFAP (furfurylidene-4-aminoantipyrine) and A = amino acid (glycine/alanine/valine), have been designed, synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of the complexes in DMF at 10-3 M concentration shows that they are non-electrolytes. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA indicates that the valine mixed ligand complexes are having higher binding constant than alanine and glycine mixed ligand complexes. This analysis reveals that binding constant depends on the size of the alkyl group present in the amino acid. The binding constants of valine mixed ligand complexes are in the order of 104 to 105 M-1 revealing that the complexes interact with DNA through moderate intercalation mode. The metal complexes exhibit effective cleavage of pUC19 DNA but it is not preceded via radical cleavage and superoxide anion radical. They are good antimicrobial agents than the free ligand. On comparing the IC50 values, [Ni(L)(Gly)2] is considered as a potential drug to eliminate the hydroxyl radical.

Raman, Natarajan; Sakthivel, Arunagiri; Selvaganapathy, Muthusamy; Mitu, Liviu

2014-02-01

269

Amino acid secondary transporters: toward a common transport mechanism.  

PubMed

Solute carriers (SLC) that transport amino acids are key players in health and diseases in humans. Their prokaryotic relatives are often involved in essential physiological processes in microorganisms, e.g. in homeostasis and acidic/osmotic stress response. High-resolution X-ray structures of the sequence-unrelated amino acid transporters unraveled a striking structural similarity between carriers, which were formerly assigned to different families. The highly conserved fold is characterized by two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices each and indicates common mechanistic transport concepts if not an evolutionary link among a large number of amino acid transporters. Therefore, these transporters are classified now into the structural amino acid-polyamine-organocation superfamily (APCS). The APCS includes among others the mammalian SLC6 transporters and the heterodimeric SLC7/SLC3 transporters. However, it has to be noted that the APCS is not limited entirely to amino acid transporters but contains also transporters for, e.g. amino acid derivatives and sugars. For instance, the betaine-choline-carnitine transporter family of bacterial activity-regulated Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled symporters for glycine betaine and choline is also part of this second largest structural superfamily. The APCS fold provides different possibilities to transport the same amino acid. Arginine can be transported by an H(+)-coupled symport or by antiport mechanism in exchange against agmatine for example. The convergence of the mechanistic concept of transport under comparable physiological conditions allows speculating if structurally unexplored amino acid transporters, e.g. the members of the SLC36 and SLC38 family, belong to the APCS, too. In the kidney, which is an organ that depends critically on the regulated amino acid transport, these different SLC transporters have to work together to account for proper function. Here, we will summarize the basic concepts of Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled amino acid symport and amino acid-product antiport in the light of the respective physiological requirements. PMID:23177982

Schweikhard, Eva S; Ziegler, Christine M

2012-01-01

270

Affinity of antineoplastic amino acid drugs for the large neutral amino acid transporter of the blood-brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative affinity of six anticancer amino acid drugs for the neutral amino acid carrier of the blood-brain barrier was examined in rats using an in situ brain perfusion technique. Affinity was evaluated from the concentration-dependent inhibition ofl-[14C]-leucine uptake into rat brain during perfusion at tracer leucine concentrations and in the absence of competing amino acids. Of the six drugs

Yoshiaki Takada; Nigel H. Greig; David T. Vistica; Stanley I. Rapoport; Quentin R. Smith

1991-01-01

271

Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. PMID:22325238

de Vladar, Harold P

2012-01-01

272

Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Prof. William Martin, Prof. Eörs Szathmáry (nominated by Dr. Gáspár Jékely) and Dr. Ádám Kun (nominated by Dr. Sandor Pongor) PMID:22325238

2012-01-01

273

Utilization of acidic ?-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto ?-amino acids and their derivatives.  

PubMed

Aryl-keto-containing ?-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl ?-amino acids, nonproteinogenic ?-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing ?-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic ?-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts. PMID:24840903

Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

2014-01-01

274

Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells  

PubMed Central

Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jorn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, Francois

2014-01-01

275

Amino acid efflux in the isolated perfused rat pancreas: trans-stimulation by extracellular amino acids.  

PubMed Central

1. Epithelial uptake and efflux of the non-metabolized system A analogue 2-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) and L-serine were studied in the isolated perfused rat pancreas using a dual tracer loading and wash-out technique. Uptakes of 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine were measured relative to D-[3H or 14C]mannitol (extracellular tracer) during a 20 min cell loading period. Maximal uptake for MeAIB (34 +/- 2%, n = 6) occurred within 2-3 min and decreased to 14 +/- 2% after 20 min tracer loading. Uptake for L-serine reached a maximum (62 +/- 4%, n = 7) within 1 min and decreased to 19 +/- 2% after 20 min tracer loading. 2. When tracer wash-out was monitored during subsequent perfusion of the preloaded pancreas with an isotope-free solution, D-mannitol predominantly cleared from a fast exchanging compartment (0.54 +/- 0.05 ml g-1, n = 9) with a time constant (Tfast) of 0.68 +/- 0.04 min. Although MeAIB and L-serine exhibited similar fast phases of wash-out, a much larger efflux occurred from a slowly exchanging pool with respective time constants (Tslow) of 15.47 +/- 0.45 min (n = 6) and 5.98 +/- 0.46 min (n = 7). 3. A rapid vascular challenge of the pancreas with 100 mM-L-serine transiently accelerated cellular efflux of 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine without affecting wash-out of D-[14C]mannitol. Tracer efflux following cell loading with 2-[14C]MeAIB or L-[3H]serine was not stimulated by a challenge with 100 mM-MeAIB. 4. The time course of amino acid evoked 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine efflux paralleled the extracellular dilution profile of a vascular stimulus, suggesting that the acceleration of efflux was due to trans-stimulation. 5. Trans-stimulation of 2-[14C]MeAIB and L-[3H]serine efflux by a further twenty-two naturally occurring and three synthetic amino acids was then examined. L-Proline, N-methyl-DL-alanine, L-lysine and D-lysine selectively stimulated MeAIB efflux. Efflux of both tracer amino acids was accelerated by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), L-serine, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, glycine, branched-chain and large neutral amino acids, but affected negligibly by D-alanine, beta-alanine, MeAIB, L-arginine, L-aspartate, L-glutamate, taurine or D-mannitol. 6. In summary, we have characterized amino acid exchange mechanisms in the isolated pancreas and conclude that efflux of intracellular amino acids from pancreatic acinar cells may be mediated by at least two transporters with differing specificity for extracellular amino acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2514260

Mann, G E; Norman, P S; Smith, I C

1989-01-01

276

Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550°C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached ~150°C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550°C. ?-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures >550°C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2001-09-01

277

Transport of branched-chain amino acids in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus cremoris.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics, specificity, and mechanism of branched-chain amino acid transport in Streptococcus cremoris were studied in a membrane system of S. cremoris in which beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase was incorporated as a proton motive force (delta p)-generating system. Influx of L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine can occur via a common transport system which is highly selective for the L-isomers of branched chain amino acids and analogs. The pH dependency of the kinetic constants of delta p-driven L-leucine transport and exchange (counterflow) was determined. The maximal rate of delta p-driven transport of L-leucine (Vmax) increased with increasing internal pH, whereas the affinity constant increased with increasing external pH. The affinity constant for exchange (counterflow) varied in a similar fashion with pH, whereas Vmax was pH independent. Further analysis of the pH dependency of various modes of facilitated diffusion, i.e., efflux, exchange, influx, and counterflow, suggests that H+ and L-leucine binding and release to and from the carrier proceed by an ordered mechanism. A kinetic scheme of the translocation cycle of H+-L-leucine cotransport is suggested. PMID:2822669

Driessen, A J; de Jong, S; Konings, W N

1987-01-01

278

Branched-chain amino acids and ammonia metabolism in liver disease: therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

The rationale for recommendation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in treatment of liver failure is based on their unique pharmacologic properties, stimulatory effect on ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN), and decreased concentrations in liver cirrhosis. Multiple lines of evidence have shown that the main cause of the BCAA deficiency in liver cirrhosis is their consumption in skeletal muscle for synthesis of glutamate, which acts as a substrate for ammonia detoxification to GLN and that the BCAA administration to patients with liver failure may exert a number of positive effects that may be more pronounced in patients with marked depression of BCAA levels. On the other hand, due to the stimulatory effect of BCAA on GLN synthesis, BCAA supplementation may lead to enhanced ammonia production from GLN breakdown in the intestine and the kidneys and thus exert harmful effects on the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, to enhance therapeutic effectiveness of the BCAA in patients with liver injury, their detrimental effect on ammonia production, which is negligible in healthy people and/or patients with other disorders, should be avoided. In treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, simultaneous administration of the BCAA (to correct amino acid imbalance and promote ammonia detoxification to GLN) with ?-ketoglutarate (to inhibit GLN breakdown to ammonia in enterocytes) and/or phenylbutyrate (to enhance GLN excretion by the kidneys) is suggested. Attention should be given to the type of liver injury, gastrointestinal bleeding, signs of inflammation, and the dose of BCAA. PMID:23756281

Holecek, Milan

2013-10-01

279

The Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transaminase Gene Family in Arabidopsis Encodes Plastid and Mitochondrial Proteins1  

PubMed Central

Branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) play a crucial role in the metabolism of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. They catalyze the last step of the synthesis and/or the initial step of the degradation of this class of amino acids. In Arabidopsis, seven putative BCAT genes are identified by their similarity to their counterparts from other organisms. We have now cloned the respective cDNA sequences of six of these genes. The deduced amino acid sequences show between 47.5% and 84.1% identity to each other and about 30% to the homologous enzymes from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals. In addition, many amino acids in crucial positions as determined by crystallographic analyses of BCATs from Escherichia coli and human (Homo sapiens) are conserved in the AtBCATs. Complementation of a yeast ?bat1/?bat2 double knockout strain revealed that five AtBCATs can function as BCATs in vivo. Transient expression of BCAT:green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts shows that three isoenzymes are imported into chloroplasts (AtBCAT-2, -3, and -5), whereas a single enzyme is directed into mitochondria (AtBCAT-1). PMID:12068099

Diebold, Ruth; Schuster, Joachim; Daschner, Klaus; Binder, Stefan

2002-01-01

280

A Novel meso-Diaminopimelate Dehydrogenase from Symbiobacterium thermophilum: Overexpression, Characterization, and Potential for d-Amino Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

meso-Diaminopimelate dehydrogenase (meso-DAPDH) is an NADP+-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination on the d-configuration of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to produce l-2-amino-6-oxopimelate. In this study, the gene encoding a meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from Symbiobacterium thermophilum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the native substrate meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, the purified enzyme also showed activity toward d-alanine, d-valine, and d-lysine. This enzyme catalyzed the reductive amination of 2-keto acids such as pyruvic acid to generate d-amino acids in up to 99% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Since meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenases are known to be specific to meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, this is a unique wild-type meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase with a more relaxed substrate specificity and potential for d-amino acid synthesis. The enzyme is the most stable meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase reported to now. Two amino acid residues (F146 and M152) in the substrate binding sites of S. thermophilum meso-DAPDH different from the sequences of other known meso-DAPDHs were replaced with the conserved amino acids in other meso-DAPDHs, and assay of wild-type and mutant enzyme activities revealed that F146 and M152 are not critical in determining the enzyme's substrate specificity. The high thermostability and relaxed substrate profile of S. thermophilum meso-DAPDH warrant it as an excellent starting enzyme for creating effective d-amino acid dehydrogenases by protein engineering. PMID:23023754

Gao, Xiuzhen; Chen, Xi; Liu, Weidong; Feng, Jinhui; Wu, Qiaqing; Hua, Ling

2012-01-01

281

Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P?valine, phenylalanine, and methionine were lower in the QPM diets than those of maize (white and yellow) (all P?valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and proline (P?

