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Sample records for amino-butyric acid gaba

  1. EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

  2. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  3. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  4. The Long and Winding Road to Gamma-Amino-Butyric Acid as Neurotransmitter.

    PubMed

    Avoli, Massimo; Krnjević, Krešimir

    2016-03-01

    This review centers on the discoveries made during more than six decades of neuroscience research on the role of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) as neurotransmitter. In doing so, special emphasis is directed to the significant involvement of Canadian scientists in these advances. Starting with the early studies that established GABA as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at central synapses, we summarize the results pointing at the GABA receptor as a drug target as well as more recent evidence showing that GABAA receptor signaling plays a surprisingly active role in neuronal network synchronization, both during development and in the adult brain. Finally, we briefly address the involvement of GABA in neurological conditions that encompass epileptic disorders and mental retardation. RESUMÉ: Le chemin long et sinueux pour que le GABA soit reconnu comme un neurotransmetteur. Cette revue est axée sur les découvertes réalisées durant plus de six décennies de recherche en neurosciences sur l'acide gamma-aminobutyrique (GABA) comme neurotransmetteur. À cet effet, nous mettons une emphase particulière sur le rôle significatif de chercheurs canadiens dans ce domaine de recherche. En prenant comme point de départ les premières études qui ont établi que le GABA était un neurotransmetteur au niveau de synapses centrales, nous faisons le sommaire des résultats identifiant le récepteur GABA comme étant une cible thérapeutique ainsi que des données plus récentes montrant que la signalisation du récepteur GABAA joue, de façon surprenante, un rôle actif dans la synchronisation du réseau neuronal, tant au cours du développement que dans le cerveau adulte. Finalement, nous traitons brièvement du rôle de GABA dans les maladies neurologiques incluant les troubles épileptiques et l'arriération mentale. PMID:26763167

  5. Relieving occupational fatigue by consumption of a beverage containing ?-amino butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Kenji; Horie, Kenji; Horie, Noriko; Furugori, Kaori; Sauchi, Yusuke; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on both psychological and physical fatigue and on the performance advances for task solving, we assigned an arithmetic task for the Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test (UKT) to 30 healthy Japanese subjects, 9 of whom were diagnosed as having chronic fatigue. The subjects were administered 250 mL of a test beverage containing GABA at the dose of 0, 25, and 50 mg before assigning task for the UKT. Psychological fatigue assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was significantly lower in the group administrated the beverage containing 50 mg GABA than in the control group (p<0.05). The results of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) also indicated that psychological fatigue was significantly reduced in the 50-mg-GABA group. The salivary secretion levels of chromogranin A and cortisol-markers of physical fatigue-in both 25-mg and 50-mg-GABA groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The 50-mg-GABA group also showed higher score on UKT by solving the arithmetic task more accurately than the control group (p<0.01). The results suggest that intake of GABA-containing beverages, especially those containing 50 mg of GABA, may help reduce both psychological and physical fatigue and improve task-solving ability. PMID:21512285

  6. γ-Amino butyric acid and glutamate abnormalities in adolescent chronic marijuana smokers

    PubMed Central

    Prescot, Andrew P.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggests that exposure to marijuana throughout adolescence disrupts key cortical maturation processes occurring during this developmental phase. GABA-modulating pharmacologic treatments that elevate brain GABA concentration recently have been shown to decrease withdrawal symptoms and improve executive functioning in marijuana-dependent adult subjects. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the lower ACC glutamate previously reported in adolescent chronic marijuana smokers is associated with lower ACC GABA levels. Methods Standard and metabolite-edited proton MRS data were acquired from adolescent marijuana users (N = 13) and similarly aged non-using controls (N = 16) using a clinical 3T MRI system. Results The adolescent marijuana-using cohort showed significantly lower ACC GABA levels (−22%, p = 0.03), which paralleled significantly lower ACC glutamate levels (−14%, p = 0.01). Importantly, the lower ACC GABA and glutamate levels detected in the adolescent cohort remained significant after controlling for age and sex. Conclusions The present spectroscopic findings support functional neuroimaging data documenting cingulate dysfunction in marijuana-dependent adolescents. Glutamatergic and GABAergic abnormalities potentially underlie cingulate dysfunction in adolescent chronic marijuana users, and the opportunity for testing suitable pharmacologic treatments with a non-invasive pharmacodynamic evaluation exists. PMID:23522493

  7. Ondansetron reverses anti-hypersensitivity from clonidine in rats following peripheral nerve injury: Role of γ-amino butyric acid in α2-adrenoceptor and 5-HT3 serotonin receptor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Kimura, Masafumi; Yoshizumi, Masaru; Hobo, Shotaro; Obata, Hideaki; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Monoaminergic pathways, impinging an α2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors, modulate nociceptive transmission, but their mechanisms and interactions after neuropathic injury are unknown. Here we examine these interactions in rodents after nerve injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats following L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were used for either behavioral testing, in vivo microdialysis for γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine release, or synaptosome preparation for GABA release. Results Intrathecal administration of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist (clonidine) and 5-HT3 receptor agonist (chlorophenylbiguanide) reduced hypersensitivity in SNL rats via GABA receptor-mediated mechanisms. Clonidine increased GABA and acetylcholine release in vivo in the spinal cord of SNL rats but not in normal rats. Clonidine-induced spinal GABA release in SNL rats was blocked by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron decreased and chlorophenylbiguanide increased spinal GABA release in both normal and SNL rats. In synaptosomes from the spinal dorsal horn of SNL rats, pre-synaptic GABA release was increased by nicotinic agonists and decreased by muscarinic and α2-adrenergic agonists. Spinally administered ondansetron significantly reduced clonidine-induced anti-hypersensitivity and spinal GABA release in SNL rats. Conclusion These results suggest that spinal GABA contributes to anti-hypersensitivity from intrathecal α2-adrenergic and 5-HT3 receptor agonists in the neuropathic pain state, that cholinergic neuroplasticity after nerve injury is critical for α2-adrenoceptor-mediated GABA release, and that blockade of spinal 5-HT3 receptors reduces α2-adrenoceptor-mediated anti-hypersensitivity via reducing total GABA release. PMID:22722575

  8. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  9. Mutations in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid '-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h...

  10. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume. PMID:25837010

  11. Anti-convulsant activity of diazepam and clonidine on metaldehyde-induced seizures in mice: effects on brain gamma-amino butyric acid concentrations and monoamine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Homeida, A M; Cooke, R G

    1982-09-01

    Metaldehyde when administered orally to mice at a dose of 1 g kg-1 produced convulsions and death within 2 h. Brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were significantly reduced and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity significantly increased in these animals relative to controls. Treatment with either intraperitoneal diazepam or clonidine 20 min after administration of metaldehyde delayed the onset of toxic symptoms and reduced the mortality rate. In those mice which survived longer than 5 h, brain concentrations of GABA, though still not restored to control values, were significantly higher than those in the mice which died. Clonidine, unlike diazepam, also inhibited the increase in brain MAO activity. PMID:7143555

  12. GABA as a rising gliotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Bo-Eun; Lee, C. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter that is known to be synthesized and released from GABAergic neurons in the brain. However, recent studies have shown that not only neurons but also astrocytes contain a considerable amount of GABA that can be released and activate GABA receptors in neighboring neurons. These exciting new findings for glial GABA raise further interesting questions about the source of GABA, its mechanism of release and regulation and the functional role of glial GABA. In this review, we highlight recent studies that identify the presence and release of GABA in glial cells, we show several proposed potential pathways for accumulation and modulation of glial intracellular and extracellular GABA content, and finally we discuss functional roles for glial GABA in the brain. PMID:25565970

  13. Disorders of GABA metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Parviz, Mahsa; Vogel, Kara; Gibson, K. Michael; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical disorders known to affect inherited gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) metabolism are autosomal recessively inherited succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and GABA-transaminase deficiency. The clinical presentation of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency includes intellectual disability, ataxia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and epilepsy with a nonprogressive course in typical cases, although a progressive form in early childhood as well as deterioration in adulthood with worsening epilepsy are reported. GABA-transaminase deficiency is associated with a severe neonatal-infantile epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:25485164

  14. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. PMID:24446756

  15. GABA.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Erik M

    2005-01-01

    The most abundant synapses in the central nervous system of vertebrates are inhibitory synapses that use the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is also an important neurotransmitter in C. elegans; however, in contrast to vertebrates where GABA acts at synapses of the central nervous system, in nematodes GABA acts primarily at neuromuscular synapses. Specifically, GABA acts to relax the body muscles during locomotion and foraging and to contract the enteric muscles during defecation. The importance of this neurotransmitter for basic motor functions of the worm has facilitated the genetic analysis of proteins required for GABA function. Genetic screens have identified the GABA biosynthetic enzyme, the vesicular transporter, inhibitory and excitatory receptors, and a transcription factor required for the differentiation of GABA cell identity. The plasma membrane transporter and other GABA receptors have been identified by molecular criteria. PMID:18050397

  16. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  17. Distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the octopus brain.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, C J; Messenger, J B; Williamson, R

    1993-09-10

    This paper presents the first evidence that some neurons in the octopus CNS contain delta-amino butyric acid (GABA). Using conventional immunohistochemical methods with appropriate controls, we obtained positive staining with an antibody to GABA in fibres in the neuropil of many lobes of the brain of the northern octopus Eledone cirrhosa. In several lobes cell bodies were also stained. Staining was not uniformly distributed in the brain nor within a particular lobe: some regions stained strongly, others not at all. These findings suggest that GABA should be added to the already long list of putative neurotransmitters in the cephalopod CNS. PMID:8242349

  18. Artificial Autopolyploidization Modifies the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and GABA Shunt in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Fredd; Kikuchi, Jun; Breuer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is a process whereby the chromosome set is multiplied and it is a common phenomenon in angiosperms. Autopolyploidy is thought to be an important evolutionary force that has led to the formation of new plant species. Despite its relevance, the consequences of autopolyploidy in plant metabolism are poorly understood. This study compares the metabolic profiles of natural diploids and artificial autotetraploids of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. Different physiological parameters are compared between diploids and autotetraploids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (carbon:nitrogen balance) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The main difference between diploid and autotetraploid A. thaliana Col-0 is observed in the concentration of metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) shunt, as shown by multivariate statistical analysis of NMR spectra. qRT-PCR shows that genes related to the TCA and GABA shunt are also differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids following similar trends as their corresponding metabolites. Solid evidence is presented to demonstrate that autopolyploidy influences core plant metabolic processes. PMID:27212081

  19. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Miho; Fukuda, Atsuo; Nabekura, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction. PMID:25506316

  20. Photorelease of GABA with Visible Light Using an Inorganic Caging Group

    PubMed Central

    Rial Verde, Emiliano M.; Zayat, Leonardo; Etchenique, Roberto; Yuste, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    We describe the selective photorelease of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) with a novel caged-GABA compound that uses a ruthenium complex as photosensor. This compound (“RuBi-GABA”) can be excited with visible wavelengths, providing greater tissue penetration, less photo-toxicity, and faster photorelease kinetics than currently used UV light-sensitive caged compounds. Using pyramidal neurons from neocortical brain slices, we show that RuBi-GABA uncaging induces GABA-A receptor-mediated responses, has no detectable side effects on endogenous GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors and generates responses with kinetics and spatial resolution comparable to the best caged GABA compounds presently available. Finally, we illustrate two potential applications of RuBi-GABA uncaging: GABA receptor mapping, and optical silencing of neuronal firing. PMID:18946542

  1. Allosteric modulation of retinal GABA receptors by ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Vickers, Evan; Moraga Cid, Gustavo; Aguayo, Luis G; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Calvo, Daniel J

    2011-06-29

    Ionotropic GABA receptors (GABA(A) and GABA(C)) belong to the Cys-loop receptor family of ligand-gated ion channels. GABA(C) receptors are highly expressed in the retina, mainly localized at the axon terminals of bipolar cells. Ascorbic acid, an endogenous redox agent, modulates the function of diverse proteins, and basal levels of ascorbic acid in the retina are very high. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on retinal GABA receptors has not been studied. Here we show that the function of GABA(C) and GABA(A) receptors is regulated by ascorbic acid. Patch-clamp recordings from bipolar cell terminals in goldfish retinal slices revealed that GABA(C) receptor-mediated currents activated by tonic background levels of extracellular GABA, and GABA(C) currents elicited by local GABA puffs, are both significantly enhanced by ascorbic acid. In addition, a significant rundown of GABA puff-evoked currents was observed in the absence of ascorbic acid. GABA-evoked Cl(-) currents mediated by homomeric ρ(1) GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were also potentiated by ascorbic acid in a concentration-dependent, stereo-specific, reversible, and voltage-independent manner. Studies involving the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups showed that the two Cys-loop cysteines and histidine 141, all located in the ρ(1) subunit extracellular domain, each play a key role in the modulation of GABA(C) receptors by ascorbic acid. Additionally, we show that retinal GABA(A) IPSCs and heterologously expressed GABA(A) receptor currents are similarly augmented by ascorbic acid. Our results suggest that ascorbic acid may act as an endogenous agent capable of potentiating GABAergic neurotransmission in the CNS. PMID:21715633

  2. Dopamine D(1) receptor facilitation of depolarization-induced release of gamma-amino-butyric acid in rat striatum is mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway and involves P/Q-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Arias-Montaño, J-A; Floran, B; Floran, L; Aceves, J; Young, J M

    2007-05-01

    Transmission in the "direct" pathway through the basal ganglia, which has an important role in the control of motor movement, is markedly facilitated by the concurrent activation of dopamine D(1) receptors. Consistent with this, Ca(2+)-dependent, depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]-GABA from striatal slices from rats pretreated with reserpine was greatly increased in the presence of 1 microM SKF 38393, a dopamine D(1)-like receptor agonist. The effect of SKF 38393 was mimicked by 1 mM 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (Br-cAMP) and inhibited by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, mean inhibition 92% +/- 4% with 10 microM H-89 (n = 3). The effects of SKF 38393 and Br-cAMP were not additive. The stimulatory effects of SKF 38393 and Br-cAMP were practically abolished in the presence of the histamine H(3) receptor agonist immepip (1 microM). The depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]-GABA in the presence of SKF 38393 was not significantly inhibited by 5 microM nimodipine, an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, or by 0.3 microM omega-conotoxin MVIIA, a selective blocker of N-type channels. However, preincubation of the slices with 0.95 microM omega-agatoxin TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, followed by washing before changing to a depolarizing medium containing SKF 38393, resulted in a marked inhibition of the stimulated release of [(3)H]-GABA, mean 68% +/- 4% (n = 3). These observations provide evidence that dopamine D(1) agonist facilitation of the depolarization-induced release of GABA from striatal terminals is mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway and involves mainly P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. PMID:17318879

  3. Production of gaba (γ - Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods. PMID:24031948

  4. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%. PMID:21971608

  5. GABA release by hippocampal astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Le Meur, Karim; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Grandes, Pedro; Audinat, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes can directly influence neuronal activity through the release of various transmitters acting on membrane receptors expressed by neurons. However, in contrast to glutamate and ATP for instance, the release of GABA (γ-amino-butyric acid) by astrocytes is still poorly documented. Here, we used whole-cell recordings in rat acute brain slices and electron microscopy to test whether hippocampal astrocytes release the inhibitory transmitter GABA. We observed that slow transient inhibitory currents due to the activation of GABAA receptors occur spontaneously in principal neurons of the three main hippocampal fields (CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus). These currents share characteristics with the slow NMDA receptor-mediated currents previously shown to result from astrocytic glutamate release: they occur in the absence of synaptic transmission and have variable kinetics and amplitudes as well as low frequencies. Osmotic pressure reduction, known to enhance transmitter release from astrocytes, similarly increased the frequency of non-synaptic GABA and glutamate currents. Simultaneous occurrence of slow inhibitory and excitatory currents was extremely rare. Yet, electron microscopy examination of immunostained hippocampal sections shows that about 80% of hippocampal astrocytes [positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] were immunostained for GABA. Our results provide quantitative characteristics of the astrocyte-to-neuron GABAergic signaling. They also suggest that all principal neurons of the hippocampal network are under a dual, excitatory and inhibitory, influence of astrocytes. The relevance of the astrocytic release of GABA, and glutamate, on the physiopathology of the hippocampus remains to be established. PMID:22912614

  6. Fast detection of extrasynaptic GABA with a whole-cell sniffer

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Rasmus K.; Petersen, Anders V.; Schmitt, Nicole; Perrier, Jean-Franois

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter of the brain. It operates by binding to specific receptors located both inside and outside synapses. The extrasynaptic receptors are activated by spillover from GABAergic synapses and by ambient GABA in the extracellular space. Ambient GABA is essential for adjusting the excitability of neurons. However, due to the lack of suitable methods, little is known about its dynamics. Here we describe a new technique that allows detection of GABA transients and measurement of the steady state GABA concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. We used a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line that stably expresses GABAA receptors composed of ?1, ?2, and ?2 subunits. We recorded from such a HEK cell with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The presence of GABA near the HEK cell generated a measurable electric current whose magnitude increased with concentration. A fraction of the current did not inactivate during prolonged exposition to GABA. This technique, which we refer to as a sniffer allows the measurement of ambient GABA concentration inside nervous tissue with a resolution of few tens of nanomolars. In addition, the sniffer detects variations in the extrasynaptic GABA concentration with millisecond time resolution. Pilot experiments demonstrate that the sniffer is able to report spillover of GABA induced by synaptic activation in real time. This is the first report on a GABA sensor that combines the ability to detect fast transients and to measure steady concentrations. PMID:24860433

  7. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Producing Bacteria on In vitro Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bum Seung; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Jeong, Chang Dae; Soriano, Alvin P.; Lee, Ho-Il; Nam, Ki-Chang; Ha, Jong K.; Lee, Sang Suk

    2013-01-01

    The effects and significance of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) producing bacteria (GPB) on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine) using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM). Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05). Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05). Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation. PMID:25049853

  8. Allosteric modulation of retinal GABA receptors by ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Vickers, Evan; Moraga Cid, Gustavo; Aguayo, Luis G.; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Calvo, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA and GABAC) belong to the cys-loop receptor family of ligand-gated ion channels. GABAC receptors are highly expressed in the retina, mainly localized at the axon terminals of bipolar cells. Ascorbic acid, an endogenous redox agent, modulates the function of diverse proteins, and basal levels of ascorbic acid in the retina are very high. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on retinal GABA receptors has not been studied. Here we show that the function of GABAC and GABAA receptors is regulated by ascorbic acid. Patch-clamp recordings from bipolar cell terminals in goldfish retinal slices revealed that GABAC receptor-mediated currents activated by tonic background levels of extracellular GABA, and GABAC currents elicited by local GABA puffs, are both significantly enhanced by ascorbic acid. In addition, a significant rundown of GABA-puff evoked currents was observed in the absence of ascorbic acid. GABA-evoked Cl- currents mediated by homomeric ρ1 GABAC receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were also potentiated by ascorbic acid in a concentration-dependent, stereospecific, reversible, and voltage-independent manner. Studies involving the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups showed that the two cys-loop cysteines and histidine 141, all located in the ρ1 subunit extracellular domain, each play a key role in the modulation of GABAC receptors by ascorbic acid. Additionally, we show that retinal GABAA IPSCs and heterologously expressed GABAA receptor currents are similarly augmented by ascorbic acid. Our results suggest that ascorbic acid may act as an endogenous agent capable of potentiating GABAergic neurotransmission in the CNS. PMID:21715633

  9. Regulation of GABA-modulin phosphorylation and GABA receptor binding by excitatory amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccarino, F.; Guidotti, A.

    1987-05-01

    Primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells phosphorylate numerous proteins including GABA-modulin (GM), which is a putative allosteric modulator of GABA receptors. Cell depolarization and treatment with dicarboxylic excitatory amino acids, which activate PI turnover, Ca/sup 2 +/ influx and guanylate cyclase in granule cells increase the phosphorylation of specific proteins. To determine GM phosphorylation by endogenous protein kinases in living granule cell cultures, GM was isolated by immunoprecipitation and reverse-phase HPLC. High K/sup +/, veratridine, glutamate and NMDA treatment stimulated GM phosphorylation over 2-fold. This increase was abolished by the absence of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and was antagonized by Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and by AVP. The excitatory amino acid action was mimicked by phorbol esters but not by forskolin or by cGMP, and thus may be mediated by an activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Moreover, excitatory amino acids increase /sup 3/H-labelled phorbol ester binding sites in granule cell membrane. The same cultures, treated with glutamate or kainate, showed a 50-fold greater efficacy of muscimol for the stimulation of benzodiazepine (BZ) binding. These data-suggest that excitatory amino acid stimulation of neurons triggers PKC translocation and the activated enzyme phosphorylates GM. The extent of GM phosphorylation may regulate the coupling between GABA and BZ binding sites.

  10. GABA Receptors: Pharmacological Potential and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Jembrek, Maja Jazvinscak; Vlainic, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, plays a key role in the regulation of neuronal transmission throughout the brain, affecting numerous physiological and psychological processes. Changes in GABA levels provoke disbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signals, and are involved in the development of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA exerts its effects via ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. Both types of receptors are targeted by many clinically important drugs that affect GABAergic function and are widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorder, epilepsy, insomnia, spasticity, aggressive behaviour, and other pathophysiological conditions and diseases. Of particular importance are drugs that modulate GABAA receptor complex, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, neuroactive steroids, intravenous and inhalational anesthetics, and ethanol. Molecular interactions and subsequent pharmacological effects induced by drugs acting at GABAA receptors are extremely complex due to structural heterogeneity of GABAA receptors and existence of numerous allosterically interconnected binding sites and various chemically distinct ligands that are able to bound to them. There is a growing interest in the development and application of subtype-selective drugs that will achieve specific therapeutic benefits without undesirable side effects. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the key pharmacological properties of GABA receptors, and to present selected novel findings with the potential to open new perspectives in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26365137

  11. GABA sub A (gamma-aminobutyric acid) type binding sites on membranes of spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Erdoe, S.L. ); Wekerle, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ({sup 3}H) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to seminal membranes of swines and rams was examined. Specific, GABA binding was demonstrated in both species, which showed the features of GABA{sub A} type receptors. The affinity of binding was similar in both species, whereas the density of seminal GABA binding sites was 5 times higher in swine. Our findings suggest that GABA may have a direct effect on spermatozoa.

  12. Mutation of the Drosophila vesicular GABA transporter disrupts visual figure detection

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Hao; Chow, Dawnis M.; Chen, Audrey; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Ong, Wei S.; Ackerson, Larry C.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Simpson, Julie H.; Frye, Mark A.; Krantz, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) release and inhibitory neurotransmission in regulating most behaviors remains unclear. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is required for the storage of GABA in synaptic vesicles and provides a potentially useful probe for inhibitory circuits. However, specific pharmacologic agents for VGAT are not available, and VGAT knockout mice are embryonically lethal, thus precluding behavioral studies. We have identified the Drosophila ortholog of the vesicular GABA transporter gene (which we refer to as dVGAT), immunocytologically mapped dVGAT protein expression in the larva and adult and characterized a dVGATminos mutant allele. dVGAT is embryonically lethal and we do not detect residual dVGAT expression, suggesting that it is either a strong hypomorph or a null. To investigate the function of VGAT and GABA signaling in adult visual flight behavior, we have selectively rescued the dVGAT mutant during development. We show that reduced GABA release does not compromise the active optomotor control of wide-field pattern motion. Conversely, reduced dVGAT expression disrupts normal object tracking and figure–ground discrimination. These results demonstrate that visual behaviors are segregated by the level of GABA signaling in flies, and more generally establish dVGAT as a model to study the contribution of GABA release to other complex behaviors. PMID:20435823

  13. Production of gaba (γ – Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods. PMID:24031948

  14. The Arabidopsis her1 mutant implicates GABA in E-2-hexenal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Rossana; Rauwerda, Han; Struys, Eduard A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Triantaphylidès, Christian; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    When wounded or attacked by herbivores or pathogens, plants produce a blend of six-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and esters, known as C6-volatiles. Undamaged plants, when exposed to C6-volatiles, respond by inducing defense-related genes and secondary metabolites, suggesting that C6-volatiles can act as signaling molecules regulating plant defense responses. However, to date, the molecular mechanisms by which plants perceive and respond to these volatiles are unknown. To elucidate such mechanisms, we decided to isolate Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which responses to C6-volatiles were altered. We observed that treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings with the C6-volatile E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation. Among C6-volatiles this response is specific to E-2-hexenal, and is not dependent on ethylene, jasmonic and salicylic acid. Using this bioassay, we isolated 18 E-2-hexenal-response (her) mutants that showed sustained root growth after E-2-hexenal treatment. Here, we focused on the molecular characterization of one of these mutants, her1. Microarray and map-based cloning revealed that her1 encodes a gamma-amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-TP), an enzyme that degrades GABA. As a consequence of the mutation, her1 plants accumulate high GABA levels in all their organs. Based on the observation that E-2-hexenal treatment induces GABA accumulation, and that high GABA levels confer resistance to E-2-hexenal, we propose a role for GABA in mediating E-2-hexenal responses. PMID:17971036

  15. Co-Localization of GABA Shunt Enzymes for the Efficient Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid via GABA Shunt Pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pham, Van Dung; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2016-04-28

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid, which is an important inhibitor of neurotransmission in the human brain. GABA is also used as the precursor of biopolymer Nylon-4 production. In this study, the carbon flux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle was directed to the GABA shunt pathway for the production of GABA from glucose. The GABA shunt enzymes succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD) and GABA aminotransferase (GabT) were co-localized along with the GABA transporter (GadC) by using a synthetic scaffold complex. The co-localized enzyme scaffold complex produced 0.71 g/l of GABA from 10 g/l of glucose. Inactivation of competing metabolic pathways in mutant E. coli strains XBM1 and XBM6 increased GABA production 13% to reach 0.80 g/l GABA by the enzymes co-localized and expressed in the mutant strains. The recombinant E. coli system developed in this study demonstrated the possibility of the pathway of the GABA shunt as a novel GABA production pathway. PMID:26838342

  16. Tolerance to allopregnanolone with focus on the GABA-A receptor.

    PubMed

    Turkmen, Sahruh; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Wahlstrom, Goran; Andreen, Lotta; Johansson, Inga-Maj

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have suggested a relationship between stress, sex steroids, and negative mental and mood changes in humans. The progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone is a potent endogenous ligand of the ?-amino butyric acid -A (GABA-A) receptor, and the most discussed neuroactive steroid. Variations in the levels of neuroactive steroids that influence the activity of the GABA-A receptor cause a vulnerability to mental and emotional pathology. There are physiological conditions in which allopregnanolone production increases acutely (e.g. stress) or chronically (e.g. menstrual cycle, pregnancy), thus exposing the GABA-A receptor to high and continuous allopregnanolone concentrations. In such conditions, tolerance to allopregnanolone may develop. We have shown that both acute and chronic tolerances can develop to the effects of allopregnanolone. Following the development of acute allopregnanolone tolerance, there is a decrease in the abundance of the GABA-A receptor ?4 subunit and the expression of the ?4 subunit mRNA in the ventral-posteriomedial nucleus of the thalamus. Little is known about the mechanism behind allopregnanolone tolerance and its effects on assembly of the GABA-A receptor composition. The exact mechanism of the allopregnanolone tolerance phenomena remains unclear. The purpose of this review is to summarize certain aspects of current knowledge concerning allopregnanolone tolerance and changes in the GABA-A receptors. PMID:20883478

  17. GABA-ergic cell therapy for epilepsy: Advances, limitations and challenges.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ashok K; Upadhya, Dinesh

    2016-03-01

    Diminution in the number of gamma-amino butyric acid positive (GABA-ergic) interneurons and their axon terminals, and/or alterations in functional inhibition are conspicuous brain alterations believed to contribute to the persistence of seizures in acquired epilepsies such as temporal lobe epilepsy. This has steered a perception that replacement of lost GABA-ergic interneurons would improve inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission in the epileptic brain region and thereby reduce the occurrence of seizures. Indeed, studies using animal prototypes have reported that grafting of GABA-ergic progenitors derived from multiple sources into epileptic regions can reduce seizures. This review deliberates recent advances, limitations and challenges concerning the development of GABA-ergic cell therapy for epilepsy. The efficacy and limitations of grafts of primary GABA-ergic progenitors from the embryonic lateral ganglionic eminence and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), neural stem/progenitor cells expanded from MGE, and MGE-like progenitors generated from human pluripotent stem cells for alleviating seizures and co-morbidities of epilepsy are conferred. Additional studies required for possible clinical application of GABA-ergic cell therapy for epilepsy are also summarized. PMID:26748379

  18. A study on the involvement of GABA-transaminase in MCT induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lingeshwar, Poorella; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Seema; Mishra, Akanksha; Shukla, Shubha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Laxman, Tulsankar Sachin; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar; Siddiqui, Hefazat H; Hanif, Kashif

    2016-02-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with cardiovascular diseases but its role has not been completely explored in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Increased SNS activity is distinguished by elevated level of norepinephrine (NE) and activity of γ-Amino butyric acid Transminase (GABA-T) which degrades GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that GABA-T may contribute in pathophysiology of PH by modulating level of GABA and NE. The effect of daily oral administration of GABA-T inhibitor, Vigabatrin (GVG, 50 and 75 mg/kg/day, 35 days) was studied following a single subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) in male SD rats. The pressure and hypertrophy of right ventricle (RV), oxidative stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodelling were assessed after 35 days in MCT treated rats. The expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α was studied in lung tissue. The levels of plasma NE (by High performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector; HPLC-ECD) and lung GABA (by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) were also estimated. GVG at both doses significantly attenuated increased in pressure (35.82 ± 4.80 mm Hg, p < 0.001; 28.37 ± 3.32 mm Hg, p < 0.001 respectively) and hypertrophy of RV, pulmonary vascular remodelling, oxidative stress and inflammation in lungs of MCT exposed rats. GVG also reduced the expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α in MCT treated rats. Increased NE level and decreased GABA level was also reversed by GVG in MCT exposed rats. GABA-T plays an important role in PH by modulating SNS activity and may be considered as a therapeutic target in PH. PMID:26608704

  19. Thyroid hormone and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interactions in neuroendocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Susanna C; Trudeau, Vance L

    2006-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) have critical roles in brain development and normal brain function in vertebrates. Clinical evidence suggests that some human nervous disorders involving GABA(gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic systems are related to thyroid dysfunction (i.e. hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism). There is experimental evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies on rats and mice indicating that THs have effects on multiple components of the GABA system. These include effects on enzyme activities responsible for synthesis and degradation of GABA, levels of glutamate and GABA, GABA release and reuptake, and GABA(A) receptor expression and function. In developing brain, hypothyroidism generally decreases enzyme activities and GABA levels whereas in adult brain, hypothyroidism generally increases enzyme activities and GABA levels. Hyperthyroidism does not always have the opposite effect. In vitro studies on adult brain have shown that THs enhance GABA release and inhibit GABA-reuptake by rapid, extranuclear actions, suggesting that presence of THs in the synapse could prolong the action of GABA after release. There are conflicting results on effects of long term changes in TH levels on GABA reuptake. Increasing and decreasing circulating TH levels experimentally in vivo alter density of GABA(A) receptor-binding sites for GABA and benzodiazepines in brain, but results vary from study to study, which may reflect important regional differences in the brain. There is substantial evidence that THs also have an extranuclear effect to inhibit GABA-stimulated Cl(-) currents by a non-competitive mechanism in vitro. The thyroid gland exhibits GABA transport mechanisms as well as enzyme activities for GABA synthesis and degradation, all of which are sensitive to thyroidal state. In rats and humans, GABA inhibits thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) release from the pituitary, possibly by action directly on the pituitary or on hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone neurons. In mice, GABA inhibits TSH-stimulated TH release from the thyroid gland. Taken together, these studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that there is reciprocal regulation of the thyroid and GABA systems in vertebrates. PMID:16527506

  20. Electronic and structural features of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and four of its direct agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Gilardi, Richard D.; Aprison, M. H.

    1989-04-01

    To understand better how the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions at its postsynaptic receptor site, electronic and structural features of the natural inhibitor were compared with four direct GABA agonists: muscimol, trans-3-amino-1-cyclopentane carboxylic acid ( trans-3 ACPC), isoguvacine and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c]-pyridin-3-ol (THIP). The structures of isoguvacine and THIP were determined by X-ray crystallography. The structures of GABA and muscimol were retrieved from the literature and that of trans-3 ACPC was computed with AM1. A relationship was found between published IC50 values obtained from ( 3H)-GABA binding data and the per cent polar surface area scaled by molecular ionization potential. The structural features of GABA and its agonists were compared and a hypothesis for GABA agonist activity based upon position of the ammonium ion with respect to the carboxylate is presented.

  1. Antiepileptic activity of lobeline isolated from the leaf of Lobelia nicotianaefolia and its effect on brain GABA level in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Abrar M; Rub, Rukhsana A; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, SL

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the lobeline isolated from the Lobelia nicotianaefolia in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures and its biochemical mechanism by investigating relationship between seizure activities and altered gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in brain of mice in Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models. Methods The anticonvulsant activity of the isolated lobeline (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated in PTZ and strychnine induced seizures in mice and the effect of isolated lobeline on brain GABA level in seizures induced by PTZ. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Results Isolated lobeline (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed and antagonized (P < 0.050–0.001) the onset of PTZ-induced seizures. It also antagonized strychnine induced seizures. The mortality was also prevented in the test group of animals. In biochemical evaluation, isolated lobeline (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the brain GABA level. And at dose of 30 mg/kg GABA level showed slight decrease in PTZ model. Conclusions In our findings, isolated lobeline (20mg/kg) exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity against PTZ induced seizures. Also a biochemical evaluation suggested significant increase in barain GABA level at 20 mg/kg i.p. of isolated lobeline. Hence, we may propose that lobeline reduces epileptic seizures by enhancing the GABA release supporting the GABAergic mechanism. PMID:23569966

  2. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunits such as GABAA?1, GABAA?, GABAA?, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P < 0.001) in epileptic rats. GABAA?5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management. PMID:22364254

  3. A functional role for both γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1 and GABA transporter-3 in the modulation of extracellular GABA and GABAergic tonic conductances in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kersanté, Flavie; Rowley, Samuel C S; Pavlov, Ivan; Gutièrrez-Mecinas, María; Semyanov, Alexey; Reul, Johannes M H M; Walker, Matthew C; Linthorst, Astrid C E

    2013-01-01

    Tonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-mediated signalling controls neuronal network excitability in the hippocampus. Although the extracellular concentration of GABA (e[GABA]) is critical in determining tonic conductances, knowledge on how e[GABA] is regulated by different GABA transporters (GATs) in vivo is limited. Therefore, we studied the role of GATs in the regulation of hippocampal e[GABA] using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. Here we show that GAT-1, which is predominantly presynaptically located, is the major GABA transporter under baseline, quiescent conditions. Furthermore, a significant contribution of GAT-3 in regulating e[GABA] was revealed by administration of the GAT-3 inhibitor SNAP-5114 during simultaneous blockade of GAT-1 by NNC-711. Thus, the GABA transporting activity of GAT-3 (the expression of which is confined to astrocytes) is apparent under conditions in which GAT-1 is blocked. However, sustained neuronal activation by K+-induced depolarization caused a profound spillover of GABA into the extrasynaptic space and this increase in e[GABA] was significantly potentiated by sole blockade of GAT-3 (i.e. even when uptake of GAT-1 is intact). Furthermore, experiments using tetrodotoxin to block action potentials revealed that GAT-3 regulates extrasynaptic GABA levels from action potential-independent sources when GAT-1 is blocked. Importantly, changes in e[GABA] resulting from both GAT-1 and GAT-3 inhibition directly precipitate changes in tonic conductances in dentate granule cells as measured by whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Thus, astrocytic GAT-3 contributes to the regulation of e[GABA] in the hippocampus in vivo and may play an important role in controlling the excitability of hippocampal cells when network activity is increased. PMID:23381899

  4. A Fluorescence-Coupled Assay for Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Reveals Metabolic Stress-Induced Modulation of GABA Content in Neuroendocrine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Joseph E.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24551133

  5. Clinical implications of enzyme-mediated alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid content in human CSF.

    PubMed

    Hare, T A; Wood, J H; Manyam, B V

    1981-08-01

    Pooled samples of lumbar CSF from nine patients with neurologic disorders were aliquoted and subjected to the differential influence of temperature for four hours. The determination of the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) levels in CSF by ion-exchange-fluorometric analysis before and after incubation showed a progressive increase in GABA content of CSF as a function of temperature, reaching a maximum at 50 degrees C. However, no increases in GABA level were noted in CSF incubated at 80 degrees C or 100 degrees C. These in vitro increases in the GABA content of untreated CSF appear to be entirely secondary to enzyme action, subject to individual and temperature variability, and necessitate standardization of clinical CSF protocols. PMID:7247786

  6. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development. PMID:25602029

  7. In vivo GABA+ measurement at 1.5T using a PRESS-localized double quantum filter.

    PubMed

    McLean, M A; Busza, A L; Wald, L L; Simister, R J; Barker, G J; Williams, S R

    2002-08-01

    A point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS)-localized double quantum filter was implemented on a 1.5T clinical scanner for the estimation of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) concentrations in vivo. Several calibrations were found to be necessary for consistent results to be obtained. The apparent filter yield was approximately 38%; filter strength was sufficient to reduce the singlet metabolite peaks in vivo to below the level of the noise. Metabolite-nulled experiments were performed, which confirmed that significant overlap occurred between macromolecule signals and the GABA resonance at 3.1 ppm. Although the multiplet arm at 2.9 ppm was confirmed to be relatively free of contamination with macromolecules, some contribution from these and from peptides is likely to remain; therefore, the term GABA+ is used. GABA+ concentrations were estimated relative to creatine (Cr) at the same echo time (TE) in a group of controls, studied on two occasions. The GABA+ concentration in 35-ml regions of interest (ROIs) in the occipital lobe was found to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mM, with scan-rescan repeatability of 38%. PMID:12210931

  8. Two-dimensional, J-resolved spectroscopic imaging of GABA at 4 Tesla in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Eric; Frederick, Blaise Deb; Wang, Liqun; Brown, John; Renshaw, Perry F

    2005-10-01

    A method for measuring brain gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels is presented that combines 2D J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (J-MRS) techniques with chemical-shift imaging (2D-JMRSI) at 4 Tesla (T). The results of phantom and in vivo experiments agree well in demonstrating that the (2)CH(2) GABA resonance situated at 2.97 ppm can be resolved from the neighboring creatine (Cr) resonance at 3.03 ppm and quantified. Single-voxel, J-resolved standard and metabolite-nulled in vivo experiments on six healthy subjects reveal a broad component from the underlying macromolecules (MM) that resonates at and around 3.00 ppm, which is estimated to contribute approximately 15% to the J-resolved GABA resonance in this large voxel at a repetition time (TR) of 4.5 s. With our 2D-JMSRI at 1.25 s TR, the macromolecule resonance contribution to our GABA measurements is approximated to be 12%. Six healthy human subjects underwent scanning at 4T with this sequence, yielding a global brain GABA concentration of 0.76 +/- 0.20 mM after correction for 12% macromolecule contribution. PMID:16155894

  9. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  10. V1 surface size predicts GABA concentration in medial occipital cortex.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Pilatus, Ulrich; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have established a link between behavior and the anatomy of the primary visual cortex (V1). However, one often-raised criticism has been that these studies provide little insight into the mechanisms of the observed relationships. As inhibitory neural interactions have been postulated as an important mechanism for those behaviors related to V1 anatomy, we measured the concentration of inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the medial occipital cortex where V1 is located using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and estimated the surface area of V1 using fMRI retinotopic mapping. We found a significant positive relationship between GABA concentration and V1 surface area. This relationship was present irrespective of whether the MRS voxel had a fixed size across participants or was proportionally sized to each individual's V1 surface area. Hence, individuals with a larger V1 had a higher GABA concentration in the medial occipital cortex. By tying together V1 size and GABA concentration, our findings point towards individual differences in the level of neural inhibition that might partially mediate the relationships between behavior and V1 neuroanatomy. In addition, they illustrate how stable microscopic properties of neural activity and function are reflected in macro-measures of V1 structure. PMID:26416651

  11. Three classes of inhibitory amino acid terminals in the cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Juiz, J M; Helfert, R H; Bonneau, J M; Wenthold, R J; Altschuler, R A

    1996-09-01

    Electron microscopic postembedding immunocytochemistry was used to analyze and assess the synaptic distribution of glycine (GLY) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivities in the guinea pig cochlear nucleus (CN). Three classes of endings were identified containing immunolabeling for glycine, GABA, or both glycine and GABA (GLY/GABA). All classes were similar in that the terminals contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed symmetric synapses with their postsynaptic targets. A fourth class, which labeled with neither antibody, contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synapses. Glycine endings predominated in the ventral CN, while GLY/GABA endings were prevalent in the dorsal CN. GABA endings were the least common and smallest in size. Glycine, GLY/GABA, and GABA endings differed in their proportions and patterns of distribution on the different classes of projection neurons in the CN, including spherical bushy, type I stellate/multipolar, and octopus cells in the ventral CN and fusiform cells in the dorsal CN. The vast majority of anatomically-defined, putative inhibitory endings contain GLY, GABA, or both, suggesting that most of the inhibition in the cochlear nucleus is mediated by these three cytochemically and, probably, functionally distinct classes of endings. The results of this study also suggest that a large proportion of the GABA available for inhibition in the CN coexists in terminals with glycine. PMID:8876459

  12. Differential effects of GABA in modulating nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Summers, T; Peterson, W; Miiller, E; Burrell, B D

    2015-07-01

    GABA (γ-amino-butyric acid) -mediated signaling is normally associated with synaptic inhibition due to ionotropic GABA receptors that gate an inward Cl(-) current, hyperpolarizing the membrane potential. However, there are also situations where ionotropic GABA receptors trigger a Cl(-) efflux that results in depolarization. The well-characterized central nervous system of the medicinal leech was used to study the functional significance of opposing effects of GABA at the synaptic circuit level. Specifically, we focused on synapses made by the nociceptive N cell and the non-nociceptive P (pressure) cell that converge onto a common postsynaptic target. It is already known that GABA hyperpolarizes the P cell, but depolarizes the N cell and that inhibition of ionotropic GABA receptors by bicuculline (BIC) has opposing effects on the synapses made by these two inputs; enhancing P cell synaptic transmission, but depressing N cell synapses. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the opposing effects of GABA were due to differences in Cl(-) homeostasis between the two presynaptic neurons. VU 0240551 (VU), an inhibitor of the Cl(-) exporter K-Cl co-transporter isoform 2 (KCC2), attenuated GABA-mediated hyperpolarization of the non-nociceptive afferent while bumetanide (BUM), an inhibitor of the Cl(-) importer Na-K-Cl co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), reduced GABA-mediated depolarization of the nociceptive neuron. VU treatment also enhanced P cell synaptic signaling, similar to the previously observed effects of BIC and consistent with the idea that GABA inhibits synaptic signaling at the presynaptic level. BUM treatment depressed N cell synapses, again similar to what is observed following BIC treatment and suggests that GABA has an excitatory effect on these synapses. The opposing effects of GABA could also be observed at the behavioral level with BIC and VU increasing responsiveness to non-nociceptive stimulation while BIC and BUM decreased responsiveness to nociceptive stimulation. These findings demonstrate that distinct synaptic inputs within a shared neural circuit can be differentially modulated by GABA in a functionally relevant manner. PMID:25931332

  13. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  14. Cloning of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid (GABA). rho. sub 1 cDNA: A GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, G.R.; Lu, Luo; Kasch, L.M.; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Guggino, W.B.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. ); O'Hara, B.F.; Donovan, D.M.; Shimada, Shoichi ); Uhl, G.R. Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-04-01

    Type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. The authors have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence is 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABA{sub A} subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA {rho}{sub 1}, with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family.