2014-01-01

282

Orally supplemented l-arginine impairs amino acid absorption depending on dose in horses.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation, on the physiology of several species, has generated an interest in the use of l-Arg as a nutraceutical in horses, but dosage and absorption of orally supplemented l-Arg must be inferred from other species. The study objective was to determine the effect of 2 oral l-Arg doses on plasma arginine concentrations and the effect on absorption of other amino acids in mares. In Experiment 1, mares were blocked by age and breed and were fed l-Arg supplemented (supplemented with 0.025% BW l-Arg; n = 6) or control (no supplement; n = 6) concentrate on a single day with blood samples taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h relative to feeding. In Experiment 2, mares (n = 6) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with l-Arg (0.0125% of BW), urea (0.0087% of BW), and control (no supplement) fed mixed into a grain concentrate as single meal with blood samples taken at 0, 1,2, 4, 6, 8,10, and 12 h relative to feeding. In Experiment 1, l-Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma l-Arg and ornthine concentrations and decreased (P < 0.05) lysine and methionine concentrations compared with the control group. At 1 h post feeding, l-Arg mares had lower (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of histidine, glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, alanine, and taurine. In Experiment 2, l-Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) arginine and ornithine concentrations compared with urea and control; there was no difference among other amino acids. These experiments indicate that l-Argis absorbed and, dependent on the dose, alters the absorption of other amino acids in mares. PMID:25403187

Kelley, D E; Warren, L K; Mortensen, C J

2014-12-01

283

Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

2009-04-28

284

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring

Xenia Amashukeli; Christine C. Pelletier; James P. Kirby; Frank J. Grunthaner

2007-01-01

285

Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the

Xenia Amashukeli; Christine C. Pelletier; James P. Kirby; Frank J. Grunthaner

2007-01-01

286

Amino Acid Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Ageing Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, considerable scientific interest has been devoted to amino acid supplementation and its role in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism in health, ageing and disease. This interest has, in part, stemmed from clinical evidence that traditional nutritional supplementation in patients is largely ineffective. In particular, this knowledge has prompted extensive research into the mechanisms responsible for amino acid stimulation

Melinda Sheffield-Moore; Douglas Paddon-Jones; Randall J. Urban

2006-01-01

287

A modular synthesis of dithiocarbamate pendant unnatural ?-amino acids.  

PubMed

Unnatural ?-amino acids containing dithiocarbamate side chains were synthesized by a one-pot reaction of in situ generated dithiocarbamate anions with sulfamidates. A wide range of these anions participated in the highly regio- and stereo-selective ring opening of sulfamidates to produce the corresponding dithiocarbamate pendant ?-amino acids in high yields. PMID:22814637

Saha, Amit; Baig, R B Nasir; Leazer, John; Varma, Rajender S

2012-09-14

288

INBORN ERRORS OF AMINO ACID AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

nafeeskhan50@yahoo.com Objectives: This study was conducted with two objects in mind. Firstly, to screen children who were under two years of age for detection of inborn errors of Amino Acid and Carbohydrate metabolism. Secondly, a group of cases of proved mental deficiency were screened to find out whether the inborn errors of Amino Acid and Carbohydrate metabolism are a significant

MUHAMMAD MUAZZAM

2007-01-01

289

EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

290

Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus  

DOEpatents

A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

Hanson, Richard S. (Wayzata, MN); Flickinger, Michael C. (St. Paul, MN); Schendel, Frederick J. (Falcon Heights, MN); Guettler, Michael V. (Waconia, MN)

2001-07-17

291

Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks  

E-print Network

Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks O. GACI LITIS are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the inter- actions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we identify a number of properties of these networks. Some of them are common to all proteins, while

Boyer, Edmond

292

Neutral amino acid transport across brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) possess an amino acid carrier specific for large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The carrier is important for facilitating the delivery of nutrient LNAA's and centrally acting drugs that are LNAA's, to the brain. Bovine BMEC's were isolated and grown up to complete monolayers on regenerated cellulose-membranes in primary culture.

K. L. Audus; R. T. Borchardt

1986-01-01

293

Multiplexed amino acid array utilizing bioluminescent Escherichia coli auxotrophs.  

PubMed

We describe a novel multiplex "amino acid array" for simultaneously quantifying different amino acids based on the rapid growth of amino acid auxotrophic E. coli. First, we constructed genetically engineered amino acid auxotrophs of E. coli containing a bioluminescence reporter gene, yielding concomitant luminescence as a response to cell growth, and then immobilized the reporter cells within individual agarose of respective wells in a 96-well plate serving as a mimic of a biochip. Using the amino acid array, we were able to determine quantitatively the concentrations of 16 amino acids in biological fluid by simply measuring bioluminescent signals from the immobilized cells within 4 h without pre- and post-treatment. The clinical utility of this method was verified by quantifying different amino acids in dried blood spot specimens from clinical samples for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases of newborn babies. This method serves as a convenient route to the rapid and simultaneous analysis of multiple amino acids from complex biological fluids and represents a new analytical paradigm that can replace conventional, yet laborious methods currently in use. PMID:20405822

Kim, Moon Il; Yu, Byung Jo; Woo, Min-Ah; Cho, Daeyeon; Dordick, Jonathan S; Cho, June Hyoung; Choi, Byung-Ok; Park, Hyun Gyu

2010-05-15

294

ASTROCHEMISTRY Radiolysis and radioracemization of 20 amino acids  

E-print Network

ASTROCHEMISTRY Radiolysis and radioracemization of 20 amino acids from the beginning of the Solar ``Astrochemistry: molecules in space and time'' (Rome, 4­5 November 2010), sponsored by Fondazione ``Guido Donegani in enantiomeric enrichment in meteorites. Keywords Astrochemistry Á Amino acids Á Radiolysis Á Racemization Á

295

Evolution of free amino acids during Idiazábal cheese ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a contribution to knowledge of ripening ewe's cheese, the evolution of free amino acids was studied over a year of the ripening period by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total free amino acid content during Idiazábal cheese ripening varied between 140 mg\\/100 g dry matter the first day and 1500 mg\\/100 g dry matter at one year.

Y. Barcina; F. C. Ibáńez; A. I. Ordóńez

1995-01-01

296

Targets of Amino Acid Restriction in Prostate Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The objective of this application is to identify the molecular target(s) by which specific amino acid dependency modulates the viability and invasiveness of human androgen-independent prostate cancer calls. We hypothesize that specific amino acid-regulated invasion is dependent on the inhibition of FAK and its binding partners.

297

Amino acid sequences of stomach and nonstomach lysozymes of ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Complete amino acid sequences are presented for lysozymesc from camel and goat stomachs and compared to sequences of other lysozymesc. Tree analysis suggests that the rate of amino acid replacement went up as soon as lysozyme was recruited for the stomach function in early ruminants. The two lysozymes from goat stomach are the products of a gene duplication that

Jacqueline Jollčs; Ellen M. Prager; Emad S. Alnemri; Pierre Jollčs; Ibrahim M. Ibrahimi; Allan C. Wilson

1990-01-01

298

Growth hormone stimulation of amino acid transport and utilization by the perfused rat liver.  

PubMed

The effects of growth hormone, administered in vivo or added in vitro, on amino acid transport and utilization have been studied in perfused livers of normal and hypophysectomized rats. A perfusion system employing a nonrecirculating medium was used in all of the studies. Two nonmetalbolizable amino acid analogues, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and 1-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (cycloleucine) were used to study transport. Accumulation of AIB increased linearly over a 60-min perfusion period, reaching distribution ratios of between 1 and 2 for both groups of animals. Treatment of both normal and hypophysectomized rats with growth hormone 60 min prior to the start of perfusion increased AIB distribution ratios by up to 84 and 108%, respectively. Accumulation of cycloleucine was linear for only about 20 min of perfusion and then plateaued. Steady state distribution ratios of this analogue ranged between 1 and 2 for both groups of animals. Growth hormone treatment had no apparent effect on the time necessary to reach these steady state levels, but significantly increased them in livers of both normal and hypophysectomized rats by 16 and 42%, respectively. Studies designed to analyze the kinetic properties of these hormone effects revealed that growth hormone treatment caused 2-fold i-crease in the maximum velocities of both the AIB and cycloleucine transport systems. The substrate concentration for half-maximal transport velocity was increased slightly for both systems by growth hormone. Direct effects of growth hormone were demonstrated in studies where livers of hypophysectomized rats were perfused under conditions simulationg those of experiments in which the hormone was administered in vivo. Following an initial 45-min period of perfusion the medium during the 20 min. Growth hormone added to the medium during the entire 65-min perfusion at a concentration of 1 mug per ml caused a 30% increase in the cycloleucine distribution ratio. Under similar experimental conditions growth hormone directly stimulated three hepatic pathways of amino acid utilization: (a) incorporation of [14C]valine into protein, (b) urea formation and (c) conversion of 14-C-amino-acids to labeled glucose. Intracellular concentrations of seven amino acids, including threonine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, lysine, and arginine, were increased significantly in livers perfused with medium containing growth hormone... PMID:1141204

Jefferson, L S; Schworer, C M; Tolman, E L

1975-01-10

299

Kinetics of amino acid and glucose absorption following pancreatic diversion in the pig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was conducted in the pig to determine the consequences of deprivation of exocrine pancreatic secretion on the composition and quantity of nutrients absorbed after intake of a balanced diet. Five growing pigs (53.8 kg body weight) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein and the carotid artery and with an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein to measure the exchanges between the blood and the intestinal lumen. They were also fitted with a permanent catheter in the duct of Wirsung to educe the exocrine pancreatic secretion and another one in the duodenum in order to reintroduce it. In each animal, glucose, amino-N and amino acid absorption as well as insulin and glucagon production were measured over a period of 10 h after the meal (semi-purified diet based on purified starch and containing 180 g fish meal/kg, DM content of the meal 731 g), either in the presence of pancreatic juice (group C: immediate reintroduction), or in the absence of pancreatic juice (group D: deprivation). The deprivation of pancreatic juice provoked a marked depression in the absorption of glucose (D 67.9 (SEM 27.9) g/10 h, C 437.7 (SEM 39.5) g/10 h, P < 0.001), and of amino-N (D 7.55 (SEM 0.54) g/10 h, C 15.80 (SEM 0.79) g/10 h, P < 0.001). The composition of the mixture of amino acids in the portal blood was only slightly modified: only the levels of histidine (P < 0.05) and of valine (P < 0.06, NS) decreased in the absence of pancreatic juice. Insulin production was much lower (by 64%, P < 0.05) in the absence of pancreatic juice whereas that of glucagon was not affected.

Rerat, A.; Calmes, R.; Corring, T.; Vaissade, P.

1996-01-01

300

Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

2011-03-09

301

Synthesis of amino acids by arc-discharge experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge was performed against ammonia water using a graphite rod as the anode and a silver thread as the cathode under an Ar atmosphere. HPLC and thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analyses showed that three kinds of amino acids were produced in the reaction mixture. As the graphite anode is the solitary source of carbon in the system, it is considered that amino acids have been produced by synthetic reaction between graphite and ammonia water. Thus, our results provide a possible way of formation of amino acids from elemental carbon on the primitive earth. In addition, the mechanism for the production of amino acids is discussed and the yields of different amino acids are presented.

Huaibin, Shi; Chunlin, Shao; Zengliang, Yu

2001-10-01

302

Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

2001-01-01

303

Metabolic Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Valine and Ammonium Pulses during Four-Stage Continuous Wine Fermentations  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen supplementation, which is widely used in winemaking to improve fermentation kinetics, also affects the products of fermentation, including volatile compounds. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic response of yeast to nitrogen additions remain unclear. We studied the consequences for Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism of valine and ammonium pulses during the stationary phase of four-stage continuous fermentation (FSCF). This culture technique provides cells at steady state similar to that of the stationary phase of batch wine fermentation. Thus, the FSCF device is an appropriate and reliable tool for individual analysis of the metabolic rerouting associated with nutrient additions, in isolation from the continuous evolution of the environment in batch processes. Nitrogen additions, irrespective of the nitrogen-containing compound added, substantially modified the formation of fermentation metabolites, including glycerol, succinate, isoamyl alcohol, propanol, and ethyl esters. This flux redistribution, fulfilling the requirements for precursors of amino acids, was consistent with increased protein synthesis resulting from increased nitrogen availability. Valine pulses, less efficient than ammonium addition in increasing the fermentation rate, were followed by a massive conversion of this amino acid in isobutanol and isobutyl acetate through the Ehrlich pathway. However, additional routes were involved in valine assimilation when added in stationary phase. Overall, we found that particular metabolic changes may be triggered according to the nature of the amino acid supplied, in addition to the common response. Both these shared and specific modifications should be considered when designing strategies to modulate the production of volatile compounds, a current challenge for winemakers. PMID:23417007

Clement, T.; Perez, M.; Mouret, J. R.; Sanchez, I.; Sablayrolles, J. M.

2013-01-01

304

Metabolic responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to valine and ammonium pulses during four-stage continuous wine fermentations.  

PubMed

Nitrogen supplementation, which is widely used in winemaking to improve fermentation kinetics, also affects the products of fermentation, including volatile compounds. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic response of yeast to nitrogen additions remain unclear. We studied the consequences for Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism of valine and ammonium pulses during the stationary phase of four-stage continuous fermentation (FSCF). This culture technique provides cells at steady state similar to that of the stationary phase of batch wine fermentation. Thus, the FSCF device is an appropriate and reliable tool for individual analysis of the metabolic rerouting associated with nutrient additions, in isolation from the continuous evolution of the environment in batch processes. Nitrogen additions, irrespective of the nitrogen-containing compound added, substantially modified the formation of fermentation metabolites, including glycerol, succinate, isoamyl alcohol, propanol, and ethyl esters. This flux redistribution, fulfilling the requirements for precursors of amino acids, was consistent with increased protein synthesis resulting from increased nitrogen availability. Valine pulses, less efficient than ammonium addition in increasing the fermentation rate, were followed by a massive conversion of this amino acid in isobutanol and isobutyl acetate through the Ehrlich pathway. However, additional routes were involved in valine assimilation when added in stationary phase. Overall, we found that particular metabolic changes may be triggered according to the nature of the amino acid supplied, in addition to the common response. Both these shared and specific modifications should be considered when designing strategies to modulate the production of volatile compounds, a current challenge for winemakers. PMID:23417007

Clement, T; Perez, M; Mouret, J R; Sanchez, I; Sablayrolles, J M; Camarasa, C

2013-04-01

305

Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many carbonaceous chondrites contain alteration products from water-rock interactions at low temperature and organic compounds. A fascinating fact known for decades is the presence in some of them of an assortment of organic compounds, including amino acids, sometimes called the building blocks of life. Murchison and other CM carbonaceous chondrites contain hundreds of amino acids. Early measurements indicated that the amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites had equal proportions of L- and D-structures, a situation called racemic. This was in sharp contrast to life on Earth, which heavily favors L- forms. However, beginning in 1997, John Cronin and Sandra Pizzarello (Arizona State University) found L- excesses in isovaline and several other amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. In 2009, Daniel Glavin and Jason Dworkin (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center) reported the first independent confirmation of L-isovaline excesses in Murchison using a different analytical technique than employed by Cronin and Pizzarello. Inspired by this work, Daniel Glavin, Michael Callahan, Jason Dworkin, and Jamie Elsila (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center), have done an extensive study of the abundance and symmetry of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites that experienced a range of alteration by water in their parent asteroids. The results show that amino acids are more abundant in the less altered meteorites, implying that aqueous processing changes the mix of amino acids. They also confirmed the enrichment in L-structures of some amino acids, especially isovaline, confirming earlier work. The authors suggest that aqueously-altered planetesimals might have seeded the early Earth with nonracemic amino acids, perhaps explaining why life from microorganisms to people use only L- forms to make proteins. The initial imbalance caused by non-biologic processes in wet asteroids might have been amplified by life on Earth. Alternatively, the same processes that produced the L-amino acid excesses in carbonaceous asteroids also operated on the early Earth.

Taylor, G. J.

2011-04-01

306

Amino Acid Challenge in Patients with Cirrhosis and Control Subjects: Ammonia, Plasma Amino Acid and EEG Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aims: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is controversial. We have therefore studied the effect of induced hyperammonaemia in man. Patients and methods: 108 g of an amino acid mixture was given orally to 18 cirrhotics and 11 control subjects and changes in blood ammonia, EEG and plasma amino acids were observed. Results: Basal (39ą6 versus 14ą2 ?mol\\/l) and 120-min post amino

Hanan Al Mardini; Andrew Douglass; Christopher Record

2006-01-01

307

Branched-chain amino acid metabolism and alanine formation in rat muscles in vitro. Mitochondrial-cytosolic interrelationships.  

PubMed Central

Muscle branched-chain amino acid metabolism is coupled to alanine formation via branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, but the subcellular distributions of these and other associated enzymes are uncertain. Recovery of branched-chain aminotransferase in the cytosol fraction after differential centrifugation was shown to be accompanied by leakage of mitochondrial-matrix marker enzymes. By using a differential fractional extraction procedure, most of the branched-chain aminotransferase activity in rat muscle was located in the mitochondrial compartment, whereas alanine aminotransferase was predominantly in the cytosolic compartment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, like aspartate aminotransferase, was approximately equally distributed between these subcellular compartments. This arrangement necessitates a transfer of branched-chain amino nitrogen and carbon from the mitochondria to the cytosol for alanine synthesis de novo to occur. In incubations of hemidiaphragms from 48 h-starved rats with 3mM-valine or 3mM-glutamate, the stimulation of alanine release was inhibited by 69% by 1 mM-aminomethoxybut-3-enoate, a selective inhibitor of aspartate aminotransferase. Leucine-stimulated alanine release was unaffected. These data implicate aspartate aminotransferase in the transfer of amino acid carbon and nitrogen from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and suggest that oxaloacetate, via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, can serve as an intermediate on the route of pyruvate formation for muscle alanine synthesis. PMID:3977857

Snell, K; Duff, D A

1985-01-01

308

Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product ?-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with increased sediment depth and age (up to 288-year-old) reaching up to 59%. Independent estimates based on D-amino acid concentrations in selected laboratory strains, bacterial counts and the sedimentary concentrations of D-amino acids indicate that a large fraction of the measured D-amino acids (>47 to >97%) originated from cell wall residues rather than from enumerated cells.

Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jřrgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

2006-06-01

309

Supervised learning method for the prediction of subcellular localization of proteins using amino acid and amino acid pair composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of protein in the cell is an important step in understanding its function. It is highly desirable to predict a protein's subcellular locations automatically from its sequence. Most studied methods for prediction of subcellular localization of proteins are signal peptides, the location by sequence homology, and the correlation between the total amino acid compositions of proteins. Taking amino-acid

Tanwir Habib; Chaoyang Zhang; Jack Y Yang; Mary Qu Yang; Youping Deng

2008-01-01

310

D-Amino acids in the brain and mutant rodents lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity.  

PubMed

D-Amino acids are stereoisomers of L-amino acids. They are often called unnatural amino acids, but several D-amino acids have been found in mammalian brains. Among them, D-serine is abundant in the forebrain and functions as a co-agonist of NMDA receptors to enhance neurotransmission. D-Amino-acid oxidase (DAO), which degrades neutral and basic D-amino acids, is mainly present in the hindbrain. DAO catabolizes D-serine and, therefore, modulates neurotransmission. In the brains of mutant mice and rats lacking DAO activity, the amounts of D-serine and other D-amino acids are markedly increased. Mutant mice manifested behavioral changes characteristic of altered NMDA receptor activity, likely due to increased levels of D-serine. D-Serine and DAO have been demonstrated to play important roles in cerebellar development and synaptic plasticity. They have also implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pain response. There have also been several lines of evidence correlating DAO with schizophrenia. Taken together, the experiments indicate that D-amino acids and DAO have pivotal functions in the central nervous system. PMID:22892863

Yamanaka, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Yurika; Ohide, Hiroko; Hamase, Kenji; Konno, Ryuichi

2012-11-01

311

Analysis of Neuroactive Amino Acids Using UHPLC and Electochemical Detection Analysis of Neuroactive Amino Acids Using UHPLC and Electochemical Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are the essential building blocks of proteins and peptides. They can also take part in intermediary metabolism and act as precur- sors to common biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Certain amino acids act as neurotransmitters and are the major excitatory (aspartate and glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA and taurine) commands in the central nervous system. The measurement of the profile of

Bruce Bailey; Marc Plante; Chris Crafts; Paul Gamache; John Waraska; Ian Acworth

312

An increase in essential amino acid availability upregulates amino acid transporter expression in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate skeletal muscle mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and protein synthesis. It has recently been reported that an increase in amino acid (AA) transporter expression during anabolic conditions is rapamycin-sensitive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an increase in EAA availability increases AA transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of seven young adult subjects (3 male, 4 female) before and 1–3 h after EAA ingestion (10 g). Blood and muscle samples were analyzed for leucine kinetics using stable isotopic techniques. Quantitative RT-PCR, and immunoblotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression, respectively, of AA transporters and members of the general AA control pathway [general control nonrepressed (GCN2), activating transcription factor (ATF4), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2) ?-subunit (Ser52)]. EAA ingestion increased blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle, intracellular muscle leucine concentration, ribosomal protein S6 (Ser240/244) phosphorylation, and muscle protein synthesis. This was followed with increased L-type AA transporter (LAT1), CD98, sodium-coupled neutral AA transporter (SNAT2), and proton-coupled amino acid transporter (PAT1) mRNA expression at 1 h (P < 0.05) and modest increases in LAT1 protein expression (3 h post-EAA) and SNAT2 protein expression (2 and 3 h post-EAA, P < 0.05). Although there were no changes in GCN2 expression and eIF2? phosphorylation, ATF4 protein expression reached significance by 2 h post-EAA (P < 0.05). We conclude that an increase in EAA availability upregulates human skeletal muscle AA transporter expression, perhaps in an mTORC1-dependent manner, which may be an adaptive response necessary for improved AA intracellular delivery. PMID:20304764

Drummond, Micah J.; Glynn, Erin L.; Fry, Christopher S.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Volpi, Elena

2010-01-01

313

Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10-200 keV and 1-20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan; Yeow, John T. W.

2013-04-01

314

HPLC analysis of methylated amino acids: Methylated amino acids on HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various naturally occuring, methylated amino acid derivatives were resolved on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),\\u000a usingo-phthaldialdehyde as a fluorogenic reagent.\\u000a \\u000a We separated ?-N-monomethyllysine, ?-N-dimethyllysine, and ?-N-acetyllysine from lysine derivatives. NG-Monomethylarginine and NG-dimethylarginine were separated from arginine derivatives. However, ?-N-monomethyllysine and ?-N-trimethyllysine, NG, NG-dimethylarginine and NG, NG-dimethylarginine were not resolved under the conditions employed. S-Methylmethionine, S-methylcysteine, and 1-N-methylhistidine\\u000a or 3-N-methylhistidine were

Kwang Sook Park; Sung-Youl Hong; Hyang Woo Lee; Sangduk Kim; Woon Ki Paik

1986-01-01

315

Amino acid adduct formation by the nevirapine metabolite, 12-hydroxynevirapine--a possible factor in nevirapine toxicity.  

PubMed

Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used against the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), mostly to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the virus in developing countries. However, reports of severe NVP-induced hepatotoxicity and serious adverse cutaneous effects have raised concerns about its use. NVP metabolism involves oxidation of the 4-methyl substituent to 4-hydroxymethyl-NVP (12-hydroxy-NVP) and the formation of phenolic derivatives. Further metabolism, through either oxidation to quinoid derivatives or phase II esterification, may produce electrophilic derivatives capable of reacting with bionucleophiles to yield covalent adducts. These adducts could potentially be involved in the initiation of toxic responses. To gain insight into potentially reactive sites in proteins and prepare reliable and fully characterized NVP-amino acid adduct standards for subsequent assessment as biomarkers of NVP toxicity, we have used the model electrophile, 12-mesyloxy-NVP, as a synthetic surrogate for the NVP metabolite, 12-sulfoxy-NVP. Reactions of this model ester were conducted with glutathione and the nucleophilic amino acids arginine, cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan. Moreover, because adducts through the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin are convenient biomarkers of exposure to electrophilic toxicants, we also investigated the reaction with valine. We obtained very efficient (>80%) binding through the sulfur of both glutathione and N-acetylcysteine and moderate yields (10-14%) for binding through C2 of the indole ring of tryptophan and N1 of the imidazole ring of histidine. Reaction with arginine occurred through the alpha-amino group, possibly due to the high basicity of the guanidino group in the side chain. Reaction at the alpha-amino group of valine occurred to a significant extent (33%); the resulting adduct was converted to a thiohydantoin derivative, to obtain a standard useful for prospective biomonitoring studies. All adducts were characterized by a combination of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques. The NVP conjugates with glutathione and N-acetylcysteine identified in this work were previously reported to be formed in vivo, although the corresponding structures were not fully characterized. Our results support the validity of 12-mesyloxy-NVP as a surrogate for 12-sulfoxy-NVP and suggest that NVP metabolism to 12-hydroxy-NVP, and subsequent esterification, could potentially be a factor in NVP toxicity. They further imply that multiple sites in proteins may be targets for modification by 12-hydroxy-NVP-derived electrophiles in vivo. Additionally, we obtained reliable, fully characterized standards for the assessment of protein modification by NVP in vivo, which should help clarify the potential role of metabolism in NVP-induced toxicity. PMID:20392079