  15. Connections between EM2-containing terminals and GABA/μ-opioid receptor co-expressing neurons in the rat spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Yu-Lin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). To provide morphological evidence for the pain control effect of EM2, the synaptic connections between EM2-immunoreactive (IR) axonal terminals and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/MOR co-expressing neurons in lamina II of the spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) were investigated in the rat. Dense EM2-, MOR- and GABA-IR fibers and terminals were mainly observed in lamina II of the Vc. Within lamina II, GABA- and MOR-neuronal cell bodies were also encountered. The results of immunofluorescent histochemical triple-staining showed that approximately 14.2 or 18.9% of GABA-IR or MOR-IR neurons also showed MOR- or GABA-immunopositive staining in lamina II; approximately 45.2 and 36.1% of the GABA-IR and MOR-IR neurons, respectively, expressed FOS protein in their nuclei induced by injecting formalin into the left lower lip of the mouth. Most of the GABA/MOR, GABA/FOS, and MOR/FOS double-labeled neurons made close contacts with EM2-IR fibers and terminals. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2-IR terminals formed synapses with GABA-IR or MOR-IR dendritic processes and neuronal cell bodies in lamina II of the Vc. These results suggest that EM2 might participate in pain transmission and modulation by binding to MOR-IR and GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in lamina II of the Vc to exert inhibitory effect on the excitatory interneuron in lamina II and projection neurons in laminae I and III. PMID:25386121

  16. GABA, 5-HT and amino acids in the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus rotundiformis.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, W G; Hagiwara, A; Hara, K; Soyano, K; Snell, T W

    2000-11-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to increase the reproduction of the Brachionus plicatilis (NH3L strain). In the present study, the endogenous presence of GABA and 5-HT in the rotifers B. plicatilis (NH3L and Kamiura strains) and Brachionus rotundiformis (Langkawi strain) were confirmed by dot blot immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC showed that GABA and 5-HT concentrations in the three rotifer strains range from 71 to 188 pmol/mg and from 12 to 64 pmol/mg, respectively. A total of 33 amino acids were also detected in B. plicatilis and B. rotundiformis, with glutamic acid, serine, glycine, taurine, threonine, alanine, arginine, proline, valine and isoleucine in high concentrations relative to other amino acids. PMID:11118940

  17. Serotonin as a Modulator of Glutamate- and GABA-Mediated Neurotransmission: Implications in Physiological Functions and in Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ciranna, L

    2006-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), is involved in a large variety of physiological functions. In several brain regions 5-HT is diffusely released by volume transmission and behaves as a neuromodulator rather than as a “classical” neurotransmitter. In some cases 5-HT is co-localized in the same nerve terminal with other neurotransmitters and reciprocal interactions take place. This review will focus on the modulatory action of 5-HT on the effects of glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), which are the principal neurotransmitters mediating respectively excitatory and inhibitory signals in the CNS. Examples of interaction at pre-and/or post-synaptic levels will be illustrated, as well as the receptors involved and their mechanisms of action. Finally, the physiological meaning of neuromodulatory effects of 5-HT will be briefly discussed with respect to pathologies deriving from malfunctioning of serotonin system. PMID:18615128

  18. Cloning of the mouse GABA-benzodiazepine receptor. alpha. 1 subunit in a study of alcohol neurosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Keir, W.J.; Deitrich, R.A.; Sikela, J.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The inhibitory action of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is mediated by its binding to the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor and opening of a chloride channel. This receptor contains a variety of binding sites for several behavorially active drugs. Recent studies with SS and LS mice which were selected for differential neurosensitivity to ethanol, suggest that the GABAergic system plays a role in this differential sensitivity. Thus genes controlling the GABAergic system may also influence the acute hypnotic actions of ethanol. As a fist step towards verifying this hypothesis we have cloned and partially sequenced the mouse GABA-BDZ {alpha}1 subunit cDNA using a 40 bp oligonucleotide derived from the N terminus of a published bovine {alpha} subunit cDNA. A positive clone from a mouse brain cDNA library was identified and contains an insert of approximately 2.5 Kb. Partial sequence analysis indicates that this clone corresponds to the mouse homolog of the {alpha}1 subunit of the GABA-BDZ receptor. This clone is being used as a probe to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms in several mouse genotypes which differ in their neurosensitivity to ethanol in an attempt to identify molecular genetic changes in the GABA-BDZ receptor that are related to differential ethanol neurosensitivity.

  19. Neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors undergo cognate ligand chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum by endogenous GABA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Eshaq, Randa S.; Meshul, Charles K.; Moore, Cynthia; Hood, Rebecca L.; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Dysfunction of these receptors is associated with various psychiatric/neurological disorders and drugs targeting this receptor are widely used therapeutic agents. Both the efficacy and plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission depends on the number of surface GABAA receptors. An understudied aspect of receptor cell surface expression is the post-translational regulation of receptor biogenesis within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that exogenous GABA can act as a ligand chaperone of recombinant GABAA receptors in the early secretory pathway leading us to now investigate whether endogenous GABA facilitates the biogenesis of GABAA receptors in primary cerebral cortical cultures. In immunofluorescence labeling experiments, we have determined that neurons expressing surface GABAA receptors contain both GABA and its degradative enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T). Treatment of neurons with GABA-T inhibitors, a treatment known to increase intracellular GABA levels, decreases the interaction of the receptor with the ER quality control protein calnexin, concomittantly increasing receptor forward-trafficking and plasma membrane insertion. The effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction is not due to the activation of surface GABAA or GABAB receptors. Consistent with our hypothesis that GABA acts as a cognate ligand chaperone in the ER, immunogold-labeling of rodent brain slices reveals the presence of GABA within the rough ER. The density of this labeling is similar to that present in mitochondria, the organelle in which GABA is degraded. Lastly, the effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction was prevented by pretreatment with a GABA transporter inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that endogenous GABA acts in the rough ER as a cognate ligand chaperone to facilitate the biogenesis of neuronal GABAA receptors. PMID:26041994

  20. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration improves action selection processes: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish a task goal, real-life environments require us to develop different action control strategies in order to rapidly react to fast-moving visual and auditory stimuli. When engaging in complex scenarios, it is essential to prioritise and cascade different actions. Recent studies have pointed to an important role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the specific causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by administering 800 mg of synthetic GABA or 800 mg oral of microcrystalline cellulose (placebo). In a double-blind, randomised, between-group design, 30 healthy adults performed a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that the administration of GABA, compared to placebo, increased action selection when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, and when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. These findings, involving the systemic administration of synthetic GABA, provide the first evidence for a possible causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating performance in action cascading. PMID:26227783

  1. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration improves action selection processes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish a task goal, real-life environments require us to develop different action control strategies in order to rapidly react to fast-moving visual and auditory stimuli. When engaging in complex scenarios, it is essential to prioritise and cascade different actions. Recent studies have pointed to an important role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the specific causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by administering 800 mg of synthetic GABA or 800 mg oral of microcrystalline cellulose (placebo). In a double-blind, randomised, between-group design, 30 healthy adults performed a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that the administration of GABA, compared to placebo, increased action selection when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, and when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. These findings, involving the systemic administration of synthetic GABA, provide the first evidence for a possible causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating performance in action cascading. PMID:26227783

  2. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 μM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), produced 187 mM of GABA. PMID:24159304

  3. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 μM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), produced 187 mM of GABA. PMID:24159304

  4. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration inversely correlates with basal perfusion in human occipital lobe

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Manus J; Rane, Swati; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Pradhan, Subechhya; Waddell, Kevin W; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-01-01

    Commonly used neuroimaging approaches in humans exploit hemodynamic or metabolic indicators of brain function. However, fundamental gaps remain in our ability to relate such hemo-metabolic reactivity to neurotransmission, with recent reports providing paradoxical information regarding the relationship among basal perfusion, functional imaging contrast, and neurotransmission in awake humans. Here, sequential magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+macromolecules normalized by the complex N-acetyl aspartate-N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid: [GABA+]/[NAA–NAAG]), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of perfusion, fractional gray-matter volume, and arterial arrival time (AAT) are recorded in human visual cortex from a controlled cohort of young adult male volunteers with neurocognitive battery-confirmed comparable cognitive capacity (3 T; n=16; age=23±3 years). Regression analyses reveal an inverse correlation between [GABA+]/[NAA–NAAG] and perfusion (R=−0.46; P=0.037), yet no relationship between AAT and [GABA+]/[NAA–NAAG] (R=−0.12; P=0.33). Perfusion measurements that do not control for AAT variations reveal reduced correlations between [GABA+]/[NAA–NAAG] and perfusion (R=−0.13; P=0.32). These findings largely reconcile contradictory reports between perfusion and inhibitory tone, and underscore the physiologic origins of the growing literature relating functional imaging signals, hemodynamics, and neurotransmission. PMID:24398941

  5. Optimization of culture condition for ACEI and GABA production by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Bao-Hong; Liu, Chin-Feng; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) are compounds which can influence hypertension. The goal of this study is to optimize the culture condition for GABA and ACEI production by Lactobacillus plantarum NTU 102 fermented skim milk. In this study, we used 3-factor-3-level Box-Behnken design combining with response surface methodology, where the 3 factors represent the concentration of skim milk, the concentration of monosodium glutamate, and culture temperature. Best conditions for GABA and ACEI production differed. The results indicated that L. plantarum NTU 102 produced the highest combined levels of GABA and ACEI at 37 °C, in milk having 8% to 12% nonfat solids supplemented with 0.6% to 1% MSG. Agitation of the medium during fermentation had no effect on GABA or ACEI production but extended incubation (up to 6 d) increases levels of the bioactive compounds. L. plantarum NTU 102 fermented products may be a potential functional food source for regulating hypertension. PMID:22416709

  6. Hypocretin/orexin antagonism enhances sleep-related adenosine and GABA neurotransmission in rat basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-DeRose, Jacqueline; Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Gulati, Srishti; Mathew, Thomas K; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-03-01

    Hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neurons provide excitatory input to wake-promoting brain regions including the basal forebrain (BF). The dual HCRT receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases waking and increases sleep. We hypothesized that HCRT antagonists induce sleep, in part, through disfacilitation of BF neurons; consequently, ALM should have reduced efficacy in BF-lesioned (BFx) animals. To test this hypothesis, rats were given bilateral IgG-192-saporin injections, which predominantly targets cholinergic BF neurons. BFx and intact rats were then given oral ALM, the benzodiazepine agonist zolpidem (ZOL) or vehicle (VEH) at lights-out. ALM was less effective than ZOL at inducing sleep in BFx rats compared to controls. BF adenosine (ADO), γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), and glutamate levels were then determined via microdialysis from intact, freely behaving rats following oral ALM, ZOL or VEH. ALM increased BF ADO and GABA levels during waking and mixed vigilance states, and preserved sleep-associated increases in GABA under low and high sleep pressure conditions. ALM infusion into the BF also enhanced cortical ADO release, demonstrating that HCRT input is critical for ADO signaling in the BF. In contrast, oral ZOL and BF-infused ZOL had no effect on ADO levels in either BF or cortex. ALM increased BF ADO (an endogenous sleep-promoting substance) and GABA (which is increased during normal sleep), and required an intact BF for maximal efficacy, whereas ZOL blocked sleep-associated BF GABA release, and required no functional contribution from the BF to induce sleep. ALM thus induces sleep by facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the normal transition to sleep. PMID:25431268

  7. Molecular docking based screening of GABA (A) receptor inhibitors from plant derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sahila, Mohammed Marunnan; Babitha, Pallikkara Pulikkal; Bandaru, Srinivas; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Doss, Victor Arokia

    2015-01-01

    The present antipsychotic drugs have known to show serious concerns like extra pyramidal side effects therefore, pursuit for novel antipsychotic GABAnergic drugs has lately focused on the folkloric medicine from plant derivatives as better treatment option of schizophrenia. The present study centers to identify potential inhibitors of plant origin for GABA receptor through in silico approaches. Three compound datasets were undertaken in the study. The first set consisted of seven compounds which included Magnolol, Honokiol and other plant derivatives. The second set consisted of 16 derivatives of N-diarylalkenyl-piperidinecarboxylic acid synthesized by Zheng et al., 2006. The third dataset had thirty two compounds which were Magnolol and Honokiol analogues synthesized by Fuchs et al., 2014. All the compounds were docked at the allosteric site of the GABA (A) receptor. The compounds were further tested for ADMET and biological activity. We observed Honokiol and its derivatives demonstrated superior druglike properties than any compound undertaken in the study. Further, compound 61 [2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-propylphenol] of dataset three - a synthetic derivative of honokiol had better profile than its parent compound. In a possible attempt to identify compound with even better efficacious compound than 61, virtual screening was performed, 135 compounds akin to compound 61 were retrieved. Interestingly none of the 135 compounds showed better druggable properties than compound 61. Our in silico pharmacological profiling of compounds is in coherence and is complemented by the findings of Fuchs et al, which also revealed compound 61 to be the good potentiator of GABA receptor. Abbreviations GABA (A) R - Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Receptor, subtype A, GPCR - G Protein Coupled Receptor, OPLS - Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations, PDB - Protein Data Bank, PLP - Piece wise Linear Potential, T.E.S.T - Toxicity Estimation Software Tool, TCM - Traditional Chinese Medicine. PMID:26229288

  8. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. PMID:25497828

  9. Pharmacologic properties of gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its derivatives. V. Anticonvulsant action of alpha-,beta-, and gama-phenyl derivatives of GABA and their lactams.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka-Wójcik, E; Hano, J; Sieroslawska, J; Sypniewska, M

    1975-01-01

    The influence of alpha, beta, and gamma-phenyl derivatives of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and their lactams on convulsions induced with pentetrazole, bemegride and strychnine, and with electric current, were studied. All the lactams exhibited anticonvulsant action, prolonged the latent period of action of the convulsants, and in some cases diminished mortality due to intoxication. Acid forms were devoid of anticonvulsant properties, and in some cases even potentiated convulsions. PMID:1220627

  10. Oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage in the corpus striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats: neuroprotection by serotonin, GABA and bone marrow cells supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Korah P; Nandhu, M S; Paul, Jes; Paulose, C S

    2013-08-15

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress initiated by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to apoptosis and Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. We investigated the neuroprotective potential of serotonin (5-HT), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and autologous bone marrow cells (BMC) in combination against oxidative stress-induced cell death. PD was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intranigral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/μl). The activities of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analysed. The extent of lipid peroxidation was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). Real Time PCR gene expression of SOD, CAT and GPx were performed using specific Taqman probes. 6-OHDA induced decreased activity of SOD, CAT and GPx in corpus striatum was significantly reversed to near control (p<0.001) by treatment with 5-HT, GABA and bone marrow cells. Gene expression studies of SOD, CAT and GPx using Real Time PCR confirmed the above observation. TBAR levels were elevated (p<0.001) in 6-OHDA treated rats indicating lipid peroxidation. 5-HT and GABA along with autologous bone marrow cell supplementation significantly ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced lipid peroxidation (p<0.001). Our results suggest a new therapeutic strategy of neuroprotection against damage by oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23726276

  11. The inhibitory role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immunomodulation of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Li, Meijia; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Li, Yiqun; Liu, Zhaoqun; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter to suppress the immune-mediated pro-inflammatory reactions, and it has been used in the treatment of many inflammation-related diseases in vertebrates, while its immunomodulatory role in invertebrates has never been reported. In the present study, GABA was found to exist in the hemolymph of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and its concentration decreased slightly from 8.00 ± 0.37 μmol L(-1) at normal condition to 7.73 ± 0.15 μmol L(-1) at 6 h after LPS stimulation, and then increased to 9.34 ± 0.15 μmol L(-1), 8.86 ± 0.68 μmol L(-1) at 12 h and 48 h, respectively. After LPS stimulation, the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CgIL-17 and CgTNF) and immune effectors (CgSOD and CgBPI), and the protein expression of NOS increased significantly, and these increased trends were remarkably inhibited by GABA stimulation. At the same time, the phagocytosis rate and apoptosis rate of immunocytes also increased obviously after LPS stimulation, whereas the increase was repressed with the addition of GABA. The results collectively demonstrated that GABA was an indispensable inhibitory agent for both humoral and cellular immune response, which mainly functioned at the late phase of immune response to avoid the excess immune reactions and maintain the immune homeostasis. PMID:26975413

  12. Systematic Analysis of ?-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism and Function in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuantai; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While GABA has been suggested to regulate spore encapsulation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the metabolic profile and other potential functions of GABA during development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the homeostasis of GABA metabolism by disrupting genes related to GABA metabolism and signaling. Extracellular levels of GABA are tightly regulated during early development, and GABA is generated by the glutamate decarboxylase, GadB, during growth and in early development. However, overexpression of the prespore-specific homologue, GadA, in the presence of GadB reduces production of extracellular GABA. Perturbation of extracellular GABA levels delays the process of aggregation. Cytosolic GABA is degraded by the GABA transaminase, GabT, in the mitochondria. Disruption of a putative vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) homologue DdvGAT reduces secreted GABA. We identified the GABAB receptor-like family member GrlB as the major GABA receptor during early development, and either disruption or overexpression of GrlB delays aggregation. This delay is likely the result of an abolished pre-starvation response and late expression of several early developmental genes. Distinct genes are employed for GABA generation during sporulation. During sporulation, GadA alone is required for generating GABA and DdvGAT is likely responsible for GABA secretion. GrlE but not GrlB is the GABA receptor during late development. PMID:23548898

  13. Development of the GABA-ergic signaling system and its role in larval swimming in sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Katow, Hideki; Abe, Kouki; Katow, Tomoko; Zamani, Alemeh; Abe, Hirokazu

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the development and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic regulation of larval swimming in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus by cloning glutamate decarboxylase (Hp-gad), GABAA receptor (Hp-gabrA) and GABAA receptor-associated protein (Hp-gabarap), and by performing immunohistochemistry. The regulation of larval swimming was increasingly dependent on the GABAergic system, which was active from the 2 days post-fertilization (d.p.f.) pluteus stage onwards. GABA-immunoreactive cells were detected as a subpopulation of secondary mesenchyme cells during gastrulation and eventually constituted the ciliary band and a subpopulation of blastocoelar cells during the pluteus stage. Hp-gad transcription was detected by RT-PCR during the period when Hp-Gad-positive cells were seen as a subpopulation of blastocoelar cells and on the apical side of the ciliary band from the 2 d.p.f. pluteus stage. Consistent with these observations, inhibition of GAD with 3-mercaptopropioninc acid inhibited GABA immunoreactivity and larval swimming dose dependently. Hp-gabrA amplimers were detected weakly in unfertilized eggs and 4 d.p.f. plutei but strongly from fertilized eggs to 2 d.p.f. plutei, and Hp-GabrA, together with GABA, was localized at the ciliary band in association with dopamine receptor D1 from the two-arm pluteus stage. Hp-gabarap transcription and protein expression were detected from the swimming blastula stage. Inhibition of the GABAA receptor by bicuculline inhibited larval swimming dose dependently. Inhibition of larval swimming by either 3-mercaptopropionic acid or bicuculline was more severe in older larvae (17 and 34 d.p.f. plutei) than in younger ones (1 d.p.f. prism larvae). PMID:23307803

  14. Efficient production of gamma-aminobutyric acid using Escherichia coli by co-localization of glutamate synthase, glutamate decarboxylase, and GABA transporter.

    PubMed

    Dung Pham, Van; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae; Hong, Soon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bio-product, which is used in pharmaceutical formulations, nutritional supplements, and biopolymer monomer. The traditional GABA process involves the decarboxylation of glutamate. However, the direct production of GABA from glucose is a more efficient process. To construct the recombinant strains of Escherichia coli, a novel synthetic scaffold was introduced. By carrying out the co-localization of glutamate synthase, glutamate decarboxylase, and GABA transporter, we redirected the TCA cycle flux to GABA pathway. The genetically engineered E. coli strain produced 1.08 g/L of GABA from 10 g/L of initial glucose. Thus, with the introduction of a synthetic scaffold, we increased GABA production by 2.2-fold. The final GABA concentration was increased by 21.8% by inactivating competing pathways. PMID:26620318

  15. Phosphonic acid analogs of GABA through reductive dealkylation of phosphonic diesters with lithium trialkylborohydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Sarwat; Muni, Niraj J.; Greenwood, Nicholas P.; Pepperberg, Dr. David R.; Standaert, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    Lithium trialkylborohydrides were found to effect rapid monodealkylation of phosphonic diesters, and this reaction was applied to the synthesis of alkylphosphonic acid 2-aminoethyl esters [H2N(CH2)2OP(OH)R, 4], a little-explored class of analogs of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Compound 4a (R = Me) proved to be a potent antagonist at human ρ1 GABAC receptors (expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes), with an IC50 of 11.1 M, but is inactive at α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors.

  16. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  17. Presence of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (Gaba) in the Pedal Mucus of the Critically Endangered Species Patella ferruginea.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Espinosa, F; Krock, B

    2015-05-01

    Patella ferruginea is a giant patellid limpet endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. It presently is in danger of extinction, and many have called for developing conservation measures including the mass production of spats for re-introduction projects. However, so far all attempts have been relatively unsuccessful. Previous work analyzing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the recruitment of patellid limpets has shown that larvae respond to the presence of this signaling molecule. This response could explain the gregarious distribution typical of this species. In the present study, we demonstrated that GABA is naturally secreted by P. ferruginea in the pedal mucus. GABA is preferentially secreted during the summer, coinciding with the reproductive resting period of the species. Further research should aim to analyze the effects of GABA on larval development and metamorphosis in order to assess its potential use to improve conservation efforts. PMID:25902959

  18. Identification of amino acids involved in histamine potentiation of GABA A receptors.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Ulrike; Platt, Sarah J; Wolf, Steffen; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological and neuronal functions. In mammals, such as humans, and rodents, the histaminergic neurons found in the tuberomamillary nucleus project widely throughout the central nervous system. Histamine acts as positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and, in high concentrations (10 mM), as negative modulator of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which histamine acts on GABAARs are unknown. In our study, we aimed to identify amino acids potentially involved in the modulatory effect of histamine on GABAARs. We expressed GABAARs with 12 different point mutations in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized the effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Our data demonstrate that the amino acid residues β2(N265) and β2(M286), which are important for modulation by propofol, are not involved in the action of histamine. However, we found that histamine modulation is dependent on the amino acid residues α1(R120), β2(Y157), β2(D163), β3(V175), and β3(Q185). We showed that the amino acid residues β2(Y157) and β3(Q185) mediate the positive modulatory effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents, whereas α1(R120) and β2(D163) form a potential histamine interaction site in GABAARs. PMID:26074818

  19. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. PMID:25266692

  20. Reproducibility and effect of tissue composition on cerebellar γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) MRS in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Long, Zaiyang; Dyke, Jonathan P; Ma, Ruoyun; Huang, Chaorui C; Louis, Elan D; Dydak, Ulrike

    2015-10-01

    MRS provides a valuable tool for the non-invasive detection of brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vivo. GABAergic dysfunction has been observed in the aging cerebellum. The study of cerebellar GABA changes is of considerable interest in understanding certain age-related motor disorders. However, little is known about the reproducibility of GABA MRS in an aged population. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of GABA MRS in the aged cerebellum at 3.0 T and to examine the effect of differing tissue composition on GABA measurements. MRI and (1)H MRS examinations were performed on 10 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age, 75.2 ± 6.5 years) using a 3.0-T Siemens Tim Trio scanner. Among them, five subjects were scanned twice to assess the short-term reproducibility. The MEGA-PRESS (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) J-editing sequence was used for GABA detection in two volumes of interest (VOIs) in the left and right cerebellar dentate. MRS data processing and quantification were performed with LCModel 6.3-0L using two separate basis sets, generated from density matrix simulations using published values for chemical shifts and J couplings. Raw metabolite levels from LCModel outputs were corrected for cerebrospinal fluid contamination and relaxation. GABA-edited spectra yielded robust and stable GABA measurements with averaged intra-individual coefficients of variation for corrected GABA+ between 4.0 ± 2.8% and 13.4 ± 6.3%, and inter-individual coefficients of variation between 12.6% and 24.2%. In addition, there was a significant correlation between GABA+ obtained with the two LCModel basis sets. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility and reproducibility of cerebellar GABA-edited MRS at 3.0 T in an elderly population. This information might be helpful for studies using this technique to study GABA changes in normal or diseased aging brain, e.g. for power calculations and the interpretation of longitudinal observations. PMID:26314380

  1. Stimulation of GABA-induced Ca2+ influx enhances maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Rushton, David J; Mattis, Virginia B; Svendsen, Clive N; Allen, Nicholas D; Kemp, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Optimal use of patient-derived, induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling neuronal diseases is crucially dependent upon the proper physiological maturation of derived neurons. As a strategy to develop defined differentiation protocols that optimize electrophysiological function, we investigated the role of Ca(2+) channel regulation by astrocyte conditioned medium in neuronal maturation, using whole-cell patch clamp and Ca(2+) imaging. Standard control medium supported basic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons, as assayed by the ability to fire simple, single, induced action potentials. In contrast, treatment with astrocyte conditioned medium elicited complex and spontaneous neuronal activity, often with rhythmic and biphasic characteristics. Such augmented spontaneous activity correlated with astrocyte conditioned medium-evoked hyperpolarization and was dependent upon regulated function of L-, N- and R-type Ca(2+) channels. The requirement for astrocyte conditioned medium could be substituted by simply supplementing control differentiation medium with high Ca(2+) or γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). Importantly, even in the absence of GABA signalling, opening Ca(2+) channels directly using Bay K8644 was able to hyperpolarise neurons and enhance excitability, producing fully functional neurons. These data provide mechanistic insight into how secreted astrocyte factors control differentiation and, importantly, suggest that pharmacological modulation of Ca(2+) channel function leads to the development of a defined protocol for improved maturation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. PMID:24278369

  2. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane. PMID:24814258

  3. Potential of GABA-ergic cell therapy for schizophrenia, neuropathic pain, and Alzheimer׳s and Parkinson׳s diseases.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ashok K; Bates, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Several neurological and psychiatric disorders present hyperexcitability of neurons in specific regions of the brain or spinal cord, partly because of some loss and/or dysfunction of gamma-amino butyric acid positive (GABA-ergic) inhibitory interneurons. Strategies that enhance inhibitory neurotransmission in the affected brain regions may therefore ease several or most deficits linked to these disorders. This perception has incited a huge interest in testing the efficacy of GABA-ergic interneuron cell grafting into regions of the brain or spinal cord exhibiting hyperexcitability, dearth of GABA-ergic interneurons or impaired inhibitory neurotransmission, using preclinical models of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Interneuron progenitors from the embryonic ventral telencephalon capable of differentiating into diverse subclasses of interneurons have particularly received much consideration because of their ability for dispersion, migration and integration with the host neural circuitry after grafting. The goal of this review is to discuss the premise, scope and advancement of GABA-ergic cell therapy for easing neurological deficits in preclinical models of schizophrenia, chronic neuropathic pain, Alzheimer׳s disease and Parkinson׳s disease. As grafting studies in these prototypes have so far utilized either primary cells from the embryonic medial and lateral ganglionic eminences or neural progenitor cells expanded from these eminences as donor material, the proficiency of these cell types is highlighted. Moreover, future studies that are essential prior to considering the possible clinical application of these cells for the above neurological conditions are proposed. Particularly, the need for grafting studies utilizing medial ganglionic eminence-like progenitors generated from human pluripotent stem cells via directed differentiation approaches or somatic cells through direct reprogramming methods are emphasized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: PSC and the brain. PMID:26423935

  4. Parvalbumin and neuropeptide Y expressing hippocampal GABA-ergic inhibitory interneuron numbers decline in a model of Gulf War illness

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Tarick; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is amongst the most conspicuous symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Combined exposure to the nerve gas antidote pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides and stress during the Persian Gulf War-1 (PGW-1) are presumed to be among the major causes of GWI. Indeed, our recent studies in rat models have shown that exposure to GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks engenders cognitive impairments accompanied with several detrimental changes in the hippocampus. In this study, we tested whether reduced numbers of hippocampal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are among the pathological changes induced by GWIR-chemicals and stress. Animals were exposed to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks. Three months after this exposure, subpopulations of GABA-ergic interneurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV), the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus were stereologically quantified. Animals exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress for 4 weeks displayed reduced numbers of PV-expressing GABA-ergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus and NPY-expressing interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields. However, no changes in SS+ interneuron population were observed in the hippocampus. Furthermore, GABA-ergic interneuron deficiency in these animals was associated with greatly diminished hippocampus neurogenesis. Because PV+ and NPY+ interneurons play roles in maintaining normal cognitive function and neurogenesis, and controlling the activity of excitatory neurons in the hippocampus, reduced numbers of these interneurons may be one of the major causes of cognitive dysfunction and reduced neurogenesis observed in GWI. Hence, strategies that improve inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus may prove beneficial for reversing cognitive dysfunction in GWI. PMID:25620912

  5. SYSTEMIC ADMINISTRATION OF KAINIC ACID INCREASES GABA LEVELS IN PERFUSATE FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ventral hippocampi of male, Fischer-344 rats were implanted with microdialysis probes and the effects of systemically administered kainic acid (KA) (8 mg/kg, s.c.) on the in vivo release of amino acids were measured for four hours after administration. n order to measure GABA...

  6. Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rambutan Fruit cv. Rongrian by HPLC-ELSD and Separation of GABA from Rambutan Fruit Using Dowex 50W-X8 Column.

    PubMed

    Meeploy, Maneerat; Deewatthanawong, Rujira

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was validated for the determination of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rambutan fruit without any sample pretreatment or derivatization. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.0 mg/mL GABA, the ELSD response was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) >0.999. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively. The method enabled the complete separation of GABA in the aqueous extract of rambutan flesh from the impurity peaks at 45.7 min. The recoveries of sample added GABA were obtained in the range of 92.0-99.3%. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were <5.3%. Repeatability of the extraction process showed the acceptable precision. From the analysis of GABA content in rambutan flesh, 0.71 ± 0.23 mg of GABA was found in 1 g fresh weight. The recovery of GABA after passing through the Dowex 50W-X8 column was 96.65%. The analytical methodology could be potentially applied to the detection and quantification of GABA in other fruits and complex matrices when a sufficient quantity is available. PMID:26590236

  7. Further characterization of in vitro conditions appropriate for GABA determination in human CSF: impact of acid deproteinization and freeze/thaw.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, T N; Manyam, B V; Hare, T A

    1983-10-01

    Recently established standardized protocols for collection, handling, and storage of CSF for measurement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have proven valuable in the characterization of various CNS disorders. In response to two recent reports which may have an impact on certain widely used protocols, we have, using the confirmed ion-exchange/fluorometric procedure, systematically evaluated the effects of deproteinization with various concentrations of sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) ranging from 0 to 10% (100 mg/ml), as well as the effects of freeze/thaw (F/T) on CSF GABA levels. Results of F/T studies documented that levels are stable to freezing and thawing. Acid deproteinization studies revealed the presence of an equilibrium between strictly free GABA, demonstrable only in acid-free CSF, and a very loosely bound form of GABA, fully demonstrable only in CSF deproteinized with concentrations of SSA above 1% (10 mg/ml). The relationship between GABA concentrations in undeproteinized and acid-deproteinized CSF revealed a highly significant (p less than .001) correlation, suggesting that alterations of central GABAergic activity would be reflected by either the level of strictly free GABA or free plus loosely bound GABA. This hypothesis was upheld in studies of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two neurologic disorders in which dysfunctions of the GABA system have been implicated. Results indicated that CSF GABA levels are significantly reduced in both PD and HD patients compared with neurologically normal controls, whether the measurement is of free GABA or free plus loosely bound GABA. Thus, we conclude that the level of strictly free GABA is stable to freezing and thawing and can only be accurately determined in nonacidified CSF; however, existing protocols employing deproteinization in 5% SSA yield data that provide an equally good reflection of central GABAergic transmission. PMID:6225837

  8. Molecular and Therapeutic Potential and Toxicity of Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Chateauvieux, Sébastien; Morceau, Franck; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA) transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties. PMID:20798865

  9. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng) is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus, there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems. Objective: The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behavior, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation. Materials and Methods: Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-h by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl− channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist) for 8 days, starting 5 days prior to 72-h sleep deprivation period. Various behavioral (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels), mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumor Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha), serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results: Seventy two hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behavior, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment restored the behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of GABA Cl− channel inhibitor as well as GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor, significantly reversed the protective effect of P. quinquefolius (100 mg/kg) in 72-h sleep deprived animals (P < 0.05). However, pretreatment with GABAA agonist, potentiated Panax quinquefolius's protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se (p < 0.05). Conclusion: GABA-ergic mechanism could be involved in the neuroprotective effect of P.quinquefolius against sleep deprivation induced anxiety-like behavior, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA axis activation and neuroinflammation. PMID:27013946

  10. Lesions of nucleus accumbens affect morphine-induced release of ascorbic acid and GABA but not of glutamate in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ji Y; Yang, Jing Y; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian Y; Song, Wu; Su, Guang Y; Dong, Ying X; Wu, Chun F

    2011-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that local perfusion of morphine causes an increase of extracellular ascorbic acid (AA) levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of freely moving rats. Lines of evidence showed that glutamatergic and GABAergic were associated with morphine-induced effects on the neurotransmission of the brain, especially on the release of AA. In the present study, the effects of morphine on the release of extracellular AA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) in the NAc following bilateral NAc lesions induced by kainic acid (KA) were studied by using the microdialysis technique, coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) and fluorescent detection (HPLC-FD). The results showed that local perfusion of morphine (100 µM, 1 mM) in NAc dose-dependently increased AA and GABA release, while attenuated Glu release in the NAc. Naloxone (0.4 mM) pretreated by local perfusion to the NAc, significantly blocked the effects of morphine. After NAc lesion by KA (1 µg), morphine-induced increase in AA and GABA were markedly eliminated, while decrease in Glu was not affected. The loss effect of morphine on AA and GABA release after KA lesion could be recovered by GABA agonist, musimol. These results indicate that morphine-induced AA release may be mediated at least by µ-opioid receptor. Moreover, this effect of morphine possibly depend less on the glutamatergic afferents, but more on the GABAergic circuits within this nucleus. Finally, AA release induced by local perfusion of morphine may be GABA-receptor mediated and synaptically localized in the NAc. PMID:20731632

  11. Synthesis of 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives and their evaluation as potential GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Tim; Höfner, Georg; Wein, Thomas; Wanner, Klaus T

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we disclose the design and synthesis of novel 4-susbtituted nipecotic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the GABA transporter mGAT1. Based on molecular modeling studies the compounds are assumed to adopt a binding pose similar to that of the potent mGAT1 inhibitor nipecotic acid. As substitution in 4-position should not cause an energetically unfavorable orientation of nipecotic acid as it is the case for N-substituted derivatives this is expected to lead to highly potent binders. For the synthesis of novel 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives a linear synthetic strategy was employed. As a key step, palladium catalyzed cross coupling reactions were used to attach the required biaryl moieties to the ω-position of the alkenyl- or alkynyl spacers of varying length in the 4-position of the nipecotic acid scaffold. The resulting amino acids were characterized with respect to their binding affinities and inhibitory potencies at mGAT1. Though the biological activities found were generally insignificant to poor, two compounds, one of which possesses a reasonable binding affinity for mGAT1, rac-57, the other a notable inhibitory potency at mGAT4, rac-84, both displaying a slight subtype selectivity for the individual transporters, could be identified. PMID:27039250

  12. p-Coumaric acid activates the GABA-A receptor in vitro and is orally anxiolytic in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scheepens, Arjan; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Skinner, Margot

    2014-02-01

    The increasing prevalence and social burden of subclinical anxiety in the western world represents a significant psychosocial and financial cost. Consumers are favouring a more natural and nonpharmacological approach for alleviating the effects of everyday stress and anxiety. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor is the primary mediator of central inhibitory neurotransmission, and GABA-receptor agonists are well known to convey anxiolytic effects. Using an in vitro screening approach to identify naturally occurring phytochemical GABA agonists, we discovered the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid to have significant GABAergic activity, an effect that could be blocked by co-administration of the specific GABA-receptor antagonist, picrotoxin. Oral administration of p-coumaric acid to rodents induced a significant anxiolytic effect in vivo as measured using the elevated plus paradigm, in line with the effects of oral diazepam. Given that p-coumaric acid is reasonably well absorbed following oral consumption in man and is relatively nontoxic, it may be suitable for the formulation of a safe and effective anxiolytic functional food. PMID:23533066

  13. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.

    PubMed

    Ratanaburee, Anussara; Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

    2013-10-15

    The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051 mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed. PMID:24135673

  14. Application of γ-aminobutyric acid demonstrates a protective role of polyamine and GABA metabolism in muskmelon seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhiran; Xu, Weinan; Li, Jianming; Zhao, Ning; Zhou, Yue

    2015-07-01

    The effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) application on growth, polyamine and endogenous GABA metabolism in muskmelon leaves and roots were measured. Plants were treated under control or 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress conditions with or without foliar spraying 50 mM GABA. Ca(NO3)2 stress significantly suppressed seedling growth and GABA transaminase activity, and enhanced glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and endogenous GABA levels. Polyamine (PA) biosynthesis and degradation capacity increased in parallel with increasing GAD activity. Exogenous GABA application effectively alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Ca(NO3)2 stress, and significantly enhanced the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), polyamine oxidase (PAO), and diamine oxidase (DAO). Exogenous GABA also significantly reduced the accumulation of free putrescine (Put) and increased the levels of free spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in leaves, which improved the capacity for polyamine biosynthesis. Application of exogenous GABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress enables the plants to maintain a higher ratio of free Spd and free Spm with respect to free Put. Our data suggest that exogenous GABA has an important role in improving muskmelon seedling tolerance to Ca(NO3)2 stress by improving biosynthesis of PAs and GABA, and by preventing PA degradation. There is a potential positive feedback mechanism that results from higher endogenous GABA content and the combined effects of Ca(NO3)2 stress and exogenous GABA, which coordinately alleviate Ca(NO3)2 stress injury by enhancing PA biosynthesis and converting free Put to an insoluble bound PA form, and reduce PA degradation in muskmelon seedlings. PMID:25885476

  15. Intraocular injections of nipecotic acid produce a preferential block of neuronal /sup 3/H-GABA accumulation in adult rabbit retina

    SciTech Connect

    Madtes, P. Jr.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-07-01

    A procedure by which the activity of the retinal GABA uptake system can be manipulated in vivo has been developed. Intraocular injections of nipecotic acid, a proported GABA uptake blocker, were administered to adult rabbits every 48 hours for a two-week period. No behavioral or systemic changes were observed. Injections were well-tolerated with less than 10% loss of the tissue caused by physical damage or injection. Biochemical analyses demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 14/C-GABA uptake into retinal tissue. No effect on uptake was observed for saline-treated tissue. Autoradiographic analyses showed that in vivo treatment with nipecotic acid preferentially blocked accumulation of /sup 3/H-GABA into the amacrine cell bodies and processes in the inner plexiform layer. This treatment may be especially useful in assessing the functional significance of GABA transport in vivo.