Antunes, Alexandra M M; Godinho, Ana L A; Martins, Inęs L; Justino, Gonçalo C; Beland, Frederick A; Marques, M Matilde

2010-05-17

316

Effects of Heat Shock on Amino Acid Metabolism of Cowpea Cells 1  

PubMed Central

When cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cells maintained at 26°C are transferred to 42°C, rapid accumulation of ?-aminobutyrate (>10-fold) is induced. Several other amino acids (including ?-alanine, alanine, and proline) are also accumulated, but less extensively than ?-aminobutyrate. Total free amino acid levels are increased approximately 1.5-fold after 24 hours at 42°C. Heat shock also leads to release of amino acids into the medium, indicating heat shock damage to the integrity of the plasmalemma. Some of the changes in metabolic rates associated with heat shock were estimated by monitoring the 15N labeling kinetics of free intracellular, extracellular and protein-bound amino acids of cultures supplied with 15NH4+, and analyzing the labeling data by computer simulation. Preliminary computer simulation models of nitrogen flux suggest that heat shock induces an increase in the ?-aminobutyrate synthesis rate from 12.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight in control cells maintained at 26°C, to as high as 800 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight within the first 2 hours of heat shock. This 64-fold increase in the ?-aminobutyrate synthesis rate greatly exceeds the expected (Q10) change of metabolic rate of 2.5- to 3-fold due to a 16°C increase in temperature. We suggest that this metabolic response may in part involve an activation of glutamate decarboxylase in vivo, perhaps mediated by a transient cytoplasmic acidification. Proline appears to be synthesized from glutamate and not from ornithine in cowpea cells. Proline became severalfold more heavily labeled than ornithine, citrulline and arginine in both control and heat-shocked cultures. Proline synthesis rate was increased 2.7-fold by heat shock. Alanine, ?-alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine synthesis rates were increased 1.6-, 3.5-, 2.0-, 5.0-, and 6.0-fold, respectively, by heat shock. In contrast, the phenylalanine synthesis rate was decreased by 50% in response to heat shock. The differential effects of heat stress on metabolic rates lead to flux and pool size redistributions throughout the entire network of amino acid metabolism. PMID:16667781

Mayer, Randall R.; Cherry, Joe H.; Rhodes, David

1990-01-01

317

Multiple components of arginine and phenylalanine transport induced in neutral and basic amino acid transporter-cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed

The induced uptakes of L-[3H]phenylalanine and L-[3H]arginine in oocytes injected with clonal NBAT (neutral and basic amino acid transporter) cRNA show differential inactivation by pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), revealing at least two distinct transport processes. NEM-resistant arginine transport is inhibited by leucine and phenylalanine but not by alanine or valine; mutual competitive inhibition of NEM-resistant uptake of arginine and phenylalanine indicates that the two amino acids share a single transporter. NEM-sensitive arginine transport is inhibited by leucine, phenylalanine, alanine and valine. At least two NEM-sensitive transporters may be expressed because we have been unable to confirm mutual competitive inhibition between arginine and phenylalanine transport. The NEM-resistant transport mechanism appears to involve distinct but overlapping binding sites for cationic and zwitterionic substrates. NBAT is known to form oligomeric protein complexes in cell membranes, and its functional roles when expressed in Xenopus oocytes may include interaction with oocyte proteins, leading to increased native amino acid transport activities; these resemble NBAT-expressed activities in terms of NEM-sensitivity and apparent substrate range (including an unusual inhibition by beta-phenylalanine. PMID:8836138

Peter, G J; Davidson, I G; Ahmed, A; McIlroy, L; Forrester, A R; Taylor, P M

1996-09-15

318

Plasma amino acid differences in very low birth weight infants fed either human milk or whey-dominant cow milk formula.  

PubMed

Midmorning plasma amino acid levels were measured in 31 healthy, very low birth weight infants (mean age 16 days, mean birth weight 1180 g, gestation 29 wk) during 96-h balance studies. All infants received continuous enteral infusion of isonitrogenous, isocaloric preparations of either human milk fortified with pasteurized, lyophilized fractions of mature human milk (n = 18) or whey-dominant cow milk-based formula (n = 13). Weight gain (15 g/kg/day), nitrogen retention (303 mg/kg/day), and metabolizable energy (104 kcal/kg/day) were similar between groups. Plasma levels of threonine, valine, and the sum of essential amino acids were significantly greater in the whey-dominant formula-fed infants (p less than 0.01). Taurine and cystine were measured in significantly greater concentrations in the fortified human milk and threonine, valine, methionine, and lysine in the whey-dominant cow milk formula (p less than 0.01). Relationships between plasma amino acid levels and indices of nitrogen utilization differed between groups. These differences suggest that further modifications of whey-dominant formulas may be indicated. PMID:3494228

Schanler, R J; Garza, C

1987-03-01

319

Mutant mice and rats lacking D-amino acid oxidase.  

PubMed

D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) catalyzes oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. Since D-amino acids are considered to be rare in eukaryotes, physiological function of this enzyme has been enigmatic for a long time. Mutant mice lacking DAO were found, and their strain was established. The urine of the mutant mice contained large amounts of D-amino acids. D-Amino acids were also present in their organs and blood. The origin of these D-amino acids was pursued. The results indicate that one of the physiological functions of DAO is the metabolism of D-amino acids of internal and external origin. A large amount of D-serine is shown to exist in the brain of mammals. It binds to the coagonist-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors and enhances the neurotransmission. DAO metabolizes this D-serine and, therefore, modulates neurotransmission. Mutant mice displayed phenotypes resulting from the enhanced NMDA receptor function. Recent studies have shown that DAO is associated with schizophrenia. Mutant mice were resistant to the drugs which act on NMDA receptors and elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms. Recently, mutant rats lacking DAO have also been found. They were free from D-serine-induced nephrotoxicity, indicating involvement of DAO in this toxicity. The mutant mice and rats lacking DAO would be useful for the elucidation of the physiological functions of DAO and the etiology of neuronal diseases associated with DAO. PMID:20564563

Konno, Ryuichi; Hamase, Kenji; Maruyama, Rindo; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi

2010-06-01

320

The fate of amino acids during simulated meteoritic impact.  

PubMed

Delivery of prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids and peptides, in meteoritic/micrometeoritic materials to early Earth during the first 500 million years is considered to be one of the main processes by which the building blocks of life arrived on Earth. In this context, we present a study in which the effects of impact shock on amino acids and a peptide in artificial meteorites composed of saponite clay were investigated. The samples were subjected to pressures ranging from 12-28.9 GPa, which simulated impact velocities of 2.4-5.8 km/s for typical silicate-silicate impacts on Earth. Volatilization was determined by weight loss measurement, and the amino acid and peptide response was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For all compounds, degradation increased with peak pressure. At the highest shock pressures, amino acids with an alkyl side chain were more resistant than those with functional side chains. The peptide cleaved into its two primary amino acids. Some chiral amino acids experienced partial racemization during the course of the experiment. Our data indicate that impact shock may act as a selective filter to the delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids via carbonaceous chondrites. PMID:20041747

Bertrand, Marylčne; van der Gaast, Sjerry; Vilas, Faith; Hörz, Friedrich; Haynes, Gerald; Chabin, Annie; Brack, Andre; Westall, Frances

2009-12-01

321

Mating frequency influences nectar amino acid preference of Pieris napi.  

PubMed Central

It is generally assumed that butterflies, as is the case with many holometabolous insects, rely primarily on nutrients gathered by larval feeding for somatic maintenance and fecundity. These reserves can be supplemented by adult feeding and in some cases by nuptial gifts passed from the males to the females during mating. Recent findings indicate that female butterflies detect and prefer nectar with high levels of amino acids, thus calling new attention to this nutritive source. Polyandrous species can further supplement their larval stores with additional nuptial gifts. This study examined how mating frequency of the polyandrous butterfly Pieris napi affects the female's preference for nectar amino acids. Females of this species generally detect and prefer nectar mimics containing amino acids. However, nectar amino acid preference is significantly lower in mated females. Furthermore, nectar amino acid preference increases when females are not allowed to remate, whereas the preference of twice-mated females remains constant at a lower level. These results indicate a versatile response of females to nectar amino acids, depending on their nutritional status; they may even switch their source of amino acids between adult feeding and nuptial gifts. PMID:15058391

Mevi-Schutz, Jovanne; Erhardt, Andreas

2004-01-01

322

Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Protein and calorie malnutrition are prevalent in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity in this patient population. Concern has been raised that the open pore structure of high flux membranes may induce the loss of more amino acids (AA) compared to low flux membranes. To address this issue, we prospectively analyzed pre- and post-HD plasma AA profiles with three different membranes in nine patients. Simultaneously, we measured dialysate AA losses during HD. The membranes studied were: cellulosic (cuprophane-CU), low flux polymethylmethacrylate (LF-PMMA), and high flux polysulfone (HF-PS) during their first use. Our results show that pre-HD plasma AA profiles were abnormal compared to controls and decreased significantly during HD with all dialyzers. The use of HF-PS membranes resulted in significantly more AA losses into the dialysate when compared to LF-PMMA membranes (mean +/- SD; 8.0 +/- 2.8 g/dialysis for HF-PS, 6.1 +/- 1.5 g/dialysis for LF-PMMA, p < 0.05, and 7.2 +/- 2.6 g/dialysis for CU membranes, P = NS). When adjusted for surface area and blood flow, AA losses were not different between any of the dialyzers. We also measured dialysate AA losses during the sixth reuse of the HF-PS membrane. Losses of total AA increased by 50% during the sixth reuse of HF-PS membrane compared to its first use. In addition, albumin was detected in the dialysate during the sixth reuse of HF-PS membrane. We therefore measured albumin losses in all patients dialyzed with HF-PS membranes as a function of reuse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7996804

Ikizler, T A; Flakoll, P J; Parker, R A; Hakim, R M

1994-09-01

323

Determination of the fourth and fifth limiting amino acids in broilers fed on diets containing maize, soybean meal and poultry by-product meal from 28 to 42 d of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Valine (Val) is considered the 4th limiting amino acid for broilers fed on diets containing ingredients from vegetable origin. However, Val and Isoleucine (Ile) may be co-limiting for broilers fed on diets containing animal protein meals. An experiment was conducted to examine growth responses and meat yield of broilers provided diets varying in digestible Val (dVal) and digestible Ile

W. A. Dozier III; A. Corzo; M. T. Kidd; P. B. Tillman; S. L. Branton

2011-01-01

324

Amino acid signatures in the developing mouse retina.  

PubMed

This study characterizes the developmental patterns of seven key amino acids: glutamate, ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), glycine, glutamine, aspartate, alanine and taurine in the mouse retina. We analyze amino acids in specific bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cell sub-populations (i.e. GABAergic vs. glycinergic amacrine cells) and anatomically distinct regions of photoreceptors and Müller cells (i.e. cell bodies vs. endfeet) by extracting data from previously described pattern recognition analysis. Pattern recognition statistically classifies all cells in the retina based on their neurochemical profile and surpasses the previous limitations of anatomical and morphological identification of cells in the immature retina. We found that the GABA and glycine cellular content reached adult-like levels in most neurons before glutamate. The metabolic amino acids glutamine, aspartate and alanine also reached maturity in most retinal cells before eye opening. When the overall amino acid profiles were considered for each cell group, ganglion cells and GABAergic amacrine cells matured first, followed by glycinergic amacrine cells and finally bipolar cells. Photoreceptor cell bodies reached adult-like amino acid profiles at P7 whilst Müller cells acquired typical amino acid profiles in their cell bodies at P7 and in their endfeet by P14. We further compared the amino acid profiles of the C57Bl/6J mouse with the transgenic X-inactivation mouse carrying the lacZ gene on the X chromosome and validated this animal model for the study of normal retinal development. This study provides valuable insight into normal retinal neurochemical maturation and metabolism and benchmark amino acid values for comparison with retinal disease, particularly those which occur during development. PMID:24368173

Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Chua, Jacqueline; Tan, Seong-Seng; Kalloniatis, Michael

2014-04-01

325

Synthesis and chirality of amino acids under interstellar conditions.  