  16. Valproic acid: brain and plasma levels of the drug and its metabolites, anticonvulsant effects and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Nau, H; Löscher, W

    1982-03-01

    The slow onset and carry-over effect of valproic acid (VPA) therapy observed in some clinical as well as experimental animal studies have been examined by parallel pharmacokinetic and pharmacological investigations in a mouse model. VPA was rapidly transferred into brain and was cleared from that tissue with rates which exceeded plasma clearance rates. Of several VPA metabolites present in plasma, only one could be found in the brain: 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid. This metabolite was cleared from plasma and from brain slower than the parent drug. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were increased within 15 min after VPA injection and remained significantly elevated for at least 8 h. A similar time course was found in regard to the increase of the electroconvulsive threshold (maximal seizures) induced by VPA administration. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase rose parallel to the elevation of brain GABA levels, whereas the activity of GABA aminotransferase was not affected. Whereas the rapid onset of the effect on electroconvulsive threshold and on GABA metabolism can be explained by the rapid entrance of VPA into brain, the carry-over effects observed correlated with the kinetics of the metabolite 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid better than with those of VPA due to the persistence of this metabolite in brain. PMID:6801254

  17. A unique amino acid of the Drosophila GABA receptor with influence on drug sensitivity by two mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H G; ffrench-Constant, R H; Jackson, M B

    1994-01-01

    1. The Drosophila gene Rdl (resistance to dieldrin) encodes a GABA receptor. An alanine-to-serine mutation in this gene at residue 302 confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides and picrotoxin. Patch clamp analysis of GABA receptors in cultured neurons from wild type and mutant Drosophila was undertaken to investigate the biophysical basis of resistance. 2. In cultured neurons from both wild type and mutant strains, GABA activated a channel that reversed near 0 mV in symmetrical chloride. GABA dose-response characteristics of wild type and mutant receptors were very similar. 3. GABA responses in neurons from the mutant strains showed reduced sensitivity to the GABA antagonists picrotoxin, lindane and t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate. Resistance ratios were 116, 970 and 9 for the three blockers, respectively. Inhibition increased with blocker concentration in a manner consistent with saturation of a single binding site. 4. The mutation reduced the single channel conductance by 5% for inward current and 17% for outward current. The single channel current was approximately 60% lower for outward current than for inward current in both wild type and mutant. 5. Open and closed times were both well fitted by the sum of two exponentials. Resistance was associated with longer open times and shorter closed times, reflecting a net stabilization of the channel open state by a factor of approximately five. 6. The mutation was associated with a marked reduction in the rate of GABA-induced desensitization, and a net destabilization of the desensitized conformation by a factor of 29. 7. The Rdl mutation manifests resistance through two different mechanisms. (a) The mutation weakens drug binding to the antagonist-favoured (desensitized) conformation by a structural change at the drug binding site. (b) The mutation destabilizes the antagonist-favoured conformation in an allosteric sense. The global association of a single amino acid replacement with cyclodiene resistance suggests that the resistance phenotype depends on changes in both of these properties, and that insecticides have selected residue 302 of Rdl for replacement because of its unique ability to influence both of these functions. 8. The location of alanine 302 in the sequence of the Rdl gene product supports a mechanism of action in which convulsants such as picrotoxin bind within the channel lumen, where they induce a rapid conformational change to the desensitized state. PMID:7527461

  18. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9mg/100g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (P<0.05). Moreover, SAEW treatment could increase the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and thus result in the GABA and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination. PMID:26868552

  19. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  20. Calcineurin-mediated GABA(A) receptor dephosphorylation in rats after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Chi, Zhaofu; Wang, Shengjun; Wang, Shuhua; Sun, Qinjian

    2009-09-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) is a neuronally enriched, calcium-dependent phosphatase, which plays an important role in a number of neuronal processes including development of learning and memory, and modulation of receptor's function and neuronal excitability as well as induction of apoptosis. It has been established in kindling model that the status epilepticus (SE)-induced increase in CaN activity is involved in the development of seizures through down-regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R) activation. However, the mechanism by which CaN mediates GABA(A) receptor dephosphorylation in SE is not fully understood. Here, using a model of kainic acid (KA)-induced SE and CaN inhibitor FK506, we observed the behaviors induced by KA and levels of CaN activity and CaN expression in hippocampus by immunobloting. The results showed that the SE-induced CaN activity was time-dependent, with a peak at 2h and a return to basal level at 24h, whereas a significant increase in CaN expression was seen at 24h after SE. It is proposed that the rapid elevation in CaN activity after KA-induced SE is not likely due to an increase in CaN expression but rather an increase in CaN activation state or kinetics. In addition, we also demonstrated that pre-treatment with FK506 remarkably suppressed the SE-induced CaN activity and its expression, and reversed the SE-induced dephosphorylation of GABA(A)R 2/3 subunits. Taken together, our data suggest that down-regulation in inhibition of GABA(A)R 2/3 by CaN activity contributes to an elevation in neuronal excitability of hippocampus, which may be involved in development of chronic processes of seizures. PMID:19497770

  1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor internalization is regulated by the R2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Saad; Wilkins, Megan E; Dehghani-Tafti, Ebrahim; Thomas, Philip; Baddeley, Stuart M; Smart, Trevor G

    2011-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors are important for slow synaptic inhibition in the CNS. The efficacy of inhibition is directly related to the stability of cell surface receptors. For GABA(B) receptors, heterodimerization between R1 and R2 subunits is critical for cell surface expression and signaling, but how this determines the rate and extent of receptor internalization is unknown. Here, we insert a high affinity α-bungarotoxin binding site into the N terminus of the R2 subunit and reveal its dominant role in regulating the internalization of GABA(B) receptors in live cells. To simultaneously study R1a and R2 trafficking, a new α-bungarotoxin binding site-labeling technique was used, allowing α-bungarotoxin conjugated to different fluorophores to selectively label R1a and R2 subunits. This approach demonstrated that R1a and R2 are internalized as dimers. In heterologous expression systems and neurons, the rates and extents of internalization for R1aR2 heteromers and R2 homomers are similar, suggesting a regulatory role for R2 in determining cell surface receptor stability. The fast internalization rate of R1a, which has been engineered to exit the endoplasmic reticulum, was slowed to that of R2 by truncating the R1a C-terminal tail or by removing a dileucine motif in its coiled-coil domain. Slowing the rate of internalization by co-assembly with R2 represents a novel role for GPCR heterodimerization whereby R2 subunits, via their C terminus coiled-coil domain, mask a dileucine motif on R1a subunits to determine the surface stability of the GABA(B) receptor. PMID:21724853

  2. Presumed case of “stiff–horse syndrome” caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations. PMID:22753968

  3. A pilot integrative genomics study of GABA and glutamate neurotransmitter systems in suicide, suicidal behavior, and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yin, Honglei; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Galfalvy, Hanga; Huang, Yung-Yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, Joseph John

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system, respectively, and have been associated with suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined the relationship between genotype, brain transcriptome, and MDD/suicide for 24 genes involved in GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling. In part 1 of the study, 119 candidate SNPs in 24 genes (4 transporters, 4 enzymes, and 16 receptors) were tested for associations with MDD and suicidal behavior in 276 live participants (86 nonfatal suicide attempters with MDD and 190 non-attempters of whom 70% had MDD) and 209 postmortem cases (121 suicide deaths of whom 62% had MDD and 88 sudden death from other causes of whom 11% had MDD) using logistic regression adjusting for sex and age. In part 2, RNA-seq was used to assay isoform-level expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 59 postmortem samples (21 with MDD and suicide, 9 MDD without suicide, and 29 sudden death non-suicides and no psychiatric illness) using robust regression adjusting for sex, age, and RIN score. In part 3, SNPs with subthreshold (uncorrected) significance levels below 0.05 for an association with suicidal behavior and/or MDD in part 1 were tested for eQTL effects in prefrontal cortex using the Brain eQTL Almanac (www.braineac.org). No SNPs or transcripts were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. However, a protein coding transcript (ENST00000414552) of the GABA A receptor, gamma 2 (GABRG2) had lower brain expression postmortem in suicide (P = 0.01) and evidence for association with suicide death (P = 0.03) in a SNP that may be an eQTL in prefrontal cortex (rs424740, P = 0.02). These preliminary results implicate GABRG2 in suicide and warrant further investigation and replication in larger samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26892569

  4. Arachidonic acid attenuates learning and memory dysfunction induced by repeated isoflurane anesthesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunjiang; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Yun; Diao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) on learning and memory dysfunction in rats exposed to repeated isoflurane anesthesia and the underlying mechanisms. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham control group, isoflurane group, low dose ARA + isoflurane group, moderate dose ARA + isoflurane group, high dose ARA + isoflurane group. The Morris water maze test was performed to assess learning and memory function and the hippocampus tissues were obtained for biochemical analysis. The results showed that administration of ARA improved learning and memory deficit induced by repeated isofluane anesthesia in Morris water maze test and in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, ARA increased the activities of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of acetycholine (Ach) and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), whereas decreased the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE), the content of glutamate (Glu) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the radio of Glu/GABA. Meanwhile, ARA elevated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibited the activity of caspase-3. In conclusion, ARA has potential therapeutic value in alleviating isoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment. The mechanism might be involved in regulating the cholinergic and Glu/GABA regulatory system, decreasing oxidative damage and inhibiting cell apoptosis. PMID:26550146

  5. Gestational changes of GABA levels and GABA binding in the human uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Erdoe, S.L.; Villanyi, P.; Laszlo, A.

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the activities of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, and the nature of the sodium-independent binding of GABA were examined in uterine tissue pieces obtained surgically from pregnant and non-pregnant women. GABA concentrations were reduced, while the activity of GABA-transaminase and the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA significantly increased in specimens from pregnant subjects. These findings suggest some gestation-related functional role for the GABA system in the human uterus.

  6. Role of a gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor mutation in the evolution and spread of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera resistance to cyclodiene insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. The corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was partially controlled by ...

  7. Enhancing Contents of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and Other Micronutrients in Dehulled Rice during Germination under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junzhou; Yang, Tewu; Feng, Hao; Dong, Mengyi; Slavin, Margaret; Xiong, Shanbai; Zhao, Siming

    2016-02-10

    Biofortification of staple grains with high contents of essential micronutrients is an important strategy to overcome micronutrient malnutrition. However, few attempts have targeted at γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a functional nutrient for aging populations. In this study, two rice cultivars, Heinuo and Xianhui 207, were used to investigate changes in GABA and other nutritional compounds of dehulled rice after germination under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Forty-one metabolites were identified in both cultivars treated by normoxic germination, whereas the germinated dehulled rice of Heinuo and Xianhui 207 under hypoxic treatment had 43 and 41 metabolites identified, respectively. GABA increased in dehulled rice after germination, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, a number of other health-beneficial and/or flavor-related compounds such as lysine and d-mannose increased after the hypoxic treatment. The accumulation of GABA exhibited genotype-specific modes in both normoxic and hypoxic treatments. With regard to GABA production, Xianhui 207 was more responsive to the germination process than Heinuo, whereas Heinuo was more responsive to hypoxia than Xianhui 207. This study provides a promising approach to biofortify dehulled rice with increased GABA and other nutrients through metabolomic-based regulation. PMID:26765954

  8. The availability of surface GABA B receptors is independent of gamma-aminobutyric acid but controlled by glutamate in central neurons.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Karina J; Terunuma, Miho; Tello, Judith A; Pangalos, Menelas N; Moss, Stephen J; Couve, Andrés

    2008-09-01

    The efficacy of synaptic transmission depends on the availability of ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors at the plasma membrane, but the contribution of the endocytic and recycling pathways in the regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors remains controversial. To understand the mechanisms that regulate the abundance of GABA(B) receptors, we have studied their turnover combining surface biotin labeling and a microscopic immunoendocytosis assay in hippocampal and cortical neurons. We report that internalization of GABA(B) receptors is agonist-independent. We also demonstrate that receptors endocytose in the cell body and dendrites but not in axons. Additionally, we show that GABA(B) receptors endocytose as heterodimers via clathrin- and dynamin-1-dependent mechanisms and that they recycle to the plasma membrane after endocytosis. More importantly, we show that glutamate decreases the levels of cell surface receptors in a manner dependent on an intact proteasome pathway. These observations indicate that glutamate and not GABA controls the abundance of surface GABA(B) receptors in central neurons, consistent with their enrichment at glutamatergic synapses. PMID:18579521

  9. Psychological stress-reducing effect of chocolate enriched with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in humans: assessment of stress using heart rate variability and salivary chromogranin A.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Takishima, T; Kometani, T; Yokogoshi, H

    2009-01-01

    We studied the psychological stress-reducing effect of chocolate enriched with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on stress induced by an arithmetic task using changes of heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary chromogranin A (CgA). Subjects ingested 10 g chocolate enriched with 28 mg GABA (GABA chocolate); 15 min after the ingestion, subjects were assigned an arithmetic task for 15 min. After the task, an electrocardiogram was recorded and saliva samples were collected. HRV was determined from the electrocardiogram, and the activity of the autonomic nervous system was estimated through HRV. The CgA concentration of all saliva samples, an index for acute psychological stress, was measured. From HRV, those taking GABA chocolate made a quick recovery to the normal state from the stressful state. The CgA value after the task in those taking GABA chocolate did not increased in comparison with that before ingestion. From these results, GABA chocolate was considered to have a psychological stress-reducing effect. PMID:19462324

  10. Imidase catalyzing desymmetric imide hydrolysis forming optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Masutoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shizawa, Hiroaki; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Yasohara, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The recent use of optically active 3-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs in human therapeutics has identified a need for an efficient, stereoselective method of their synthesis. Here, bacterial strains were screened for enzymes capable of stereospecific hydrolysis of 3-substituted glutarimides to generate (R)-3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides. The bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis NBRC13111 and Burkholderia phytofirmans DSM17436 were discovered to hydrolyze 3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutarimide (CGI) to (R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutaric acid monoamide (CGM) with 98.1% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) and 97.5% e.e., respectively. B. phytofirmans DSM17436 could also hydrolyze 3-isobutyl glutarimide (IBI) to produce (R)-3-isobutyl glutaric acid monoamide (IBM) with 94.9% e.e. BpIH, an imidase, was purified from B. phytofirmans DSM17436 and found to generate (R)-CGM from CGI with specific activity of 0.95 U/mg. The amino acid sequence of BpIH had a 75% sequence identity to that of allantoinase from A. faecalis NBRC13111 (AfIH). The purified recombinant BpIH and AfIH catalyzed (R)-selective hydrolysis of CGI and IBI. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the enzymatic properties of BpIH and AfIH revealed that both enzymes were stable in the range of pH 6-10, with an optimal pH of 9.0, stable at temperatures below 40 °C, and were not metalloproteins. These results indicate that the use of this class of hydrolase to generate optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamide could simplify the production of specific chiral GABA analogs for drug therapeutics. PMID:26205522

  11. Closing the loop on the GABA shunt in plants: are GABA metabolism and signaling entwined?

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Simon; Fromm, Hillel

    2015-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is found in uni- and multi-cellular organisms and is involved in many aspects of plant life cycle. GABA metabolism occurs by the action of evolutionary conserved enzymes that constitute the GABA shunt, bypassing two steps of the TCA cycle. The central position of GABA in the interface between plant carbon and nitrogen metabolism is well established. In parallel, there is evidence to support a role for GABA as a signaling molecule in plants. Here we cover some of the recent findings on GABA metabolism and signaling in plants and further suggest that the metabolic and signaling aspects of GABA may actually be inseparable. PMID:26106401

  12. Synthesis of 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-derived amino acids: ornitine and GABA analogues.

    PubMed

    Radchenko, Dmytro S; Grygorenko, Oleksandr O; Komarov, Igor V

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis of 6-amino-2-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carboxylic acid and 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carboxylic acid was performed. Both four-membered rings in the spirocyclic scaffold were constructed by subsequent ring closure of corresponding 1,3-bis-electrophiles at 1,1-C- or 1,1-N-bis-nucleophiles. The two novel amino acids were added to the family of the sterically constrained amino acids for the use in chemistry, biochemistry, and drug design. PMID:20108009

  13. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina.

  14. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. PMID:20071045

  15. Combinations of intrathecal gamma-amino-butyrate receptor agonists and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in rats with neuropathic spinal cord injury pain

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Underlying below-level cutaneous hypersensitivity observed following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a concurrent loss of inhibition with an increase in excitation in the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, a dual pharmacological approach, increasing spinal γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition and decreasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitation, could be more beneficial than either approach alone. The current study evaluated the antinociceptive effects of lumbar intrathecal (i.t.) administration of GABA receptor agonists and NMDA receptor antagonists alone and in combination in rats with neuropathic SCI pain. Rats developed markedly decreased hind paw withdrawal thresholds following an acute thoracic spinal cord compression, indicative of below-level hypersensitivity. Separately, i.t. GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and GABAB receptor agonist baclofen demonstrated dose-dependent antinociception, whereas i.t. NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and the endogenous peptide [Ser1]histogranin, a putative NMDA receptor antagonist, demonstrated no efficacy. The combination of baclofen and ketamine resulted in a supra-additive (synergistic) antinociception whereas the combinations with muscimol were merely additive. Intrathecal pretreatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 prevented the antinociceptive effect of the baclofen and ketamine combination. The data indicate that blocking spinal NMDA receptors alone is not sufficient to ameliorate SCI hypersensitivity, whereas a combined approach, simultaneous activation of spinal GABAB receptors and NMDA receptors blockade with ketamine, leads to significant antinociception. By engaging diverse pain modulating systems at the spinal level, combination drug treatment may be a useful approach in treating neuropathic SCI pain. PMID:22449374

  16. The Uptake of GABA in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Galvez Rojas, Robert L; Ahn, Il-Young; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Sant'Anna, Celso; Pral, Elizabeth Mieko Furusho; Silber, Ariel Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely known as a neurotransmitter and signal transduction molecule found in vertebrates, plants, and some protozoan organisms. However, the presence of GABA and its role in trypanosomatids is unknown. Here, we report the presence of intracellular GABA and the biochemical characterization of its uptake in Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Kinetic parameters indicated that GABA is taken up by a single transport system in pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms. Temperature dependence assays showed a profile similar to glutamate transport, but the effect of extracellular cations Na(+) , K(+) , and H(+) on GABA uptake differed, suggesting a different uptake mechanism. In contrast to reports for other amino acid transporters in T. cruzi, GABA uptake was Na(+) dependent and increased with pH, with a maximum activity at pH 8.5. The sensitivity to oligomycin showed that GABA uptake is dependent on ATP synthesis. These data point to a secondary active Na(+) /GABA symporter energized by Na(+) -exporting ATPase. Finally, we show that GABA occurs in the parasite's cytoplasm under normal culture conditions, indicating that it is regularly taken up from the culture medium or synthesized through an still undescribed metabolic pathway. PMID:25851259

  17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptides in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damelio, F.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid and the neuropeptides substance P and Met-enkephalin in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive (GAD-IR) terminals and fibers were observed in the AP and particularly in the ASP. A gradual decrease in the density of terminals was seen towards the solitary complex. The DMNV revealed irregularly scattered GAD-IR terminals within the neuropil or closely surrounding neuronal cell bodies. The LVN, particularly the dorsal division, showed numerous axon terminals which were mostly localize around large neurons and their proximal dendrites. Substance P immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed high density in the solitary complex, in particular within the lateral division. The ASP showed medium to low density of SP-IR fibers and terminals. The AP exhibited a small number of fibers and terminals irregularly distributed. The DMNV revealed a high density of SP-IR terminals and fibers that were mainly concentrated in the periphery. Very few terminals were detected in the LVN. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive (Met-Enk-IR) fibers and terminals showed high density and uniform distribution in the DMNV. Scattered terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, and NTS (particularly the lateral division). The very few fibers were observed in the LVN surrounded the neuronal cell bodies. The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

  18. Probing Structural Features and Binding Mode of 3-Arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones within Housefly γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinfan; Zhang, Lihui; Ma, Zhi; Kong, Xiangya; Wang, Fangfang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain structural features of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones emerged as promising inhibitors of insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, a set of ligand-/receptor-based 3D-QSAR models for 60 derivatives are generated using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The statistically optimal CoMSIA model is produced with highest q2 of 0.62, r2ncv of 0.97, and r2pred of 0.95. A minor/bulky electronegative hydrophilic polar substituent at the 1-/6-postion of the uracil ring, and bulky substituents at the 3′-, 4′- and 5′-positions of the benzene ring are beneficial for the enhanced potency of the inhibitors as revealed by the obtained 3D-contour maps. Furthermore, homology modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and molecular docking are also carried out to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of these inhibitors, and the results show that residues Ala-183(C), Thr-187(B), Thr-187(D) and Thr-187(E) in the second transmembrane domains of GABA receptor are responsible for the H-bonding interactions with the inhibitor. The good correlation between docking observations and 3D-QSAR analyses further proves the model reasonability in probing the structural features and the binding mode of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-dione derivatives within the housefly GABA receptor. PMID:22016659

  19. Immunocytochemical study of the GABAergic innervation of the mouse pituitary by use of antibodies against gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Rabhi, M; Onteniente, B; Kah, O; Geffard, M; Calas, A

    1987-01-01

    The GABAergic innervation of the mouse pituitary, including the median eminence, was studied at light-microscopic and ultrastructural levels by use of a pre-embedding immunocytochemical technique with antibodies directed against GABA. In the median eminence, a high density of GABA-immunoreactive fibers was found in the external layer where the GABAergic varicosities were frequently observed surrounding the blood vessels of the primary capillary plexus. In the internal and subependymal layers, only few fibers were immunoreactive. The intense labeling of the external layer was observed in the entire rostro-caudal extent of the median eminence. In the pituitary proper, a dense network of GABA-immunoreactive fibers was revealed throughout the neural and intermediate lobes, entering via the hypophyseal stalk. The anterior and tuberal lobes were devoid of any immunoreactivity. The GABA-immunoreactive terminals were characterized in the median eminence, and in the intermediate and posterior lobes at the electron-microscopic level. They contained small clear vesicles, occasionally associated with dense-core vesicles or neurosecretory granules. In the intermediate lobe they were seen to be in contact with the glandular cells. In the posterior lobe and in the median eminence, GABA-immunoreactive terminals were frequently located in the vicinity of blood vessels. These results further support the concept of a role of GABA in the regulation of hypophyseal functions, via the portal blood for the anterior lobe, directly on the cells in the intermediate lobe, and via axo-axonic mechanisms in the median eminence and posterior lobe. PMID:3829118

  20. Electric field directed nucleic acid hybridization on microchips.

    PubMed Central

    Edman, C F; Raymond, D E; Wu, D J; Tu, E; Sosnowski, R G; Butler, W F; Nerenberg, M; Heller, M J

    1997-01-01

    Selection and adjustment of proper physical parameters enables rapid DNA transport, site selective concentration, and accelerated hybridization reactions to be carried out on active microelectronic arrays. These physical parameters include DC current, voltage, solution conductivity and buffer species. Generally, at any given current and voltage level, the transport or mobility of DNA is inversely proportional to electrolyte or buffer conductivity. However, only a subset of buffer species produce both rapid transport, site specific concentration and accelerated hybridization. These buffers include zwitterionic and low conductivity species such as: d- and l-histidine; 1- and 3-methylhistidines; carnosine; imidazole; pyridine; and collidine. In contrast, buffers such as glycine, beta-alanine and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) produce rapid transport and site selective concentration but do not facilitate hybridization. Our results suggest that the ability of these buffers (histidine, etc.) to facilitate hybridization appears linked to their ability to provide electric field concentration of DNA; to buffer acidic conditions present at the anode; and in this process acquire a net positive charge which then shields or diminishes repulsion between the DNA strands, thus promoting hybridization. PMID:9396795

  1. Amino Acids and Sugars in the Gas Phase: Microwave Data for Astrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Peña, I.; Perez, C.; Blanco, S.; Sanz, M. E.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    Microwave spectroscopy, considered the most definitive gas phase structural probe, can distinguish between different conformational structures since they have unique spectroscopic constants and give separate rotational spectra. However it has been limited to molecular specimens having an appreciable vapor pressure. In general, molecules of biological importance have low vapor pressures and tend to undergo degradation upon heating. The combination of laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets (LA-MB-FTMW) which overcomes the problems of thermal decomposition has rendered accessible the gas phase structural studies of these molecules. To date different α-, β- and γ-amino acids have been studied using this technique. Even in conformationally challenging systems the preferred conformations can be identified by rotational spectroscopy, as has been illustrated with the assignment of seven low-energy conformers in serine and threonine, six in cysteine and aspartic acid , and nine in γ-amino butyric (gaba). This technique has been successfully applied to the study of monosaccarides. Three conformers of the prototypes α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose have been characterized for the first time in the gas phase. After the first experimental observation of the monohydrated cluster of glycine, complexes between amino acids and nitrogen bases with water have also been investigated to obtain information on the changes induced in the conformational or tautomeric preferences by the addition of solvent molecules. The information given here is relevant for the unambiguous identification of these amino acids and sugars in the interstellar medium.

  2. Impaired brain GABA in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lucien M; Hallett, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Patients with task-specific dystonia (writer's cramp) have impaired cortical inhibition likely arising from striatal dysfunction. However, the levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brains of these patients are not known. In this study, we evaluated 7 patients with right-sided focal, task-specific dystonia and 17 normal control subjects. A novel method using two-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that brain GABA levels are decreased in specific brain regions of the focal dystonia patients compared to normal controls. A significant decrease in GABA level was observed in the sensorimotor cortex and lentiform nuclei contralateral to the affected hand, while there was only a small nonsignificant decrease in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex and lentiform nuclei. GABA changes in the posterior occipital region of patients were not significant. The impaired cortical GABA level correlates with prior physiologic studies showing reduced intracortical inhibition. Reduced GABA in the striatum is consistent with striatal dysfunction since GABA is a principal neurotransmitter in that region. The reduction of brain GABA in dystonia patients may explain the clinical symptomatology of focal dystonia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a useful noninvasive tool in the evaluation of regional brain GABA changes and in monitoring the effects of various therapies. PMID:11782988

  3. Failure of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative, baclofen, to stimulate growth hormone secretion in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Volpi, R; Gerra, G; Vourna, S; Vescovi, P P; Maestri, D; Chiodera, P; Coiro, V

    1992-01-01

    In order to establish possible alterations in the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic control of growth hormone (GH) secretion in heroin addicts, ten patients (age, 25.8 +/- 1.07 yr (mean +/- SE); duration of heroin addiction, range 3-8 yr; weight, 67.3 +/- 0.87 kg body weight), and ten age (29.1 +/- 0.84 yr)- and weight (69.7 +/- 0.87 kg)-matched normal controls were tested with the GABAergic B-receptor agonist baclofen (10 mg p.o. at 09.00 h) (experimental test) or a placebo (control test). Blood samples for GH assay were taken every 15 min for the next 150 min. Normal controls underwent one control and one experimental test. Heroin addicts were submitted to both baclofen and placebo test twice, once around the time of their admission to a recovery community for drug abusers, when they were still assuming heroin, and again after two months of permanence in the community. From the time of their admission to the community, the patients were forbidden to use heroin. For two weeks after admission they were treated with clonidine and acetylsalicilic acid to attenuate withdrawal symptoms. Thereafter, the patients underwent a period of wash-out of pharmacological treatments for at least 6 weeks before being retested. Basal GH levels were similar in normal controls and heroin addicts in all tests and remained unmodified during control tests in all subjects. The administration of baclofen increased four times the serum GH levels within 120 minutes in the normal controls, whereas it did not modify serum GH concentrations in heroin addicts either during the period of drug abuse or after two months of abstinence. These data show that the control of GH secretion mediated by GABAergic B-receptors is impaired in heroin addicts. It is hypothesized that this neuroendocrine alteration might represent a trait marker of heroin addiction, or more likely, that it was a consequence of a long addiction to heroin persisting after two months of abstinence. PMID:1625515

  4. GABA[subscript A] Receptor Downregulation in Brains of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediation of fast inhibitory action of GABA in the brain. Preliminary reports have demonstrated altered expression of GABA receptors in the brains of subjects with autism suggesting GABA/glutamate system dysregulation. We investigated the…

  5. Linking Metabolism to Membrane Signaling: The GABA-Malate Connection.

    PubMed

    Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2016-04-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration increases rapidly in tissues when plants encounter abiotic or biotic stress, and GABA manipulation affects growth. This, coupled to GABA's well-described role as a neurotransmitter in mammals, led to over a decade of speculation that GABA is a signal in plants. The discovery of GABA-regulated anion channels in plants provides compelling mechanistic proof that GABA is a legitimate plant-signaling molecule. Here we examine research avenues unlocked by this finding and propose that these plant 'GABA receptors' possess novel properties ideally suited to translating changes in metabolic status into physiological responses. Specifically, we suggest they have a role in signaling altered cycling of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates during stress via eliciting changes in electrical potential differences across membranes. PMID:26723562

  6. Mutations in Plastidial 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Biosynthesis Genes Suppress a Pleiotropic Defect in Shoot Development of a Mitochondrial GABA Shunt Mutant in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Toyokura, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2015-06-01

    Plant developmental processes are co-ordinated with the status of cell metabolism, not only in mitochondria but also in plastids. In Arabidopsis thaliana, succinic semialdehyde (SSA), a GABA shunt metabolite, links the specific mitochondrial metabolic pathway to shoot development. To understand the mechanism of SSA-mediated development, we isolated a succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh) suppressor mutant, affected in its ability to catalyze SSA to succinic acid. We found that pleiotropic developmental phenotypes of ssadh are suppressed by a mutation in GLUTAMATE-1-SEMIALDEHYDE 2, 1-AMINOMUTASE 2 (GSA2), which encodes a plastidial enzyme converting glutatamate-1-semialdehyde to 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). In addition, a mutation in either HEMA1 or GSA1, two other enzymes for 5-ALA synthesis, also suppressed ssadh fully and partially, respectively. Furthermore, exogenous application of 5-ALA and SSA disturbed leaf development. These results suggest that metabolism in both mitochondria and plastids affect shoot development. PMID:25840087

  7. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2014-10-01

    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL. PMID:24473816

  8. Detection of Reduced GABA Synthesis Following Inhibition of GABA Transaminase Using in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Signal of [13C]GABA C1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jehoon; Johnson, Christopher; Shen, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Previous in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis have relied on 13C label incorporation into GABA C2 from [1-13C] or [1,6-13C2]glucose. In this study, the [13C]GABA C1 signal at 182.3 ppm in the carboxylic/amide spectral region of localized in vivo 13C spectra was detected. GABA-transaminase of rat brain was inhibited by administration of gabaculine after pre-labeling of GABA C1 and its metabolic precursors with exogenous [2,5-13C2]glucose. A subsequent isotope chase experiment was performed by infusing unlabeled glucose, which revealed a markedly slow change in the labeling of GABA C1 accompanying the blockade of the GABA shunt. This slow labeling of GABA at elevated GABA concentration was attributed to the relatively small intercompartmental GABA-glutamine cycling flux that constitutes the main route of 13C label loss during the isotope chase. Because this study showed that using low RF power broadband stochastic proton decoupling is feasible at very high field strength, it has important implications for the development of carboxylic/amide 13C MRS methods to study brain metabolism and neurotransmission in human subjects at high magnetic fields. PMID:19540876

  9. Guinea Pig Horizontal Cells Express GABA, the GABA-Synthesizing Enzyme GAD65, and the GABA Vesicular Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chenying; Hirano, Arlene A.; Stella, Salvatore L.; Bitzer, Michaela; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is likely expressed in horizontal cells of all species, although conflicting physiological findings have led to considerable controversy regarding its role as a transmitter in the outer retina. This study has evaluated key components of the GABA system in the outer retina of guinea pig, an emerging retinal model system. The presence of GABA, its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms), the plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-3), and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry with well-characterized antibodies. The presence of GAD65 mRNA was also evaluated by using laser capture microdissection and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Specific GABA, GAD65, and VGAT immunostaining was localized to horizontal cell bodies, as well as to their processes and tips in the outer plexiform layer. Furthermore, immunostaining of retinal whole mounts and acutely dissociated retinas showed GAD65 and VGAT immunoreactivity in both A-type and B-type horizontal cells. However, these cells did not contain GAD67, GAT-1, or GAT-3 immunoreactivity. GAD65 mRNA was detected in horizontal cells, and sequencing of the amplified GAD65 fragment showed approximately 85% identity with other mammalian GAD65 mRNAs. These studies demonstrate the presence of GABA, GAD65, and VGAT in horizontal cells of the guinea pig retina, and support the idea that GABA is synthesized from GAD65, taken up into synaptic vesicles by VGAT, and likely released by a vesicular mechanism from horizontal cells. PMID:20235161

  10. GABA uptake inhibitors. Design, molecular pharmacology and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Frølund, B; Frydenvang, K

    2000-08-01

    In the mid seventies a drug design programme using the Amanita muscaria constituent muscimol (7) as a lead structure, led to the design of guvacine (23) and (R)-nipecotic acid (24) as specific GABA uptake inhibitors and the isomeric compounds isoguvacine (10) and isonipecotic acid (11) as specific GABAA receptor agonists. The availability of these compounds made it possible to study the pharmacology of the GABA uptake systems and the GABAA receptors separately. Based on extensive cellular and molecular pharmacological studies using 23, 24, and a number of mono- and bicyclic analogues, it has been demonstrated that neuronal and glial GABA transport mechanisms have dissimilar substrate specificities. With GABA transport mechanisms as pharmacological targets, strategies for pharmacological interventions with the purpose of stimulating GABA neurotransmission seem to be (1) effective blockade of neuronal as well as glial GABA uptake in order to enhance the inhibitory effects of synaptically released GABA, or (2) selective blockade of glial GABA uptake in order to increase the amount of GABA taken up into, and subsequently released from, nerve terminals. The bicyclic compound (R)-N-Me-exo-THPO (17) has recently been reported as the most selective glial GABA uptake inhibitor so far known and may be a useful tool for further elucidation of the pharmacology of GABA transporters. In recent years, a variety of lipophilic analogues of the amino acids 23 and 24 have been developed, and one of these compounds, tiagabine (49) containing (R)-nipecotic acid (24) as the GABA transport carrier-recognizing structure element, is now marketed as an antiepileptic agent. PMID:10903390

  11. [Autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA in opiate addiction].

    PubMed

    Vetrile, L A; Fomina, V G; Nevidimova, T I; Vetlugina, T P; Batukhtina, E I; Savochkina, D N; Zakharova, I A; Davydova, T V

    2015-01-01

    Blood serum from 129 patients with opium addiction at different stages of the disease and 63 donors (control group) was examined for the presence of autoantibodies to the exciting and inhibitory amino acids glutamate and GABA. It was shown enhanced production of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA. Dependence of the level and frequency of detec- tion of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA on the stage of the disease was revealed. PMID:26852594

  12. Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA protein, and nucleic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, F.K.; Omer, V.E.V.

    1988-02-01

    The opportunity of maternal exposure to various chemicals in the work place and the general environments have increased, and the fetus and neonate may be at greater risk than the adult. However, the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of the chlorinated phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), the main chemicals in Agent Orange, are well documented only in laboratory animals. The brain of the developing fetus is vulnerable to the toxic effects of the phenoxy herbicides which readily cross the placental barrier and distribute into fetal tissues, including brain. Although the neurochemical basis for the behavioral teratogenicity of the phenoxy herbicides is not know, it was recently reported that non-teratogenic doses of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T delayed the ontogeny of dopamine and serotonin in the brain of the developing rate. This communication provides further descriptive information about the ontogeny of rat brain nucleic acid, protein, glutamate and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) following in utero exposure to non-teratogenic levels of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D/2,4,5-T.

  13. Amino acid biogeochemistry and organic matter degradation state across the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewiele, Sandra; Cowie, Greg; Soetaert, Karline; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2009-03-01

    To assess whether the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) across the Pakistan Margin causes differences in the lability of sedimentary organic matter, sediments were collected in the core of the OMZ, in the upper and lower transition zones and below the OMZ. Sediment samples were analysed for total nitrogen (TN) and organic carbon (OC) contents, mineral surface area (SA), and total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and enzymatically hydrolysable amino acids (EHAA). OC contents and organic carbon per unit of mineral surface area (OC/SA) values were clearly elevated in the core and lower OMZ transition zone. These sediments also contained more labile sedimentary organic matter, as discerned by higher concentrations of THAA and the contribution of N in THAA to TN. A protein amino acid-based degradation index revealed that all sedimentary organic matter has undergone significant degradation, but sediments in the upper OMZ transition zone and below the OMZ are more degraded than inside the OMZ. Changes in amino acid composition during diagenesis are attributed to a combination of factors: (1) selective preservation in which amino acids in cell walls are better preserved than amino acids in cell plasma, (2) formation and accumulation of bacterially derived organic matter; there were relatively more living bacteria in the core of the OMZ and an accumulation of peptidoglycan-derived amino acids in degraded sediments in the upper OMZ transition zone and below the OMZ, and (3) bacterial transformation, as the molar percentages of bacterial transformation products β-alanine (Bala), γ-amino butyric acid (Gaba), and ornithine (Orn), increased with increasing degradation.

  14. A rat brain cDNA encodes enzymatically active GABA transaminase and provides a molecular probe for GABA-catabolizing cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Kauwe, L K; Tillakaratne, N J; Wu, J Y; Tobin, A J

    1994-04-01

    cDNAs encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-T) were isolated from a lambda ZAP rat hippocampal cDNA expression library by two independent cloning methods, immunological screening with an antimouse GABA-T antibody and plaque hybridization with a GABA-T cDNA probe derived by polymerase chain reaction. We have produced enzymatically active GABA-T from a rat brain cDNA containing the full-length GABA-T coding region. Our rat brain GABA-T cDNAs hybridize to mRNAs in brain and peripheral tissues, including liver, kidney, and testis. We have also detected GABA-T mRNA in GABAergic cells of rat cerebellar cortex by in situ hybridization. Our rat brain GABA-T probe hybridizes to Purkinje, basket, stellate, and Golgi II cells, the same GABAergic neurons previously shown to contain glutamate decarboxylase GAD65 and GAD67. PMID:8133261

  15. Selected biomarkers as predictive tools in testing efficacy of melatonin and coenzyme Q on propionic acid - induced neurotoxicity in rodent model of autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to environmental toxins are now thought to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA) found as a metabolic product of gut bacteria has been reported to mimic/mediate the neurotoxic effects of autism. Results from animal studies may guide investigations on human populations toward identifying environmental contaminants that produce or drugs that protect from neurotoxicity. Forty-eight young male Western Albino rats were used in the present study. They were grouped into six equal groups 8 rats each. The first group received a neurotoxic dose of buffered PA (250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days). The second group received only phosphate buffered saline (control group). The third and fourth groups were intoxicated with PA as described above followed by treatment with either coenzyme Q (4.5 mg/kg body weight) or melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight) for one week (therapeutically treated groups). The fifth and sixth groups were administered both compounds for one week prior to PA (protected groups). Heat shock protein70 (Hsp70), Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and interferon γ-inducible protein 16 together with Comet DNA assay were measured in brain tissues of the six studied groups. Results The obtained data showed that PA caused multiple signs of brain toxicity revealed in depletion of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine, are which important neurotransmitters that reflect brain function, interferon γ-inducible protein 16 and oxytocin. A high significant increase in tail length, tail DNA% damage and tail moment was reported indicating the genotoxic effect of PA. Administration of melatonin or coenzyme Q showed both protective and therapeutic effects on PA–treated rats demonstrated in a remarkable amelioration of most of the measured parameters. Conclusion In conclusion, melatonin and coenzyme Q have potential protective and restorative effects against PA-induced brain injury, confirmed by improvement in biochemical markers and DNA double strand breaks. PMID:24568717

  16. Isolation, characterization, and purification to homogeneity of a rat brain protein (GABA-modulin).

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, A; Konkel, D R; Ebstein, B; Corda, M G; Wise, B C; Krutzsch, H; Meek, J L; Costa, E

    1982-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-modulin is a brain neuropeptide that appears to modulate specific high-affinity (20 nM) GABA recognition sites in brain. When added to crude synaptic membranes this peptide inhibits binding of [3H]GABA to the high-affinity site and prevents facilitation of [3H]diazepam binding elicited by GABA. GABA-modulin has been purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. Homogeneity was confirmed by a variety of means, including chromatography under four different HPLC conditions, two different polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses, and end group analysis. Purified GABA-modulin contains approximately 126 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 16,500. The GABA-modulin molecule contains an abundance of hydrophilic basic residues, and neither cysteine nor GABA is present. End group analyses of GABA-modulin showed that histidine is the free COOH terminus and the NH2 terminus is blocked. GABA-modulin specifically blocked both [3H]GABA binding to synaptic membranes (IC50, 0.5 microM) and GABA-stimulated [3H]diazepam binding; the binding of [3H]GABA to low-affinity sites was not affected. Images PMID:6964401

  17. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. )

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  18. Cloning and expression of a rat brain GABA transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Czyzyk, L.; Davidson, N.; Lester, H.A. ); Nelson, N.; Nelson, H.; Miedel, M.C. ); Keynan, S.; Kanner, B.I. )

    1990-09-14

    A complementary DNA clone (designated GAT-1) encoding a transporter for the neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been isolated from rat brain, and its functional properties have been examined in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes injected with GAT-1 synthetic messenger RNA accumulated ({sup 3}H)GABA to levels above control values. The transporter encoded by GAT-1 has a high affinity for GABA, is sodium- and chloride-dependent, and is pharmacologically similar to neuronal GABA transporters. The GAT-1 protein shares antigenic determinants with a native rat brain GABA transporter. The nucleotide sequence of GAT-1 predicts a protein of 599 amino acids with a molecular weight of 67 kilodaltons. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced protein suggests multiple transmembrane regions, a feature shared by several cloned transporters; however, database searches indicate that GAT-1 is not homologous to any previously identified proteins. Therefore, GAT-1 appears to be a member of a previously uncharacterized family of transport molecules.