PubMed

Amino acids are the fundamental building blocks of proteins, the biomolecules that provide cellular structure and function in all living organisms. A majority of amino acids utilized within living systems possess pre-specified orientation geometry (chirality); however the original source for this specific orientation remains uncertain. In order to trace the chemical evolution of life, an appreciation of the synthetic and evolutional origins of the first chiral amino acids must first be gained. Given that the amino acids in our universe are likely to have been synthesized in molecular clouds in interstellar space, it is necessary to understand where and how the first synthesis might have occurred. The asymmetry of the original amino acid synthesis was probably the result of exposure to chiral photons in the form of circularly polarized light (CPL), which has been detected in interstellar molecular clouds. This chirality transfer event, from photons to amino acids, has been successfully recreated experimentally and is likely a combination of both asymmetric synthesis and enantioselective photolysis. A series of innovative studies have reported successful simulation of these environments and afforded production of chiral amino acids under realistic circumstellar and interstellar conditions: irradiation of interstellar ice analogues (CO, CO2, NH3, CH3OH, and H2O) with circularly polarized ultraviolet photons at low temperatures does result in enantiomer enriched amino acid structures (up to 1.3% ee). This topical review summarizes current knowledge and recent discoveries about the simulated interstellar environments within which amino acids were probably formed. A synopsis of the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission ROSETTA concludes this review: the ROSETTA mission will soft-land on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014, anticipating the first in situ detection of asymmetric organic molecules in cometary ices. PMID:22976459

Giri, Chaitanya; Goesmann, Fred; Meinert, Cornelia; Evans, Amanda C; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

2013-01-01

326

Identification and Functional Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis CodY-Regulated Branched-Chain Amino Acid Permease BcaP (CtrA)  

PubMed Central

Transcriptome analyses have previously revealed that a gene encoding the putative amino acid transporter CtrA (YhdG) is one of the major targets of the pleiotropic regulator CodY in Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis. The role of ctrA in L. lactis was further investigated with respect to both transport activity as well as CodY-mediated regulation. CtrA is required for optimal growth in media containing free amino acids as the only amino acid source. Amino acid transport studies showed that ctrA encodes a secondary amino acid transport system that is specific for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and methionine, which is in disagreement with its previously proposed function (a cationic amino acid transporter), which was assigned based on homology. We propose to rename CtrA BcaP, for branched-chain amino acid permease. BcaP is a member of a group of conserved transport systems, as homologs are widely distributed among gram-positive bacteria. Deletion of bcaP resulted in the loss of most of the BCAA uptake activity of L. lactis, indicating that BcaP is the major BCAA carrier of this organism. Deletion of bcaP together with a second (putative) BCAA permease, encoded by brnQ, further reduced the viability of the strain. DNA microarray analysis showed that deletion of bcaP predominantly affects genes belonging to the regulons of the transcriptional regulator CodY, which is involved in global nitrogen metabolism and needs BCAAs for its activation, and of CmbR, which is involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. PMID:16621821

den Hengst, Chris D.; Groeneveld, Maarten; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan

2006-01-01

327

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

328

Exhaustive Database Searching for Amino Acid Mutations in Proteomes  

SciTech Connect

Amino acid mutations in proteins can be found by searching tandem mass spectra acquired in shotgun proteomics experiments against protein sequences predicted from genomes. Traditionally, unconstrained searches for amino acid mutations have been accomplished by using a sequence tagging approach that combines de novo sequencing with database searching. However, this approach is limited by the performance of de novo sequencing. The Sipros algorithm v2.0 was developed to perform unconstrained database searching using high-resolution tandem mass spectra by exhaustively enumerating all single non-isobaric mutations for every residue in a protein database. The performance of Sipros for amino acid mutation identification exceeded that of an established sequence tagging algorithm, Inspect, based on benchmarking results from a Rhodopseudomonas palustris proteomics dataset. To demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for meta-proteomics, Sipros was used to identify amino acid mutations in a natural microbial community in acid mine drainage.

Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

2012-01-01

329

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips (1, 2). To analyze amino acids in situ, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip. The heart of the MOA is the microchip that contains the CE separation channels as well as microfabricated valves and pumps (3) for sample handling. The pneumatic microfabricated valves are created by combining an etched displacement chamber, an actuated PDMS membrane layer, and a discontinuous fluidic channel structure. A microfabricated pump is created by combining three individually-addressable valves in series. These membrane valves and pumps are integrated with the glass separation channel using a novel multilayer design in which sample enters the top fluidic layer for routing and is directed to the bottom glass layers for CE separation and analysis. The microfabricated device is operated by the portable instrument which contains solenoids for controlling fluidic valves, electronics, a 15 mW 400 nm diode laser, confocal detection optics, and a fiber-optic coupled photomultiplier for fluorescence detection. Limits of detection of fluorescamine-labeled amino acids are in the nM to pM range corresponding to part-per-trillion sensitivities in soil samples (4). The portable CE instrument, in combination with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) (5), was recently successfully field tested on soil samples rich in jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA. Jarosite has recently been detected on Mars and is a key mineral indicating that liquid water was once present on the planet's surface. Amino acids from jarosite samples were sublimed by MOD and deposited onto a fluorescamine-coated cold finger. The microfabricated pumps were used to direct buffer through the MOA sipper to dissolve the sample, and then to return the sample for analysis. The jarosite sample was found to contain low levels of methyl and ethylamine (5 ppb), alanine/serine (0.4 ppb), glycine (0.2 ppb), glutamic (0.07 ppb) and aspartic (0.1 ppb) acid as well as a higher concentration of valine ( ˜100 ppb). These results clearly demonstrate that amines and amino acids can be extracted from sulfate-rich acidic soils such as jarosite and analyzed using the MOA (http://astrobiology.berkeley.edu). References 1. Hutt, L. D., Glavin, D. P., Bada, J. L. & Mathies, R. A. (1999) Anal. Chem. 71, 4000-4006. 2. Skelley, A. M. & Mathies, R. A. (2003) J. Chromatogr. A 1021, 191-199. 3. Grover, W. H., Skelley, A. M., Liu, C. N., Lagally, E. T. & Mathies, R. A. (2003) Sens. Actuators B 89, 325-323. 4. Skelley, A. M., Scherer, J. R., Aubrey, A. D., Grover, W. H., Ivester, R. H. C., Ehrenfreund, P., Grunthaner, F. J., Bada, J. F. & Mathies, R. A. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, manuscript in preparation. 5. Kminek, G., Bada, J. L., Botta, O., Glavin, D. P. & Grunthaner, F. (2000) Planetary & Space Science 48, 1087-1091.

Skelley, A. M.; Scherer, J. R.; Aubrey, A. D.; Ivester, R. H.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

2004-12-01

330

Deleting valine-125 and cysteine-126 in glycoprotein gI of pseudorabies virus strain NIA-3 decreases plaque size and reduces virulence in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigated the function of antigenic domains on gI in virulence and immunogenicity. Three PRV gI mutants were constructed by deleting nucleotides coding for the following amino acids: valine-125 and cysteine-126, located in a discontinuous antigenic domain (M 303); glycine-59 and aspartic acid-60 located in a continuous antigenic domain (M 304); and arginine-67 and alanine-68, located in a discontinuous

Liesbeth Jacobs; H. J. Rziha; T. G. Kimman; A. L. J. Gielkens; J. T. Van Oirschot

1993-01-01

331

40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). ...identified generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN...

2013-07-01

332

40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

2010-07-01

333

40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

2010-07-01

334

ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.  

PubMed

Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders. PMID:25125611

Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

2014-11-01

335

Bidirectional modulation of insulin action by amino acids.  

PubMed Central

Amino acids have been shown to stimulate protein synthesis, inhibit proteolysis, and decrease whole-body and forearm glucose disposal. Using cultured hepatoma and myotube cells, we demonstrate that amino acids act as novel signaling elements in insulin target tissues. Exposure of cells to high physiologic concentrations of amino acids activates intermediates important in the initiation of protein synthesis, including p70 S6 kinase and PHAS-I, in synergy with insulin. This stimulatory effect is largely due to branched chain amino acids, particularly leucine, and can be reproduced by its transamination product, ketoisocaproic acid. Concurrently, amino acids inhibit early steps in insulin action critical for glucose transport and inhibition of gluconeogenesis, including decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, decreased binding of grb 2 and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to IRS-1 and IRS-2, and a marked inhibition of insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that amino acids act as specific positive signals for maintenance of protein stores, while inhibiting other actions of insulin at multiple levels. This bidirectional modulation of insulin action indicates crosstalk between hormonal and nutritional signals and demonstrates a novel mechanism by which nutritional factors contribute to insulin resistance. PMID:9525995

Patti, M E; Brambilla, E; Luzi, L; Landaker, E J; Kahn, C R

1998-01-01

336

Alterations in D -amino acid levels in the brains of mice and rats after the administration of D -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  To mutant ddY\\/DAO? mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity and normal ddY\\/DAO+ mice, five D-amino acids (D-Asp, D-Ser, D-Ala, D-Leu and D-Pro) were orally administered for two weeks, and the D-amino acid levels were examined in seven brain regions. The levels of D-Asp markedly increased in the pituitary and pineal glands in both strains. In the ddY\\/DAO+ mice, the levels of

A. Morikawa; K. Hamase; T. Inoue; R. Konno; K. Zaitsu

2007-01-01

337

Enantiomeric resolution of N-methyl-?-amino acids and ?-alkyl-?-amino acids by ligand-exchange chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The enantiomeric resolution of N-methyl-DL-?-amino acids (NMe-AA) and DL-?-alkyl-?-amino acids (AAA) was achieved by ligand-exchange\\u000a (LE) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using silica bonded L-amino acids as the chiral selector (Chiral ProCu,\\u000a Chiral HyproCu, Chiral ValCu, Nucleosil Chiral-1). Using aqueous solutions of copper sulfate or acetate adjusted to pH 4–6\\u000a and the addition of acetonitrile (10–20%) or methanol (10–40%), baseline

H. Brtickner

1987-01-01

338

Pharmacokinetics of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: interaction with the transporters on Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

In vivo systemic absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) after oral administration was evaluated in rats. Stability of the prodrugs, L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) was evaluated in various tissues. Interaction of these prodrugs with the transporters on Caco-2 cells was studied. In vivo systemic bioavailability of these prodrugs upon oral administration was evaluated in jugular vein cannulated rats. The amino acid ester prodrugs showed affinity towards various amino acid transporters as well as the peptide transporter on the Caco-2 cells. In terms of stability, EACV was most enzymatically stable compared to other prodrugs especially in liver homogenate. In oral absorption studies, ACV and AACV showed high terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately five-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) values relative to ACV (p<0.05). C(max(T)) (maximum concentration) of SACV was observed to be 39+/-22 microM in plasma which is 2 times better than VACV and 15 times better than ACV. C(last(T)) (concentration at the last time point) of SACV was observed to be 0.18+/-0.06 microM in plasma which is two times better than VACV and three times better than ACV. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed at varying amounts (C(max)) and eliminated at varying rates (lambda(z)) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug SACV owing to its enhanced stability, higher AUC and better concentration at last time point seems to be a promising candidate for the oral treatment of herpes infections. PMID:18638532

Katragadda, Suresh; Jain, Ritesh; Kwatra, Deep; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

2008-10-01

339

Cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics, parallel catalyst screening for aziridination  

E-print Network

This thesis describes two projects: (i) syntheses and conformational studies of cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics; and, (ii) parallel screening of catalysts for asymmetric aziridination. Syntheses and conformational studies of nonnatural...

Li, Shih-ming

2012-06-07

340

Amino acids from the moon - Notes on meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contributions of lunar and meteorite composition studies to present understandings of chemical evolution and the origin of life are discussed. The discovery of amino acids in lunar fines, when properly extracted, hydrolyzed and examined by ion-exchange chromatography, is shown to have confirmed the extraterrestrial nature of the amino acids previously found in meteorites. Differences in analysis and sample preparation methods are considered as sources for the initial disagreements in lunar sample data, and possibilities of biological or chemical contamination of the lunar samples are discounted. The possible sources of lunar and meteoritic amino acids by solar wind implantation are considered. Problems remaining concerning the nature of amino acid precursors, the relations of lunar to meteoritic compounds and the prevalence of cyanide oligomers as evolutionary intermediates are indicated.

Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

341

THE RADITION SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some radiation-chemical modes of formation of amino acids and related ; compounds were investigated by combination of two simpler molecule types. The ; radiation chemical equilibria are described. (J.S.R.);

K. Dose; K. Ettre

1958-01-01

342

Amino acid utilization by Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

A considerable amount of work has been done on the growth of A. aerogenes and E. coli in synthetic media, but little work has been undertaken on the utilization by these organisms of amino acids as comparative sources of ...

Herrera, Rodolfo Eduardo

1938-01-01

343

Isotopic analyses of amino acids from the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the results of H-2, C-13 isotopic analyses of the Murchison meteorite incorporating an ultrafiltration step to exclude the possibility of fine particulate contaminants. The meteorite's amino acids were chromatographically separated in order to preclude isotopic enrichment by basic compounds other than the amino acids. The results indicate that the Murchison amino acids are isotopically highly unusual; delta-C-13 is elevated by about 40 percent, and delta-D by fully 2500 percent. This high D content of the meteorite's alpha-amino acids may be due to the synthesis of their molecular precursors by low-temperature ion-molecule reactions in an interstellar cloud.

Pizzarello, S.; Cronin, J. R.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.

1991-01-01

344

Guanine- Formation During the Thermal Polymerization of Amino Acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The action of heat on a mixture of amino acids was studied as a possible abiological pathway for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Guanine was detected. This result is significant in the context of chemical evolution.

Mc Caw, B. K.; Munoz, E. F.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Young, R. S.

1964-01-01

345

Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

2000-02-01

346

Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ?20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ?20 and ?40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in labelled glycine. Possible mechanisms for this enrichment include accumulation through inclusion in tissues with long residence times, preferential preservation (i.e. selection against) during metabolism, production from other labelled amino acids during varied metabolic processes, and accumulation in refractory by-products of secondary bacterial production. Overall, similarities were observed between amino-acid decay patterns in faunated microcosms, afaunal controls, and those previously reported in marine sediments. Thus, while polychaete gut passage did produce compound-selective accumulation and losses of certain amino acids in polychaete tissues and faecal matter, the impact of polychaete gut passage on sediment organic geochemistry was difficult to deconvolve from microbial decay. Despite processing large volumes of organic matter, polychaetes may not have distinctive influence on sediment compositions, possibly because metabolic processes concerning amino acids may be broadly similar across a wide range of organisms.

Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

2012-01-01

347

Biosynthesis of the proteasome inhibitor syringolin A: the ureido group joining two amino acids originates from bicarbonate  

PubMed Central

Background Syringolin A, an important virulence factor in the interaction of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a with its host plant Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), was recently shown to irreversibly inhibit eukaryotic proteasomes by a novel mechanism. Syringolin A is synthesized by a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase and consists of a tripeptide part including a twelve-membered ring with an N-terminal valine that is joined to a second valine via a very unusual ureido group. Analysis of sequence and architecture of the syringolin A synthetase gene cluster with the five open reading frames sylA-sylE allowed to formulate a biosynthesis model that explained all structural features of the tripeptide part of syringolin A but left the biosynthesis of the unusual ureido group unaccounted for. Results We have cloned a 22 kb genomic fragment containing the sylA-sylE gene cluster but no other complete gene into the broad host range cosmid pLAFR3. Transfer of the recombinant cosmid into Pseudomonas putida and P. syringae pv. syringae SM was sufficient to direct the biosynthesis of bona fide syringolin A in these heterologous organisms whose genomes do not contain homologous genes. NMR analysis of syringolin A isolated from cultures grown in the presence of NaH13CO3 revealed preferential 13C-labeling at the ureido carbonyl position. Conclusion The results show that no additional syringolin A-specific genes were needed for the biosynthesis of the enigmatic ureido group joining two amino acids. They reveal the source of the ureido carbonyl group to be bicarbonate/carbon dioxide, which we hypothesize is incorporated by carbamylation of valine mediated by the sylC gene product(s). A similar mechanism may also play a role in the biosynthesis of other ureido-group-containing NRPS products known largely from cyanobacteria. PMID:19863801

Ramel, Christina; Tobler, Micha; Meyer, Martin; Bigler, Laurent; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; Schellenberg, Barbara; Dudler, Robert

2009-01-01

348

Effects of divalent amino acids on iron absorption  

SciTech Connect

Solutions of each of 10 amino acids or ascorbic acid were mixed with iron and orally administered to rats. Iron was absorbed to a statistically significantly greater extent when mixed with asparagine, glycine, serine, or ascorbic acid as compared with a control solution of iron. The largest effects were for asparagine and glycine, which also increased iron absorption to a significantly greater extent than did serine or ascorbic acid. No statistically significant increase in iron absorption occurred when any of the other amino acids was mixed with iron. The extent of iron absorption from each test solution, as measured by area under the concentration of iron-59 in the blood-time curve (r2 . 0.0002), and the initial rate of iron absorption for each test solution (r2 . 0.01) showed no correlation with the stability constant of the amino acid-iron complex.

Christensen, J.M.; Ghannam, M.; Ayres, J.W.

1984-09-01

349

Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats  

E-print Network

NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN RATS A Thesis by JAMES DARRELL CROOKS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject...: Animal Nutrition O 4 0 E ? NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN RATS A Thesis by JAMES DARRELL CROOKS& JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head of Department) (Member) May 197 1 ABSTRACT Non...

Crooks, James Darrell

2012-06-07

350

Role of specific dietary amino acids in clinical conditions.  

PubMed

In a variety of chronic and acute disease states, alterations in protein synthesis, breakdown and protein turnover rates occur that are related to the loss of body protein and skeletal muscle wasting. A key observation is the stimulation of protein breakdown in muscle and the stimulation of protein synthesis in the splanchnic area; mainly liver. An altered splanchnic extraction of amino acids as well as an anabolic resistance to dietary protein, related to stress, disuse and aging play a key role in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in these conditions. To overcome these factors, specific dietary protein and amino acid diets have been introduced. The main focus of these diets is the quantity and quality of dietary proteins and whether a balanced mixture or solely dietary essential amino acids are required with or without higher intake levels of specific amino acids. Specifically in cancer patients, stimulated muscle protein synthesis has been obtained by increasing the amount of protein in a meal and by providing additional leucine. Also in other chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis, meals with specific dietary proteins and specific combinations of dietary essential amino acids are able to stimulate anabolism. In acute diseases, a special role for the amino acid arginine and its precursor citrulline as anabolic drivers has been observed. Thus, there is growing evidence that modifying the dietary amino acid composition of a meal will positively influence the net balance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown, leading to muscle protein anabolism in a variety of chronic and acute disease states. Specific amino acids with anabolic potential are leucine, arginine and citrulline. PMID:23107525

Jonker, Renate; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

2012-08-01

351

Advances in protein–amino acid nutrition of poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal protein concept has allowed progress in defining requirements as well as the limiting order of amino acids in corn,\\u000a soybean meal, and a corn–soybean meal mixture for growth of young chicks. Recent evidence suggests that glycine (or serine)\\u000a is a key limiting amino acid in reduced protein [23% crude protein (CP) reduced to 16% CP] corn–soybean meal diets

David H. Baker

2009-01-01

352

Uptake and conversion of d -amino acids in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The d-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids fulfill essential functions in bacteria, fungi and animals. Just in the plant kingdom,\\u000a the metabolism and role of d-amino acids (d-AAs) still remains unclear, although plants have to cope with significant amounts of these compounds from microbial decay\\u000a in the rhizosphere. To fill this gap of knowledge, we tested the inhibitory effects of d-AAs

Dirk Gördes; Üner Kolukisaoglu; Kerstin Thurow

2011-01-01

353

Experimental methods for scanning unnatural amino acid mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo relies on the genetic reassignment of nonsense or quadruplet codons. Here, we describe a general procedure for the random introduction of these codons into open reading frames resulting in protein libraries that are scanned with unnatural amino acid residues. These libraries can enable large-scale mutagenesis experiments aimed at understanding and improving protein function. PMID:21956563

Liu, Jia; Cropp, T. Ashton

2014-01-01

354

Neuropeptide Y: Complete Amino Acid Sequence of the Brain Peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequence of neuropeptide Y, a 36-residue peptide recently isolated from porcine brain, has been determined by using high performance liquid chromatography for separation of its tryptic and chymotryptic fragments and subsequent sequence analysis of the isolated fragments by an improved dansyl Edman subtractive technique. The amino acid sequence of neuropeptide Y has been found to be: Tyr-Pro-Ser-Lys-Pro-Asp-Asn-Pro-Gly-Glu-Asp-Ala-Pro-Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu-Ala-

Kazuhiko Tatemoto

1982-01-01

355

Preparation of 1-benzyl-1-methylethoxycarbonyl derivatives of amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized a number of Pboc derivatives of amino acids in order to investigate more fully the properties of the Pboc protective group and the possibility of using these derivatives in peptide synthesis. The introduction of the Pboc grouping into the amino acid was effected with the aid of l-benzyl-l-methylethyl pyrocarbonate (I) which was obtained from sodium l-benzyl-l-methylethyl carbonate

V. F. Pozdnev; E. A. Smirnova

1978-01-01

356

Production of Amino Acids: Physiological and Genetic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale fermentative production of l-amino acids is still an important goal of modern biotechnology. Very large amounts of l-glutamate and l-lysine, as well as significant quantities of l-threonine and l-phenylalanine and other amino acids for the application in food, feed, and for pharmaceutical purposes are currently produced by fermentation using mainly the two organisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli.

Reinhard Krämer

2005-01-01

357

Expression and transcriptional regulation of amino acid transporters in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Recent studies have shown that there are more than 50 amino acid transporter genes in the Arabidopsis genome. This abundance of amino acid transporters implies that they play a multitude of fundamental roles in plant growth\\u000a and development. Current research on the expression and regulation (i.e., tissue-specific expression and regulation of expression\\u000a in response to nutrient and environmental changes) of

X. Liu; D. R. Bush

2006-01-01

358

Genomic Regions Associated with Amino Acid Composition in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the single largest source of protein in animal feed. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate\\u000a genomic regions controlling amino acid composition in soybean. It is important to study the genetics of amino acid composition\\u000a to achieve improvements through breeding. The objectives of this study were to determine the ratios between essential to

D. R. Panthee; V. R. Pantalone; A. M. Saxton; D. R. West; C. E. Sams

2006-01-01

359

Amino acid uptake in deciduous and coniferous taiga ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured in situ uptake of amino acids and ammonium across deciduous and coniferous taiga forest ecosystems in interior Alaska to examine the idea that late successional (coniferous) forests rely more heavily on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), than do early successional (deciduous) ecosystems. We traced 15N-NH4+ and 13C-15N-amino acids from the soil solution into plant roots and soil pools over

Knut Kielland; Jack McFarland; Karl Olson

2006-01-01

360

Sublimation of natural amino acids and induction of asymmetry by meteoritic amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is believed that the homochirality of building blocks of life like amino acids (AAs) and sugars is a prerequisite requirement for the origin and evolution of life. Among different mechanisms that might have triggered the initial disparity in the enantiomeric ratio on the primitive Earth, the key roles were assigned to: (i) local chiral symmetry breaking and (ii) the inflow of extraterrestrial matter (eg the carbonaceous meteorites containing non-racemic AAs). Recently it has been revealed that sublimation, a subject almost completely neglected for a long time, gives a pathway to enantioenrichment of natural AAs (1,2 and references herein). Sublimation is however one of the key physical processes that occur on comets. Starting from a mixture with a low content of an enantiopure AA, a partial sublimation gives an important enrichment of the sublimate (1,2). The resulted disparity in the ratio between enantiomers of a partial sublimate is determined by the crystalline nature of the starting mixture: we observed a drastic difference in the behavior of (i) mixtures based on true racemic compounds and (ii) mechanical mixtures of two enantiopure solid phases. On the other hand, combination of crystallization and sublimation can lead to segregation of enantioenriched fractions starting from racemic composition of sublimable aliphatic AAs (Ala, Leu, Pro, Val) in mixtures with non-volatile enantiopure ones (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) (3). The resulted sense of chirality correlates with the handedness of the non-volatile AAs: the observed changes in enantiomeric ratios clearly demonstrate the preferential homochiral interactions and a tendency of natural amino acids to homochiral self-organization. It is noteworthy that just these 5 (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) out of 22 proteinogenic amino acids are able to local symmetry breaking. On the other hand, recent data on the enantiomeric composition of the Tagish Lake, a C2-type carbonaceous meteorite, revealed a large L-enantiomeric excess of Asp and Glu (4) that we used in our experiments. These experimental data may shed some light on one of the facets of complex and mysterious preobiotic processes that eventually could have led to the origin of life. References: 1. Bellec A, Guillemin JC. Chem Commun 2010, 46:1482-1484. 2. Tarasevych AV, Sorochinsky AE, Kukhar VP, Chollet A, Daniellou R, Guillemin JC. J Org Chem 2013, 78:10530-10533. 3. Tarasevych AV, Sorochinsky AE, Kukhar VP, Guillemin JC. Orig Life Evol Biosph 2013, 43:129-135. 4. Glavin DP, Elsila JE, Burton AS, Callahan MP, Dworkin JP, Hilts RW, Herd CDK. Meteor Planet Sci 2012, 47:1347-1364.