  19. High-affinity GABA uptake by neuronal GAT1 transporters provokes release of [(3)H]GABA by homoexchange and through GAT1-independent Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Romei, Cristina; Sabolla, Chiara; Raiteri, Luca

    2015-01-01

    High-affinity uptake of GABA into nerve terminals may have functions other than recapture of the neurotransmitter. Synaptosomes purified from mouse cerebellum were prelabelled with [(3)H]GABA and then superfused with GABA and drugs selective for some presynaptic targets. Influx of GABA through GAT1 transporters stimulated efflux of [(3)H]GABA in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 ∼ 3 μM). The efflux of the transmitter occurred in part by GAT1 reversal through the so called homoexchange. The ion fluxes (particularly Na(+) influx) accompanying GABA uptake triggered intraterminal Ca(2+) signals through both plasmalemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, sensitive to KB-R7943 or to ifenprodil and mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, sensitive to CGP37157. These Ca(2+) signals likely facilitated GABA release from nerve terminals via niflumic acid- and NPPB-sensitive anion channels. The results show that GABA, at concentrations corresponding to the high-affinity uptake, can evoke GABA release which occurs in part by the expected GAT1-mediated homoexchange, while the transporter-independent component of the GABA uptake-evoked GABA release takes place by hitherto unsuspected mechanisms which include Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers and anion channels. The significance of the novel function of the GABA high-affinity uptake here identified deserves further multidisciplinary investigation. PMID:25150942

  20. Investigating GABA and its function in platelets as compared to neurons.

    PubMed

    Kaneez, Fatima Shad; Saeed, Sheikh Arshad

    2009-08-01

    We have recently suggested that platelets could be used as a model for neuronal receptors. In this paper we have investigated gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism and GABA receptors in platelets and in cultured neurons to see whether platelets' GABA mimics neuronal GABA receptor activities. We used the ELISA technique for detecting the GABA concentration in platelet rich plasma and cultured neurons. The functional effects of GABA and its receptor ligands on platelets were determined using an aggregometer. We found that the GABA concentration is 30% lower in platelets than in neurons and in both preparations GABA was metabolized by GABA transaminase (GABA-T). GABA potentiated calcium dependent platelet aggregation with a higher value in washed platelets suspension (WPS) then in platelet rich plasma (PRP). This effect was inhibited by benzodiazepines, calcium channel blockers and the selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase antagonist Wortmannin. GABA neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. We concluded that platelets could be further developed to be used as a peripheral model to study neuronal GABAergic function and its abnormality in diseases such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. Furthermore our results indicated that PI3-kinase is involved in calcium dependent GABA induced platelet aggregation as this synergistic effect is inhibited by Wortmannin in dose dependent manner. PMID:19637096

  1. Development and Validation of a HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of L-Glutamic Acid and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Mice Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, J. S.; Shaikh, M. F.; Khatwani, P. F.; Kulkarni, Savita R.; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2013-01-01

    A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ninhydrin as a derivatising agent. Quantitation of the method was achieved by densitometric method at 550 nm over the concentration range of 10-100 ng/spot. This method showed good separation of amino acids in the brain homogenate with Rf value of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid as 21.67±0.58 and 33.67±0.58, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for L-glutamic acid was found to be 10 and 20 ng and for γ-amino butyric acid it was 4 and 10 ng, respectively. The method was also validated in terms of accuracy, precision and repeatability. The developed method was found to be precise and accurate with good reproducibility and shows promising applicability for studying pathological status of disease and therapeutic significance of drug treatment. PMID:24591747

  2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus. A light and electron microscopic study with anti-GABA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gamrani, H; Onteniente, B; Seguela, P; Geffard, M; Calas, A

    1986-01-29

    The distribution of GABA-immunoreactive neurons and axonal varicosities was investigated in the hippocampal region of the rat brain by means of an indirect peroxidase immunocytochemical method with recently developed anti-GABA antibodies. The immunolabeling was found to be restricted to nervous structures: neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals. Myelinated axons showing GABA-immunoreactivity were also observed. GABA-immunoreactive neurons were found in great number in the stratum pyramidale, the superficial part of the stratum oriens and the deep part of the stratum radiatum in the Ammon's horn. Less were found in the other regions; rare labeled cells were observed in the superficial part of the stratum radiatum and the middle part of the stratum oriens. The dentate gyrus exhibited numerous labeled cells in the granular layer, few in the hilus, rare in the molecular layer. A high density of GABA-immunoreactive terminals was found at the limit of the stratum oriens with the alveus, in the stratum pyramidale and in the stratum lacunosum. A lower density of labeled fibers was observed in the other areas. The somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal and granular cells were encompassed by characteristic pericellular arrangements of GABA-immunoreactive varicosities. Ultrastructural observations revealed a diffuse immunoreaction product spread over the cytoplasm and the nucleus without specific relationship with the organelles, and immunoreactive aggregates in the cytoplasm. Labeled dendrites often showed enlargements displaying the immunoreaction whereas thinner segments were devoid of it. They received numerous asymmetrical synapses from unlabeled axon terminals. GABA-immunoreactive terminals were filled with small clear vesicles with immunopositive membranes and were observed in symmetrical contact with somata and dendrites. PMID:3512033

  3. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical vectors. PMID:22919677

  4. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows

    PubMed Central

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical vectors. PMID:22919677

  5. Glutamate and GABA in Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Teresa C.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue, and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms. Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle. PMID:23966982

  6. 7-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine: a functionally selective gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) alpha2/alpha3-subtype selective agonist that exhibits potent anxiolytic activity but is not sedating in animal models.

    PubMed

    Carling, Robert W; Madin, Andrew; Guiblin, Alec; Russell, Michael G N; Moore, Kevin W; Mitchinson, Andrew; Sohal, Bindi; Pike, Andrew; Cook, Susan M; Ragan, Ian C; McKernan, Ruth M; Quirk, Kathleen; Ferris, Pushpinder; Marshall, George; Thompson, Sally Ann; Wafford, Keith A; Dawson, Gerard R; Atack, John R; Harrison, Timothy; Castro, Jos L; Street, Leslie J

    2005-11-17

    There is increasing evidence that compounds with selectivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) alpha2- and/or alpha3-subtypes may retain the desirable anxiolytic activity of nonselective benzodiazepines but possess an improved side effect profile. Herein we describe a novel series of GABA(A) alpha2/alpha3 subtype-selective agonists leading to the identification of the development candidate 17, a nonsedating anxiolytic in preclinical animal assays. PMID:16279764

  7. GABA receptors modulate trigeminovascular nociceptive neurotransmission in the trigeminocervical complex.

    PubMed

    Storer, R J; Akerman, S; Goadsby, P J

    2001-10-01

    1. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors involved in craniovascular nociceptive pathways were characterised by in vivo microiontophoresis of GABA receptor agonists and antagonists onto neurones in the trigeminocervical complex of the cat. 2. Extracellular recordings were made from neurones in the trigeminocervical complex activated by supramaximal electrical stimulation of superior sagittal sinus, which were subsequently stimulated with L-glutamate. 3. Cell firing evoked by microiontophoretic application of L-glutamate (n=30) was reversibly inhibited by GABA in every cell tested (n=19), the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (n=10) in all cells tested, or both where tested, but not by iontophoresis of either sodium or chloride ions at comparable ejection currents. Inhibited cells received wide dynamic range (WDR) or nociceptive specific input from cutaneous receptive fields on the face or forepaws. 4. The inhibition of trigeminal neurones by GABA or muscimol could be antagonized by the GABA(A) antagonist N-methylbicuculline, 1(S),9(R) in all but two cells tested (n=16), but not by the GABA(B) antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (n=11). 5. R(-)-baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, inhibited the firing of three out of seven cells activated by L-glutamate. Where tested, this inhibition could be antagonized by 2-hydroxysaclofen. These baclofen-inhibited cells were characterized as having low threshold mechanoreceptor/WDR input. 6. GABA thus appears to modulate nociceptive input to the trigeminocervical complex mainly through GABA(A) receptors. GABA(A) receptors may therefore provide a target for the development of new therapeutic agents for primary headache disorders. PMID:11606331

  8. Neurotoxins from snake venoms and α-conotoxin ImI inhibit functionally active ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Shelukhina, Irina V; Son, Lina V; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Zhmak, Maxim N; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Ivanov, Igor A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Starkov, Vladislav G; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-09-11

    Ionotropic receptors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAAR) regulate neuronal inhibition and are targeted by benzodiazepines and general anesthetics. We show that a fluorescent derivative of α-cobratoxin (α-Ctx), belonging to the family of three-finger toxins from snake venoms, specifically stained the α1β3γ2 receptor; and at 10 μm α-Ctx completely blocked GABA-induced currents in this receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes (IC50 = 236 nm) and less potently inhibited α1β2γ2 ≈ α2β2γ2 > α5β2γ2 > α2β3γ2 and α1β3δ GABAARs. The α1β3γ2 receptor was also inhibited by some other three-finger toxins, long α-neurotoxin Ls III and nonconventional toxin WTX. α-Conotoxin ImI displayed inhibitory activity as well. Electrophysiology experiments showed mixed competitive and noncompetitive α-Ctx action. Fluorescent α-Ctx, however, could be displaced by muscimol indicating that most of the α-Ctx-binding sites overlap with the orthosteric sites at the β/α subunit interface. Modeling and molecular dynamic studies indicated that α-Ctx or α-bungarotoxin seem to interact with GABAAR in a way similar to their interaction with the acetylcholine-binding protein or the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. This was supported by mutagenesis studies and experiments with α-conotoxin ImI and a chimeric Naja oxiana α-neurotoxin indicating that the major role in α-Ctx binding to GABAAR is played by the tip of its central loop II accommodating under loop C of the receptors. PMID:26221036

  9. A mitochondrial GABA permease connects the GABA shunt and the TCA cycle, and is essential for normal carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Simon; Fait, Aaron; Lagor, Kelly; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Grillich, Nicole; Yellin, Ayelet; Bar, Dana; Khan, Munziba; Fernie, Alisdair R; Turano, Frank J; Fromm, Hillel

    2011-08-01

    In plants, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in the cytosol in response to a variety of stresses. GABA is transported into mitochondria, where it is catabolized into TCA cycle or other intermediates. Although there is circumstantial evidence for mitochondrial GABA transporters in eukaryotes, none have yet been identified. Described here is an Arabidopsis protein similar in sequence and topology to unicellular GABA transporters. The expression of this protein complements a GABA-transport-deficient yeast mutant. Thus the protein was termed AtGABP to indicate GABA-permease activity. In vivo localization of GABP fused to GFP and immunobloting of subcellular fractions demonstrate its mitochondrial localization. Direct [(3) H]GABA uptake measurements into isolated mitochondria revealed impaired uptake into mitochondria of a gabp mutant compared with wild-type (WT) mitochondria, implicating AtGABP as a major mitochondrial GABA carrier. Measurements of CO(2) release, derived from radiolabeled substrates in whole seedlings and in isolated mitochondria, demonstrate impaired GABA-derived input into the TCA cycle, and a compensatory increase in TCA cycle activity in gabp mutants. Finally, growth abnormalities of gabp mutants under limited carbon availability on artificial media, and in soil under low light intensity, combined with their metabolite profiles, suggest an important role for AtGABP in primary carbon metabolism and plant growth. Thus, AtGABP-mediated transport of GABA from the cytosol into mitochondria is important to ensure proper GABA-mediated respiration and carbon metabolism. This function is particularly essential for plant growth under conditions of limited carbon. PMID:21501262

  10. GABA selectively increases mucin-1 expression in isolated pig jejunum.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Sponder, Gerhard; Pieper, Robert; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Deiner, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is expressed in the central nervous system and in various other tissues including the intestine. Moreover, GABA can be ingested in vegetarian diets or produced by bacterial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. As previous studies in lung have suggested a link between locally increased GABA availability and mucin 5AC production, the present study sought to test whether the presence or lack of GABA (and its precursor glutamine) has an effect on intestinal mucin expression. Porcine jejunum epithelial preparations were incubated with two different amounts of GABA or glutamine on the mucosal side for 4 h, and changes in the relative gene expression of seven different mucins, enzymes involved in mucin shedding, GABA B receptor, enzymes involved in glutamine/GABA metabolism, glutathione peroxidase 2, and interleukin 10 were examined by quantitative PCR (TaqMan(®) assays). Protein expression of mucin-1 (MUC1) was analyzed by Western blot. On the RNA level, only MUC1 was significantly up-regulated by both GABA concentrations compared with the control. Glutamine-treated groups showed the same trend. On the protein level, all treatment groups showed a significantly higher MUC1 expression than the control group. We conclude that GABA selectively increases the expression of MUC1, a cell surface mucin that prevents the adhesion of microorganisms, because of its size and negative charge, and therefore propose that the well-described positive effects of glutamine on enterocytes and intestinal integrity are partly attributable to effects of its metabolite GABA. PMID:26471792

  11. First molecular genotyping of A302S mutation in the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in Aedes albopictus from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, V L; Vinnie-Siow, W Y; Lim Y, A L; Tan, T K; Leong, C S; Chen, C D; Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2015-09-01

    Given the lack of molecular evidence in altered target-site insecticide resistance mechanism in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) worldwide, the present study aims to detect the presence of A302S mutation in the gene encoding the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor resistant to dieldrin (Rdl) in Ae. albopictus for the first time from its native range of South East Asia, namely Malaysia. World Health Organization (WHO) adult susceptibility bioassay indicated a relatively low level of dieldrin resistance (two-fold) in Ae. albopictus from Petaling Jaya, Selangor. However, PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing methods revealed the presence of the A302S mutation with the predomination of heterozygous genotype (40 out of 82 individuals), followed by the resistant genotype with 11 individuals. This study represents the first field evolved instance of A302S mutation in Malaysian insect species. PMID:26695218

  12. Relative efficacies of 1,4-diazepines on GABA-stimulated chloride influx in rat brain vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masaaki; Weber, K.H.; Bechtel, W.D.; Malatynska, E.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 1,4-diazepines with two annelated heterocycles (brotizolam (WE 941), ciclotizolam (WE 973) and WE 1008) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-stimulated chloride influx into rat brain membrane vesicles were examined. Brotizolam enhanced GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// influx, while ciclotizolam and WE 1008 showed only a small enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// uptake. Brotizolam resulted in a left shift of the GABA dose response curve at lower concentrations of GABA, while at higher concentrations of GABA, brotizolam caused a reduction of the maximal response. The enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// uptake by brotizolam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. At higher concentration of GABA (300 /mu/M), brotizolam inhibited GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// uptake in a dose dependent manner and Ro 15-1788 failed to antagonize this effect.

  13. GABA receptors in brain development, function, and injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Connie; Sun, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS) and its potential connections to pathologies of the CNS. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major neurotransmitter expressed from the embryonic stage and throughout life. At an early developmental stage, GABA acts in an excitatory manner and is implicated in many processes of neurogenesis, including neuronal proliferation, migration, differentiation, and preliminary circuit-building, as well as the development of critical periods. In the mature CNS, GABA acts in an inhibitory manner, a switch mediated by chloride/cation transporter expression and summarized in this review. GABA also plays a role in the development of interstitial neurons of the white matter, as well as in oligodendrocyte development. Although the underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet well understood, we present current findings for the role of GABA in neurological diseases with characteristic white matter abnormalities, including anoxic-ischemic injury, periventricular leukomalacia, and schizophrenia. Development abnormalities of the GABAergic system appear particularly relevant in the etiology of schizophrenia. This review also covers the potential role of GABA in mature brain injury, namely transient ischemia, stroke, and traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:24820774

  14. Free and conjugated GABA in human cerebrospinal fluid: effect of degenerative neurologic diseases and isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Tremblay, R D

    1984-07-30

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured in CSF as such and following acid hydrolysis by the ion-exchange/fluorometric method. The conjugated GABA level was obtained by subtracting the free GABA level from the total GABA level. Results showed that at room temperature, while the free GABA level increased, the level of conjugated GABA decreased in a linear fashion during the first 24 h (r = -0.974; P less than 0.001). Aging and CSF conjugated GABA levels were inversely correlated (r = -0.613; P less than 0.05). Unlike free GABA levels, the levels of conjugated GABA were not altered in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebellar ataxias, dementias, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis compared to controls. In patients with Huntington's disease, on administration of isoniazid at 900 mg/day, along with pyridoxine at 100 mg/day, a 4-fold increase of both free (P less than 0.005) and conjugated GABA (P less than 0.0025) was seen. The results indicate that while total GABAergic peptides are not altered in several of the neurologic diseases studied, drugs such as isoniazid and/or pyridoxine can significantly elevate both free and conjugated GABA levels in human CSF. PMID:6235893

  15. Effects of GABA(B) receptor antagonists on spontaneous and on GABA-induced mechanical activity of guinea-pig smooth muscle preparations.

    PubMed

    Kristev, A D; Getova, D P; Spassov, V A; Turiiski, V I

    2001-11-23

    The majority of GABA(B) receptor antagonists have been based on alterations of the acidic moiety of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or baclofen, such as the first selective antagonist phaclofen. More recently, a new structural class of compounds derived by p-alkyl substitution in the phosphinic analog of GABA, such as CGP35348 (3-amino-propyl-(diethoxymethyl)-phosphinic acid), have been introduced as GABA(B) receptor antagonists. The present study examine the influence of a series of structurally related phosphinic acid analogues on mechanical activity and their effect on GABA-induced reactions in ileal smooth muscle. In our experiments, GABA exerted a biphasic contractile-relaxation effect with pronounced dose-dependent characteristics. 3-[[1-(S)-(3,4-Dihydrophenyl) ethyl]amino]-2-(S)-hydroxy-propyl]-(phenylmethyl)-phosphinic acid hydrochloride (CGP55845A) induced prolonged relaxation without changing the phasic activity of the ileum preparations. [3-[1-R-[[2-(S)-hydroxy-3-[hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl]-methyl]-phosphinyl]-propyl]-aminoethyl]-benzoic acid (CGP62349) did not change the mechanical activity of smooth muscle preparation. Trans 3-[6-[[Cyclo hexylmethyl-hydroxy-phosphinyl]-methyl]-3-morpholinyl]-benzoic acid (CGP71982) itself induced smooth muscle contractions. GABA(B) receptor antagonists decreased concentration-dependently the relaxation phase of the action of GABA from 50% to 90%. Their effect on the contractile phase of the action of GABA was quite different-CGP55845A decreased it dose-dependently, whereas CGP62349 and CGP71982 did not change it significantly. These findings prompted us to assume that the GABA(B) receptor antagonists studied, being phosphinic analogues, probably act on GABA(B) receptors in guinea-pig ileum smooth muscles. PMID:11730727

  16. Regulation of /sup 3/H-dopamine release by presynaptic GABA and glutamate heteroreceptors in rat brain nucleus accumbens synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, G.I.; Hetey, L.

    1987-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was a neurochemical study of the effect of agonists of different types of GABA receptors - muscimol (type A receptor), baclofen (type B receptor), delta-aminolevulinic acid (DALA; GABA autoreceptor), and also of GABA itself - on tritium-labelled dopamine release, stimulated by potassium cations, from synaptosomes of the nuclei accumbenes of the rat brain.

  17. Local GABA Concentration Predicts Perceptual Improvements After Repetitive Sensory Stimulation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Heba, Stefanie; Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Kalisch, Tobias; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Haag, Lauren M.; Lenz, Melanie; Dinse, Hubert R.; Edden, Richard A. E.; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Learning mechanisms are based on synaptic plasticity processes. Numerous studies on synaptic plasticity suggest that the regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a central role maintaining the delicate balance of inhibition and excitation. However, in humans, a link between learning outcome and GABA levels has not been shown so far. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy of GABA prior to and after repetitive tactile stimulation, we show here that baseline GABA+ levels predict changes in perceptual outcome. Although no net changes in GABA+ are observed, the GABA+ concentration prior to intervention explains almost 60% of the variance in learning outcome. Our data suggest that behavioral effects can be predicted by baseline GABA+ levels, which provide new insights into the role of inhibitory mechanisms during perceptual learning. PMID:26637451

  18. GABA(B) receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Claire-Marie; Bettler, Bernhard

    2003-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B)) receptors are broadly expressed in the nervous system and have been implicated in a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. To date the only GABA(B) drug on the market is the agonist baclofen (Lioresal((R))) that is used to treat severe spasticity of cerebral and spinal origin. In addition baclofen is effective in animal models for many central and peripheral disorders, but side-effects and the development of tolerance prohibited a more widespread use of this drug in man. Similarly GABA(B) antagonists show great therapeutic promise but their shortcomings, e.g. the lack of brain penetration or some proconvulsive potential, prevented clinical development. The cloning of GABA(B) receptors in 1997 revived interest in these receptors as drug targets. The long-awaited availability of the tools that were necessary to develop more selective and safer drugs stimulated an impressive activity in the field. The demonstration that GABA(B) receptors needed to heteromerize for function provided new insights into the structure of G-protein coupled receptors in general and enabled to identify allosteric GABA(B) drugs. Gene knockout mice revealed neuronal systems that are under tonic GABA(B) control and therefore best suited for therapeutic intervention. Significant advances were made in clarifying the relationship between GABA(B) receptors and the receptors for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug of abuse. Here we provide and update on the molecular composition, the physiology and the pharmacology of GABA(B) receptors and discuss to what extent our current knowledge influences ongoing and future drug discovery efforts. PMID:12871035

  19. An Electrostatic Funnel in the GABA-Binding Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lightstone, Felice C.

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) is a major inhibitory neuroreceptor that is activated by the binding of GABA. The structure of the GABAA-R is well characterized, and many of the binding site residues have been identified. However, most of these residues are obscured behind the C-loop that acts as a cover to the binding site. Thus, the mechanism by which the GABA molecule recognizes the binding site, and the pathway it takes to enter the binding site are both unclear. Through the completion and detailed analysis of 100 short, unbiased, independent molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated this phenomenon of GABA entering the binding site. In each system, GABA was placed quasi-randomly near the binding site of a GABAA-R homology model, and atomistic simulations were carried out to observe the behavior of the GABA molecules. GABA fully entered the binding site in 19 of the 100 simulations. The pathway taken by these molecules was consistent and non-random; the GABA molecules approach the binding site from below, before passing up behind the C-loop and into the binding site. This binding pathway is driven by long-range electrostatic interactions, whereby the electrostatic field acts as a ‘funnel’ that sweeps the GABA molecules towards the binding site, at which point more specific atomic interactions take over. These findings define a nuanced mechanism whereby the GABAA-R uses the general zwitterionic features of the GABA molecule to identify a potential ligand some 2 nm away from the binding site. PMID:27119953

  20. GABA-A receptors: a viable target for novel anxiolytics?

    PubMed

    Whiting, Paul J

    2006-02-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZ) anxiolytics mediate their clinical effects by enhancing the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA-A receptor. Classical BZ full agonists such as diazepam, which maximally enhance the function of GABA-A receptors, are effective anxiolytics but carry unwanted side effects including sedation, dependence and abuse liability, limiting their utility. Although a second generation of 'partial agonist' BZs have been pursued, promising preclinical data, in terms of anxiolytic efficacy and decreased unwanted effects, have so far failed to translate to the clinic. Following the insights into GABA-A receptor subtypes mediating the effects of BZs, a third generation of 'receptor subtype-selective' BZ site ligands have been developed. However, it remains to be determined whether promising preclinical data are recapitulated in the clinic. PMID:16359919

  1. Alterations of Cortical GABA Neurons and Network Oscillations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Lewis, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that alterations of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are a central element in the pathology of schizophrenia has emerged from a series of postmortem studies. How such abnormalities may contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia has been substantially informed by a convergence with basic neuroscience studies revealing complex details of GABA neuron function in the healthy brain. Importantly, activity of the parvalbumin-containing class of GABA neurons has been linked to the production of cortical network oscillations. Furthermore, growing knowledge supports the concept that γ band oscillations (30–80 Hz) are an essential mechanism for cortical information transmission and processing. Herein we review recent studies further indicating that inhibition from parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons is necessary to produce γ oscillations in cortical circuits; provide an update on postmortem studies documenting that deficits in the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase67, which accounts for most GABA synthesis in the cortex, are widely observed in schizophrenia; and describe studies using novel, noninvasive approaches directly assessing potential relations between alterations in GABA, oscillations, and cognitive function in schizophrenia. PMID:20556669

  2. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  3. GABA synthesis in Schwann cells is induced by the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone.

    PubMed

    Magnaghi, Valerio; Parducz, Arpad; Frasca, Angelisa; Ballabio, Marinella; Procacci, Patrizia; Racagni, Giorgio; Bonanno, Giambattista; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2010-02-01

    Recent evidence showed that neurotransmitters are synthesised in glial cells, such as the Schwann cells, which form myelin sheaths in the PNS. While the presence of GABA type A (GABA-A) receptors has been previously demonstrated in these cells, the evidence of GABA synthesis remained still elusive. In an attempt to demonstrate the presence of GABA in rat Schwann cells, we adopted a strategy, using several integrated neurochemical, molecular as well as immunocytochemical approaches. We first demonstrated the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase of 67 kDa (GAD67) in Schwann cells, a crucial enzyme of the GABA synthesis mechanism. Second, we demonstrated that GABA is synthesized and localized in Schwann cells. As the third step we showed that allopregnanolone (10 nM), a potent allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, stimulates GABA synthesis through increased levels of GAD67 in Schwann cells. Analysis of intracellular signalling mechanisms revealed that the protein kinase A pathway, through enhanced cAMP levels and cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation, modulates the allosteric action of allopregnanolone at the GABA-A receptor in Schwann cells. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that this GABA mechanism is active in Schwann cells thus establishing new potential therapeutic targets to control Schwann cell biology, which may prove useful in the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19943853

  4. Proton modulation of recombinant GABA(A) receptors: influence of GABA concentration and the beta subunit TM2-TM3 domain.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Megan E; Hosie, Alastair M; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-09-01

    Regulation of GABA(A) receptors by extracellular pH exhibits a dependence on the receptor subunit composition. To date, the molecular mechanism responsible for the modulation of GABA(A) receptors at alkaline pH has remained elusive. We report here that the GABA-activated current can be potentiated at pH 8.4 for both alphabeta and alphabeta gamma subunit-containing receptors, but only at GABA concentrations below the EC40. Site-specific mutagenesis revealed that a single lysine residue, K279 in the beta subunit TM2-TM3 linker, was critically important for alkaline pH to modulate the function of both alpha1beta2 and alpha1beta2 gamma2 receptors. The ability of low concentrations of GABA to reveal different pH titration profiles for GABA(A) receptors was also examined at acidic pH. At pH 6.4, GABA activation of alphabeta gamma receptors was enhanced at low GABA concentrations. This effect was ablated by the mutation H267A in the beta subunit. Decreasing the pH further to 5.4 inhibited GABA responses via alphabeta gamma receptors, whereas those responses recorded from alphabeta receptors were potentiated. Inserting homologous beta subunit residues into the gamma2 subunit to recreate, in alphabeta gamma receptors, the proton modulatory profile of alphabeta receptors, established that in the presence of beta2(H267), the mutation gamma2(T294K) was necessary to potentiate the GABA response at pH 5.4. This residue, T294, is homologous to K279 in the beta subunit and suggests that a lysine at this position is an important residue for mediating the allosteric effects of both acidic and alkaline pH changes, rather than forming a direct site for protonation within the GABA(A) receptor. PMID:15946973

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here, we show that GABA co-release in dopamine neurons does not use the conventional GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol (EtOH) at concentrations seen in blood alcohol after binge drinking, and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction. PMID:26430123

  6. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1a1 Mediates a GABA Synthesis Pathway in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X.; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J.; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here we show that GABA corelease in dopamine neurons does not utilize the conventional GABA synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol at binge drinking blood alcohol concentrations and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction. PMID:26430123

  7. Glutamate modulation of GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells of the skate

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Matthew A; Andersen, Kristen A; Malchow, Robert Paul

    2003-01-01

    Transport of the amino acid GABA into neurons and glia plays a key role in regulating the effects of GABA in the vertebrate retina. We have examined the modulation of GABA-elicited transport currents of retinal horizontal cells by glutamate, the likely neurotransmitter of vertebrate photoreceptors. Enzymatically isolated external horizontal cells of skate were examined using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. GABA (1 mm) elicited an inward current that was completely suppressed by the GABA transport inhibitors tiagabine (10 μm) and SKF89976-A (100 μm), but was unaffected by 100 μm picrotoxin. Prior application of 100 μm glutamate significantly reduced the GABA-elicited current. Glutamate depressed the GABA dose-response curve without shifting the curve laterally or altering the voltage dependence of the current. The ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists kainate and AMPA also reduced the GABA-elicited current, and the effects of glutamate and kainate were abolished by the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline. NMDA neither elicited a current nor modified the GABA-induced current, and metabotropic glutamate analogues were also without effect. Inhibition of the GABA-elicited current by glutamate and kainate was reduced when extracellular calcium was removed and when recording pipettes contained high concentrations of the calcium chelator BAPTA. Caffeine (5 mm) and thapsigargin (2 nm), agents known to alter intracellular calcium levels, also reduced the GABA-elicited current, but increases in calcium induced by depolarization alone did not. Our data suggest that glutamate regulates GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells through a calcium-dependent process, and imply a close physical relationship between calcium-permeable glutamate receptors and GABA transporters in these cells. PMID:12562999

  8. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (?)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P < 0.05) and significantly enhancing the sleeping rate induced by sodium pentobarbital at a sub-threshold dose (P < 0.05). But its effect on shortening the sleeping latency period induced by sodium barbital was not significant (P > 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice. PMID:26290415

  9. Sodium-independent, bicuculline-sensitive (/sup 3/H)GABA binding to isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Minuk, G.Y.; Bear, C.E.; Sarjeant, E.J.

    1987-05-01

    To determine whether hepatocytes possess specific receptor sites for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potent amino acid neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)GABA, was added to sodium-free suspensions of Percoll-purified hepatocytes derived from collagenase-perfused rat livers under various experimental conditions and in the presence or absence of specific GABA receptor agonists (muscimol) and antagonists (bicuculline). The effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on hepatocyte resting membrane potentials were also determined. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA to hepatocytes was a consistent finding. GABA-hepatocyte interactions were reversible and temperature dependent. Muscimol and bicuculline inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 30 nM and 50 microM, respectively), whereas strychnine (1.0-100 microM), a nonspecific central nervous system stimulant, had no appreciable effect. Both GABA and muscimol (100 microM) caused significant hyperpolarization of hepatocyte resting membrane potential (delta PD 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 22.2 +/- 16.2 mV, respectively, means +/- SD, P less than 0.0005). Bicuculline (100 microM) inhibited the effect of muscimol (P less than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that specific GABA receptor sites exist on the surface of isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of such sites raises the possibility that, in addition to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation, hepatic function may be influenced by GABA-ergic neurotransmitter mechanisms.

  10. GABA affects novel object recognition memory and working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Thanapreedawat, Panicha; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Inui, Naoto; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Mujo; Yoto, Ai; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid found in unpolished rice, chocolate, tea, and other foods. It is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter. However, the influence of GABA on object recognition and working memory is still unknown. In this study, the effects of GABA on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and working memory were examined. The proper retention interval and delay time were also investigated for the NOR test and T-maze test, respectively. Male 3-wk-old Wistar rats were allowed free access to food and water containing 0.5% GABA or 1% GABA for a month. After that, the rats performed the NOR test at a 48 h retention interval and T-maze test at a 900 s delay time to estimate the effects of GABA on learning behavior. The results showed that the object information in the NOR test was stored as long-term memory and the recognition index (RI) was significantly increased after GABA administration. The accuracy rate also significantly increased after GABA administration. These indicate that GABA may be involved in long-term object recognition memory and working memory. PMID:23727647

  11. Allosteric modulation of GABA(B) receptor function in human frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Ambu, Rossano; Garau, Luciana; Onali, Pierluigi

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of different allosteric modulators on the functional activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors in membranes of post-mortem human frontal cortex were examined. Western blot analysis indicated that the tissue preparations expressed both GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits of the GABA(B) receptor heterodimer. In [35S]-GTPgammaS binding assays, Ca2+ ion (1 mM) enhanced the potency of the agonists GABA and 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (3-APA) and that of the antagonist CGP55845, but not that of the GABA(B) receptor agonist (-)-baclofen. CGP7930 (2,6-di-t-Bu-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol), a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(B) receptors, potentiated both GABA(B) receptor-mediated stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding and inhibition of forskolin (FSK)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Chelation of Ca2+ ion by EGTA reduced the CGP7930 enhancement of GABA potency in stimulating [35S]-GTPgammaS binding by two-fold. Fendiline, also reported to act as a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(B) receptors, failed to enhance GABA stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding but inhibited the potentiating effect of CGP7930. The inhibitory effect was mimicked by the phenothiazine antipsychotic trifluoperazine (TFP), but not by other compounds, such as verapamil or diphenydramine (DPN). These data demonstrate that the function of GABA(B) receptors of human frontal cortex is positively modulated by Ca2+ ion and CGP7930, which interact synergistically. Conversely, fendiline and trifluoperazine negatively affect the allosteric regulation by CGP7930. PMID:15627515

  12. Aberrant control of motoneuronal excitability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: excitatory glutamate/D-serine vs. inhibitory glycine/gamma-aminobutanoic acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Jumpei; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2010-06-01

    The mechanism underlying selective motoneuronal loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains uncertain. The pathogenesis appears to be a complex and multifactorial process. Glutamate excitotoxicity to motoneuron is one of the most intensely investigated targets for the treatment of ALS, and excessive motoneuronal excitation by glutamate through ionotropic glutamate receptors has been mainly demonstrated. However, development of clinically effective drug targeting glutamate is sometimes difficult, because some aspects of glutamergic signals also could be beneficial, as the injured neurons attempt to recruit endogenous recovery. This review is focused on identifying other mechanisms of imbalanced excitation in ALS motoneurons including excitation-modulating D-serine and inhibitory glycine/GABA. Further, validation of these mechanisms might ultimately lead us to new therapeutic targets for ALS. PMID:20564566

  13. Glucose inhibits GABA release by pancreatic beta-cells through an increase in GABA shunt activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Kerckhofs, Karen; Van de Casteele, Mark; Smolders, Ilse; Pipeleers, Daniel; Ling, Zhidong

    2006-03-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is also released by the insulin-producing beta-cells, providing them with a potential paracrine regulator. Because glucose was found to inhibit GABA release, we investigated whether extracellular GABA can serve as a marker for glucose-induced mitochondrial activity and thus for the functional state of beta-cells. GABA release by rat and human beta-cells was shown to reflect net GABA production, varying with the functional state of the cells. Net GABA production is the result of GABA formation through glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and GABA catabolism involving a GABA-transferase (GABA-T)-mediated shunt to the TCA cycle. GABA-T exhibits K(m) values for GABA (1.25 mM) and for alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG; 0.49 mM) that are, respectively, similar to and lower than those in brain. The GABA-T inhibitor gamma-vinyl GABA was used to assess the relative contribution of GABA formation and catabolism to net production and release. The nutrient status of the beta-cells was found to regulate both processes. Glutamine dose-dependently increased GAD-mediated formation of GABA, whereas glucose metabolism shunts part of this GABA to mitochondrial catabolism, involving alpha-KG-induced activation of GABA-T. In absence of extracellular glutamine, glucose also contributed to GABA formation through aminotransferase generation of glutamate from alpha-KG; this stimulatory effect increased GABA release only when GABA-T activity was suppressed. We conclude that GABA release from beta-cells is regulated by glutamine and glucose. Glucose inhibits glutamine-driven GABA formation and release through increasing GABA-T shunt activity by its cellular metabolism. Our data indicate that GABA release by beta-cells can be used to monitor their metabolic responsiveness to glucose irrespective of their insulin-secretory activity. PMID:16249254

  14. Conformationally sensitive proximity of extracellular loops 2 and 4 of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-1 inferred from paired cysteine mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hilwi, Maram; Dayan, Oshrat; Kanner, Baruch I

    2014-12-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled GABA transporter GAT-1 is a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium:symporters, which are crucial for synaptic transmission. Structural work on the bacterial homologue LeuT suggests that extracellular loop 4 closes the extracellular solvent pathway when the transporter becomes inward-facing. To test whether this model can be extrapolated to GAT-1, cysteine residues were introduced at positions 359 and 448 of extracellular loop 4 and transmembrane helix 10, respectively. Treatment of HeLa cells, expressing the double cysteine mutant S359C/K448C with the oxidizing reagent copper(II)(1,10-phenantroline)3, resulted in a significant inhibition of [(3)H]GABA transport. However, transport by the single cysteine mutant S359C was also inhibited by the oxidant, whereas its activity was almost 4-fold stimulated by dithiothreitol. Both effects were attenuated when the conserved cysteine residues, Cys-164 and/or Cys-173, were replaced by serine. These cysteines are located in extracellular loop 2, the role of which in the structure and function of the eukaryotic neurotransmitter:sodium:symporters remains unknown. The inhibition of transport of S359C by the oxidant was markedly reduced under conditions expected to increase the proportion of inward-facing transporters, whereas the reactivity of the mutants to a membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl reagent was not conformationally sensitive. Our data suggest that extracellular loops 2 and 4 come into close proximity to each other in the outward-facing conformation of GAT-1. PMID:25339171

  15. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, 2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall

  16. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  17. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use of safe and effective pest control agents. PMID:26047108

  18. Endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor active neurosteroids and the sedative/hypnotic action of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): a study in GHB-S (sensitive) and GHB-R (resistant) rat lines.

    PubMed

    Barbaccia, Maria Luisa; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Purdy, Robert H; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2005-07-01

    In the rat brain, gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid (GHB) increases the concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy,5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone, 3alpha,5alpha-THP) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy,5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone/3alpha,5alphaTHDOC), two neurosteroids acting as positive allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. This study was aimed at assessing whether neurosteroids play a role in GHB-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR). Basal and GHB-stimulated brain concentrations of endogenous 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC were analyzed in two rat lines, GHB-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R), selectively bred for opposite sensitivity to GHB-induced sedation/hypnosis. Basal neurosteroid concentrations were similar in brain cortex of the two rat lines. However, in male GHB-S rats, administration of GHB (1000 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min) increased brain cortical concentrations of 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC 7- and 2.5-fold, respectively, whilst male GHB-R animals displayed only a 4- and 2-fold increase, respectively. In GHB-S rats this increase lasted up to 90 min and declined 180 min following GHB administration, a time course that matches LORR onset and duration. In contrast, in GHB-R rats, which failed to show GHB-induced LORR, brain cortical 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC had returned to control values within 90 min. At onset of LORR, a similar increase in brain cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC (2-3-fold) was observed in GHB-S female rats and in the few female GHB-R rats that lost the righting reflex after GHB administration, but not in female GHB-R rats failing to show LORR. Sub-hypnotic doses (7.5 and 12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) of pregnanolone, administered 10 min before GHB, dose-dependently facilitated the expression of GHB-induced LORR in GHB-R male rats. These results suggest that the GHB-induced increases of brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC concentrations are implicated in the eliciting of the sedative/hypnotic action of GHB. PMID:15992580

  19. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1181-1192, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26355705

  20. Proline antagonizes GABA-induced quenching of quorum-sensing in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Haudecoeur, E; Planamente, S; Cirou, A; Tannières, M; Shelp, B J; Moréra, S; Faure, D

    2009-08-25

    Plants accumulate free L-proline (Pro) in response to abiotic stresses (drought and salinity) and presence of bacterial pathogens, including the tumor-inducing bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, the function of Pro accumulation in host-pathogen interaction is still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that Pro antagonizes plant GABA-defense in the A. tumefaciens C58-induced tumor by interfering with the import of GABA and consequently the GABA-induced degradation of the bacterial quorum-sensing signal, 3-oxo-octanoylhomoserine lactone. We identified a bacterial receptor Atu2422, which is implicated in the uptake of GABA and Pro, suggesting that Pro acts as a natural antagonist of GABA-signaling. The Atu2422 amino acid sequence contains a Venus flytrap domain that is required for trapping GABA in human GABA(B) receptors. A constructed atu2422 mutant was more virulent than the wild type bacterium; moreover, transgenic plants with a low level of Pro exhibited less severe tumor symptoms than did their wild-type parents, revealing a crucial role for Venus flytrap GABA-receptor and relative abundance of GABA and Pro in host-pathogen interaction. PMID:19706545

  1. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA. PMID:26500584

  2. Focal uncaging of GABA reveals a temporally defined role for GABAergic inhibition during appetitive associative olfactory conditioning in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Davide; Mueller, Uli

    2013-08-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key modulator of physiological processes including learning. With respect to associative learning, the exact time in which GABA interferes with the molecular events of learning has not yet been clearly defined. To address this issue, we used two different approaches to activate GABA receptors during appetitive olfactory conditioning in the honeybee. Injection of GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol 20 min before but not 20 min after associative conditioning affects memory performance. These memory deficits were attenuated by additional training sessions. Muscimol has no effect on sensory perception, odor generalization, and nonassociative learning, indicating a specific role of GABA during associative conditioning. We used photolytic uncaging of GABA to identify the GABA-sensitive time window during the short pairing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) that lasts only seconds. Either uncaging of GABA in the antennal lobes or the mushroom bodies during the CS presentation of the CS-US pairing impairs memory formation, while uncaging GABA during the US phase has no effect on memory. Uncaging GABA during the CS presentation in memory retrieval also has no effect. Thus, in honeybee appetitive olfactory learning GABA specifically interferes with the integration of CS and US during associative conditioning and exerts a modulatory role in memory formation depending on the training strength. PMID:23860600

  3. Amiloride and GMQ Allosteric Modulation of the GABA-A ρ1 Receptor: Influences of the Intersubunit Site.

    PubMed

    Snell, Heather D; Gonzales, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Amiloride, a diuretic used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, and 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) are guanidine compounds that modulate acid-sensing ion channels. Both compounds have demonstrated affinity for a variety of membrane proteins, including members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, such as the heteromeric GABA-A αβγ receptors. The actions of these guanidine compounds on the homomeric GABA-A ρ1 receptor remains unclear, especially in light of how many GABA-A αβγ receptor modulators have different effects in the GABA-A ρ1 receptors. We sought to characterize the influence of amiloride and GMQ on the human GABA-A ρ1 receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The diuretic amiloride potentiated the human GABA-A ρ1 GABA-mediated current, whereas GMQ antagonized the receptor. Furthermore, a GABA-A second transmembrane domain site, the intersubunit site, responsible for allosteric modulation in the heteromeric GABA-A receptors mediated amiloride's positive allosteric actions. In contrast, the mutation did not remove GMQ antagonism but only changed the guanidine compound's potency within the human GABA-A ρ1 receptor. Through modeling and introduction of point mutations, we propose that the GABA-A ρ1 intersubunit site plays a role in mediating the allosteric effects of amiloride and GMQ. PMID:25829529

  4. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance. PMID:26388884

  5. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.; Beadle, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (( 35S)TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of (35S)TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 {plus minus} 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 {plus minus} 40 fmol/mg protein. (35S)TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of (35S)TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on (35S)TBPS binding. These results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current.

  6. GABA-mediated synchronous potentials and seizure generation.

    PubMed

    Avoli, M

    1996-11-01

    This article summarizes findings related to a synchronous, GABA-mediated potential that may contribute to the initiation and spread of epileptiform discharges within the brain. This phenomenon is observed in cortical structures such as the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, and the neocortex during application of low concentrations of 4-aminopyridine and is characterized at the intracellular level by a long-lasting membrane depolarization. The synchronous, GABA-mediated potential continues to occur after blockade of excitatory synaptic transmission and relays on the synchronous firing of inhibitory interneurons and consequent activation of postsynaptic (mainly type A) GABA receptors leading to a transient elevation of [K+]O. Studies performed in young rat hippocampus indicate that the synchronous, GABA-mediated potential may play a role in initiating ictal discharges under normal conditions (i.e., when excitatory amino acid receptors are operant). Moreover, a similar phenomenon may also occur in adult rat entorhinal cortex. These findings therefore indicate a novel role that is played by GABAA receptors in limbic structures. The ability of this synchronous GABA-mediated potential to propagate in the absence of excitatory synaptic transmission may also be relevant for the propagation of synchronous activity outside conventional neuronal-synapse dependent pathways. This condition may occur in brain structures with neuronal loss and consequent disruption of normal excitatory synaptic connections such as mesial limbic structures of temporal lobe epilepsy patients with Ammon's horn sclerosis. PMID:8917052

  7. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  8. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A.; Ryan, Peter R.; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  9. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sandra S.; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W.; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  10. GABA Accumulation Causes Cell Elongation Defects and a Decrease in Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted and Cell Wall-Related Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Hugues; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Updegraff, Emily P.; Yu, Agnès; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Preuss, Daphne; Bouchereau, Alain; Deleu, Carole

    2011-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, is a signaling factor in many organisms. In plants, GABA is known to accumulate under a variety of stresses. However, the consequence of GABA accumulation, especially in vegetative tissues, remains poorly understood. Moreover, gene expression changes as a consequence of GABA accumulation in plants are largely unknown. The pop2 mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism and accumulates GABA, is a good model to examine the effects of GABA accumulation on plant development. Here, we show that the pop2 mutants have pollen tube elongation defects in the transmitting tract of pistils. Additionally, we observed growth inhibition of primary root and dark-grown hypocotyl, at least in part due to cell elongation defects, upon exposure to exogenous GABA. Microarray analysis of pop2-1 seedlings grown in GABA-supplemented medium revealed that 60% of genes whose expression decreased encode secreted proteins. Besides, functional classification of genes with decreased expression in the pop2-1 mutant showed that cell wall-related genes were significantly enriched in the microarray data set, consistent with the cell elongation defects observed in pop2 mutants. Our study identifies cell elongation defects caused by GABA accumulation in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. Additionally, our results show that genes that encode secreted and cell wall-related proteins may mediate some of the effects of GABA accumulation. The potential function of GABA as a growth control factor under stressful conditions is discussed. PMID:21471118

  11. GABA uptake-dependent Ca2+ signaling in developing olfactory bulb astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Doengi, Michael; Hirnet, Daniela; Coulon, Philippe; Pape, Hans-Christian; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Lohr, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We studied GABAergic signaling in astrocytes of olfactory bulb slices using confocal Ca2+ imaging and two-photon Na+ imaging. GABA evoked Ca2+ transients in astrocytes that persisted in the presence of GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists, but were suppressed by inhibition of GABA uptake by SNAP 5114. Withdrawal of external Ca2+ blocked GABA-induced Ca2+ transients, and depletion of Ca2+ stores with cyclopiazonic acid reduced Ca2+ transients by approximately 90%. This indicates that the Ca2+ transients depend on external Ca2+, but are mainly mediated by intracellular Ca2+ release, conforming with Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. Inhibition of ryanodine receptors did not affect GABA-induced Ca2+ transients, whereas the InsP3 receptor blocker 2-APB inhibited the Ca2+ transients. GABA also induced Na+ increases in astrocytes, potentially reducing Na+/Ca2+ exchange. To test whether reduction of Na+/Ca2+ exchange induces Ca2+ signaling, we inhibited Na+/Ca2+ exchange with KB-R7943, which mimicked GABA-induced Ca2+ transients. Endogenous GABA release from neurons, activated by stimulation of afferent axons or NMDA application, also triggered Ca2+ transients in astrocytes. The significance of GABAergic Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes for control of blood flow is demonstrated by SNAP 5114-sensitive constriction of blood vessels accompanying GABA uptake. The results suggest that GABAergic signaling is composed of GABA uptake-mediated Na+ rises that reduce Na+/Ca2+ exchange, thereby leading to a Ca2+ increase sufficient to trigger Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release via InsP3 receptors. Hence, GABA transporters not only remove GABA from the extracellular space, but may also contribute to intracellular signaling and astrocyte function, such as control of blood flow. PMID:19805126

  12. Excitatory Synaptic Responses Mediated by GABA_A Receptors in the Hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Hillary B.; Wong, Robert K. S.

    1991-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex. Activation of postsynaptic GABA_A receptors hyperpolarizes cells and inhibits neuronal activity. Synaptic responses mediated by GABA_A receptors also strongly excited hippocampal neurons. This excitatory response was recorded in morphologically identified interneurons in the presence of 4-aminopyridine or after elevation of extracellular potassium concentrations. The synaptic excitation sustained by GABA_A receptors synchronized the activity of inhibitory interneurons. This synchronized discharge of interneurons in turn elicited large-amplitude inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in pyramidal and granule cells. Excitatory synaptic responses mediated by GABA_A receptors may thus provide a mechanism for the recruitment of GABAergic interneurons through their recurrent connections.

  13. Pharmacological modulation of brain levels of glutamate and GABA in rats exposed to total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate by selected antidepressants and anticonvulsants could play a beneficial role in total sleep deprivation (TSD) caused by depressed mood. In the present study, albino rats were exposed to TSD for five days. On the sixth day, the brains were removed, and GABA and glutamate levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex and thalamus to identify TSD-induced changes in untreated rats and in rats treated with carbamazepine 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP), fluoxetine 20 mg/kg IP, or desipramine 10 mg/kg IP. Carbamazepine and fluoxetine significantly increased GABA and reduced glutamate levels in both brain areas. Desipramine administration did not affect GABA or glutamate concentrations in the tested brain areas; levels were comparable with those induced by TSD without treatment. These results suggest that administration of carbamazepine or fluoxetine could have a beneficial effect by increasing GABA levels during TSD.

  14. Segregation of Acetylcholine and GABA in the Rat Superior Cervical Ganglia: Functional Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Elinos, Diana; Rodríguez, Raúl; Martínez, Luis Andres; Zetina, María Elena; Cifuentes, Fredy; Morales, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons have the capability to segregate their neurotransmitters (NTs) and co-transmitters to separate varicosities of single axons; furthermore, in culture, these neurons can even segregate classical transmitters. In vivo sympathetic neurons employ acetylcholine (ACh) and other classical NTs such as gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Herein, we explore whether these neurons in vivo segregate these classical NTs in the superior cervical ganglia of the rat. We determined the topographical distribution of GABAergic varicosities, somatic GABAA receptor, as well as the regional distribution of the segregation of ACh and GABA. We evaluated possible regional differences in efficacy of ganglionic synaptic transmission, in the sensitivity of GABAA receptor to GABA and to the competitive antagonist picrotoxin (PTX). We found that sympathetic preganglionic neurons in vivo do segregate ACh and GABA. GABAergic varicosities and GABAA receptor expression showed a rostro-caudal gradient along ganglia; in contrast, segregation exhibited a caudo-rostral gradient. These uneven regional distributions in expression of GABA, GABAA receptors, and level of segregation correlate with stronger synaptic transmission found in the caudal region. Accordingly, GABAA receptors of rostral region showed larger sensitivity to GABA and PTX. These results suggest the presence of different types of GABAA receptors in each region that result in a different regional levels of endogenous GABA inhibition. Finally, we discuss a possible correlation of these different levels of GABA modulation and the function of the target organs innervated by rostral and caudal ganglionic neurons. PMID:27092054

  15. Temperature dependence and GABA modulation of (TH)triazolam binding in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, M.E.; Concas, A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    The hypnotic triazolam (TZ), a triazolobenzodiazepine displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) effect of (TH)TZ binding in the rat brain. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity with increasing temperatures (K/sub d/ = 0.27 +/- 08 nM at 0C; K/sub d/ = 1.96 +/- 0.85 nM at 37C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1220 +/- 176 fmoles/mg protein at 0C and 1160 +/- 383 fmoles/mg protein at 37C). Saturation studies of (TH)TZ binding in the presence or absence of GABA (100 M) showed a GABA-shift. At 0C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.16 +/- 0.04/+GABA) and at 37C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 1.84 +/- 0.44 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.95 +/- 0.29 nM/+GABA). In contrast to reported literature, the authors findings show that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors with a temperature dependence and GABA-shift consistent with predicted behavior for benzodiazepine agonists. 20 references, 3 tables.

  16. GABA Concentration in Posterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Putamen Response during Resting State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Arrubla, Jorge; Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Amkreutz, Christin; Neuner, Irene; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    The role of neurotransmitters in the activity of resting state networks has been gaining attention and has become a field of research with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) being one of the key techniques. MRS permits the measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate levels, the central biochemical constituents of the excitation-inhibition balance in vivo. The inhibitory effects of GABA in the brain have been largely investigated in relation to the activity of resting state networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this study GABA concentration in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was measured using single voxel spectra acquired with standard point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) from 20 healthy male volunteers at 3 T. Resting state fMRI was consecutively measured and the values of GABA/Creatine+Phosphocreatine ratio (GABA ratio) were included in a general linear model matrix as a step of dual regression analysis in order to identify voxels whose neuroimaging metrics during rest were related to individual levels of the GABA ratio. Our data show that the connection strength of putamen to the default-mode network during resting state has a negative linear relationship with the GABA ratio measured in the PCC. These findings highlight the role of PCC and GABA in segregation of the motor input, which is an inherent condition that characterises resting state. PMID:25184505

  17. Anterior Insula GABA Levels Correlate with Emotional Aspects of Empathy: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Luguang; Zheng, Li; Guo, Xiuyan; Li, Jianqi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empathy is a multidimensional construct referring to the capacity to understand and share the emotional and affective states of another person. Cerebral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic levels are associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the role of the GABA system in different dimensions of empathy has not been investigated. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed healthy volunteers took part in this study. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine GABA concentrations in the anterior insula (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and to examine the relationship between the GABA concentrations and the subcomponents of empathy evaluated by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Result: Pearson correlation analyses (two-tailed) showed that AI GABA was significantly associated with the empathy concern score (r = 0.584, p<0.05) and the personal distress score (r = 0.538, p<0.05) but not significantly associated with other empathy subscales. No significant correlation was found between ACC GABA and empathy subscores. Conclusion: Left AI GABA was positively correlated with the emotional aspects of empathy. These preliminary findings call into question whether AI GABA alterations might predict empathy dysfunction in major psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which have been described as deficits in emotional empathic abilities. PMID:25419976

  18. Effect of GABA, a bacterial metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens surface properties and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dagorn, Audrey; Chapalain, Annelise; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Chevalier, Sylvie; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37) to GABA (10-5 M) increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial) cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains. PMID:23743829

  19. Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dagorn, Audrey; Chapalain, Annelise; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Chevalier, Sylvie; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37) to GABA (10−5 M) increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial) cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains. PMID:23743829

  20. The effect of GABA receptor ligands in experimental spina bifida occulta

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology behind spina bifida and other neural tube defects (NTDs) is unclear. Folic acid is one variable, but other factors remain. Studies suggest that substances active at the GABA receptor may produce NTDs. To test this hypothesis pregnant rats were exposed to either the GABA a agonist muscimol (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg), the GABA a antagonist bicuculline (.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), the GABA b agonist baclofen (15, 30, 60 mg/kg), or the GABA b antagonist hydroxysaclofen (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) during neural tube formation. Normal saline was used as a control and valproic acid (600 mg/kg) as a positive control. The embryos were analyzed for the presence of a spina bifida like NTD. Results After drug administration the pregnancies were allowed to proceed to the 21st day of gestation. Then embryos were removed and skeletons staining and cleared. Vertebral arch closure was measured. Results indicate that the GABAa receptor agonist muscimol, the GABAa receptor antagonist bicuculline, and the GABAb agonist baclofen produced NTDs characterized by widening of the vertebral arch. Oppositely the GABAb antagonist hydroxysaclofen produced narrowing of the vertebral arches. Conclusions The findings indicate that GABA a or b ligands are capable of altering neural formation. GABA may play a greater than appreciated role in neural tube formation and may be important in NTDs. The narrowing of the vertebral arch produced by the GABA b antagonist hydroxysalcofen suggests that GABA b receptor may play an undefined role in neural tube closure that differs from the GABA a receptor. PMID:11532198

  1. GABA-shunt enzymes activity in GH3 cells with reduced level of PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoform

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Antoni

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Suppression of PMCA2 or PMCA3 slows down proliferation of GH3 cells. {yields} PMCA2 suppression lowers the activity of GABA-shunt enzymes. {yields} PMCA3 suppression increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65. {yields} PMCA2 and PMCA3 function appears to be linked to regulation of GABA metabolism. -- Abstract: GABA ({gamma}-aminobutyric acid) is important neurotransmitter and regulator of endocrine functions. Its metabolism involves three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67), GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). As many cellular processes GABA turnover can depend on calcium homeostasis, which is maintained by plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs). In excitable cells PMCA2 and PMCA3 isoforms are particularly important. In this study we focused on GABA-metabolizing enzymes expression and activity in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells with suppressed expression of PMCA2 or PMCA3. We observed that PMCA3-reduced cells have increased GAD65 expression. Suppression of PMCA2 caused a decrease in total GAD and GABA-T activity. These results indicate that PMCA2 and PMCA3 presence may be an important regulatory factor in GABA metabolism. Results suggest that PMCA2 and PMCA3 function is rather related to regulation of GABA synthesis and degradation than supplying cells with metabolites, which can be potentially energetic source.

  2. Neurosteroid binding sites on GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Alastair M; Wilkins, Megan E; Smart, Trevor G

    2007-10-01

    Controlling neuronal excitability is vitally important for maintaining a healthy central nervous system (CNS) and this relies on the activity of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) neurotransmitter receptors. Given this role, it is therefore important to understand how these receptors are regulated by endogenous modulators in the brain and determine where they bind to the receptor. One of the most potent groups of modulators is the neurosteroids which regulate the activity of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. This level of regulation is thought to be physiologically important and its dysfunction may be relevant to numerous neurological conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise those studies that over the last 20 years have focussed upon finding the binding sites for neurosteroids on GABA(A) receptors. We consider the nature of steroid binding sites in other proteins where this has been determined at atomic resolution and how their generic features were mapped onto GABA(A) receptors to help locate 2 putative steroid binding sites. Altogether, the findings strongly suggest that neurosteroids do bind to discrete sites on the GABA(A) receptor and that these are located within the transmembrane domains of alpha and beta receptor subunits. The implications for neurosteroid binding to other inhibitory receptors such as glycine and GABA(C) receptors are also considered. Identifying neurosteroid binding sites may enable the precise pathophysiological role(s) of neurosteroids in the CNS to be established for the first time, as well as providing opportunities for the design of novel drug entities. PMID:17560657

  3. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are

  4. Focal Uncaging of GABA Reveals a Temporally Defined Role for GABAergic Inhibition during Appetitive Associative Olfactory Conditioning in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raccuglia, Davide; Mueller, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key modulator of physiological processes including learning. With respect to associative learning, the exact time in which GABA interferes with the molecular events of learning has not yet been clearly defined. To address this issue, we used two…

  5. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  6. GABA System in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders: A Mini Review on Third-Generation Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation neuroimaging research has been enriched by advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measuring the concentration of important neurotrasmitters, such as the inhibitory amino acid GABA. Here, we performed a systematic mini-review on brain MRS studies measuring GABA concentration in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). We wondered whether multimodal investigations could overcome intrinsic technical limits of MRS giving a broader view of mental disorders pathogenesis. In SZ, unimodal studies gave mixed results, as increased, decreased, or unaltered GABA levels were reported depending on region, disease phase, and treatment. Conversely, multimodal results showed reduced level of glutamate, but not of GABA, in patients mirrored by in vitro biochemical findings revealing hippocampal reduction in glutamate signaling in SZ, and no deficits in GABA synthesis. Moreover, a mouse model confirmed the unique pathological characteristic of glutamate function in SZ. Unimodal studies in BD revealed again, inconsistent results, while no multimodal investigations including MRS on GABA exist. In MDD, unimodal studies could not differentiate patients from controls nor characterize high-risk subjects and remitted patients. However, a multimodal study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and MRS revealed that cingulate cortex activity is related to glutamate, N-acetylaspartate levels and anhedonia in patients, and to GABA concentration in healthy subjects, improving the distinction between MDD and physiology. Overall, our results show that unimodal studies do not indicate GABA as a biomarker for the psychiatric disorders considered. Conversely, multimodal studies can widen the understanding of the link between psychopathology, genetics, neuroanatomy, and functional–biochemical brain activity in mental disorders. Although scarce, multimodal approaches seem promising for moving from GABA MRS unimodal-descriptive to causal level, and for integrating GABA results into a more comprehensive interpretation of mental disorder pathophysiology. PMID:27148090

  7. Medial frontal GABA is lower in older schizophrenia: a MEGA-PRESS with macromolecule suppression study.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L M; Krause, B W; Wijtenburg, S A; McMahon, R P; Chiappelli, J; Nugent, K L; Nisonger, S J; Korenic, S A; Kochunov, P; Hong, L E

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-butyric acid (GABA) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its cognitive deficits. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that older participants with schizophrenia have lower anterior cingulate GABA levels compared with older control participants. One-hundred forty-five participants completed this study. For detection of GABA, spectra were acquired from the medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex using a macromolecule-suppressed MEGA-PRESS sequence. Patients were evaluated for psychopathology and all participants completed neuropsychological tests of working memory, processing speed and functional capacity. GABA levels were significantly lower in the older participants with schizophrenia (n=31) compared with the older control (n=37) group (P=0.003) but not between the younger control (n=40) and schizophrenia (n=29) groups (P=0.994). Age strongly predicted GABA levels in the schizophrenia group accounting for 42% of the variance, but the effect of age was less in the control group accounting for 5.7% of the variance. GABA levels were specifically related to working memory but not processing speed performance, functional capacity, or positive or negative symptom severity. This is the largest MRS study of GABA in schizophrenia and the first to examine GABA without macromolecule contamination, a potentially significant issue in previous studies. GABA levels more rapidly declined with advancing age in the schizophrenia compared with the control group. Interventions targeted at halting the decline or increasing GABA levels may improve functional outcomes and quality of life as patients with schizophrenia age. PMID:25824298

  8. Calcium-independent GABA release from striatal slices: the role of calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Bernath, S; Zigmond, M J

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the role of Ca2+ and Ca2+ channels in the modulation of GABA release. Brain slices prepared from rat striatum were preincubated with [3H]GABA, superfused with Krebs bicarbonate buffer, and exposed to electrical field stimulation (2 Hz for 3 min). Tritium efflux was measured as an index of GABA release. Both resting and evoked efflux were greatly accelerated by deleting Ca2+ from the medium and adding EGTA (1 mM). However, when the concentration of Mg2+ in the buffer was elevated to 10 mM, no effect of the Ca2(+)-deficiency was observed on resting release and its impact on evoked overflow was diminished. Moreover, addition of verapamil (10 microM), a Ca2+ channel blocking agent, reduced evoked overflow even in the absence of external Ca2+, while 4-aminopyridine (10 microM), a K+ channel inhibitor, enhanced GABA efflux in normal buffer but had no effect in the absence of Ca2+. Finally, we have shown previously that nipecotic acid, an inhibitor of high affinity GABA transport, increases GABA overflow in normal buffer, but blocks it in Ca2(+)-free buffer. Collectively, these results suggest that Ca2+ channels may play two roles in the regulation of depolarization-induced GABA release. Firstly, these channels permit a depolarization-induced influx of Ca2+ which then promotes GABA release. In addition, these channels influence GABA release through a mechanism that does not involve external Ca2+. Although the precise nature of this latter involvement is unclear, we propose that the Ca2+ channels serve to permit an influx of Na+, which in turn promotes Ca2(+)-independent release through an influence on the high affinity GABA transport system. PMID:2172861

  9. Activity-mediated plasticity of GABA equilibrium potential in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Tadavarty, R; Xu, J-Y; Sastry, B R

    2010-01-01

    The equilibrium potential (E(GABA)(-PSC)) for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons shifts when theta-burst stimulation (four pulses at 100 Hz in each burst in a train consisting of five bursts with an inter-burst interval of 200 ms, the train repeated thrice at 30-s intervals) is applied to the input. E(GABA)(-PSC) is regulated by K(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2). GABA(B) receptors are implicated in modulating KCC2 levels. In the current study, the involvement of KCC2, as well as GABA(B) receptors, in theta-burst-mediated shifts in E(GABA)(-PSC) was examined. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (from 9 to 12 days old rats), in a slice preparation. Glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents were blocked with dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (50 microM) and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (20 microM). The PSC and the E(GABA)(-PSC) were stable when stimulated at 0.05 Hz. However, both changed following a 30-min stimulation at 0.5 or 1 Hz. Furosemide (500 microM) and KCC2 anti-sense in the recording pipette but not bumetanide (20 or 100 microM) or KCC2 sense, blocked the changes, suggesting KCC2 involvement. Theta-burst stimulation induced a negative shift in E(GABA)(-PSC), which was prevented by KCC2 anti-sense; however, KCC2 sense had no effect. CGP55845 (2 microM), a GABA(B) antagonist, applied in the superfusing medium, or GDP-beta-S in the recording pipette, blocked the shift in E(GABA)(-PSC). These results indicate that activity-mediated plasticity in E(GABA)(-PSC) occurs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and theta-burst-induced negative shift in E(GABA)(-PSC) requires KCC2, GABA(B) receptors and G-protein activation. PMID:19879261

  10. Manganese exposure alters extracellular GABA, GABA receptor and transporter protein and mRNA levels in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joel G.; Fordahl, Steve C.; Cooney, Paula T.; Weaver, Tara L.; Colyer, Christa L.; Erikson, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other essential trace elements (e.g., zinc and iron) it is the toxicity of manganese (Mn) that is more common in human populations than its deficiency. Data suggest alterations in dopamine biology may drive the effects associated with Mn neurotoxicity, though recently γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated. In addition, iron deficiency (ID), a common nutritional problem, may cause disturbances in neurochemistry by facilitating accumulation of Mn in the brain. Previous data from our lab have shown decreased brain tissue levels of GABA as well as decreased 3H-GABA uptake in synaptosomes as a result of Mn exposure and ID. These results indicate a possible increase in the concentration of extracellular GABA due to alterations in expression of GABA transport and receptor proteins. In this study weanling-male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly placed into one of four dietary treatment groups: control (CN; 35 mg Fe/kg diet), iron-deficient (ID; 6 mg Fe/kg diet), CN with Mn supplementation (via the drinking water; 1 g Mn/L) (CNMn), and ID with Mn supplementation (IDMn). Using in vivo microdialysis, an increase in extracellular GABA concentrations in the striatum was observed in response to Mn exposure and ID although correlational analysis reveals that extracellular GABA is related more to extracellular iron levels and not Mn. A diverse effect of Mn exposure and ID was observed in the regions examined via Western blot and RT-PCR analysis, with effects on mRNA and protein expression of GAT-1, GABAA, and GABAB differing between and within the regions examined. For example, Mn exposure reduced GAT-1 protein expression by approximately 50% in the substantia nigra, while increasing mRNA expression approximately four-fold, while in the caudate putamen mRNA expression was decreased with no effect on protein expression. These data suggest that Mn exposure results in an increase in extracellular GABA concentrations via altered expression of transport and receptor proteins, which may be the basis of the neurological characteristics of manganism. PMID:18771689

  11. Ionotropic GABA Receptors and Distal Retinal ON and OFF Responses

    PubMed Central

    Popova, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, visual signals are segregated into parallel ON and OFF pathways, which provide information for light increments and decrements. The segregation is first evident at the level of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in distal retina. The activity of large populations of ON and OFF bipolar cells is reflected in the b- and d-waves of the diffuse electroretinogram (ERG). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through ionotropic GABA receptors in shaping the ON and OFF responses in distal retina, is a matter of debate. This review summarized current knowledge about the types of the GABAergic neurons and ionotropic GABA receptors in the retina as well as the effects of GABA and specific GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonists on the activity of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in both nonmammalian and mammalian retina. Special emphasis is put on the effects on b- and d-waves of the ERG as a useful tool for assessment of the overall function of distal retinal ON and OFF channels. The role of GABAergic system in establishing the ON-OFF asymmetry concerning the time course and absolute and relative sensitivity of the ERG responses under different conditions of light adaptation in amphibian retina is also discussed. PMID:25143858

  12. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/sub A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki; Yoshida, Ryo; Ohta, Shinji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields}We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. {yields} Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. {yields} Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. {yields} Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. {yields} Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The {Delta}uga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for {Delta}uga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan extension. These results strongly suggest reduced activity of the GABA-metabolizing enzymes extends lifespan by shifting carbon metabolism toward respiration, as calorie restriction does.

  14. Release of GABA from sensory neurons transduced with a GAD67-expressing vector occurs by non-vesicular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Tai, Changfeng; de Groat, William C; Peng, Xiang-min; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

    2006-02-16

    We have demonstrated that dorsal root ganglion neurons transduced with a recombinant replication-defective herpes simplex virus vector coding for glutamic acid decarboxylase (QHGAD67) release GABA to produce an analgesic effect in rodent models of pain. In this study, we examined the mechanism of transgene-mediated GABA release from dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro and in vivo. Release of GABA from dorsal root ganglion neurons transduced with QHGAD67 was not increased by membrane depolarization induced by 60 mM extracellular K+ nor reduced by the removal of Ca2+ from the medium. Release of GABA from transduced dorsal root ganglion neurons was, however, blocked in a dose-dependent manner by NO-711, a selective inhibitor of the GABA transporter-1. The amount of GABA released from a spinal cord slice preparation, prepared from animals transduced by subcutaneous inoculation of QHGAD67 in the hind paws, was substantially increased compared to animals transduced with control vector Q0ZHG or normal animals, but the amount of GABA released was not changed by stimulation of the dorsal roots at either low (0.1 mA, 0.5-ms duration) or high (10 mA, 0.5-ms duration) intensity. We conclude that QHGAD67-mediated GABA release from dorsal root ganglion neurons is non-vesicular, independent of electrical depolarization, and that this efflux is mediated through reversal of the GABA transporter. PMID:16460707

  15. Multiple motifs regulate the trafficking of GABA(B) receptors at distinct checkpoints within the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Restituito, Sophie; Couve, Andrés; Bawagan, Hinayana; Jourdain, Sabine; Pangalos, Menelas N; Calver, Andrew R; Freeman, Katie B; Moss, Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B receptors (GABA(B)) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate GABAergic inhibition in the brain. Their functional expression is dependent upon the formation of heterodimers between GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits, a process that occurs within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the mechanisms that regulate receptor surface expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that access to the cell surface for GABA(B)R1 is sequentially controlled by an RSR(R) motif and a LL motif within its cytoplasmic domain. In addition, we reveal that msec7-1, a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of GTPases, critical regulators of vesicular membrane trafficking, interacts with GABA(B)R1 via the LL motif in this subunit. Finally, we establish that msec7-1 modulates the cell surface expression of GABA(B) receptors, a process that is dependent upon the integrity of the LL motif in GABA(B)R1. Together, our results demonstrate that the cell surface expression of the GABA(B)R1 subunit is regulated by multiple motifs, which act at distinct checkpoints in the secretory pathway, and also suggest a novel role for msec7-1 in regulating the membrane trafficking of GABA(B)R1 subunits. PMID:15797721

  16. GABA-mediated inhibition of the anaphylactic response in the guinea-pig trachea.

    PubMed Central

    Gentilini, G.; Franchi-Micheli, S.; Mugnai, S.; Bindi, D.; Zilletti, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. In sensitized guinea-pigs, the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABAmimetic drugs have been investigated on tracheal segments contracted by cumulative application of an allergen (ovoalbumin, OA) and on serosal mast cells. The same drugs have also been tested on activation of alveolar macrophages isolated from unsensitized guinea-pigs. 2. Superfusion with GABA (1-1000 microM) reduced the contraction intensity of tracheal strips. The effect of GABA (100 microM) was not affected by the carrier blockers, nipecotic acid and beta-alanine (300 microM each). It was mimicked by the GABAB agonist (-)-baclofen (100 microM) but not 3-aminopropanephosphinic acid (100 microM, 3-APA). The GABAA agonist, isoguvacine (100 microM) did not exert any effect. GABA (10 microM)-induced inhibition of tracheal contractions was reduced by the GABAB antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 microM, 2-HS), but not by the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline (30 microM). 3. The reduction in contraction intensity induced by GABA (100 microM) was prevented by a 40 min preincubation of tracheal strips with capsaicin (10 microM), but not tetrodotoxin (TTX, 0.3 microM). The effect of GABA (1000 microM) was absent after preincubation with indomethacin (2.8 microM) but unmodified when nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, 3.3 microM) was used. Finally, removal of the epithelium prevented the GABA effect. 4. Anaphylactic histamine release from serosal mast cells isolated from sensitized animals was not affected either by GABA (10-1000 microM) or the selective receptor agonists (-)-baclofen (0.1-1000 microM) and isoguvacine (10-1000 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582447

  17. Inhibition of GABA system involved in cyclosporine-induced convulsions.

    PubMed

    Shuto, H; Kataoka, Y; Fujisaki, K; Nakao, T; Sueyasu, M; Miura, I; Watanabe, Y; Fujiwara, M; Oishi, R

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to clarify the mechanisms mediating cyclosporine-evoked convulsions. Cyclosporine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the intensity of convulsions induced by bicuculline (GABA receptor antagonist), but not those induced by strychnine (glycine receptor antagonist), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, quisqualic acid or kainic acid (glutamate receptor agonists). Bicuculline plus cyclosporine-induced convulsions were significantly suppressed by an activation of GABAergic transmission with diazepam, phenobarbital and valproate. The GABA turnover estimated by measuring aminooxyacetic acid-induced GABA accumulation in the mouse brain was significantly inhibited by cyclosporine (50 mg/kg, i.p.). When cultured rat cerebellar granule cells were exposed to 1 microM cyclosporine for 24 hr, the specific [3H]muscimol (10 nM) binding to intact granule cells decreased to 53% of vehicle controls. The present study provides the first evidence suggesting that cyclosporine inhibits GABAergic neural activity and binding properties of the GABAA receptor. These events are closely related to the occurrence of adverse central effects including tremors, convulsions, coma and encephalopathy under cyclosporine therapy. PMID:10465348

  18. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  19. Stability of GABA levels in CSF under various conditions of storage.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M H; Hare, T A; Manyam, N V; Glaeser, B S; Wood, J H

    1980-01-20

    Measurement of GABA in human lumbar CSF specimens stored under various conditions showed that the concentrations remained stable in untreated frozen specimens stored at -20 degrees C and at -70 degrees C. In untreated liquid specimens the GABA concentrations approximately doubled during 2 h at room temperature but did not change significantly during 10 min at room temperature or 2 h at 2-4 degrees C. The GABA level was stable at -70 degrees C in deproteinized specimens but doubled during 11 months of storage at -20 degrees C. The level was stable in liquid deproteinized samples for 49 h at room temperature but increased 1.3-fold and 2.0-fold in deproteinized specimens stored for 3 weeks at 2-4 degrees C and room temperature, respectively. Amino acid analyses of homocarnosine standards in 0.1 N HCl revealed a similar increase of GABA during storage at room temperature and at -20 degrees C, suggesting that at least part of the increase seen in CSF specimens might result from breakdown of GABA containing peptides. This instability of GABA level may account for some of the discrepancies among the reports of CSF GABA levels. PMID:7350995

  20. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maru, Isafumi; Yang, Jinwei; Tatsuzaki, Jin; Kim, Mujo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two food materials, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced by natural fermentation and Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE), on the improvement of sleep were investigated in humans. The electroencephalogram (EEG) test revealed that oral administration of GABA (100 mg) and AVLE (50 mg) had beneficial effects on sleep. GABA shortened sleep latency by 5.3 min and AVLE increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time by 7.6%. Simultaneous intake of GABA and AVLE shortened sleep latency by 4.3 min and increased non-REM sleep time by 5.1%. The result of questionnaires showed that GABA and AVLE enabled subjects to realize the effects on sleep. These results mean that GABA can help people to fall asleep quickly, AVLE induces deep sleep, and they function complementarily with simultaneous intake. Since both GABA and AVLE are materials of foods and have been ingested for a long time, they can be regarded as safe and appropriate for daily intake in order to improve the quality of sleep. PMID:26052150

  1. Correlation between the enhancement of flunitrazepam binding by GABA and seizure susceptibility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.; Wehner, J.M.

    1987-06-08

    Various populations of mice exhibit differential sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents. The relationship of seizure susceptibility to alterations in the GABA receptor complex was investigated in six different populations of mice consisting of four inbred strains (C57BL, DBA, C3H, and BALB) and two selected lines (long sleep and short sleep). Seizure activity was induced by intraperitoneal administration of the GAD inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and latencies to seizure onset and tonus were measured. In naive mice of the same populations, GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding was measured in extensively washed whole brain membranes at several GABA concentrations. Both differential seizure sensitivity to 3-mercaptopropionic acid and differential enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding by GABA were observed in these six populations of mice. Correlational analyses indicated a positive correlation between the degree of GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding and resistance to the seizure-inducing properties of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. These data suggest that genetic differences in sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents that disrupt the GABAergic system may be related to differences in coupling between the various receptors associated with the GABA receptor complex.