Tarasevych, Arkadii V.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

361

Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.  

PubMed

Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to ?-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

2014-12-01

362

flrB, a Regulatory Locus Controlling Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhimurium strain CV123 (ara-9 gal-205 flrB1), isolated as a mutant resistant to trifluoroleucine, has derepressed and constitutive levels of enzymes forming branched-chain amino acids. This strain grows more slowly than the parent at several temperatures, both in minimal medium and nutrient broth. It overproduces and excretes sizeable amounts of leucine, valine, and isoleucine in comparison with the parental strain. Both leuS (coding for leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid [tRNA]synthetase) and flrB are linked to lip (min 20 to 25) by P1 transduction, whereas only leuS is linked to lip by P22 transduction. Strain CV123 containing an F? lip+ episome from Escherichia coli has repressed levels of leucine-forming enzymes, indicating that flrB+ is dominant to flrB. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase from strain CV123 appears to be identical to the leucyl-tRNA synthetase in the parent. No differences were detected between strain CV123 and the parent with respect to tRNA acceptor activity for a number of amino acids. Furthermore, there was no large difference between the two strains in the patterns of leucine tRNA isoaccepting species after fractionation on several different columns. Several other flrB strains exhibited temperature-sensitive excretion of leucine, i.e., they excreted leucine at 37 C but not 25 C. In one such strain, excretion at 37 C was correlated with derepression of some enzymes specified by ilv and leu. These latter results suggest that flrB codes for a protein. PMID:4598011

Friedberg, Devorah; Mikulka, Thomas W.; Jones, Judith; Calvo, Joseph M.

1974-01-01

363

Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes. PMID:22303247

Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

2009-01-01

364

Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity  

SciTech Connect

The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

1985-04-01

365

Amino acid analysis using core-shell particle column.  

PubMed

In this study, the separation efficiency of a core-shell particle column was compared with particle-packed and monolithic silica columns, which showed that the core-shell particle column had a smaller theoretical plate height and that its separation efficiency was not affected significantly by the increase in flow rate. A fast HPLC method using a core-shell particle column was developed for the determination of amino acids. 4-Fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) was used as a fluorescence derivatization reagent for amino acids, followed by separation on a core-shell Kinetex C18 column. The analysis time for 21 NBD-amino acids was within 7min, which was faster than that in our previous studies with conventional particle-packed columns or monolithic silica columns. The linearities of the calibration curves for all the amino acids were found to be good over a range of injection amounts from 40fmol to 40pmol. The accuracies for the amino acid determinations were 90.9-107%. The method was proved to have potential for the fast determination of amino acids in biological samples. PMID:23022276

Song, Yanting; Funatsu, Takashi; Tsunoda, Makoto

2013-05-15

366

A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. PMID:16911515

Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

2006-09-01

367

Exploring DNA binding and nucleolytic activity of few 4-aminoantipyrine based amino acid Schiff base complexes: a comparative approach.  

PubMed

A series of novel Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized from Schiff base(s), obtained by the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with furfural and amino acid (glycine(L1)/alanine(L2)/valine(L3)) and respective metal(II) chloride. Their structural features and other properties were explored from the analytical and spectral methods. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The intrinsic binding constants for the above synthesized complexes are found to be in the order of 10(2) to 10(5) indicating that most of the synthesized complexes are good intercalators. The binding constant values (Kb) clearly indicate that valine Schiff-base complexes have more intercalating ability than alanine and glycine Schiff-base complexes. The results indicate that the complexes bind to DNA through intercalation and act as efficient cleaving agents. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal assay indicates that these complexes are good antimicrobial agents against various pathogens. The IC50 values of [Ni(L1)2] and [Zn(L1)2] complexes imply that these complexes have preferable ability to scavenge hydroxyl radical. PMID:24566120

Raman, N; Sakthivel, A; Pravin, N

2014-05-01

368

The potency of dietary amino acids in elevating plasma cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in cats is related to amino acid hydrophobicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete agreement exists on the relative potency of amino acids in stimulating endocrine secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK). Species and methodological variations have been suggested to account for the apparent inconsistencies. In the present research, the CCK-releasing potency of dietary amino acids was evaluated in cats using plasma CCK-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) as an indicator of CCK secretion rather than pancreatic protein

Robert C Backus; Kim A Howard; Quinton R Rogers

1997-01-01

369

Maple syrup urine disease: Branchedchain amino acid concentrations and metabolism in cultured human lymphoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular concentration of free leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their metabolism were studied in lymphoblast cultures established from peripheral blood of an individual with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a control subject. Branched-chain a-keto acid decarboxylase activity in the MSUD cells was 10% or less of the control value as measured by the ability of the cells to

Stephen D. Skaper; Daniel P. Molden; J. Edwin Seegmiller

1976-01-01

370

Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids  

E-print Network

-(bromomethyl)- phthalimide (I) to get diethyl phthalimidomethylphospho- nate (IV), 5 i + L IBRAY*?C ( Q ^ > ^ ( ? c 2h 5 )2 a IV The diethyl ester (IV) hydrolyzes in the same way as does the dibutyl ester (II) above to give aminomethylphosphonic acid (III). 4... 'T vi ? *> RGY *PRPTNRYANLBSA VII the phosphonyl dichloride (VII) and water react readily to yield N-benzoylaminomethylphosphonic acid (V)0 5 Kabachnik and Medved^ obtained aminomethylphosphonic acid (III) by causing diethyl...

Chambers, James Richard

2013-10-04

371

Amino acid sequence of a carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of a 37 residue carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit has been determined. The amino terminus was shown to be 2-oxopyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid by digestion of reduced and S-carboxymethylated inhibitor with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase. The remainder of the sequence was assigned by analysis of peptides which had been generated by specific cleavage at the Asp4-Pro5 bond under acid conditions and by treatment with trypsin. The amino acid sequence of this inhibitor is identical with that of an analogous inhibitor from potatoes in 26 positions, and two of the replacements are highly conservative. The identification of the nonconservative replacements has been used to better define regions of the inhibitor which are not believed to contribute significantly to the free energy of association of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. PMID:7236596

Hass, G M; Hermodson, M A

1981-04-14

372

Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces I?B? expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 ?M), OA (100 ?M), or PA (100 ?M). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced I?B? expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus. PMID:25143349

Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

2014-01-01

373

DNA binding mode of novel tetradentate amino acid based 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few transition metal complexes of tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands containing 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine and amino acids (alanine/valine) abbreviated to KHL1/KHL2 have been synthesized. All the metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The Schiff bases KHL1/KHL2 are found to act as tetradentate ligands using N2O2 donor set of atoms leading to a square-planar geometry for the complexes around the metal ions. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through minor groove binding mode. The studies on mechanism of photocleavage reveal that singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2rad -) may play an important role in the photocleavage. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Culvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by MIC method.

Raman, N.; Sobha, S.; Selvaganapathy, M.; Mahalakshmi, R.

2012-10-01

374

DNA binding mode of novel tetradentate amino acid based 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine complexes.  

PubMed

Few transition metal complexes of tetradentate N(2)O(2) donor Schiff base ligands containing 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine and amino acids (alanine/valine) abbreviated to KHL(1)/KHL(2) have been synthesized. All the metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The Schiff bases KHL(1)/KHL(2) are found to act as tetradentate ligands using N(2)O(2) donor set of atoms leading to a square-planar geometry for the complexes around the metal ions. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through minor groove binding mode. The studies on mechanism of photocleavage reveal that singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) may play an important role in the photocleavage. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Culvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by MIC method. PMID:22885083

Raman, N; Sobha, S; Selvaganapathy, M; Mahalakshmi, R

2012-10-01

375

Leucine dissimilation to isovaleric and isocaproic acids by cell suspensions of amino acid fermenting anaerobes: the Stickland reaction revisited.  

PubMed

Freshly compared cell suspensions of clostridia (Clostridium bifermentans, C. botulinum proteolytic type A, C. difficile, C. sordellii, and C. sporogenes) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius converted leucine to isovaleric (iV) and isocaproic (iC) acids in the absence of other amino acids. The optimal pH for conversion was between 8 and 9 at 37 degrees C. The stoichiometry of reaction was compatible with that expected for the Stickland reaction, as the ratio of iV to iC was 1:2, the amount of CO2 produced was equivalent to that of iV, and ammonium ion concentrations were equal to the total C5 and C6 acids formed. The presence of alanine and valine (proton donors in the Stickland reaction) in incubations effectively increased the concentration of iC at the expense of iV production, implying that leucine acted there primarily as a proton acceptor. Glycine and proline (proton acceptors) stimulated both iV and iC production from leucine, but increases in iV concentrations were proportionately greater than for iC so that leucine was primarily a proton donor in the presence of proton acceptors. Glucose stimulated the conversion of leucine to volatile fatty acids but favoured iC production. Production of iC from leucine was inhibited by surface active compounds (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and desoxycholate) as well as arsenite and iodoacetate. The redox dyes methyl viologen and phenosafranine inhibited iC production more severely than iV production, as did the nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent, metronidazole. PMID:6805929

Britz, M L; Wilkinson, R G

1982-03-01

376

Impact of dietary aromatic amino acids on osteoclastic activity.  

PubMed

We had shown that aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) supplementation prevented bone loss in an aging C57BL/6 mice model. In vivo results from the markers of bone breakdown suggested an inhibition of osteoclastic activity or differentiation. To assess osteoclastic differentiation, we examined the effects of aromatic amino acids on early /structural markers as vitronectin receptor, calcitonin receptor, and carbonic anhydrase II as well as, late/functional differentiation markers; cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Our data demonstrate that the aromatic amino acids down-regulated early and late osteoclastic differentiation markers as measured by real time PCR. Our data also suggest a link between the vitronectin receptor and the secreted cathepsin K that both showed consistent effects to the aromatic amino acid treatment. However, the non-attachment related proteins, calcitonin receptor, and carbonic anhydrase II, demonstrated less consistent effects in response to treatment. Our data are consistent with aromatic amino acids down-regulating osteoclastic differentiation by suppressing remodeling gene expression thus contributing initially to the net increase in bone mass seen in vivo. PMID:25000990

Refaey, Mona El; Zhong, Qing; Ding, Ke-Hong; Shi, Xing-Ming; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Wendy B; Hill, William D; Chutkan, Norman; Robbins, Richard; Nadeau, Hugh; Johnson, Maribeth; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M

2014-08-01

377

Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.  

PubMed

Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion. PMID:25114014

Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

2014-10-01

378

Plasma amino-acid patterns in liver disease.  

PubMed Central

Plasma amino-acid concentrations were measured in 167 patients with liver disease of varying aetiology and severity, all free of encephalopathy, and the results compared with those in 57 control subjects matched for age and sex. In the four groups of patients with chronic liver disease (26 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 23 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 11 with cryptogenic cirrhosis, and 48 with alcoholic hepatitis +/- cirrhosis) plasma concentrations of methionine were significantly increased, while concentrations of the three branched chain amino-acids were significantly reduced. In the first three groups of patients plasma concentrations of aspartate, serine, and one or both of the aromatic amino-acids tyrosine and phenylalanine were also significantly increased, while in the patients with alcoholic hepatitis +/- cirrhosis plasma concentrations of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine were significantly reduced. In the three groups of patients with minimal, potentially reversible liver disease (31 patients with alcoholic fatty liver, 10 with viral hepatitis, and 18 with biliary disease) plasma concentrations of proline and the three branched chain amino-acids were significantly reduced. Patients with alcoholic fatty liver also showed significantly reduced plasma phenylalanine values. Most changes in plasma amino-acid concentrations in patients with chronic liver disease may be explained on the basis of impaired hepatic function, portal-systemic shunting of blood, and hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglucagonaemia. The changes in patients with minimal liver disease are less easily explained. PMID:7076013

Morgan, M Y; Marshall, A W; Milsom, J P; Sherlock, S

1982-01-01

379

Heat shock factor 1 is inactivated by amino acid deprivation.  