  2. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Synthesis of new fluorinated analogs of GABA, Pregabalin bioisosteres, and their effects on [(3)H]GABA uptake by rat brain nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Borisova, T; Pozdnyakova, N; Shaitanova, E; Gerus, I; Dudarenko, M; Mironets, R; Haufe, G; Kukhar, V

    2015-08-01

    Fluorinated analogs of natural substances take an essential place in the design of new biologically active compounds. New fluorinated analogs of γ-aminobutyric acid, that is, β-polyfluoroalkyl-GABAs (FGABAs), were synthesized with substituents: β-CF3-β-OH (1), β-CF3 (2); β-CF2CF2H (3). FGABAs are bioisosteres of Pregabalin (Lyrica®, Pfizer's blockbuster drug, β-i-Bu-GABA), and have lipophilicity close to this medicine. The effects of synthesized FGABAs on [(3)H]GABA uptake by isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) were assessed and compared with those of Pregabalin. FGABAs 1-3 (100μM) did not influence the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake when applied acutely, whereas an increase in this parameter was found after preliminary incubation of FGABAs with synaptosomes. Pregabalin after preliminary incubation with synaptosomes caused unidirectional changes in the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake. Using specific inhibitors of GAT1 and GAT3, NO-711 and SNAP5114, respectively, the ability of FGABAs 1-3 to influence non-GAT1 and non-GAT3 uptake activity of nerve terminals was analyzed, but no specificity was found. Therefore, new synthesized FGABAs are structural but not functional analogs of GABA (because they did not inhibit synaptosomal [(3)H]GABA uptake). Moreover, FGABAs are able to increase the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake by synaptosomes, and this effect is higher than that of Pregabalin. PMID:26138193

  4. The two-step biotransformation of monosodium glutamate to GABA by Lactobacillus brevis growing and resting cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Lei; Gao, Qiang; Yu, Shao Mei; Li, Lei; Gao, Nian Fa

    2012-06-01

    Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a natural functional amino acid. In the current study, Lactobacillus brevis TCCC13007, a high GABA-producing strain, was isolated from naturally pickled Chinese vegetables. A two-step cellular bioconversion process was established using L. brevis TCCC13007 for the production of GABA. First, L. brevis cells were grown anaerobically in 7% monosodium glutamate (MSG)-containing medium at an initial pH of 6.0 and a controlled pH of 4.6 for 16 to 66 h; approximately 38 g L(-1) of GABA was obtained after 66 h of fermentation at a conversion rate of 98.6%. In the second stage of the process, about 7.6 g L(-1) of GABA was produced three more times at a conversion rate of 92.2% using the same batch of resting cells in the substrate-containing buffer under optimized conditions. Thus, the total GABA yield reached 61 g L(-1). A model system for the biotransformation of MSG to GABA was established using L. brevis TCCC13007 resting cells. The reaction rates were found to follow the classic Michaelis-Menten equation at low substrate concentrations (<80 mM). Kinetic analysis of the biotransformation revealed that L. brevis TCCC13007 resting cells produced GABA similar to that produced by purified glutamate decarboxylase from L. brevis. PMID:22307498

  5. The transporter GAT1 plays an important role in GABA-mediated carbon-nitrogen interactions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Batushansky, Albert; Kirma, Menny; Grillich, Nicole; Pham, Phuong A.; Rentsch, Doris; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthetized in the cytosol prior to delivery to the mitochondria where it is catabolized via the TCA cycle. GABA accumulates under various environmental conditions, but an increasing number of studies show its involvement at the crossroad between C and N metabolism. To assess the role of GABA in modulating cellular metabolism, we exposed seedlings of A. thaliana GABA transporter gat1 mutant to full nutrition medium and media deficient in C and N combined with feeding of different concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM) of exogenous GABA. GC-MS based metabolite profiling showed an expected effect of medium composition on the seedlings metabolism of mutant and wild type alike. That being said, a significant interaction between GAT1 deficiency and medium composition was determined with respect to magnitude of change in relative amino acid levels. The effect of exogenous GABA treatment on metabolism was contingent on both the medium and the genotype, leading for instance to a drop in asparagine under full nutrition and low C conditions and glucose under all tested media, but not to changes in GABA content. We additionally assessed the effect of GAT1 deficiency on the expression of glutamate metabolism related genes and genes involved in abiotic stress responses. These results suggest a role for GAT1 in GABA-mediated metabolic alterations in the context of the C-N equilibrium of plant cells. PMID:26483804

  6. The transporter GAT1 plays an important role in GABA-mediated carbon-nitrogen interactions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Batushansky, Albert; Kirma, Menny; Grillich, Nicole; Pham, Phuong A; Rentsch, Doris; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthetized in the cytosol prior to delivery to the mitochondria where it is catabolized via the TCA cycle. GABA accumulates under various environmental conditions, but an increasing number of studies show its involvement at the crossroad between C and N metabolism. To assess the role of GABA in modulating cellular metabolism, we exposed seedlings of A. thaliana GABA transporter gat1 mutant to full nutrition medium and media deficient in C and N combined with feeding of different concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM) of exogenous GABA. GC-MS based metabolite profiling showed an expected effect of medium composition on the seedlings metabolism of mutant and wild type alike. That being said, a significant interaction between GAT1 deficiency and medium composition was determined with respect to magnitude of change in relative amino acid levels. The effect of exogenous GABA treatment on metabolism was contingent on both the medium and the genotype, leading for instance to a drop in asparagine under full nutrition and low C conditions and glucose under all tested media, but not to changes in GABA content. We additionally assessed the effect of GAT1 deficiency on the expression of glutamate metabolism related genes and genes involved in abiotic stress responses. These results suggest a role for GAT1 in GABA-mediated metabolic alterations in the context of the C-N equilibrium of plant cells. PMID:26483804

  7. GABA transporters control GABAergic neurotransmission in the mouse subplate.

    PubMed

    Unichenko, P; Kirischuk, S; Luhmann, H J

    2015-09-24

    The subplate is a transient layer between the cortical plate and intermediate zone in the developing cortex. Thalamo-cortical axons form temporary synapses on subplate neurons (SPns) before invading the cortical plate. Neuronal activity within the subplate is of critical importance for the development of neocortical circuits and architecture. Although both glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs on SPns were reported, short-term plasticity of GABAergic transmission has not been investigated yet. GABAergic postsynaptic currents (GPSCs) were recorded from SPns in coronal neocortical slices prepared from postnatal day 3-4 mice using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Evoked GPSCs (eGPSCs) elicited by electrical paired-pulse stimulation demonstrated paired-pulse depression at all interstimulus intervals tested. Baclofen, a specific GABAB receptor (GABABR) agonist, reduced eGPSC amplitudes and increased paired-pulse ratio (PPR), suggesting presynaptic location of functional GABABRs. Baclofen-induced effects were alleviated by (2S)-3-[[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl](phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), a selective GABABR blocker. Moreover, CGP55845 increased eGPSC amplitudes and decreased PPR even under control conditions, indicating that GABABRs are tonically activated by ambient GABA. Because extracellular GABA concentration is mainly regulated by GABA transporters (GATs), we asked whether GATs release GABA. 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenylmethylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (NNC-711) (10μM), a selective GAT-1 blocker, increased eGPSC decay time, decreased eGPSC amplitudes and PPR. The two last effects but not the first one were blocked by CGP55845, indicating that GAT-1 blockade causes an elevation of extracellular GABA concentration and in turn activation of extrasynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs. 1-[2-[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-(S)-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid (SNAP-5114), a specific GAT-2/3 blocker, failed to affect eGPSC kinetics. However, in contrast to NNC-711 SNAP-5114 increased eGPSC amplitudes and decreased PPR. In the presence of SNAP-5114 CGP55845 did not influence GABAergic transmission, indicating that GABABRs are not activated any longer. We conclude that in the subplate GAT-2/3 operates in reverse mode. GABA released via GAT-2/3 activates presynaptic GABABRs on GABAergic synapses and tonically inhibits GABAergic inputs on SPns. PMID:26232716

  8. Decreased Phosphorylated Protein Kinase B (Akt) in Individuals with Autism Associated with High Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Low Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, phosphorylated Akt concentration was measured in 37 autistic children and 12, gender and age similar neurotypical, controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Akt levels were compared to biomarkers known to be associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor) pathways and severity levels of 19 autism-related symptoms. We found phosphorylated Akt levels significantly lower in autistic children and low Akt levels correlated with high EGFR and HGF and low gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not other biomarkers. Low Akt levels also correlated significantly with increased severity of receptive language, conversational language, hypotonia, rocking and pacing, and stimming, These results suggest a relationship between decreased phosphorylated Akt and selected symptom severity in autistic children and support the suggestion that the AKT pathways may be associated with the etiology of autism. PMID:26508828

  9. Isoniazid-induced elevation of CSF GABA levels and effects on chorea in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Katz, L; Hare, T A; Kaniefski, K; Tremblay, R D

    1981-07-01

    A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral isoniazid was undertaken in eight men with known Huntington's disease. Six completed the trial. Overall chorea scores indicated some amelioration, but clinical improvement was noticed in only two patients and was mild. Side effects included anorexia and elevation of liver enzyme levels. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were measured simultaneously. Mean CSF GABA increased threefold following treatment with isoniazid (414 +/- 52 SEM pmol/ml) compared to placebo (120 +/- 11 pmol/ml). No significant changes occurred in plasma GABA levels between the placebo and drug treatment phases. Reversal of central GABA deficiency appears not to correct extrapyramidal symptoms in Huntington's disease. PMID:6455963

  10. Anterior Cingulate GABA Levels Predict Whole-Brain Cerebral Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Benjamin W.; Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Holcomb, Henry H.; Kochunov, Peter; Wang, Danny J.J.; Hong, L. Elliot; Rowland, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate levels from the anterior and posterior cingulates (AC and PC) with cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements in the AC and PC and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling data were acquired from 10 healthy controls. GABA levels from the AC were strongly inversely correlated with global (whole-brain) CBF (r =−0.91, p=0.0015). GABA levels from the PC and glutamate levels from both regions were not significantly correlated with CBF. We hypothesize that GABA-mediated inhibition of AC activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine pathway may influence global CBF. PMID:24397910

  11. GABA withdrawal syndrome: GABAA receptor, synapse, neurobiological implications and analogies with other abstinences.

    PubMed

    Calixto, E

    2016-01-28

    The sudden interruption of the increase of the concentration of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), determines an increase in neuronal activity. GABA withdrawal (GW) is a heuristic analogy, with withdrawal symptoms developed by other GABA receptor-agonists such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, and neurosteroids. GW comprises a model of neuronal excitability validated by electroencephalogram (EEG) in which high-frequency and high-amplitude spike-wave complexes appear. In brain slices, GW was identified by increased firing synchronization of pyramidal neurons and by changes in the active properties of the neuronal membrane. GW induces pre- and postsynaptic changes: a decrease in GABA synthesis/release, and the decrease in the expression and composition of GABAA receptors associated with increased calcium entry into the cell. GW is an excellent bioassay for studying partial epilepsy, epilepsy refractory to drug treatment, and a model to reverse or prevent the generation of abstinences from different drugs. PMID:26592722

  12. The Arabidopsis pop2-1 mutant reveals the involvement of GABA transaminase in salt stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a non protein amino acid that has been reported to accumulate in a number of plant species when subjected to high salinity and many other environmental constraints. However, no experimental data are to date available on the molecular function of GABA and the involvement of its metabolism in salt stress tolerance in higher plants. Here, we investigated the regulation of GABA metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana at the metabolite, enzymatic activity and gene transcription levels upon NaCl stress. Results We identified the GABA transaminase (GABA-T), the first step of GABA catabolism, as the most responsive to NaCl. We further performed a functional analysis of the corresponding gene POP2 and demonstrated that the previously isolated loss-of-function pop2-1 mutant was oversensitive to ionic stress but not to osmotic stress suggesting a specific role in salt tolerance. NaCl oversensitivity was not associated with overaccumulation of Na+ and Cl- but mutant showed a slight decrease in K+. To bring insights into POP2 function, a promoter-reporter gene strategy was used and showed that POP2 was mainly expressed in roots under control conditions and was induced in primary root apex and aerial parts of plants in response to NaCl. Additionally, GC-MS- and UPLC-based metabolite profiling revealed major changes in roots of pop2-1 mutant upon NaCl stress including accumulation of amino acids and decrease in carbohydrates content. Conclusions GABA metabolism was overall up-regulated in response to NaCl in Arabidopsis. Particularly, GABA-T was found to play a pivotal function and impairment of this step was responsible for a decrease in salt tolerance indicating that GABA catabolism was a determinant of Arabidopsis salt tolerance. GABA-T would act in salt responses in linking N and C metabolisms in roots. PMID:20122158

  13. Characterization of [3H]GABA release from striatal slices: evidence for a calcium-independent process via the GABA uptake system.

    PubMed

    Bernath, S; Zigmond, M J

    1988-11-01

    GABA can be released by depolarization even in the absence of external Ca2+. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, GABA release was studied using slices prepared from rat striatum. Slices were preincubated with [3H]GABA in the presence of beta-alanine and superfused with Krebs buffer. Total tritium efflux was measured as an index of GABA release. Electrical stimulation at 2 Hz for 3 min elevated resting tritium efflux approximately two-fold. Decreasing external Ca2+ to 0.1 mM increased basal tritium efflux and reduced electrically evoked overflow, while omitting Ca2+ entirely (and adding 1 mM EGTA) increased both basal efflux and evoked overflow. Tetrodotoxin (5 microM) abolished the evoked release of tritium but did not affect the resting outflow in either normal or Ca2+-deficient conditions. In the presence of normal Ca2+, nipecotic acid (0.1-1 mM), an inhibitor of GABA transport into neurons as well as glia, enhanced both spontaneous efflux and evoked overflow of tritium. Nipecotic acid also increased spontaneous release when external Ca2+ was reduced or removed; however, under these conditions electrically evoked overflow was reduced. These results suggest that the electrically evoked release of [3H]GABA from striatal slices is of neuronal origin, but can occur in part in the absence of external Ca2+. They further suggest that this Ca2+-independent release, which may co-exist with the Ca2+-dependent release, takes place via the same carrier system utilized for high-affinity GABA uptake. PMID:3217004

  14. Benzodiazepine treatment induces subtype-specific changes in GABA(A) receptor trafficking and decreases synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Tija C; Michels, Guido; Silayeva, Liliya; Haydon, Julia; Succol, Francesca; Moss, Stephen J

    2012-11-01

    Benzodiazepines potentiate γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) activity and are widely prescribed to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizure disorders. Unfortunately, clinical use of benzodiazepines (BZs) is severely limited by tolerance. The mechanisms leading to BZ tolerance are unknown. BZs bind at the interface between an α and γ subunit of GABA(A)Rs, preferentially enhancing synaptic receptors largely composed of α(1-3, 5), β3, and γ2 subunits. Using confocal imaging and patch-clamp approaches, we show that treatment with the BZ flurazepam decreases GABA(A)R surface levels and the efficacy of neuronal inhibition in hippocampal neurons. A dramatic decrease in surface and total levels of α2 subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs occurred within 24 h of flurazepam treatment, whereas GABA(A)Rs incorporating α1 subunits showed little alteration. The GABA(A)R surface depletion could be reversed by treatment with the BZ antagonist Ro 15-1788. Coincident with decreased GABA(A)R surface levels, flurazepam treatment reduced miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude, which returned to control levels with acute Ro 15-1788 treatment. GABA(A)R endocytosis and insertion rates were unchanged by flurazepam treatment. Treatment with leupeptin restored flurazepam lowered receptor surface levels, strongly suggesting that flurazepam increases lysosomal degradation of GABA(A)Rs. Together, these data suggest that flurazepam exposure enhances degradation of α2 subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs after their removal from the plasma membrane, leading to a reduction in inhibitory synapse size and number along with a decrease in the efficacy of synaptic inhibition. These reported subtype-specific changes in GABA(A)R trafficking provide significant mechanistic insight into the initial neuroadaptive responses occurring with BZ treatment. PMID:23091016

  15. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3

  16. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  17. Structure, function, and plasticity of GABA transporters

    PubMed Central

    Scimemi, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    GABA transporters belong to a large family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. They are widely expressed throughout the brain, with different levels of expression in different brain regions. GABA transporters are present in neurons and in astrocytes and their activity is crucial to regulate the extracellular concentration of GABA under basal conditions and during ongoing synaptic events. Numerous efforts have been devoted to determine the structural and functional properties of GABA transporters. There is also evidence that the expression of GABA transporters on the cell membrane and their lateral mobility can be modulated by different intracellular signaling cascades. The strength of individual synaptic contacts and the activity of entire neuronal networks may be finely tuned by altering the density, distribution and diffusion rate of GABA transporters within the cell membrane. These findings are intriguing because they suggest the existence of complex regulatory systems that control the plasticity of GABAergic transmission in the brain. Here we review the current knowledge on the structural and functional properties of GABA transporters and highlight the molecular mechanisms that alter the expression and mobility of GABA transporters at central synapses. PMID:24987330

  18. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.; Schwartz, R.D.

    1987-09-07

    ..gamma..-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride (/sup 36/Cl/sup -/) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regional variation in muscimol-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br/sup -/>Cl/sup -/greater than or equal toNO/sub 3//sup -/>I/sup -/greater than or equal toSCN/sup -/>>C/sub 3/H/sub 5/OO/sup -/greater than or equal toClO/sub 4//sup -/>F/sup -/, consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl/sup -/ channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Letícia C.; Saraiva, Tessália D. L.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Miranda, Fábio; Freire, Matheus; Renan, Wendel; Júnior, Alberto F. O.; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Souza, Bianca M.; Castro, Camila P.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Rocha, Clarissa S.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; de Aguiar, Edgar L.; Folador, Edson L.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Gonçalves, Lucas A.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Azevedo, Marcela; Agresti, Pamela C. M.; Silva, Renata F.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Almeida, Sintia S.; Hassan, Syed S.; Pereira, Vanessa B.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity. PMID:25278529

  20. GABA Expression and Regulation by Sensory Experience in the Developing Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Miraucourt, Loïs S.; da Silva, Jorge Santos; Burgos, Kasandra; Li, Jianli; Abe, Hikari; Ruthazer, Edward S.; Cline, Hollis T.

    2012-01-01

    The developing retinotectal system of the Xenopus laevis tadpole is a model of choice for studying visual experience-dependent circuit maturation in the intact animal. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to play a critical role in the formation of sensory circuits in this preparation, however a comprehensive neuroanatomical study of GABAergic cell distribution in the developing tadpole has not been conducted. We report a detailed description of the spatial expression of GABA immunoreactivity in the Xenopus laevis tadpole brain at two key developmental stages: stage 40/42 around the onset of retinotectal innervation and stage 47 when the retinotectal circuit supports visually-guided behavior. During this period, GABAergic neurons within specific brain structures appeared to redistribute from clusters of neuronal somata to a sparser, more uniform distribution. Furthermore, we found that GABA levels were regulated by recent sensory experience. Both ELISA measurements of GABA concentration and quantitative analysis of GABA immunoreactivity in tissue sections from the optic tectum show that GABA increased in response to a 4 hr period of enhanced visual stimulation in stage 47 tadpoles. These observations reveal a remarkable degree of adaptability of GABAergic neurons in the developing brain, consistent with their key contributions to circuit development and function. PMID:22242157

  1. Mechanisms of fast desensitization of GABA(B) receptor-gated currents.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Adi; Turecek, Rostislav; Bettler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)Rs) regulate the excitability of most neurons in the central nervous system by modulating the activity of enzymes and ion channels. In the sustained presence of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA(B)Rs exhibit a time-dependent decrease in the receptor response-a phenomenon referred to as homologous desensitization. Desensitization prevents excessive receptor influences on neuronal activity. Much work focused on the mechanisms of GABA(B)R desensitization that operate at the receptor and control receptor expression at the plasma membrane. Over the past few years, it became apparent that GABA(B)Rs additionally evolved mechanisms for faster desensitization. These mechanisms operate at the G protein rather than at the receptor and inhibit G protein signaling within seconds of agonist exposure. The mechanisms for fast desensitization are ideally suited to regulate receptor-activated ion channel responses, which influence neuronal activity on a faster timescale than effector enzymes. Here, we provide an update on the mechanisms for fast desensitization of GABA(B)R responses and discuss physiological and pathophysiological implications. PMID:25637440

  2. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice. PMID:25995826

  3. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  4. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Transmission Modulates Discrimination and Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Fear: Relevance for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates numerous functions, and perturbations in GABAergic transmission within this region have been proposed to contribute to some of the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with disorders such as schizophrenia. These abnormalities include deficits in emotional regulation and aberrant attributions of affective salience. Yet, how PFC GABA regulates these types of emotional processes are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the contribution of PFC GABA transmission to different aspects of Pavlovian emotional learning in rats using translational discriminative fear conditioning and latent inhibition (LI) assays. Reducing prelimbic PFC GABAA transmission via infusions of the antagonist bicuculline before the acquisition or expression of fear conditioning eliminated the ability to discriminate between an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS+) paired with footshock vs a neutral CS–, resembling similar deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. In a separate experiment, blockade of PFC GABAA receptors before CS preexposure (PE) and conditioning did not affect subsequent expression of LI, but did enhance fear in rats that were not preexposed to the CS. In contrast, PFC GABA-blockade before a fear expression test disrupted the recall of learned irrelevance and abolished LI. These data suggest that normal PFC GABA transmission is critical for regulating and mitigating multiple aspects of aversive learning, including discrimination between fear vs safety signals and recall of information about the irrelevance of stimuli. Furthermore, they suggest that similar deficits in emotional regulation observed in schizophrenia may be driven in part by deficient PFC GABA activity. PMID:24784549

  5. Thalamic GABA Predicts Fine Motor Performance in Manganese-Exposed Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zaiyang; Li, Xiang-Rong; Xu, Jun; Edden, Richard A. E.; Qin, Wei-Ping; Long, Li-Ling; Murdoch, James B.; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Dydak, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) may lead to parkinsonian symptoms including motor deficits. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation and performance of movement. Therefore this study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that an alteration of GABA following Mn exposure may be associated with fine motor performance in occupationally exposed workers and may underlie the mechanism of Mn-induced motor deficits. A cohort of nine Mn-exposed male smelter workers from an Mn-iron alloy factory and 23 gender- and age-matched controls were recruited and underwent neurological exams, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements, and Purdue pegboard motor testing. Short-echo-time MRS was used to measure N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (mI). GABA was detected with a MEGA-PRESS J-editing MRS sequence. The mean thalamic GABA level was significantly increased in smelter workers compared to controls (p = 0.009). Multiple linear regression analysis reveals (1) a significant association between the increase in GABA level and the duration of exposure (R2 = 0.660, p = 0.039), and (2) significant inverse associations between GABA levels and all Purdue pegboard test scores (for summation of all scores R2 = 0.902, p = 0.001) in the smelter workers. In addition, levels of mI were reduced significantly in the thalamus and PCC of smelter workers compared to controls (p = 0.030 and p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, our results show clear associations between thalamic GABA levels and fine motor performance. Thus in Mn-exposed subjects, increased thalamic GABA levels may serve as a biomarker for subtle deficits in motor control and may become valuable for early diagnosis of Mn poisoning. PMID:24505436

  6. Is GABA neurotransmission enhanced in auditory thalamus relative to inferior colliculus?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Rui; Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Sensory thalamic structures show high levels of non-desensitizing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and a reduction in the redundancy of coded information. The present study compared the inhibitory potency of GABA acting at GABAARs between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the medial geniculate body (MGB) using quantitative in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo experimental approaches. In vivo single unit studies compared the ability of half maximal inhibitory concentrations of GABA to inhibit sound-evoked temporal responses, and found that GABA was two to three times (P < 0.01) more potent at suppressing MGB single unit responses than IC unit responses. In vitro whole cell patch-clamp slice recordings were used to demonstrate that gaboxadol, a δ-subunit selective GABAAR agonist, was significantly more potent at evoking tonic inhibitory currents from MGB neurons than IC neurons (P < 0.01). These electrophysiological findings were supported by an in vitro receptor binding assay which used the picrotoxin analog [3H]TBOB to assess binding in the GABAAR chloride channel. MGB GABAARs had significantly greater total open chloride channel capacity relative to GABAARs in IC (P < 0.05) as shown by increased total [3H]TBOB binding. Finally, a comparative ex vivo measurement compared endogenous GABA levels and suggested a trend towards higher GABA concentrations in MGB than in IC. Collectively, these studies suggest that, per unit GABA, high affinity extrasynaptic and synaptic GABAARs confer a significant inhibitory GABAAR advantage to MGB neurons relative to IC neurons. This increased GABA sensitivity likely underpins the vital filtering role of auditory thalamus. PMID:24155003

  7. Photoperiodic modulation of monoamines and amino-acids involved in the control of prolactin and LH secretion in the ewe: evidence for a regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Viguié, C; Thibault, J; Thiéry, J C; Tillet, Y; Malpaux, B

    1996-06-01

    Several neurotransmitters are implicated in the photoperiodic regulation of prolactin and luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in the ewe. This work investigated whether catecholamines, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), excitatory amino acids and serotonin diencephalic contents are affected by photoperiod and how such changes relate to the seasonal effects of photoperiod on LH and prolactin secretions. Moreover, to determine whether photoperiod can influence catecholamine biosynthesis, the activity of its rate limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was also investigated. TH activity and the tissue content of the monoamines and their metabolites were measured in stalk-median eminence (SME), preoptic area (POA) and the mediobasal, mediodorsal and laterobasal aspects of the hypothalamus. Investigation of excitatory amino acids and GABA was limited to the POA and the SME. Ovariectomized ewes were initially maintained in long days (LD) for 70 days. Thereafter half the ewes remained exposed to long days and the other half were transferred onto short days (SD) for 63 to 66 days to induce a stimulation of LH secretion and an inhibition of prolactin secretion. In each photoperiodic regime, half the ewes were treated with a subcutaneous oestradiol implant (+E) and half were not (-E). As expected, short days induced a decrease in prolactin and an increase in pulsatile LH secretion. These neuroendocrine changes were associated with a decrease in the TH activity of the SME in both oestradiol treated and non treated animals (146.5 +/- 24.1, 167.6 +/- 26.5 U TH/g of tissue in LD-E and LD+E vs 83.5 +/- 12.4 and 95.0 +/- 30.2 U TH/g of tissue in SD-E and SD+E animals; P < or = 0.01). A similar and parallel short day-induced decrease was observed in the tissue content of dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (SD level were 55% of LD levels, P < 0.05). In POA, a short day-induced decrease in dopamine (18%; P < or = 0.05) and GABA (16.4%; P < or = 0.05) content and an oestradiol-induced decrease in aspartate (15.6%; P < or = 0.05) content were found. This study provides the first report of a photoperiodic control of the synthesis activity of catecholaminergic neurones of the SME in the ewe. The photoperiod-induced changes in dopaminergic activity at the level of the SME were associated with changes in LH and prolactin secretion indicating that TH activity of dopaminergic neurones of the SME could be a critical component of the photoperiodic regulation of LH and/or prolactin secretion. In particular, this finding is in agreement with the hypothesis that photoperiod can control a dopaminergic pathway inhibitory of LH secretion and which ends in the median eminence. PMID:8809677

  8. The brefeldin A-inhibited GDP/GTP exchange factor 2, a protein involved in vesicular trafficking, interacts with the beta subunits of the GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Charych, Erik I; Yu, Wendou; Miralles, Celia P; Serwanski, David R; Li, Xuejing; Rubio, Maria; De Blas, Angel L

    2004-07-01

    We have found that the brefeldin A-inhibited GDP/GTP exchange factor 2 (BIG2) interacts with the beta subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptor (GABA(A)R). BIG2 is a Sec7 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor known to be involved in vesicular and protein trafficking. The interaction between the 110 amino acid C-terminal fragment of BIG2 and the large intracellular loop of the GABA(A)R beta subunits was revealed with a yeast two-hybrid assay. The native BIG2 and GABA(A)Rs interact in the brain since both coprecipitated from detergent extracts with either anti-GABA(A)R or anti-BIG2 antibodies. In transfected human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells, BIG2 promotes the exit of GABA(A)Rs from endoplasmic reticulum. Double label immunofluorescence of cultured hippocampal neurons and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry of rat brain tissue show that BIG2 concentrates in the trans-Golgi network. BIG2 is also present in vesicle-like structures in the dendritic cytoplasm, sometimes colocalizing with GABA(A)Rs. BIG2 is present in both inhibitory GABAergic synapses that contain GABA(A)Rs and in asymmetric excitatory synapses. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that the interaction of BIG2 with the GABA(A)R beta subunits plays a role in the exocytosis and trafficking of assembled GABA(A)R to the cell surface. PMID:15198677

  9. Pontine Reticular Formation (PnO) Administration of Hypocretin-1 Increases PnO GABA Levels and Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christopher J.; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: GABAergic transmission in the oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) increases wakefulness. The hypothalamic peptide hypocretin-1 (orexin A) promotes wakefulness, and the PnO receives hypocretinergic input. The present study tested the hypothesis that PnO administration of hypocretin-1 increases PnO GABA levels and increases wakefulness. This study also tested the hypothesis that wakefulness is either increased or decreased, respectively, by PnO administration of drugs known to selectively increase or decrease GABA levels. Design: A within-subjects design was used for microdialysis and microinjection experiments. Setting: University of Michigan. Patients or Participants: Experiments were performed using adult male Crl:CD® (SD)IGS BR (Sprague-Dawley) rats (n = 46). Interventions: PnO administration of hypocretin-1, nipecotic acid (a GABA uptake inhibitor that increases extracellular GABA levels), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (a GABA synthesis inhibitor that decreases extracellular GABA levels; 3-MPA), and Ringer solution (vehicle control). Measurements and Results: Dialysis administration of hypocretin-1 to the PnO caused a statistically significant, concentration-dependent increase in PnO GABA levels. PnO microinjection of hypocretin-1 or nipecotic acid caused a significant increase in wakefulness and a significant decrease in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. Microinjecting 3-MPA into the PnO caused a significant increase in NREM sleep and REM sleep and a significant decrease in wakefulness. Conclusions: An increase or a decrease in PnO GABA levels causes an increase or decrease, respectively, in wakefulness. Hypocretin-1 may promote wakefulness, at least in part, by increasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO. Citation: Watson CJ; Soto-Calderon H; Lydic R; Baghdoyan HA. Pontine reticular formation (PnO) administration of hypocretin-1 increases PnO GABA levels and wakefulness. SLEEP 2008;31(4):453-464. PMID:18457232

  10. Endogenous dopamine potentiates the effects of glutamate on extracellular GABA in the prefrontal cortex of the freely moving rat.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, A; Mora, F

    2000-10-01

    Using microdialysis, the effects of endogenous dopamine on basal extracellular concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and on the increases of GABA produced by glutamate were investigated in the medial prefrontal cortex of the awake rat. The dopamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine (1, 100 and 1000 microM), used to increase extracellular dopamine, produced a dose-related increase of dialysate dopamine (0.1-1 nM) but did not change dialysate concentrations of GABA or glutamate at any dose used. The glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxilic acid (PDC; 0.5 and 2 mM), used to increase extracellular glutamate, produced a dose-related increase of dialysate glutamate (1.5-5.5 microM) and increased dialysate GABA by 125%. When a simultaneous increase of endogenous dopamine and glutamate was produced, the increases of dialysate GABA were significantly higher (185% of baseline) than those produced by glutamate alone. These effects on dialysate GABA were attenuated by the D2 receptor antagonist (-) sulpiride, but not by the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390, all of which suggests that extracellular dopamine plays an important role in modulating endogenous glutamate-GABA interactions in the prefrontal cortex of the rat. PMID:11113590

  11. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  12. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing Chen Jingyuan

    2009-04-15

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  13. Comparison between the modes of action of novel meta-diamide and macrocyclic lactone insecticides on the RDL GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinichi; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2015-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones, avermectins, and milbemycins are widely used to control arthropods, nematodes, and endo- and ectoparasites in livestock and pets. Their main targets are glutamate-gated chloride channels. Furthermore, macrocyclic lactones reportedly interact with insect RDL γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, but their modes of action on insect RDL GABA receptors remain unknown. In this study, we attempted to better understand the modes of action of macrocyclic lactones on RDL GABA receptors. We observed that ivermectin and milbemectin behaved as allosteric agonists of the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor. G336A, G336S, and G336T mutations had profound effects on the activities of ivermectin and milbemectin, and a G336M mutation abolished the allosteric agonist and antagonist activities of these macrocyclic lactones. These results suggest that G336 in TM3 of the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor is important for the binding of macrocyclic lactones. Recently, it has been suggested that a novel RDL GABA receptor antagonist, 3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-4-perfluoroisopropyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (meta-diamide 7), binds to the transmembrane intersubunit pocket near G336 in the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor. Thus, we compared the effects of mutations around G336 and A302 mutations in TM2 on the activities of macrocyclic lactone and meta-diamide 7. The effects of L281C, V340Q, V340N, A302S, and A302N mutations on the activity of meta-diamide 7 differed from those on ivermectin and milbemectin. Molecular modeling studies showed that macrocyclic lactones docked in the intersubunit pocket near G336 in the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor in the open state. In contrast, meta-diamide 7 docked into the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor in the closed state. This suggests that the modes of action of macrocyclic lactone binding to the wild-type Drosophila RDL GABA receptor differ from those of meta-diamide binding. PMID:25987227

  14. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A; Jenkins, Andrew; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases. PMID:25904555

  15. The glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle: function, regional differences in glutamate and GABA production and effects of interference with GABA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Walls, Anne B; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    The operation of a glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle in the brain consisting of the transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons and neurotransmitter glutamate or GABA from neurons to astrocytes is a well-known concept. In neurons, glutamine is not only used for energy production and protein synthesis, as in other cells, but is also an essential precursor for biosynthesis of amino acid neurotransmitters. An excellent tool for the study of glutamine transfer from astrocytes to neurons is [(14)C]acetate or [(13)C]acetate and the glial specific enzyme inhibitors, i.e. the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase) inhibitors fluoro-acetate and -citrate. Acetate is metabolized exclusively by glial cells, and [(13)C]acetate is thus capable when used in combination with magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry, to provide information about glutamine transfer. The present review will give information about glutamine trafficking and the tools used to map it as exemplified by discussions of published work employing brain cell cultures as well as intact animals. It will be documented that considerably more glutamine is transferred from astrocytes to glutamatergic than to GABAergic neurons. However, glutamine does have an important role in GABAergic neurons despite their capability of re-utilizing their neurotransmitter by re-uptake. PMID:25380696

  16. GABA tea prevents cardiac fibrosis by attenuating TNF-alpha and Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Shur-Hueih; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lai, Shue-Er; Tseng, Chien-Yu; Lin, Yueh-Min; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wang, Hsueh-Fang

    2014-03-01

    GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study investigated the effects of GABA tea on the heart in a diabetic rat model. Male Wistar rats were injected with 55mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes for 2weeks and then orally given dosages of 4.55 and 45.5mg/kg/day GABA tea extract for 6weeks. The results revealed that fasting blood glucose levels returned to normal levels in GABA tea-treated diabetic rats, but not in the untreated diabetic rats. Additionally, GABA tea effectively inhibited cardiac fibrosis induced by STZ. Further experiments showed that the STZ-induced protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Fas, activated caspase-8 and caspase-3 were significantly inhibited by the GABA tea treatment. Therefore, our data suggest that the inhibiting effect of GABA tea on STZ-induced cardiac fibrosis in diabetic rats may be mediated by reducing blood glucose and further attenuating TNF-alpha expression and/or Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated apoptosis. These findings will provide implications for the potential anti-diabetic properties of GABA tea. PMID:24374093

  17. GABA concentration in superior temporal sulcus predicts gamma power and perception in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Balz, Johanna; Keil, Julian; Roa Romero, Yadira; Mekle, Ralf; Schubert, Florian; Aydin, Semiha; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In everyday life we are confronted with inputs of multisensory stimuli that need to be integrated across our senses. Individuals vary considerably in how they integrate multisensory information, yet the neurochemical foundations underlying this variability are not well understood. Neural oscillations, especially in the gamma band (>30Hz) play an important role in multisensory processing. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contributes to the generation of gamma band oscillations (GBO), which can be sustained by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Hence, differences in the GABA and glutamate systems might contribute to individual differences in multisensory processing. In this combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electroencephalography study, we examined the relationships between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), source localized GBO, and illusion rate in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In 39 human volunteers we found robust relationships between GABA concentration, GBO power, and the SIFI perception rate (r-values=0.44 to 0.53). The correlation between GBO power and SIFI perception rate was about twofold higher when the modulating influence of the GABA level was included in the analysis as compared to when it was excluded. No significant effects were obtained for glutamate concentration. Our study suggests that the GABA level shapes individual differences in audiovisual perception through its modulating influence on GBO. GABA neurotransmission could be a promising target for treatment interventions of multisensory processing deficits in clinical populations, such as schizophrenia or autism. PMID:26546865

  18. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity

    PubMed Central

    Savtchenko, Leonid; Megalogeni, Maria; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Walker, Matthew C.; Pavlov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    GABA transporters control extracellular GABA, which regulates the key aspects of neuronal and network behaviour. A prevailing view is that modest neuronal depolarization results in GABA transporter type-1 (GAT-1) reversal causing non-vesicular GABA release into the extracellular space during intense network activity. This has important implications for GABA uptake-targeting therapies. Here we combined a realistic kinetic model of GAT-1 with experimental measurements of tonic GABAA receptor currents in ex vivo hippocampal slices to examine GAT-1 operation under varying network conditions. Our simulations predict that synaptic GABA release during network activity robustly prevents GAT-1 reversal. We test this in the 0 Mg2+ model of epileptiform discharges using slices from healthy and chronically epileptic rats and find that epileptiform activity is associated with increased synaptic GABA release and is not accompanied by GAT-1 reversal. We conclude that sustained efflux of GABA through GAT-1 is unlikely to occur during physiological or pathological network activity. PMID:25798861

  19. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. PMID:24638845

  20. A conserved mechanism of GABA binding and antagonism is revealed by structure-function analysis of the periplasmic binding protein Atu2422 in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Planamente, Sara; Vigouroux, Armelle; Mondy, Samuel; Nicaise, Magali; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2010-09-24

    Bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) and eukaryotic PBP-like domains (also called as Venus flytrap modules) of G-protein-coupled receptors are involved in extracellular GABA perception. We investigated the structural and functional basis of ligand specificity of the PBP Atu2422, which is implicated in virulence and transport of GABA in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Five high-resolution x-ray structures of Atu2422 liganded to GABA, Pro, Ala, and Val and of point mutant Atu2422-F77A liganded to Leu were determined. Structural analysis of the ligand-binding site revealed two essential residues, Phe(77) and Tyr(275), the implication of which in GABA signaling and virulence was confirmed using A. tumefaciens cells expressing corresponding Atu2422 mutants. Phe(77) restricts ligand specificity to α-amino acids with a short lateral chain, which act as antagonists of GABA signaling in A. tumefaciens. Tyr(275) specifically interacts with the GABA γ-amino group. Conservation of these two key residues in proteins phylogenetically related to Atu2422 brought to light a subfamily of PBPs in which all members could bind GABA and short α-amino acids. This work led to the identification of a fingerprint sequence and structural features for defining PBPs that bind GABA and its competitors and revealed their occurrence among host-interacting proteobacteria. PMID:20630861

  1. Dopamine-GABA interactions in the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum of the rat.

    PubMed

    Onténiente, B; Simon, H; Taghzouti, K; Geffard, M; Le Moal, M; Calas, A

    1987-09-22

    The relationships between dopaminergic afferents and GABAergic neurones were studied at the electron microscopic level in the rat lateral septum and nucleus accumbens by coupling 6-hydroxydopamine degeneration and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunocytochemistry. Degenerating fibres were observed in the two regions making synaptic contact with GABA-immunoreactive and non-labelled cell bodies and dendrites. It is concluded that dopaminergic afferents to the septum and the nucleus accumbens contact, among others, a population of GABAergic cells. A similar route of regulation of the basalo-cortical and septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathways by dopaminergic afferents is proposed. PMID:3121131

  2. The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Dongliang; Liu, Yao; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Jinggen; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However, the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders. PMID:25999814

  3. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) juice exerts an anticonvulsant effect in mice through binding to GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Muceniece, Ruta; Saleniece, Kristine; Krigere, Liga; Rumaks, Juris; Dzirkale, Zane; Mezhapuke, Rudolfs; Kviesis, Jorens; Mekss, Peteris; Klusa, Vija; Schiöth, Helgi B; Dambrova, Maija

    2008-04-01

    Naturally occurring benzodiazepines have been identified in regular food such as wheat and potato, but there is still no evidence that potato extracts can affect CNS responses in vivo. Here we found that undiluted potato juice and potato juice diluted with saline 1 : 2 administered 10 min intracisternally ( I. C.) and 30 min per os before bicuculline exerted significant anticonvulsant activity in the bicuculline-induced seizure threshold test in mice. In vitro, potato juice from different harvests at dilution series from 10 % to 0.000001 %, diluted 100,000-fold, displaced 50 % of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ligand [ (3)H]GABA and diluted 40-fold displaced 50 % of [(3)H]flunitrazepam from binding sites in mice forebrain membranes. The low content of diazepam (0.04 +/- 0.01 mg/kg) determined by HPLC and mass spectrometry in the potato extracts could not sustain the anticonvulsant activity of potato juice in vivo; therefore we hypothesized that potato juice might contain GABA (A) receptor GABA-site active compounds. The findings of this study suggest that potato juice as well as potato taken as food may have the capacity of influencing brain GABA-ergic activity. PMID:18543146

  4. The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dongliang; liu, Yao; Li, Xiaohong; liu, Jinggen; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However, the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders. PMID:25999814

  5. GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    LS mice are more sensitive to benzodiazepine-induced anesthesia; however, the two lines do not differ in their hypothermic response to flurazepam. SS mice are more resistant to 3-mercaptopropionic acid-induced seizures and more sensitive to the anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines. The various correlates of GABA and benzodiazepine actions probably are the results of different mechanisms of action and/or differential regional control. Bicuculline competition for /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites is greater in SS cerebellar tissue and /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding is greater in the mid-brain region of LS mice. GABA enhancement of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepma binding is greater in SS mice. Ethanol also enhances /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding and increases the levels of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding above those observed for GABA. Using correlational techniques on data from LS and SS mice and several inbred mouse strains, it was demonstrated that a positive relationship exists between the degree of receptor coupling within the GABA receptor complex and the degree of resistance to seizures.

  6. Growth hormone response to the GABA-B agonist baclofen in 3-week abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Saliha; Esel, Ertugrul; Turan, Tayfun; Kula, Mustafa

    2007-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) dysfunction is a known feature of alcoholism. We investigated GABA-B receptor activity in 3-week abstinent alcoholics using the growth hormone (GH) response to baclofen, a GABA-B receptor agonist. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between GABA-B receptor activity and alcohol withdrawal. GH response to baclofen was measured in alcohol-dependent males without depression (n = 22) who were on day 21 of alcohol abstinence and in healthy control male subjects (n = 23). After 20mg baclofen was given orally to the subjects, blood samples for GH assay were obtained every 30 min for the subsequent 150 min. The patients were divided into two subgroups (continuing withdrawal and recovered withdrawal subgroups) according to their withdrawal symptom severity scores on day 21 of alcohol cessation. Baclofen administration significantly altered GH secretion in the controls, but not in the patients. When GH response to baclofen was assessed as DeltaGH, it was lower in the patients with continuing withdrawal symptoms than in the controls and in the recovered withdrawal group. Impaired GH response to baclofen in all patients mainly pertained to the patients whose withdrawal symptoms partly continued. Our results suggest that reduced GABA-B receptor activity might be associated with longer-term alcohol withdrawal symptoms in alcoholic patients. PMID:18047908

  7. Hypoxia and GABA shunt activation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Jouhten, Paula; Sarajärvi, Timo; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed that the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to definitive Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a significant increase in the serum level of 2,4-dihydroxybutyrate (2,4-DHBA). The metabolic generation of 2,4-DHBA is linked to the activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, an alternative energy production pathway activated during cellular stress, when the function of Krebs cycle is compromised. The GABA shunt can be triggered by local hypoperfusion and subsequent hypoxia in AD brains caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is a key enzyme in the GABA shunt, converting succinic semialdehyde (SSA) into succinate, a Krebs cycle intermediate. A deficiency of SSADH activity stimulates the conversion of SSA into γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), an alternative route from the GABA shunt. GHB can exert not only acute neuroprotective activities but unfortunately also chronic detrimental effects which may lead to cognitive impairment. Subsequently, GHB can be metabolized to 2,4-DHBA and secreted from the brain. Thus, the activation of the GABA shunt and the generation of GHB and 2,4-DHBA can have an important role in the early phase of AD pathogenesis. PMID:26617286

  8. An investigation of the involvement of GABA in certain pharmacological effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, R G; Browne, S E; Ross, T M; Stretton, C D

    1991-11-01

    Experiments were performed with mice to determine whether doses of the benzodiazepine, flurazepam, or the GABA uptake inhibitor, NO-328, known to potentiate catalepsy induced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), would also interact synergistically with THC in the production of certain other effects. No synergism was detected either in the production of antinociception (tail flick test) or in a test in which the ability of flurazepam to delay onset of clonic convulsions induced by intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole was compared in the presence and absence of THC or cannabidiol. The hypothermic effect of THC was unaffected by NO-328 but enhanced by flurazepam, albeit only at doses higher than those needed to potentiate THC-induced catalepsy. In vitro experiments with guinea pig ileum showed that the ability of THC to inhibit electrically evoked contractions was unaffected by delta-amino-n-valeric acid, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, and that preparations rendered tolerant to GABA responded normally to THC. Contractions induced by GABA in unstimulated ileal longitudinal muscle were attenuated by THC. We conclude that there is little evidence from our data that any of the THC effects studied were GABA mediated. PMID:1666920

  9. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carvill, Gemma L.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Schneider, Amy; Zemel, Matthew; Myers, Candace T.; Saykally, Julia; Nguyen, John; Robbiano, Angela; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola; Mecarelli, Oriano; Smith, Robert L.; Leventer, Richard J.; Møller, Rikke S.; Nikanorova, Marina; Dimova, Petia; Jordanova, Albena; Petrou, Steven; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Mefford, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE). We describe two truncations and four missense alterations, all of which most likely lead to loss of function of GAT-1 and thus reduced GABA re-uptake from the synapse. These individuals share many of the electrophysiological properties of Gat1-deficient mice, including spontaneous spike-wave discharges. Overall, pathogenic mutations occurred in 6/160 individuals with MAE, accounting for ∼4% of unsolved MAE cases. PMID:25865495

  10. Genetic differences in the ethanol sensitivity of GABA sub A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wafford, K.A.; Burnett, D.M.; Dunwiddie, T.V.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-07-20

    Animal lines selected for differences in drug sensitivity can be used to help determine the molecular basis of drug action. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice differ markedly in their genetic sensitivity to ethanol. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference, mRNA from brains of LS and SS mice was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the ethanol sensitivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA{sub A})- and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) - activated ion channels was tested. Ethanol facilitated GABA responses in oocytes injected with mRNA from LS mice but antagonized responses in oocytes injected with mRNA from SS animals. Ethanol inhibited NMDA responses equally in the two lines. Thus, genes coding for the GABA{sub A} receptor or associated proteins may be critical determinants of individual differences in ethanol sensitivity.

  11. Ornithine aminotransferase vs. GABA aminotransferase. Implications for the design of new anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunbeom; Juncosa, Jose I.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) are classified under the same evolutionary subgroup and share a large portion of structural, functional, and mechanistic features. Therefore, it is not surprising that many molecules that bind to GABA-AT also bind well to OAT. Unlike GABA-AT, OAT had not been viewed as a potential therapeutic target until recently; consequently, the number of therapeutically viable molecules that target OAT is very limited. In this review the two enzymes are compared with respect to their active site structures, catalytic and inactivation mechanisms, and selective inhibitors. Insight is offered that could aid in the design and development of new selective inhibitors of OAT for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25145640

  12. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Carvill, Gemma L; McMahon, Jacinta M; Schneider, Amy; Zemel, Matthew; Myers, Candace T; Saykally, Julia; Nguyen, John; Robbiano, Angela; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola; Mecarelli, Oriano; Smith, Robert L; Leventer, Richard J; Møller, Rikke S; Nikanorova, Marina; Dimova, Petia; Jordanova, Albena; Petrou, Steven; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Mefford, Heather C

    2015-05-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE). We describe two truncations and four missense alterations, all of which most likely lead to loss of function of GAT-1 and thus reduced GABA re-uptake from the synapse. These individuals share many of the electrophysiological properties of Gat1-deficient mice, including spontaneous spike-wave discharges. Overall, pathogenic mutations occurred in 6/160 individuals with MAE, accounting for ~4% of unsolved MAE cases. PMID:25865495

  13. “Brain MR spectroscopy in autism spectrum disorder—the GABA excitatory/inhibitory imbalance theory revisited”

    PubMed Central

    Brix, Maiken K.; Ersland, Lars; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Grüner, Renate; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Hammar, Åsa; Craven, Alexander R.; Noeske, Ralph; Evans, C. John; Walker, Hanne B.; Midtvedt, Tore; Beyer, Mona K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) from voxels placed in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was measured from 14 boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 24 gender and age-matched typically developing (TD) control group. Our main aims were to compare the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) between the two groups, and to investigate the relationship between brain metabolites and autism symptom severity in the ASD group. We did find a significant negative correlation in the ASD group between Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and GABA+/Cr, which may imply that severity of symptoms in ASD is associated with differences in the level of GABA in the brain, supporting the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalance theory. However we did not find a significant difference between the two groups in GABA levels. PMID:26157380

  14. Contribution of polyamines metabolism and GABA shunt to chilling tolerance induced by nitric oxide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yansheng; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-04-15

    Effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on polyamines (PAs) catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, proline accumulation and chilling injury of banana fruit under cold storage was investigated. Banana fruit treated with NO sustained lower chilling injury index than the control. Notably elevated nitric oxide synthetase activity and endogenous NO level were observed in NO-treated banana fruit. PAs contents in treated fruit were significantly higher than control fruit, due to the elevated activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase. NO treatment increased the activities of diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase and glutamate decarboxylase, while reduced GABA transaminase activity to lower levels compared with control fruit, which resulted the accumulation of GABA. Besides, NO treatment upregulated proline content and significantly enhanced the ornithine aminotransferase activity. These results indicated that the chilling tolerance induced by NO treatment might be ascribed to the enhanced catabolism of PAs, GABA and proline. PMID:26616957

  15. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    PubMed

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction. PMID:27013462

  16. Effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the GABA-induced response in frog isolated sensory neurones.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, T; Fukuda, T; Oyama, Y; Akaike, N

    1989-11-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced chloride current (ICl) were studied in frog isolated sensory neurones by use of a concentration-jump (termed 'concentration-clamp') technique, under single-electrode voltage-clamp conditions. The drugs used were classified into four categories as follows: full benzodiazepine receptor agonists (diazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, midazolam, clotiazepam and etizolam), partial agonists (CL 218,872, Ro 16-6028, Ro 17-1812 and Ro 23-0364), inverse agonists (Ro 15-3505, FG 7142 and beta-CCE) and a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil). 2. All full agonists at concentrations of 3 x 10(-6) M or less increased dose-dependently the peak amplitude of ICl elicited by 3 x 10(-6) M GABA to twice to three times larger than the control. However, no further augmentation of the GABA response was observed at concentrations of 1 x 10(-5) M or higher. Partial agonists also showed a dose-dependent augmentation of the GABA response at concentrations ranging from 3 x 10(-8) M to 3 x 10(-5) M, but their efficacies of augmentation of the GABA response were only about half or less of those of full agonists. Of the inverse agonists, beta-CCE had a unique dose-dependent effect on the GABA response. Beta-CCE reduced dose-dependently the GABA response at concentrations of less than 3 x 10(-6) M, but augmented it at concentrations of 3 x 10(-5) M and 6 x 10(-5) M. The inverse agonists reduced dose-dependently the GABA response. The benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, slightly augmented the GABA response at concentrations between 3 x 10 7M and 3 x 10 5 M. 3. These results show clear differences in the effects on the GABA response between these four categories of compounds known to affect the benzodiazepine recognition site of the GABA/ benzodiazepine receptor-chloride channel complex. Our experimental system of frog isolated sensory neurones and a 'concentration-clamp' technique appears to be useful for evaluating efficacy of compounds on responses mediated by the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor-chloride channel complex. PMID:2574062

  17. Acute increases in synaptic GABA detectable in the living human brain: a [¹¹C]Ro15-4513 PET study.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Myers, Jim F; Kalk, Nicola J; Watson, Ben J; Erritzoe, David; Wilson, Sue J; Cunningham, Vincent J; Riano Barros, Daniela; Hammers, Alexander; Turkheimer, Federico E; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2014-10-01

    The inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system is associated with the regulation of normal cognitive functions and dysregulation has been reported in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and addictions. Investigating the role of GABA in both health and disease has been constrained by difficulties in measuring acute changes in synaptic GABA using neurochemical imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute increases in synaptic GABA are detectable in the living human brain using the inverse agonist GABA-benzodiazepine receptor (GABA-BZR) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [(11)C]Ro15-4513. We examined the effect of 15 mg oral tiagabine, which increases synaptic GABA by inhibiting the GAT1 GABA uptake transporter, on [(11)C]Ro15-4513 binding in 12 male participants using a paired, double blind, placebo-controlled protocol. Spectral analysis was used to examine synaptic α1 and extrasynaptic α5 GABA-BZR subtype availability in brain regions with high levels of [(11)C]Ro15-4513 binding. We also examined the test-retest reliability of α1 and a5-specific [(11)C]Ro15-4513 binding in a separate cohort of 4 participants using the same spectral analysis protocol. Tiagabine administration produced significant reductions in hippocampal, parahippocampal, amygdala and anterior cingulate synaptic α1 [(11)C]Ro15-4513 binding, and a trend significance reduction in the nucleus accumbens. These reductions were greater than test-retest reliability, indicating that they are not the result of chance observations. Our results suggest that acute increases in endogenous synaptic GABA are detectable in the living human brain using [(11)C]Ro15-4513 PET. These findings have potentially major implications for the investigation of GABA function in brain disorders and in the development of new treatments targeting this neurotransmitter system. PMID:24844747

  18. Excitatory actions of GABA in developing chick vestibular afferents: effects on resting electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Celso; Galindo, Fabian; Galicia, Salvador; Cebada, Jorge; Flores, Amira

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the resting multiunit activity of the vestibular afferents during development using the isolated inner ear of embryonic and postnatal chickens (E15-E21 and P5). GABA (10(-3) to 10(-5) M; n = 133) and muscimol (10(-3) M) elicited an increase in the frequency of the basal discharge of the vestibular afferents. We found that GABA action was dose-dependent and inversely related to animal age. Thus, the largest effect was observed in embryonic ages such as E15 and E17 and decreases in E21 and P5. The GABAA receptor antagonists, bicuculline (10(-5) M; n = 10) and picrotoxin (10(-4) M; n = 10), significantly decreased the excitatory action of GABA and muscimol (10(-3) M). Additionally, CNQX 10(-6) M, MCPG 10(-5) M and 7ClKyn 10(-5) M (n = 5) were co-applied by bath substitution (n = 5). Both the basal discharge and the GABA action significantly decreased in these experimental conditions. The chloride channel blocker 9-AC 0.5 mM produced an important reduction in the effect of GABA 10(-3) (n = 5) and 10(-4) M (n = 5). Thus, our results suggest an excitatory role of GABA in the resting activity of the vestibular afferents that can be explained by changes in the gradient of concentration of Cl(-) during development. We show for the first time that the magnitude of this GABA effect decreases at later stages of embryonic and early postnatal development. Taking into account the results with glutamatergic antagonists, we conclude that GABA has a presynaptic action but is not the neurotransmitter in the vestibular afferent synapses, although it could act as a facilitator of the spontaneous activity and may regulate glutamate release. PMID:23401185

  19. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Guadalupe; Bao, Jin; Marty, Alain; Augustine, George J.; Franconville, Romain; Jalil, Abdelali; Bradley, Jonathan; Llano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    While it has been proposed that the conventional inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA can be excitatory in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned concerning the circumstances and the cellular mechanisms governing potential excitatory GABA action. Using a combination of optogenetics and two-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we find that activation of chloride-permeable GABAA receptors in parallel fibers (PFs) of the cerebellar molecular layer of adult mice causes parallel fiber excitation. Stimulation of PFs at submaximal stimulus intensities leads to GABA release from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs), thus creating a positive feedback loop that enhances excitation near the center of an activated PF bundle. Our results imply that elevated chloride concentration can occur in specific intracellular compartments of mature mammalian neurons and suggest an excitatory role for GABAA receptors in the cerebellar cortex of adult mice. PMID:26236197

  20. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo.

    PubMed

    Astorga, Guadalupe; Bao, Jin; Marty, Alain; Augustine, George J; Franconville, Romain; Jalil, Abdelali; Bradley, Jonathan; Llano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    While it has been proposed that the conventional inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA can be excitatory in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned concerning the circumstances and the cellular mechanisms governing potential excitatory GABA action. Using a combination of optogenetics and two-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we find that activation of chloride-permeable GABAA receptors in parallel fibers (PFs) of the cerebellar molecular layer of adult mice causes parallel fiber excitation. Stimulation of PFs at submaximal stimulus intensities leads to GABA release from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs), thus creating a positive feedback loop that enhances excitation near the center of an activated PF bundle. Our results imply that elevated chloride concentration can occur in specific intracellular compartments of mature mammalian neurons and suggest an excitatory role for GABAA receptors in the cerebellar cortex of adult mice. PMID:26236197

  1. The rise of a new GABA pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Möhler, Hanns

    2011-06-01

    Key developments in GABA pharmacology over the last 30 years are reviewed with special reference to the advances pioneered by Erminio Costa. His passion for innovative science, and his quest for novel therapies for psychiatric disorders are particularly apparent in his fundamental contributions to the field of GABA research, with a focus on anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. He was a cofounder of the GABAergic mechanism of action of benzodiazepines. He envisaged partial agonists as novel anxiolytics. He identified DBI (diazepam binding inhibitor) as endogenous agonist of neurosteroidogenesis with multiple CNS effects and he pointed to the developmental origin of GABAergic dysfunctions in schizophrenia through his discovery of a reelin deficit, all this in collaboration with Sandro Guidotti. Today, the GABA pharmacology comprises selective hypnotics, non-sedative anxiolytics, memory enhancers and powerful analgesics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. PMID:21035473

  2. Self-enhancement of GABA in rice bran using various stress treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Jung; Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be synthesized in plant tissues when the organism is under stressful conditions. Rice bran byproduct obtained from the milling of brown rice was treated under anaerobic storage with nitrogen at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and moisture contents (10-50%) up to 12h. For the GABA synthesis, the storage at 30% moisture content and 40 °C appeared optimal. Utilisation of an electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW, pH 3.3) for moisture adjustment and addition of glutamic acid increased the GABA content in rice bran. The maximum GABA content in rice bran (523 mg/100g) could be achieved by the anaerobic storage at 30% EOW for 5h at 40 °C after an addition of glutamic acid (5mM). This amount was approximately 17 times higher than that in the control (30 mg/100g). The use of EOW also prevented bacterial growth by decreasing the colony counts almost by half. PMID:25442603

  3. The GABA(B2) subunit is critical for the trafficking and function of native GABA(B) receptors.

    PubMed

    Thuault, Seb J; Brown, Jon T; Sheardown, Steven A; Jourdain, Sabine; Fairfax, Benjamin; Spencer, Jonathan P; Restituito, Sophie; Nation, Josephine H L; Topps, Stephanie; Medhurst, Andrew D; Randall, Andrew D; Couve, Andres; Moss, Stephen J; Collingridge, Graham L; Pangalos, Menelas N; Davies, Ceri H; Calver, Andrew R

    2004-10-15

    Studies in heterologous systems have demonstrated that heterodimerisation of the two GABA(B) receptor subunits appears to be crucial for the trafficking and signalling of the receptor. Gene targeting of the GABA(B1) gene has demonstrated that the expression of GABA(B1) is essential for GABA(B) receptor function in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the contribution of the GABA(B2) subunit in the formation of native GABA(B) receptors is still unclear, in particular whether other proteins can substitute for this subunit. We have created a transgenic mouse in which the endogenous GABA(B2) gene has been mutated in order to express a C-terminally truncated version of the protein. As a result, the GABA(B1) subunit does not reach the cell surface and concomitantly both pre- and post-synaptic GABA(B) receptor functions are abolished. Taken together with previous gene deletion studies for the GABA(B1) subunit, this suggests that classical GABA(B) function in the brain is exclusively mediated by GABA(B1/2) heteromers. PMID:15451409

  4. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    van Bemmelen, F J; Schouten, M J; Fekkes, D; Bruinvels, J

    1985-11-01

    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis. PMID:2864395

  5. Valerian Inhibits Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis by Activating GABA(A) Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Kato, Ayumi; Ishii, Naomi; Wei, Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor (GABA(A)R) system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(A)R agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis) at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(A)R alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P+ foci by activating GABA(A)R-mediated signaling. PMID:25419570

  6. GABA content within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is related to trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo; Bubbico, Giovanna; Edden, Richard A; Ferretti, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Marzoli, Daniele; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in emotion processing and regulation. vmPFC dysfunction may lead to disinhibition of amygdala causing high anxiety levels. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) inter-neurons within vmPFC shape the information flow to amygdala. Thus, we hypothesize that GABA content within vmPFC could be relevant to trait anxiety. Forty-three healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 88 years were assessed for trait anxiety with the Subscale-2 of the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2) and were studied with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate GABA and Glx (glutamate+glutamine) contents within vmPFC. Total creatine (tCr) was used as internal reference. Partial correlations assessed the association between metabolite levels and STAI-Y2 scores, removing the effect of possible nuisance factors including age, educational level, volumes of gray matter and white matter within magnetic resonance spectroscopy voxel. We observed a positive relationship between GABA/tCr and STAI-Y2 scores. No significant relationships were found between Glx/tCr and STAI-Y2 and between tCr/water and STAI-Y2. No differences were found between males and females as regards to age, STAI-Y2, GABA/tCr, Glx/tCr, tCr/water, gray matter and white matter volumes. We suggest a close relationship between GABA content within vmPFC and trait anxiety providing new insights in the physiology of emotional brain. PMID:26722018

  7. Decreased auditory GABA+ concentrations in presbycusis demonstrated by edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guangbin; Ma, Wen; Ren, Fuxin; Li, Muwei; Dong, Yuling; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Bin; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Altered GABAergic neurotransmission has been found in both the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex in animal models of presbycusis. Edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), using the MEGA-PRESS sequence, is the most widely used technique for detecting GABA in the human brain. However, to date there has been a paucity of studies exploring changes to the GABA concentrations in the auditory region of patients with presbycusis. In this study, sixteen patients with presbycusis (5 males/11 females, mean age 63.1 ± 2.6 years) and twenty healthy controls (6 males/14 females, mean age 62.5 ± 2.3 years) underwent audiological and MRS examinations. Pure tone audiometry from 0.125 to 8 KHz and tympanometry were used to assess the hearing abilities of all subjects. The pure tone average (PTA; the average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) was calculated. The MEGA-PRESS sequence was used to measure GABA+ concentrations in 4 × 3 × 3 cm3 volumes centered on the left and right Heschl’s gyri. GABA+ concentrations were significantly lower in the presbycusis group compared to the control group (left auditory regions: p = 0.002, right auditory regions: p = 0.008). Significant negative correlations were observed between PTA and GABA+ concentrations in the presbycusis group (r = −0.57, p = 0.02), while a similar trend was found in the control group (r = −0.40, p = 0.08). These results are consistent with a hypothesis of dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission in the central auditory system in presbycusis, and suggest a potential treatment target for presbycusis. PMID:25463460

  8. Interplay between the transcription factors acting on the GATA- and GABA-responsive elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UGA promoters.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, Sabrina B; Levi, Carolina E; Bermúdez Moretti, Mariana; Correa García, Susana

    2012-04-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport and catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are subject to a complex transcriptional control that depends on the nutritional status of the cells. The expression of the genes that form the UGA regulon is inducible by GABA and sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). GABA induction of these genes is mediated by Uga3 and Dal81 transcription factors, whereas GATA factors are responsible for NCR. Here, we show how members of the UGA regulon share the activation mechanism. Our results show that both Uga3 and Dal81 interact with UGA genes in a GABA-dependent manner, and that they depend on each other for the interaction with their target promoters and the transcriptional activation. The typical DNA-binding domain Zn(II)(2)-Cys(6) of Dal81 is unnecessary for its activity and Uga3 acts as a bridge between Dal81 and DNA. Both the trans-activation activity of the GATA factor Gln3 and the repressive activity of the GATA factor Dal80 are exerted by their interaction with UGA promoters in response to GABA, indicating that Uga3, Dal81, Gln3 and Dal80 all act in concert to induce the expression of UGA genes. So, an interplay between the factors responsible for GABA induction and those responsible for NCR in the regulation of the UGA genes is proposed here. PMID:22282516

  9. GABA(B)-related activity involved in synaptic processing of somatosensory information in S1 cortex of the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Hicks, T P

    1990-08-01

    1. The possible role of GABA(B) receptor mechanisms in information processing in primary somatosensory (S1) cortex was assessed by use of extracellular recording combined with microiontophoretic methods from 161 neurones in anaesthetized, paralysed cats. 2. Baclofen-induced suppressions of cell responses were reversible and stereoselective, the (+)-isomer being inactive and the (-)-isomer having two to three times the apparent potency of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The responses measured were threshold to natural stimulation of receptive fields (RFs), responsiveness to thalamic electrical stimulation, change in RF size and magnitude of firing elicited by iontophoretic glutamate. 3. The action of GABA always was mimicked by muscimol or 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) but not always by (-)-baclofen; in certain cases (-)-baclofen enhanced neuronal responses while the opposite occurred with GABA or with the other GABA(A) agonists. The elevation of response thresholds by (-)-baclofen was relatively stronger in peripheral than in central subregions of cutaneous RFs, by contrast with the action of muscimol which was relatively non-selective as to the area in which it was effective. 4. Glutamate-induced and thalamically-evoked cortical responses as well as spontaneous activity were differentially sensitive to the suppressant effects of muscimol and (-)-baclofen. 5. Bicuculline methiodide reversibly blocked THIP- and muscimol-induced suppressions of tactile- (air puffer)-induced S1 responses but spared those produced by (-)-baclofen. Phaclofen and delta-amino-n-valeric acid were essentially inactive as blockers of (-)-baclofen-induced effects and in fact often acted as (-)-baclofen-like agonists, phaclofen being considerably weaker than delta-amino-n-valeric acid in this respect. 6. The range of suppressant effects produced by GABA as well as by muscimol and THIP, considered in conjunction with the actions of bicuculline methiodide, suggest that the effects observed by ejected GABA are likely to be due principally to GABA(A) processes, those mediated by GABA(B) receptors largely being masked. However, GABA(B) mechanisms are extant and do appear to be active, probably presynaptically and probably at sites distal to the soma. PMID:2207494

  10. Effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the GABA-induced response in frog isolated sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Fukuda, T.; Oyama, Y.; Akaike, N.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced chloride current (ICl) were studied in frog isolated sensory neurones by use of a concentration-jump (termed 'concentration-clamp') technique, under single-electrode voltage-clamp conditions. The drugs used were classified into four categories as follows: full benzodiazepine receptor agonists (diazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, midazolam, clotiazepam and etizolam), partial agonists (CL 218,872, Ro 16-6028, Ro 17-1812 and Ro 23-0364), inverse agonists (Ro 15-3505, FG 7142 and beta-CCE) and a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil). 2. All full agonists at concentrations of 3 x 10(-6) M or less increased dose-dependently the peak amplitude of ICl elicited by 3 x 10(-6) M GABA to twice to three times larger than the control. However, no further augmentation of the GABA response was observed at concentrations of 1 x 10(-5) M or higher. Partial agonists also showed a dose-dependent augmentation of the GABA response at concentrations ranging from 3 x 10(-8) M to 3 x 10(-5) M, but their efficacies of augmentation of the GABA response were only about half or less of those of full agonists. Of the inverse agonists, beta-CCE had a unique dose-dependent effect on the GABA response. Beta-CCE reduced dose-dependently the GABA response at concentrations of less than 3 x 10(-6) M, but augmented it at concentrations of 3 x 10(-5) M and 6 x 10(-5) M. The inverse agonists reduced dose-dependently the GABA response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2574062

  11. The effect of repeated electroconvulsive shock on GABA synthesis and release in regions of rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A. R.; Vincent, N. D.

    1987-01-01

    1 The release of endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from slices of rat cortex, hippocampus and striatum prepared both 30 min and 24 h after the last of a series of electroconvulsive shocks (5 seizures given spread out over 10 days) has been investigated. 2 No change in spontaneous (basal) release was observed. However, 30 min after the last convulsion, K+-evoked GABA release above basal release was inhibited in both hippocampus (20%) and striatum (33%) but not in the cortex. Release was still inhibited in striatum (22%) 24 h after the last seizure. 3 In confirmation of an earlier report, chronic electroconvulsive shock was found to increase basal GABA content in striatum and inhibit synthesis by 34%. The synthesis rate was also inhibited in the hippocampus (44%) but not in the cortex. 4 Glutamic acid decarboxylase activity was unchanged in all regions after repeated electroconvulsive shock treatment. 5 It is proposed that repeated electroconvulsive shocks lead to a substantial inhibition of release in the striatum and hippocampus and a long-term inhibition of GABA synthesis in these regions. Such changes may be associated with the altered monoamine biochemistry and function observed after repeated electroconvulsive shock and with the mechanism of the antidepressant action of electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:3664087

  12. GABA Binding to an Insect GABA Receptor: A Molecular Dynamics and Mutagenesis Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Jamie A.; McGonigle, Ian V.; Price, Kerry L.; Cohen, Netta; Comitani, Federico; Dougherty, Dennis A.; Molteni, Carla; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2012-01-01

    RDL receptors are GABA-activated inhibitory Cys-loop receptors found throughout the insect CNS. They are a key target for insecticides. Here, we characterize the GABA binding site in RDL receptors using computational and electrophysiological techniques. A homology model of the extracellular domain of RDL was generated and GABA docked into the binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted critical GABA binding interactions with aromatic residues F206, Y254, and Y109 and hydrophilic residues E204, S176, R111, R166, S176, and T251. These residues were mutated, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and their functions assessed using electrophysiology. The data support the binding mechanism provided by the simulations, which predict that GABA forms many interactions with binding site residues, the most significant of which are cation-π interactions with F206 and Y254, H-bonds with E204, S205, R111, S176, T251, and ionic interactions with R111 and E204. These findings clarify the roles of a range of residues in binding GABA in the RDL receptor, and also show that molecular dynamics simulations are a useful tool to identify specific interactions in Cys-loop receptors. PMID:23200041

  13. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-12-08

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity /sup 3/H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light /sup 3/H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of a GABA receptor subunit from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Vázquez, Eric N; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara E; Uribe, R M; Arias, Juan M; García, Ubaldo

    2016-02-01

    Molecular cloning has introduced an unexpected, large diversity of neurotransmitter hetero- oligomeric receptors. Extensive research on the molecular structure of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) has been of great significance for understanding how the nervous system works in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, only two examples of functional homo-oligomeric GABA-activated Cl(-) channels have been reported. In the vertebrate retina, the GABAρ1 subunit of various species forms homo-oligomeric receptors; in invertebrates, a cDNA encoding a functional GABA-activated Cl(-) channel has been isolated from a Drosophila melanogaster head cDNA library. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, these subunits function efficiently as a homo-oligomeric complex. To investigate the structure-function of GABA channels from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we cloned a subunit and expressed it in human embryonic kidney cells. Electrophysiological recordings show that this subunit forms a homo-oligomeric ionotropic GABAR that gates a bicuculline-insensitive Cl(-) current. The order of potency of the agonists was GABA > trans-4-amino-crotonic acid = cis-4-aminocrotonic acid > muscimol. These data support the notion that X-organ sinus gland neurons express at least two GABA subunits responsible for the formation of hetero-oligomeric and homo-oligomeric receptors. In addition, by in situ hybridization studies we demonstrate that most X-organ neurons from crayfish eyestalk express the isolated pcGABAA β subunit. This study increases the knowledge of the genetics of the crayfish, furthers the understanding of this important neurotransmitter receptor family, and provides insight into the evolution of these genes among vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:26577600

  15. Effects of exogenous GABA on gene expression of Caragana intermedia roots under NaCl stress: regulatory roles for H2O2 and ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Qing; Shi, Zheng; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Qi, Li-Wang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Zhang, Shou-Gong

    2010-02-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid presented in a wide range of organisms. In this study, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed using roots of a legume shrub, Caragana intermedia, with the combined treatment of 300 mm NaCl and 300 mm NaCl + 10 mm GABA. We obtained 224 GABA-regulated unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) including signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, hormone biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polyamine metabolism, etc. The key H(2)O(2)-generated genes, NADPH oxidase (CaGR60), peroxidase (CaGR61) and amine oxidase (CaGR62), were regulated at the mRNA level by 10 mm GABA, which clearly inhibited H(2)O(2) accumulation brought about by NaCl stress in roots and leaves with the observation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Similarly, 10 mm GABA also regulated the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO) genes (CaGR30 and CaGR31) and ethylene production in NaCl-treated roots. Surprisingly, these H(2)O(2)-generated genes were enhanced at the mRNA level by a lower concentration of GABA, at 0.25 mm, but not other alternative nitrogen sources, and endogenous GABA accumulated largely just by the application of GABA at either concentration. Our results further proved that GABA, as a signal molecule, participates in regulating the expression of genes in plants under salt stress. PMID:19895397

  16. Double isotopic method using dansyl chloride for the determination of GABA in rat C6 astrocytoma cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, R.L.; Quay, W.B.; Perez-Polo, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Methods are described for the quantitative measurement of GABA in culture. The method can be adapted to any amino acid or dansyl-chloride-reactive species. The sensitivity and selectivity of the procedure result from the double isotopic design in which (/sup 14/C)-labeled internal standard was added to the samples before reaction with (3M)-labeled dansyl chloride. Values obtained by ion-exchange amino acid analysis of cultures agree closely with the values obtained by the double isotopic method. This method is sensitive enough to measure GABA intracellularly and the condition medium.

  17. GABA{sub A} receptor open-state conformation determines non-competitive antagonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ligong; Xue Ling; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Casida, John E.

    2011-02-01

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA{sub A}R) is one of the most important targets for insecticide action. The human recombinant {beta}3 homomer is the best available model for this binding site and 4-n-[{sup 3}H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([{sup 3}H]EBOB) is the preferred non-competitive antagonist (NCA) radioligand. The uniquely high sensitivity of the {beta}3 homomer relative to the much-less-active but structurally very-similar {beta}1 homomer provides an ideal comparison to elucidate structural and functional features important for NCA binding. The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared using chimeragenesis and mutagenesis and various combinations with the {alpha}1 subunit and modulators. Chimera {beta}3/{beta}1 with the {beta}3 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}1 subunit transmembrane helices retained the high [{sup 3}H]EBOB binding level of the {beta}3 homomer while chimera {beta}1/{beta}3 with the {beta}1 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}3 subunit transmembrane helices had low binding activity similar to the {beta}1 homomer. GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold by increasing the open probability of the channel. Addition of the {alpha}1 subunit rescued the inactive {beta}1/{beta}3 chimera close to wildtype {alpha}1{beta}1 activity. EBOB binding was significantly altered by mutations {beta}1S15'N and {beta}3N15'S compared with wildtype {beta}1 and {beta}3, respectively. However, the binding activity of {alpha}1{beta}1S15'N was insensitive to GABA and {alpha}1{beta}3N15'S was stimulated much less than wildtype {alpha}1{beta}3 by GABA. The inhibitory effect of etomidate on NCA binding was reduced more than 5-fold by the mutation {beta}3N15'S. Therefore, the NCA binding site is tightly regulated by the open-state conformation that largely determines GABA{sub A} receptor sensitivity. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared by chimeragenesis, mutagenesis and modulators. > Low {beta}1 NCA binding was rescued by replacing its transmembrane helices with those of {beta}3. > GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold. > Mutation at 15' position in TM2 reduced GABA stimulation of NCA binding. > The open-state conformation largely determines GABAA receptor sensitivity to NCAs.

  18. Agonist- and antagonist-induced conformational changes of loop F and their contributions to the ρ1 GABA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianliang; Xue, Fenqin; Chang, Yongchang

    2009-01-01

    Binding of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor initiates a conformational change to open the channel, but the mechanism of the channel activation is not well understood. To this end, we scanned loop F (K210–F227) in the N-terminal domain of the ρ1 GABA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a site-specific fluorescence technique. We detected GABA-induced fluorescence changes at six positions (K210, K211, L216, K217, T218 and I222). At these positions the fluorescence changes were dose dependent and highly correlated to the current dose–response, but with lower Hill coefficients. The competitive antagonist 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid (3-APMPA) induced fluorescence changes in the same direction at the four middle or lower positions. The non-competitive antagonist picrotoxin blocked nearly 50% of GABA-induced fluorescence changes at T218 and I222, but only <20% at K210 and K217 and 0% at K211 and L216 positions. Interestingly, the picrotoxin-blocked fraction of the GABA-induced fluorescence changes was highly correlated to the Hill coefficient of the GABA-induced dose-dependent fluorescence change. The PTX-insensitive mutant L216C exhibited the lowest Hill coefficient, similar to that in binding. Thus, the PTX-sensitive fraction reflects the conformational change related to channel gating, whereas the PTX-insensitive fraction represents a binding effect. The binding effect is further supported by the picrotoxin resistance of a competitive antagonist-induced fluorescence change. A cysteine accessibility test further confirmed that L216C and K217C partially line the binding pocket, and I222C became more exposed by GABA. Our results are consistent with a mechanism that an outward movement of the lower part of loop F is coupled to the channel activation. PMID:19015197

  19. Excitatory actions of GABA in developing rat hypothalamic neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, G; Trombley, P Q; van den Pol, A N

    1996-01-01

    1. Gramicidin-perforated patch clamp recording was employed to study GABA-mediated responses in rat hypothalamic neurones (n = 102) with an intracellular Cl- concentration unaltered by the pipette solution. 2. In young cultures after 1-7 days in vitro (DIV), GABA induced depolarizing membrane potentials (+16.5 +/- 1.3 mV) that often surpassed the threshold for the firing of action potentials (-42 +/- 1 mV) and resulted in an increase in neuronal activity. The depolarizing responses to GABA in young cultures were dose dependent. The concentration of GABA necessary to evoke the half-maximal depolarization (EC50) was 2.8 microM. In contrast, GABA induced hyperpolarizing membrane potentials (-12.0 +/- 1.4 mV) and a decrease in neuronal activity in older neurones (20-33 DIV). Both the depolarization and the hyperpolarization induced by GABA were blocked by bicuculline, indicating a mediation by GABAA receptors. 3. The reversal potentials of the GABA-evoked currents were between -40 to -50 mV during the first week of culture, and shifted to below -70 mV after 3 weeks of culture. In parallel, neurones that were dissociated from older animals (postnatal day 5) had a more negative reversal potential for the GABA-evoked currents than cells from younger animals (embryonic day 15), suggesting that the negative shift of the reversal potential occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that the mechanism for GABA-induced depolarization is the depolarized Cl- reversal potential found in young but not older neurones. 4. Consistent with the depolarizing response to exogenous application of GABA, some spontaneous depolarizing postsynaptic potentials in young cultures were insensitive to AP5-CNQX, but were eliminated by bicuculline, indicating that synaptically released GABA mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in early development. 5. By combining a rapid computer-controlled delivery of GABA with subthreshold positive current injections into recorded neurones, we found in young cultures that the GABA-evoked depolarization could directly trigger action potentials, facilitate some depolarizing input to fire action potentials, and shunt other depolarizing input. Whether the GABA-induced depolarization is excitatory or inhibitory would be determined by the reversal potential of the GABA-evoked current, and the temporal relationship between GABA-evoked depolarizations and other excitatory events. 6. We conclude that the reversal potential of the GABA-evoked current shifts negatively from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in developing hypothalamus. Consequently, GABA neurotransmission may serve both excitatory and inhibitory roles during early development. PMID:8842004

  20. Conformationally Restricted GABA with Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane Backbone as the First Highly Selective BGT-1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the three-dimensional diversity-oriented conformational restriction strategy using key chiral cyclopropane units, we previously identified 3 ((2S,3R)-4-amino-3,4-methanobutyric acid) with a chiral trans-cyclopropane structure as a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter inhibitor selective for GABA transporter (GAT) subtypes GAT-3 and BGT-1 (betaine/GABA transporter-1). Further conformational restriction of 3 with the rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane backbone led to the successful development of the first highly potent and selective BGT-1 inhibitor 4 (IC50 = 0.59 μM). The bioactive conformation of 3 for BGT-1 was also identified. PMID:25147609

  1. Involvement of GABA in environmental temperature-induced change in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Poddar, M K

    1988-12-01

    Acute exposure of adult male albino rats (110-120 g) to higher environmental temperature (40 +/- 1 degrees C) increased body temperature (BT). This increase of BT was also dependent on the duration of exposure. Treatment with muscimol (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA agonist, produced hypothermia at room temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C) and resistance to increase the body temperature when exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C). Administration of bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA antagonist, on the other hand, enhanced BT more than that observed in control (normal) rat exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C), although at room temperature bicuculline treatment did not show any effect on BT. Pretreatment with ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) (2 g/kg, s.c.), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, to rats exposed to higher temperature increased BT as in control (normal) rat. Inhibition of central GAD activity with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (70 mg/kg, i.p.) produced resistance to increase BT during its period of action when rats were exposed to higher environmental temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C). These results thus suggest that central inhibitory neuron, GABA, plays a regulatory role in thermoregulation. PMID:3236943

  2. Fine Tuning of Synaptic Plasticity and Filtering by GABA Released from Hippocampal Autaptic Granule Cells.

    PubMed

    Valente, Pierluigi; Orlando, Marta; Raimondi, Andrea; Benfenati, Fabio; Baldelli, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    The functional consequence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release at mossy fiber terminals is still a debated topic. Here, we provide multiple evidence of GABA release in cultured autaptic hippocampal granule cells. In ∼50% of the excitatory autaptic neurons, GABA, VGAT, or GAD67 colocalized with vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive puncta, where both GABAB and GABAA receptors (Rs) were present. Patch-clamp recordings showed a clear enhancement of autaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents in response to the application of the GABABR antagonist CGP58845 only in neurons positive to the selective granule cell marker Prox1, and expressing low levels of GAD67. Indeed, GCP non-responsive excitatory autaptic neurons were both Prox1- and GAD67-negative. Although the amount of released GABA was not sufficient to activate functional postsynaptic GABAARs, it effectively activated presynaptic GABABRs that maintain a tonic "brake" on the probability of release and on the size of the readily releasable pool and contributed to resting potential hyperpolarization possibly through extrasynaptic GABAAR activation. The autocrine inhibition exerted by GABABRs on glutamate release enhanced both paired-pulse facilitation and post-tetanic potentiation. Such GABABR-mediated changes in short-term plasticity confer to immature granule cells the capability to modulate their filtering properties in an activity-dependent fashion, with remarkable consequences on the dynamic behavior of neural circuits. PMID:25576534

  3. Huntington's disease. Cerebrospinal fluid GABA levels in at-risk individuals.

    PubMed

    Manyam, N V; Hare, T A; Katz, L; Glaeser, B S

    1978-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured by the ion-exchange fluorometric method in CSF from 22 individuals at risk for Huntington's disease (HD), six individuals with HD, and five neurologically normal controls. The mean (+/- SD) GABA level in the specimens from patients with HD was 142 +/- 27 pmoles/ml, whereas that of the normal control specimens was 297 +/- 87 pmoles/ml. The mean GABA level of the specimens from the individuals at risk for HD was 209 +/- 79 pmoles/ml; however, nine of these were in the normal range with a mean value of 281 +/- 72 pmoles/ml, while the other 13 were below the normal range with a mean value of 159 +/- 27 pmoles/ml. The data indicate that low GABA levels in CSF are evident prior to the onset of symptoms of HD but a predictive value can only be determined by continued observation of the clinical course of these at-risk individuals. PMID:152621

  4. Inhibitory actions of GABA on rabbit urinary bladder muscle strips: mediation by potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D R; Marchant, J S

    1995-05-01

    1. The actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) upon rabbit urinary bladder muscle were investigated to determine whether they were mediated through potassium channels. 2. In vitro experiments were undertaken in which bladder muscle strips were caused to contract with carbachol. Addition of GABA or baclofen reduced the size of such evoked contractions in the case of GABA by 20.7 +/- 3.2%, in the case of baclofen by 22.4 +/- 2.2%. 3. Electrical stimulation of autonomic nerves in bladder wall strips also evoked contractions which were significantly smaller in potassium-free Krebs solution. The size of contractions produced by carbachol on the other hand were unaffected by the absence of potassium in the Krebs solution. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA and baclofen on carbachol-induced contractions of bladder muscle were detected at much lower concentrations in potassium-free compared with potassium containing solutions. 5. The inhibitory effects of baclofen were completely reversed by tetraethyl ammonium chloride between 1 and 5 mM, caesium chloride between 0.5 and 3 mM and barium chloride between 0.5 and 2.5 mM. The actions of baclofen were only partially reversed by 4-amino-pyridine between 1 and 5 mM. 6. It was concluded that the GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory actions on rabbit urinary bladder smooth muscle cells were produced by activation of potassium channels. PMID:7647988

  5. Presynaptic Na+-dependent transport and exocytose of GABA and glutamate in brain in hypergravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Pozdnyakova, N.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamate are the most widespread neurotransmitter amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA is now widely recognized as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. L-glutamate mediates the most of excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in the brain. They involved in the main aspects of normal brain function. The nerve terminals (synaptosomes) offer several advantages as a model system for the study of general mechanisms of neurosecretion. Our data allowed to conclude that exposure of animals to hypergravity (centrifugation of rats at 10G for 1 hour) had a profound effect on synaptic processes in brain. Comparative analysis of uptake and release of GABA and glutamate have demonstrated that hypergravity loading evokes oppositely directed alterations in inhibitory and excitatory signal transmission. We studied the maximal velocities of [^3H]GABA reuptake and revealed more than twofold enhancement of GABA transporter activity (Vmax rises from 1.4 |pm 0.3 nmol/min/mg of protein in the control group to 3.3 ± 0.59 nmol/min/mg of protein for animals exposed to hypergravity (P ≤ 0.05)). Recently we have also demonstrated the significant lowering of glutamate transporter activity (Vmax of glutamate reuptake decreased from 12.5 ± 3.2 nmol/min/mg of protein in the control group to 5.6 ± 0.9 nmol/min/mg of protein in the group of animals, exposed to the hypergravity stress (P ≤ 0.05)). Significant changes occurred in release of neurotransmitters induced by stimulating exocytosis with the agents, which depolarized nerve terminal plasma membrane. Depolarization-evoked Ca2+-stimulated release was more abundant for GABA (7.2 ± 0.54% and 11,74 ±1,2 % of total accumulated label for control and hypergravity, respectively (P≤0.05)) and was essentially less for glutamate (14.4 ± 0.7% and 6.2 ± 1.9%) after exposure of animals to centrifuge induced artificial gravity. Changes observed in depolarization-evoked exocytotic release seem to be in a concert with alterations of plasma membrane transporters activity studied. Perhaps, lowering of glutamate transporter activity and increase of the velocity of GABA uptake correlated with diminution and augmentation of exocytotic release of these neurotransmitters, respectively. It is possible to suggest that observed changes in the activity of the processes responsible for the uptake and release of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters are likely to be physiologically important and reflect making protective mechanisms more active for neutralization of harm influence of hypergravity stress.