PubMed

Mammalian cells respond to a lack of amino acids by activating a transcriptional program with the transcription factor ATF4 as one of the main actors. When cells are faced with cytoplasmic proteotoxic stress, a quite different transcriptional response is mounted, the heat shock response, which is mediated by HSF1. Here, we show that amino acid deprivation results in the inactivation of HSF1. In amino acid deprived cells, active HSF1 loses its DNA binding activity as demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP. A sharp decrease in the transcript level of HSF1 target genes such as HSPA1A (Hsp70), DNAJB1 (Hsp40), and HSP90AA1 is also seen. HSPA1A mRNA, but not DNAJB1 mRNA, was also destabilized. In cells cultured with limiting leucine, HSF1 activity also declined. Lack of amino acids thus could lead to a lower chaperoning capacity and cellular frailty. We show that the nutrient sensing response unit of the ASNS gene contains an HSF1 binding site, but we could not detect binding of HSF1 to this site in vivo. Expression of either an HSF1 mutant lacking the activation domain (HSF379) or an HSF1 mutant unable to bind DNA (K80Q) had only a minor effect on the transcript levels of amino acid deprivation responsive genes. PMID:22797943

Hensen, Sanne M M; Heldens, Lonneke; van Enckevort, Chrissy M W; van Genesen, Siebe T; Pruijn, Ger J M; Lubsen, Nicolette H

2012-11-01

380

Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

2012-01-01

381

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been

A. M. Skelley; J. R. Scherer; A. D. Aubrey; R. H. Ivester; P. Ehrenfreund; F. J. Grunthaner; J. L. Bada; R. A. Mathies

2004-01-01

382

Imbalance between neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory amino acids causes craving for ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term exposure to ethanol leads to an imbalance in different excitatory and inhibitory amino acids. When ethanol consumption is reduced or completely stopped, these imbalances in different amino acids and neurotransmitters are behaviorally expressed in the form of ethanol withdrawal. Glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid, and GABA, a major inhibitory amino acid, are responsible, at least partly, for ethanol

Philippe De Witte

2004-01-01

383

2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings  

E-print Network

2/17/05 1Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 2Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;Amino Acid Structures from Klug & Cummings 2/17/05 3Bioinformatics (Lec 12) #12;2/17/05 4Bioinformatics (Lec 12) Amino Acid Structures from

Narasimhan, Giri

384

INTEGUMENTARY AMINO ACID TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN THE APODOUS SEA CUCUMBER, CHIRIDOTA RIGIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The apodous sea cucumber, Ckiridota rigida, was found to transport exogenous amino acids to intracellular free amino acid pools in the integu- ment, the gastrointestinal epithelium making only a minimal contribution to total animal uptake. 2. Amino acids entering the integumentary free amino acid pool were either completely catabohzed to CO2, incorporated into large molecular weight compounds, such

GREGORY A. AHEARN; SIDNEY J. TOWNSLEY

385

Closed-system behaviour of the intra-crystalline fraction of amino acids in mollusc shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

When mollusc shells are analysed conventionally for amino acid geochronology, the entire population of amino acids is included, both inter- and intra-crystalline. This study investigates the utility of removing the amino acids that are most susceptible to environmental effects by isolating the fraction of amino acids encapsulated within mineral crystals of mollusc shells (intra-crystalline fraction). Bleaching, heating and leaching (diffusive

K. E. H. Penkman; D. S. Kaufman; D. Maddy; M. J. Collins

2008-01-01

386

Study of glycated amino acid elimination reaction for an improved enzymatic glycated albumin measurement method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In order to improve enzymatic glycated albumin measurement, we studied the endogenous glycated amino acid elimination reaction and the new bromocresolpurple (BCP) method for albumin measurement. Methods: In the assay, endogenous glycated amino acids are first eliminated by oxidation by ketoamine oxidase. Second, glycated albumin is hydrolyzed to glycated amino acids by proteinase digestion, and glycated amino acids are

Takuji Kouzuma; Yumiko Uemastu; Tomomi Usami; Shigeyuki Imamura

2004-01-01

387

N-nitrosations of basic amino acid residues in polypeptide.  

PubMed

Changes in the electrophoretic pattern were noted in the products of polypeptides of identical basic amino acids preincubated with reactive or degraded PN, suggesting the occurrence of N-nitrosation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine, the guanido group of arginine and the imidazole group of histidine. Additionally, increase in the N-nitroso immunoreactivity of preincubated histones H2A and H2B was detected by Western blot analysis. PMID:15353346

Kuo, Wu-Nan; Ivy, Dynisha; Guruvadoo, Luvina; White, Atavia; Graham, Latia

2004-09-01

388

Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.  

PubMed

Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

2014-03-01

389

Enthalpy pair coefficients of interaction for DL-valine in aqueous solutions of polyatomic alcohols at 298 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral enthalpies of dissolution ?sol H m of DL-valine are measured via calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and 1,2-propylene glycol. Standard values of the enthalpies of dissolution (?sol H ?) and transfer (?tr H ?) of amino acid from water to mixed solvent are calculated from the resulting experimental data. The enthalpy coefficients for pair interactions hxy of amino acid with polyatomic alcohol molecules are calculated using the McMillan-Meyer theory and have positive values. The obtained results are discussed in light of the theory of the predomination of various types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of the dissolution of amino acids.

Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

2013-12-01

390

Amino acid utilization by marine phytoplankton: A novel mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme on the cell surface of some marine phytoplankton, particularly the genus Pleurochrysis (ffyrnenomonas), oxidizes many L-amino acids to produce H,O,, NH,, and an ol-keto acid extra- cellularly. The NH,+ is subsequently taken up and used for growth. The enzyme synthesized by Pleurochrysis carterue (clone CoccoII) has a half-saturation constant of 0.25 PM assayed with L-W aminobutyric acid as

B. PALENIK; F. M. M. MOREL

1990-01-01

391

Survivability of biomolecules during extraterrestrial delivery: new results on pyrolysis of amino acids and poly-amino acids.  

PubMed

The hypothesis on exogenous origin of organic matter on the early Earth is strongly supported by the detection of a large variety of organic compounds (including amino acids and nucleobases) in carbonaceous chondrites. Whether such complex species can be successively delivered by other space bodies (comets, asteroids and interplanetary dust particles) is unclear and depends primarily on capability of the biomolecules to survive high temperatures during atmospheric deceleration and impacts to the terrestrial surface. Recent simulation experiments on amino acid and nucleic acid base pyrolysis under oxygen-free atmosphere demonstrated that simple representatives of these (considered thermally unstable) compounds can survive at 1-10% level a rapid heating at 500-600 degrees C. In the present work, we report on new data on the pyrolysis of amino acids and their homopolymers and discuss implications of their thermal behavior for extraterrestrial delivery. PMID:11605637

Basiuk, V A; Douda, J

2001-01-01

392

The effect of stress level, amino acid formula, and nitrogen dose on nitrogen retention in traumatic and septic stress.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-seven patients were entered into a randomized, prospective, double-blind, six-center study to evaluate the effect of amino acid loading and a formula that was branched chain enriched (50%) on nitrogen retention in metabolic stress. The patients had varying levels of metabolic stress (0-3) after major surgery, polytrauma, or surgical sepsis. The study was isocaloric and isonitrogenous and lasted for 7 days. The patients received either a standard amino acid formula (SAA) (Travasol) or a 50% branched chain enriched formula that was equimolar, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (MAA) (Travasol + Branchamin concentrate) at a dose of 1.0-2.0 g/kg/day in a fixed ratio with 114 glucose calories per gram of nitrogen administered. The nitrogen retention was proportionate to the nitrogen (and, therefore, caloric) load in both groups. The MAA group, however, had better nitrogen retention, reached nitrogen equilibrium at a lower dose of amino acids, and had less urinary nitrogen excretion per gram of nitrogen administered. Since the groups were isonitrogenous and the calorie to nitrogen ratios were fixed, it appears that nitrogen equilibrium in surgical stress is proportionate to the amino acid load over a range of 0.05-0.4 g/kg/day of nitrogen; and that MAA are more efficient at inducing nitrogen retention and a reduction in urea excretion. These effects on nitrogen retention were more significant at level 2 stress or greater. At these higher stress levels, a dose of 2 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day of MAA seemed most efficient in promoting nitrogen retention. PMID:3548612

Cerra, F; Blackburn, G; Hirsch, J; Mullen, K; Luther, W

1987-01-01

393

Volumetric properties of l-alanine, and l-valine in aqueous sucrose solutions at T = (288.15 and 308.15) K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities of l-alanine, and l-valine have been measured at T=(288.15 and 308.15) K in aqueous sucrose solutions ranging from pure water to 25 mass% of sucrose. From these densities, apparent molar volumes (V?) and limiting partial molar volumes (V??) of each amino acid in various aqueous sucrose solutions have been evaluated. These data were combined with the earlier reported V??

Amalendu Pal; Suresh Kumar

2005-01-01

394

The amino acid sequence of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and mute swan (Cygnus olor) hemoglobins. Two different species with identical beta-chains.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component (HbA) of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and mute swan (Cygnus olor) are given. The alpha-chains are of the alpha A-type, since alpha D-type was expressed but only found in low concentrations. By homologous comparison, greylag goose hemoglobin (Anser anser) and Canada goose hemoglobin alpha-chains differ by two exchanges, and beta-chains by three exchanges. A valine substitution for threonine was found at position alpha 34 (B15). This exchange is a result of a two point mutation. Thus, there are three nucleotide mutations in alpha-chains, as in beta-chains. Substitutions in positions alpha 34 (B15) and beta 125 (H3) have modified intersubunit contacts (alpha 1 beta 1-contacts). A comparison of mute swan hemoglobin with greylag goose hemoglobin shows four exchanges in alpha-chains and three in beta-chains. Canada goose and mute swan have identical beta-chains, while alpha-chains differ in two amino acids. One of these exchanges is implicated in one of the alpha 1 beta 1-contact points (alpha 34) where isoleucine substitution for valine was found. Comparison of hemoglobins from different species in the same tribe (Anserini) shows a high homology between Canada goose and mute swan hemoglobins. PMID:7118073

Oberthür, W; Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Braunitzer, G; Wiesner, H

1982-08-01

395

Essential amino acids interacting with flavonoids: A theoretical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of two flavonoid species (resorcinolic and fluoroglucinolic) with the 20 essential amino acids was studied by the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) procedures, through the AM1 and PM3 semiempirical methods. Remarkable thermodynamic data related to the properties of the molecular association of these compounds were obtained, which will be of great utility for future investigations concerning the interaction of flavonoids with proteins. These results are compared with experimental and classical force field results reported in the available literature, and new evidences and criteria are shown. The hydrophilic amino acids demonstrated high affinity in the interaction with flavonoid molecules; the complexes with lysine are especially extremely stable. An affinity order for the interaction of both flavonoid species with the essential amino acids is suggested. Our theoretical results are compared with experimental evidence on flavonoid interactions with proteins of biomedical interest.

Codorniu-Hernández, Edelsys; Mesa-Ibirico, Ariel; Hernández-Santiesteban, Richel; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.; Martínez-Luzardo, Francisco; Santana-Romero, Jorge L.; Borrmann, Tobias; Stohrer, Wolf-D.

396

Amino acids in a Fischer Tropsch type synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One postulation is described for the presence of organic compounds in meteorites which states that they were formed during the condensation of the solar nebula. A viable laboratory simulation of these conditions can be modeled after the industrial Fischer Tropsch reaction, which is known to produce organic compounds called hydrocarbons. In this simulation, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and ammonia is heated in the presence of iron meteorite. The reaction products for amino acids, a class of organic compounds important to life, were examined. A large number of these compounds is found in meteorites and other chemical evolution experiments, but only small quantities of a few amino acids were found in the present simulation work. These results are at odds with the existing literature in which many amino acids were reported.

Brown, D. L.; Lawless, J. G.

1974-01-01