  6. Two pools of Triton X-100-insoluble GABA(A) receptors are present in the brain, one associated to lipid rafts and another one to the post-synaptic GABAergic complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejing; Serwanski, David R; Miralles, Celia P; Bahr, Ben A; De Blas, Angel L

    2007-08-01

    Rat forebrain synaptosomes were extracted with Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C and the insoluble material, which is enriched in post-synaptic densities (PSDs), was subjected to sedimentation on a continuous sucrose gradient. Two pools of Triton X-100-insoluble gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) were identified: (i) a higher-density pool (rho = 1.10-1.15 mg/mL) of GABA(A)Rs that contains the gamma2 subunit (plus alpha and beta subunits) and that is associated to gephyrin and the GABAergic post-synaptic complex and (ii) a lower-density pool (rho = 1.06-1.09 mg/mL) of GABA(A)Rs associated to detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) that contain alpha and beta subunits but not the gamma2 subunit. Some of these GABA(A)Rs contain the delta subunit. Two pools of GABA(A)Rs insoluble in Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C were also identified in cultured hippocampal neurons: (i) a GABA(A)R pool that forms clusters that co-localize with gephyrin and remains Triton X-100-insoluble after cholesterol depletion and (ii) a GABA(A)R pool that is diffusely distributed at the neuronal surface that can be induced to form GABA(A)R clusters by capping with an anti-alpha1 GABA(A)R subunit antibody and that becomes solubilized in Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C after cholesterol depletion. Thus, there is a pool of GABA(A)Rs associated to lipid rafts that is non-synaptic and that has a subunit composition different from that of the synaptic GABA(A)Rs. Some of the lipid raft-associated GABA(A)Rs might be involved in tonic inhibition. PMID:17663755

  7. Redirection of Metabolic Flux into Novel Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production Pathway by Introduction of Synthetic Scaffolds Strategy in Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Pham, Van Dung; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae; Hong, Soon Ho

    2016-04-01

    In general, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathway involves the decarboxylation of glutamate, which is produced from sugar by Corynebacterium fermentation. GABA can be used for the production of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Due to the increasing demand of GABA, it is essential to create an effective alternative pathway for the GABA production. In this study, Escherichia coli were engineered to produce GABA from glucose via GABA shunt, which consists of succinate dehydrogenase, succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and GABA aminotransferase. The three enzymes were physically attached to each other through a synthetic scaffold, and the Krebs cycle flux was redirected to the GABA pathway. By introduction of synthetic scaffold, 0.75 g/l of GABA was produced from 10 g/l of glucose at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The inactivation of competing metabolic pathways provided 15.4 % increase in the final GABA concentration. PMID:26667817

  8. Anatomical distribution and ultrastructural organization of the GABAergic system in the rat spinal cord. An immunocytochemical study using anti-GABA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Magoul, R; Onteniente, B; Geffard, M; Calas, A

    1987-03-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing elements have been studied by light and electron microscopy in the rat spinal cord, using immunocytochemistry with anti-GABA antibodies. Light microscopy showed immunoreactive somata localized principally in laminae I-III, and occasionally in the deeper laminae of the dorsal horn and in the ventral horn. Small somata were also observed around the central canal. Punctate GABA-immunoreactive profiles were particularly concentrated in laminae I-III, and moderately abundant in the deeper laminae and in the ventral horn where they were observed surrounding the unlabelled motoneurons. At the ultrastructural level, the punctate profiles corresponded to GABA-containing axonal varicosities or small dendrites. GABA-immunoreactive varicosities were presynaptic to labelled or unlabelled dendrites and cell bodies. Some unlabelled terminals presynaptic to unlabelled dendrites received symmetrical synaptic contacts from GABA-immunoreactive terminals. These results confirm data obtained with L-glutamate decarboxylase immunocytochemistry, and support the role of GABA in pre- and postsynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord, respectively via axoaxonal and axosomatic or axodendritic synapses. PMID:3299134

  9. Ethanol Activation of Protein Kinase A Regulates GABA(A) Receptor Subunit Expression in the Cerebral Cortex and Contributes to Ethanol-Induced Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ren, Qinglu; Beckley, Jonathon H; O'Buckley, Todd K; Gigante, Eduardo D; Santerre, Jessica L; Werner, David F; Morrow, A Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases are implicated in neuronal cell functions such as modulation of ion channel function, trafficking, and synaptic excitability. Both protein kinase C (PKC) and A (PKA) are involved in regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors through phosphorylation. However, the role of PKA in regulating GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-R) following acute ethanol exposure is not known. The present study investigated the role of PKA in the effects of ethanol on GABA(A)-R ?1 subunit expression in rat cerebral cortical P2 synaptosomal fractions. Additionally, GABA-related behaviors were examined. Rats were administered ethanol (2.0-3.5?g/kg) or saline and PKC, PKA, and GABA(A)-R ?1 subunit levels were measured by western blot analysis. Ethanol (3.5?g/kg) transiently increased GABA(A)-R ?1 subunit expression and PKA RII? subunit expression at similar time points whereas PKA RII? was increased at later time points. In contrast, PKC isoform expression remained unchanged. Notably, lower ethanol doses (2.0?g/kg) had no effect on GABA(A)-R ?1 subunit levels, although PKA type II regulatory subunits RII? and RII? were increased at 10 and 60?min when PKC isozymes are also known to be elevated. To determine if PKA activation was responsible for the ethanol-induced elevation of GABA(A)-R ?1 subunits, the PKA antagonist H89 was administered to rats prior to ethanol exposure. H89 administration prevented ethanol-induced increases in GABA(A)-R ?1 subunit expression. Moreover, increasing PKA activity intracerebroventricularly with Sp-cAMP prior to a hypnotic dose of ethanol increased ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) duration. This effect appears to be mediated in part by GABA(A)-R as increasing PKA activity also increased the duration of muscimol-induced LORR. Overall, these data suggest that PKA mediates ethanol-induced GABA(A)-R expression and contributes to behavioral effects of ethanol involving GABA(A)-R. PMID:22509146

  10. 3D GABA imaging with real-time motion correction, shim update and reacquisition of adiabatic spiral MRSI

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, Wolfgang; Gagoski, Borjan; Hess, Aaron T; Bhat, Himanshu; Tisdall, M. Dylan; van der Kouwe, Andre J.W.; Strasser, Bernhard; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Trattnig, Siegfried; Grant, Ellen; Rosen, Bruce; Andronesi, Ovidiu C

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are the major neurotransmitters in the brain. They are crucial for the functioning of healthy brain and their alteration is a major mechanism in the pathophysiology of many neuro-psychiatric disorders. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the only way to measure GABA and Glu non-invasively in vivo. GABA detection is particularly challenging and requires special MRS techniques. The most popular is MEscher-GArwood (MEGA) difference editing with single-voxel Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) localization. This technique has three major limitations: a) MEGA editing is a subtraction technique, hence is very sensitive to scanner instabilities and motion artifacts. b) PRESS is prone to localization errors at high fields (≥3T) that compromise accurate quantification. c) Single-voxel spectroscopy can (similar to a biopsy) only probe average GABA and Glu levels in a single location at a time. To mitigate these problems, we implemented a 3D MEGA-editing MRS imaging sequence with the following three features: a) Real-time motion correction, dynamic shim updates, and selective reacquisition to eliminate subtraction artifacts due to scanner instabilities and subject motion. b) Localization by Adiabatic SElective Refocusing (LASER) to improve the localization accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio. c) K-space encoding via a weighted stack of spirals provides 3D metabolic mapping with flexible scan times. Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments prove that our MEGA-LASER sequence enables 3D mapping of GABA+ and Glx (Glutamate + Gluatmine), by providing 1.66 times larger signal for the 3.02 ppm multiplet of GABA+ compared to MEGA-PRESS, leading to clinically feasible scan times for 3D brain imaging. Hence, our sequence allows accurate and robust 3D-mapping of brain GABA+ and Glx levels to be performed at clinical 3T MR scanners for use in neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:25255945

  11. Manganese exposure inhibits the clearance of extracellular GABA and influences taurine homeostasis in the striatum of developing rats

    PubMed Central

    Fordahl, Steve C.; Anderson, Joel G.; Cooney, Paula T.; Weaver, Tara L.; Colyer, Christa L.; Erikson, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain has been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the basal ganglia. Mn-induced alterations in dopamine biology are fairly well understood, but recently more evidence has emerged characterizing the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in this dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine if the previously observed Mn-induced increase in extracellular GABA (GABAEC) was due to altered GABA transporter (GAT) function, and whether Mn perturbs other amino acid neurotransmitters, namely taurine and glycine (known modulators of GABA). Extracellular GABA, taurine, and glycine concentrations were collected from the striatum of control (CN) or Mn-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats using in vivo microdialysis, and the GAT inhibitor nipecotic acid (NA) was used to probe GAT function. Tissue and extracellular Mn levels were significantly increased, and the Fe:Mn ratio was decreased 36-fold in the extracellular space due to Mn exposure. NA led to a 2-fold increase in GABAEC of CNs, a response that was attenuated by Mn. Taurine responded inversely to GABA, and a novel 10-fold increase in taurine was observed after the removal of NA in CNs. Mn blunted this response and nearly abolished extracellular taurine throughout collection. Striatal taurine transporter (Slc6a6) mRNA levels were significantly increased with Mn exposure, and Mn significantly increased 3H-Taurine uptake after 3-minute exposure in primary rat astrocytes. These data suggest that Mn increases GABAEC by inhibiting the function of GAT, and that perturbed taurine homeostasis potentially impacts neural function by jeopardizing the osmoregulatory and neuromodulatory functions of taurine in the brain. PMID:20832424

  12. GABA(C) receptors in retina and brain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The expression of GABA(C) receptors has long been regarded as a specific property of bipolar cells in the inner retina where they control the information transfer from bipolar to retinal ganglion cells. A number of recent anatomical and physiological studies, however, have provided evidence that GABA(C) receptors are also expressed in many brain structures apart from the retina. The presence of GABA(C) receptors in many GABAergic neurons suggests that this receptor type may be involved in the regulation of local inhibition. This chapter focuses on the distribution of GABA(C) receptors and their possible function in various brain areas. PMID:17554501

  13. GABA modulates baroreflex in the ventral tegmental area in rat.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Masoumeh; Rasoulpanah, Minoo; Nasimi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    There are some reports demonstrating the cardiovascular functions of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). About 20-30% of the VTA neurons are GABAergic, which might play a role in baroreflex modulation. This study was performed to find the effects of GABA(A), GABA(B) receptors and reversible synaptic blockade of the VTA on baroreflex. Drugs were microinjected into the VTA of urethane anesthetized rats, and the maximum change of blood pressure and the gain of the reflex bradycardia in response to intravenous phenylephrine (Phe) injection were compared with the preinjection and the control values. Microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 100 pmol/100 nl), a GABA(A) antagonist, into the VTA strongly decreased the Phe-induced hypertension, indicating that GABA itself attenuated the baroreflex. Muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist (30 mM, 100 nl), produced no significant changes. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist (1000 pmole/100 nl), moderately attenuated the baroreflex, however phaclofen, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist (1000 pmole/100 nl), had no significant effect. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated that GABA(A) receptors of the VTA strongly attenuate and GABA(B) receptors of the VTA moderately attenuate baroreflex in rat. PMID:26358962

  14. Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid and its binding sites in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, J.M.; Bergstrom, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase were identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The concentration of GABA in C. elegans is approximately 10-fold lower than the concentration of GABA in rat brain. Glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, the GABA anabolic and catabolic enzymes, are also present in C. elegans. Crude membrane fractions were prepared from C. elegans and used to study specific (/sup 3/H) GABA binding sites. GABA binds to C. elegans membranes with high affinity and low capacity. Muscimol is a competitive inhibitor of specific GABA binding with a K/sub I/ value of 120 nM. None of the other GABA agonists or antagonists inhibited greater than 40% of the specific GABA binding at concentrations up to 10/sup -4/M. Thirteen spider venoms were examined as possible GABA agonists or antagonists, the venom from Calilena agelenidae inhibits specific GABA binding with a K/sub I/ value of 6 nl/ml. These results suggest that GABA has a physiological role as a neurotransmitter in C. elegans.

  15. Activation of GABA-A Receptor Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced MMP-9 Activation by ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    TYAGI, NEETU; GILLESPIE, WILLIAM; VACEK, JONATHAN C.; SEN, UTPAL; TYAGI, SURESH C.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces redox stress, in part, by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the matrix and leads to blood–brain barrier dysfunction. Hcy competitively binds to γ-aminbutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors. However, the role of GABA-A receptor in Hcy-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is not clear. We hypothesized that Hcy causes cerebrovascular remodeling by increasing redox stress and MMP-9 activity via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and by inhibition of GABA-A receptors, thus behaving as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species production was detected using the fluorescent probe, 2′–7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Hcy increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase-4 concomitantly suppressing thioredoxin. Hcy caused activation of MMP-9, measured by gelatin zymography. The GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol ameliorated the Hcy-mediated MMP-9 activation. In parallel, Hcy caused phosphorylation of ERK and selectively decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4). Treatment of the endothelial cell with muscimol restored the levels of TIMP-4 to the levels in control group. Hcy induced expression of iNOS and decreased eNOS expression, which lead to a decreased NO bioavailability. Furthermore muscimol attenuated Hcy-induced MMP-9 via ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest that Hcy competes with GABA-A receptors, inducing the oxidative stress transduction pathway and leading to ERK activation. PMID:19308943

  16. A unified model of the GABA(A) receptor comprising agonist and benzodiazepine binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Rikke; Kongsbak, Kristine; Srensen, Pernille Louise; Sander, Tommy; Balle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a full-length ?(1)?(2)?(2) GABA receptor model optimized for agonists and benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric modulators. We propose binding hypotheses for the agonists GABA, muscimol and THIP and for the allosteric modulator diazepam (DZP). The receptor model is primarily based on the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) from C. elegans and includes additional structural information from the prokaryotic ligand-gated ion channel ELIC in a few regions. Available mutational data of the binding sites are well explained by the model and the proposed ligand binding poses. We suggest a GABA binding mode similar to the binding mode of glutamate in the GluCl X-ray structure. Key interactions are predicted with residues ?(1)R66, ?(2)T202, ?(1)T129, ?(2)E155, ?(2)Y205 and the backbone of ?(2)S156. Muscimol is predicted to bind similarly, however, with minor differences rationalized with quantum mechanical energy calculations. Muscimol key interactions are predicted to be ?(1)R66, ?(2)T202, ?(1)T129, ?(2)E155, ?(2)Y205 and ?(2)F200. Furthermore, we argue that a water molecule could mediate further interactions between muscimol and the backbone of ?(2)S156 and ?(2)Y157. DZP is predicted to bind with interactions comparable to those of the agonists in the orthosteric site. The carbonyl group of DZP is predicted to interact with two threonines ?(1)T206 and ?(2)T142, similar to the acidic moiety of GABA. The chlorine atom of DZP is placed near the important ?(1)H101 and the N-methyl group near ?(1)Y159, ?(1)T206, and ?(1)Y209. We present a binding mode of DZP in which the pending phenyl moiety of DZP is buried in the binding pocket and thus shielded from solvent exposure. Our full length GABA(A) receptor is made available as Model S1. PMID:23308109

  17. Role of GABA Deficit in Sensitivity to the Psychotomimetic Effects of Amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyung-Heup; Sewell, Andrew; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Krystal, John; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Some schizophrenia patients are more sensitive to amphetamine (AMPH)-induced exacerbations in psychosis-an effect that correlates with higher striatal dopamine release. This enhanced vulnerability may be related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits observed in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that a pharmacologically induced GABA deficit would create vulnerability to the psychotomimetic effects to the 'subthreshold' dose of AMPH in healthy subjects, which by itself would not induce clinically significant increase in positive symptoms. To test this hypothesis, a GABA deficit was induced by intravenous infusion of iomazenil (IOM; 3.7 μg/kg), an antagonist and partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptor. A subthreshold dose of AMPH (0.1 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion. Healthy subjects received placebo IOM followed by placebo AMPH, active IOM followed by placebo AMPH, placebo IOM followed by active AMPH, and active IOM followed by active AMPH in a randomized, double-blind crossover design over 4 test days. Twelve healthy subjects who had a subclinical response to active AMPH alone were included in the analysis. Psychotomimetic effects (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)), perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)), and subjective effects (visual analog scale) were captured before and after the administration of drugs. IOM significantly augmented AMPH-induced peak changes in PANSS positive symptom subscale and both subjective and objective CADSS scores. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions. In conclusion, GABA deficits increased vulnerability to amphetamine-induced psychosis-relevant effects in healthy subjects, suggesting that pre-existing GABA deficits may explain why a subgroup of schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to AMPH. PMID:25953357

  18. Colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (amphibia; Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Dünker, N

    1998-01-01

    Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, a member of the limbless Gymnophiona, has a specialized subterranean burrowing mode of life and a predominantly olfactory-guided orientation. The only visually guided behavior seems to be negative phototaxis. As these animals possess extremely small eyes (only 540 microm in diameter in adults), functional investigations of single retinal cells by electrophysiological methods have so far failed. Therefore, the content and distribution of retinal transmitters have been investigated as indications of a functioning sense organ in an animal that is supposed to be blind. Previous immunohistochemical investigation of the retinal transmitter system revealed immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway. The present studies have been performed in order to determine a possible colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of the caecilian retina. Therefore retinal cryostat sections of various developmental stages have been investigated by the indirect fluorescence method. In single-label preparations, serotonin is localized to cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GABA immunocytochemistry labels a variety of cell types in the inner nuclear layer as well as cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. In double-label preparations, some of the serotonergic cells are found to express GABA immunoreactivity and some GABAergic neurons also label for serotonin immunocytochemistry. Thus, despite the fact that caecilians mainly rely on olfaction and are believed to have a reduced visual system, their retina exhibits a surprisingly "normal" distribution of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, also typical of other anamniotes with a well-developed visual system, including the partial colocalization of serotonin and GABA at all developmental stages of I. kohtaoensis. These results indicate that a functional system that is under no strong selective pressure obviously has a long evolutionary persistence irrespective of its need for use. PMID:9462859

  19. Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAA receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, G. H.; Im, W. B.; Carter, D. B.; McKinley, D. D.

    1995-01-01

    1. We examined how gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) influences interaction of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) with recombinant rat alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAA receptors stably expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), as monitored with changes in Cl- currents measured by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. 2. During application of GABA (5 microM) for 15 s, picrotoxin and TBPS dose-dependently accelerated the decay of inward GABA-induced currents (a holding potential of -60 mV under a symmetrical Cl- gradient). The drugs, upon preincubation with the receptors, also reduced the initial current amplitude in a preincubation time and concentration-dependent manner. This indicates their interaction with both GABA-bound and resting receptors. 3. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for picrotoxin and TBPS at the beginning of a 15 s GABA (5 microM) pulse was several times greater than that obtained at the end of the pulse. GABA thus appears to enhance picrotoxin and TBPS potency, but only at concentrations leading to occupancy of both high and low affinity GABA sites, i.e., 5 microM. Preincubation of the receptors with the drugs in the presence of GABA at 200 nM, which leads to occupancy of only high affinity GABA sites in the alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 subtype, produced no appreciable change in potency of picrotoxin or TBPS. This indicates that they preferentially interact with multiliganded, but not monoliganded receptors, unlike U-93631, a novel ligand to the picrotoxin site, which has higher affinity to both mono- and multiliganded receptors than resting receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582470

  20. Electrophysiological evidence for 4-isobutyl-3-isopropylbicyclophosphorothionate as a selective blocker of insect GABA-gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Yuki; Ju, Xiu-Lian; Furutani, Shogo; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    Invertebrate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls), which function as inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors, are important targets of insecticides and antiparasitic agents. The antagonism of GABACls and GluCls by 4-isobutyl-3-isopropylbicyclophosphorothionate (PS-14) was examined in cultured cockroach and rat neurons using a whole-cell patch-clamp method. The results indicated that PS-14 selectively blocks cockroach GABACls relative to cockroach GluCls and rat GABACls. PS-14 represents a useful probe for the study of insect GABA receptors. PMID:23591113

  1. Distribution of immunoreactive GABA and glutamate receptors in the gustatory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract in rat.

    PubMed

    King, Michael S

    2003-05-15

    The distribution of glutamate (GLU) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors within the gustatory portion of the rat nucleus of the solitary tract (gNST) was investigated using immunohistochemical, histological and neural tract tracing techniques. Numerous somata throughout the gNST were immunoreactive for alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, while few were labeled for kainate receptors. AMPA and NMDA receptors were particularly abundant in the rostral central (RC) subdivision of the gNST, which receives most of the primary afferent input from the oral cavity and contains most of the gNST neurons that project to the parabrachial nuclei (PBN). This finding supports electrophysiological evidence that AMPA and NMDA receptors are involved in responses to orosensory input and indicates that their action may influence ascending taste signals as well. Compared to the ionotropic GLU receptors, few cell bodies were immunoreactive for metabotropic GLU receptors. Somata immunoreactive for GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors were located throughout the nucleus. The densest neuropil labeling was for GABA(A) receptors in the ventral (V) subnucleus, the gNST subdivision that sends output to brainstem oromotor centers. The distributions of immunolabeling for GLU and GABA receptors imply that different functional roles may exist for specific receptors within this nucleus. PMID:12754086

  2. Alterations of GABA and glutamate-glutamine levels in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Dongmei; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Bin; Qiao, Mingqi; Yang, Huan; Yu, Yanhong; Ren, Fuxin; Yang, Ping; Chen, Weibo; Rae, Caroline D

    2015-01-30

    Increasing evidence has suggested that the GABAergic neurotransmitter system is involved in the pathogenesis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to investigate whether PMDD is associated with alterations in brain GABA levels. Levels of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) were also explored. Participants comprised 22 women with PMDD and 22 age-matched healthy controls who underwent 3T (1)H MRS during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. GABA+ and Glx levels were quantified in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and the left basal ganglia (ltBG). Water-scaled GABA+ concentrations and GABA+/tCr ratios were significantly lower in both the ACC/mPFC and ltBG regions of PMDD women than in healthy controls. Glx/tCr ratios were significantly higher in the ACC/mPFC region of PMDD women than healthy controls. Our preliminary findings provide the first report of abnormal levels of GABA+ and Glx in mood-related brain regions of women with PMDD, indicating that dysregulation of the amino acid neurotransmitter system may be an important neurobiological mechanism in the pathogenesis of PMDD. PMID:25465316

  3. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  4. GABA and its B-receptor are present at the node of Ranvier in a small population of sensory fibers, implicating a role in myelination.

    PubMed

    Corell, Mikael; Wicher, Grzegorz; Radomska, Katarzyna J; Dağlıkoca, E Duygu; Godskesen, Randi Elberg; Fredriksson, Robert; Benedikz, Eirikur; Magnaghi, Valerio; Fex Svenningsen, Asa

    2015-02-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor has been implicated in glial cell development in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although the exact function of GABA signaling is not known. To investigate GABA and its B receptor in PNS development and degeneration, we studied the expression of the GABAB receptor, GABA, and glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65/67 in both development and injury in fetal dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cell cultures and in the rat sciatic nerve. We found that GABA, GAD65/67, and the GABAB receptor were expressed in premyelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells throughout development and after injury. A small population of myelinated sensory fibers displayed all of these molecules at the node of Ranvier, indicating a role in axon-glia communication. Functional studies using GABAB receptor agonists and antagonists were performed in fetal DRG primary cultures to study the function of this receptor during development. The results show that GABA, via its B receptor, is involved in the myelination process but not in Schwann cell proliferation. The data from adult nerves suggest additional roles in axon-glia communication after injury. PMID:25327365

  5. NSAIDs modulate GABA-activated currents via Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LEI; LI, LI; MA, KE-TAO; WANG, YANG; LI, JING; SHI, WEN-YAN; ZHU, HE; ZHANG, ZHONG-SHUANG; SI, JUN-QIANG

    2016-01-01

    The ability of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to modulate γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-activated currents via Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG), was examined in the present study. During the preparation of DRG neurons harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats, the whole-cell recording technique was used to record the effect of NSAIDs on GABA-activated inward currents, and the expression levels of the TMEM16A and TMEM16B subunits were revealed. In the event that DRG neurons were pre-incubated for 20 sec with niflumic acid (NFA) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) prior to the administration of GABA, the GABA-induced inward currents were diminished markedly in the majority of neurons examined (96.3%). The inward currents induced by 100 µmol/l GABA were attenuated by (0±0.09%; neurons = 4), (5.32±3.51%; neurons = 6), (21.3±4.00%; neurons = 5), (33.8±5.20%; neurons = 17), (52.2±5.10%; neurons = 4) and (61.1±4.12%; neurons = 12) by 0.1, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 µmol/l NFA, respectively. The inward currents induced by 100 µmol/l GABA were attenuated by (13.8±6%; neurons = 6), (23.2±14.7%; neurons = 6) and (29.7±9.1%; neurons = 9) by 3, 10 and 30 µmol/l NPPB, respectively. NFA and NPPB dose-dependently inhibited GABA-activated currents with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.7 and 11 µmol/l, respectively. The inhibitory effect of 100 µmol/l NFA on the GABA-evoked inward current were also strongly inhibited by nitrendipine (NTDP; an L-type calcium channel blocker), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (a highly selective calcium chelating reagent), caffeine (a widely available Ca2+ consuming drug) and calcium-free extracellular fluid, in a concentration-dependent manner. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that TMEM16A and TMEM16B expression was widely distributed in DRG neurons. The results suggest that NSAIDs may be able to regulate Ca2+-activated chloride channels to reduce GABAA receptor-mediated inward currents in DRGs. PMID:27168798

  6. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Karim, Nasiara; Ahmad, Waqar; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system's function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures), depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests), and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms). Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg) but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors. PMID:27143980

  7. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man.

    PubMed

    Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man. PMID:25901095

  8. Ontogeny of catecholamine and GABA levels in rat brain: lack of effect of perinatal lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Kitchen, I

    1986-01-01

    In this study we report the ontogeny of noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rat striatum and the effect of perinatal exposure to low levels of lead. Lead administered in the maternal drinking water (100, 300 and 1000 ppm) from conception to weaning had no effect on the ontogeny of catecholamines. There was a 50% decrease in the levels of GABA at 10 days in rats exposed to the highest dose of lead, but no other changes were observed in lead-exposed rats at 21 and 30 days of age. These results contrast with our previously reported decrease in the levels of striatal proenkephalin products in lead-exposed rats, and suggest that this inhibitory effect of lead does not represent a generalised neurochemical toxicity. PMID:3952777

  9. Evidence for a role of GABA- and glutamate-gated chloride channels in olfactory memory.

    PubMed

    Boumghar, Katia; Couret-Fauvel, Thomas; Garcia, Mikael; Armengaud, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    In the honeybee, we investigated the role of transmissions mediated by GABA-gated chloride channels and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) of the mushroom bodies (MBs) on olfactory learning using a single-trial olfactory conditioning paradigm. The GABAergic antagonist picrotoxin (PTX) or the GluCl antagonist L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (L-trans-PDC) was injected alone or in combination into the α-lobes of MBs. PTX impaired early long-term olfactory memory when injected before conditioning or before testing. L-trans-PDC alone induced no significant effect on learning and memory but induced a less specific response to the conditioned odor. When injected before PTX, L-trans-PDC was able to modulate PTX effects. These results emphasize the role of MB GABA-gated chloride channels in consolidation processes and strongly support that GluCls are involved in the perception of the conditioned stimulus. PMID:22910533

  10. Treating enhanced GABAergic inhibition in Down syndrome: use of GABA α5-selective inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Delatour, Benoît; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2014-10-01

    Excess inhibition in the brain of individuals carrying an extra copy of chromosome 21 could be responsible for cognitive deficits observed throughout their lives. A change in the excitatory/inhibitory balance in adulthood would alter synaptic plasticity, potentially triggering learning and memory deficits. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system and binds to GABAA receptors, opens a chloride channel, and reduces neuronal excitability. In this review we discuss methods to alleviate neuronal inhibition in a mouse model of Down syndrome, the Ts65Dn mouse, using either an antagonist (pentylenetetrazol) or two different inverse agonists selective for the α5-subunit containing receptor. Both inverse agonists, which reduce inhibitory GABAergic transmission, could rescue learning and memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. We also discuss safety issues since modulation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance to improve cognition without inducing seizures remains particularly difficult when using GABA antagonists. PMID:24412222

  11. Assignment of the human GABA transporter gene (GABATHG) locus to chromosome 3p24-p25

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Guo, Li-He

    1995-09-01

    An essential regulatory process of synaptic transmission is the inactivation of released neurotransmitters by the transmitter-specific uptake mechanism, {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system; its activity is terminated by a high-affinity Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} -dependent specific GABA transporter (GAT), which carries the neurotransmitter to the presynaptic neuron and/or glial elements surrounding the synaptic cleft. Deficiency of the transporter may cause epilepsy and some other nervous diseases. The human GAT gene (GABATHG), approximately 25 kb in length, has been cloned and sequenced by our colleagues (7). Here the results of the in situ hybridization mapping with the gene are presented. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Electrophoretic method for the determination of the proportion of gamma-aminobutyric acid in a mixture of labeled neurotransmitter and its catabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Cupello, A.; Rapallino, M.V.; Besio, G.; Mainardi, P.

    1987-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for the separation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from its metabolites after GABA-transaminase attack is presented. The method is based on the fact that at neutral pH GABA has no net electrical charge, whereas its major metabolites, succinic acid and Krebs cycle intermediates, are negatively charged. The method appears to be especially suitable for evaluation of true-labeled neurotransmitter within the radioactivity which is found in synaptosomes after labeled GABA-uptake studies.

  13. Elevation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in human brain may increase dopaminergic neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Perry, T L; Ito, M; Jones, K; Hansen, S

    1984-09-01

    Studies in experimental animals have yielded conflicting findings as to the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the activity of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of GABA and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 19 patients before and during treatment with isoniazid. CSF GABA concentrations increased markedly during isoniazid administration, presumably reflecting increases in brain GABA content. At the same time, HVA concentrations in CSF rose significantly. The net effect of elevating brain GABA content in humans appears to be to increase dopamine release from dopaminergic neurons. PMID:6238245

  14. Study of GABA in Healthy Volunteers: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yi; Mao, Fei; Mao, Junjun; Lu, Xiaolan; Jiang, Dongdong; Wan, Yun; Lv, Jia-Ying; Cao, Guoying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Naiqing; Atkinson, Mark; Greiner, Dale L.; Prud'homme, Gerald J.; Jiao, Zheng; Li, Yiming; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p < 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes. PMID:26617516

  15. Co-release of acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid by a retinal neuron

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, D.M.; Masland, R.H.

    1989-05-01

    Rabbit retinas were vitally stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), a fluorescent compound that selectively accumulates within the cholinergic amacrine cells. The retinas were then incubated in vitro in the presence of radioactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and autoradiographed. The cells that accumulated DAPI were found to accumulate GABA, confirming immunohistochemical evidence that the cholinergic amacrine cells contain GABA. Incubation of retinas in the presence of elevated concentrations of K+ caused them to release acetylcholine and GABA, and autoradiography showed depletion of radioactive GABA from the cholinergic amacrine cells. This indicates that the cholinergic amacrine cells can secrete acetylcholine and GABA. Retinas were double-labeled with (14C)GABA and (3H)acetylcholine, allowing simultaneous measurement of their release. The release of (14C)GABA was found to be independent of extracellular Ca2+. Radioactive GABA synthesized endogenously from (14C)glutamate behaved the same way as radioactive GABA accumulated from the medium. In the same experiments the simultaneously measured release of (3H)acetylcholine was strongly Ca2+-dependent, indicating that the releases of acetylcholine and GABA are controlled by different mechanisms. Synaptic vesicles immunologically isolated from double-labeled retinas contained much (3H)acetylcholine and little or no (14C)GABA. These results suggest that the cholinergic amacrine cells release acetylcholine primarily by vesicle exocytosis and release GABA primarily by means of a carrier.

  16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid acts as a specific virulence regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Dagorn, Audrey; Hillion, Mélanie; Chapalain, Annelise; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Duclairoir Poc, Cécile; Vieillard, Julien; Chevalier, Sylvie; Taupin, Laure; Le Derf, Franck; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-02-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widespread in the environment and can be used by animal and plants as a communication molecule. Pseudomonas species, in particular fluorescent ones, synthesize GABA and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effects of GABA on the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While exposure to GABA (10 µM) did not modify either the growth kinetics or the motility of the bacterium, its cytotoxicity and virulence were strongly increased. The Caenorhabditis elegans 'fast killing test' model revealed that GABA acts essentially through an increase in diffusible toxin(s). GABA also modulates the biofilm formation activity and adhesion properties of PAO1. GABA has no effect on cell surface polarity, biosurfactant secretion or on the lipopolysaccharide structure. The production of several exo-enzymes, pyoverdin and exotoxin A is not modified by GABA but we observed an increase in cyanogenesis which, by itself, could explain the effect of GABA on P. aeruginosa virulence. This mechanism appears to be regulated by quorum sensing. A proteomic analysis revealed that the effect of GABA on cyanogenesis is correlated with a reduction of oxygen accessibility and an over-expression of oxygen-scavenging proteins. GABA also promotes specific changes in the expression of thermostable and unstable elongation factors Tuf/Ts involved in the interaction of the bacterium with the host proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that GABA is a physiological regulator of P. aeruginosa virulence. PMID:23154974

  17. An Evolutionarily Conserved Switch in Response to GABA Affects Development and Behavior of the Locomotor Circuit of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bingjie; Bellemer, Andrew; Koelle, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is depolarizing in the developing vertebrate brain, but in older animals switches to hyperpolarizing and becomes the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adults. We discovered a similar developmental switch in GABA response in Caenorhabditis elegans and have genetically analyzed its mechanism and function in a well-defined circuit. Worm GABA neurons innervate body wall muscles to control locomotion. Activation of GABAA receptors with their agonist muscimol in newly hatched first larval (L1) stage animals excites muscle contraction and thus is depolarizing. At the mid-L1 stage, as the GABAergic neurons rewire onto their mature muscle targets, muscimol shifts to relaxing muscles and thus has switched to hyperpolarizing. This muscimol response switch depends on chloride transporters in the muscles analogous to those that control GABA response in mammalian neurons: the chloride accumulator sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporter-1 (NKCC-1) is required for the early depolarizing muscimol response, while the two chloride extruders potassium-chloride-cotransporter-2 (KCC-2) and anion-bicarbonate-transporter-1 (ABTS-1) are required for the later hyperpolarizing response. Using mutations that disrupt GABA signaling, we found that neural circuit development still proceeds to completion but with an ∼6-hr delay. Using optogenetic activation of GABAergic neurons, we found that endogenous GABAA signaling in early L1 animals, although presumably depolarizing, does not cause an excitatory response. Thus a developmental depolarizing-to-hyperpolarizing shift is an ancient conserved feature of GABA signaling, but existing theories for why this shift occurs appear inadequate to explain its function upon rigorous genetic analysis of a well-defined neural circuit. PMID:25644702

  18. Strain-Dependent Variations in Stress Coping Behavior Are Mediated by a 5-HT/GABA Interaction within the Prefrontal Corticolimbic System

    PubMed Central

    Maran, Dario; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serotonin and γ–aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission is crucial in coping strategies. Methods: Here, using mice from 2 inbred strains widely exploited in behavioral neurochemistry, we investigated whether serotonin transmission in medial prefrontal cortex and GABA in basolateral amygdala determine strain-dependent liability to stress response and differences in coping. Results: C57BL/6J mice displayed greater immobility in the forced swimming test, higher serotonin outflow in medial prefrontal cortex, higher GABA outflow in basolateral amygdala induced by stress, and higher serotonin 1A receptor levels in medial prefrontal cortex accompanied by lower GABAb receptor levels in basolateral amygdala than DBA/2J mice. In assessing whether serotonin in medial prefrontal cortex determines GABA functioning in response to stress and passive coping behavior in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, we observed that selective prefrontal serotonin depletion in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J reduced stress-induced GABA outflow in basolateral amygdala and immobility in the forced swimming test. Conclusions: These results show that strain-dependent prefrontal corticolimbic serotonin/GABA regulation determines the strain differences in stress-coping behavior in the forced swimming test and point to a role of a specific neuronal system in genetic susceptibility to stress that opens up new prospects for innovative therapies for stress disorders. PMID:25522413

  19. Endocytosis of GABA(C) receptors depends on subunit composition and is regulated by protein kinase C-ζ and protein phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Linck, Lisa; Binder, Jasmin; Haynl, Christian; Enz, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Neuronal excitability depends on the surface concentration of neurotransmitter receptors. Type C gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(C)R) are composed of ρ subunits that are highly expressed in the retina. Molecular mechanisms that guide the surface concentration of this receptor type are largely unknown. Previously, we reported physical interactions of GABA(C)R ρ subunits with protein kinase C-ζ (PKCζ) via adapter proteins of the ZIP protein family, as well as of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) via PNUTS. Here, we demonstrate that co-expressing ρ1 with ZIP3 and PKCζ enhanced basal internalization of GABA(C)R, while receptor internalization was reduced in the presence of PNUTS and PP1. Co-expression of ρ1 with individual binding partners showed no alterations, except for PP1. Heterooligomeric GABA(C)R composed of ρ1 and ρ2 subunits had a significant higher endocytosis rate than ρ1 containing homooligomeric receptors. Mutant constructs lacking binding sites for protein interactions ensured the specificity of our data. Finally, substitution of serine and threonine residues with alanines indicated that GABA(C)R internalization depends on serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases, but not on tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that GABA(C)R internalization is reciprocally regulated by PKCζ and PP1 that are anchored to the receptor via ZIP3 or PNUTS respectively. PMID:25868914

  20. Differential interactions of GABA agonists, depressant and convulsant drugs with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites in cortex and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Ticku, M K; Ramanjaneyulu, R

    1984-07-01

    Effects of three GABA agonists, four GABA antagonists and convulsants (picrotoxinin, alpha-dihydropicrotoxinin [DHP], pentamethylenetetrazole [PTZ] and isopropylbicyclophosphate ester) and three depressant drugs (pentobarbital, (+)etomidate and etazolate) were investigated on [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPT) in cortex and cerebellum. All the convulsants tested were equipotent in inhibiting [35S]TBPT binding in cortex and cerebellum. Convulsants like picrotoxinin inhibited [35S]-TBPT binding competitively in both cortex and cerebellum. In contrast, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists (muscimol, GABA and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazol[5,4-C]pyridine-3-ol [THIP]), and depressants like etazolate, (+)etomidate and pentobarbital were more potent inhibitors of [35S]TBPT binding in cerebellum than in cortex. GABA inhibition of [35S]TBPT binding appears to be mediated through a low-affinity site. GABA and pentobarbital inhibited [35S]TBPT binding in cortex and cerebellum noncompetitively. Depressants like pentobarbital appear to interact with the TBPT sites allosterically. These results suggest that depressant and convulsant drugs that modulate GABAergic transmission interact differently with the TBPT binding sites in cortex and cerebellum. PMID:6087375

  1. Presynaptic control of corticostriatal synapses by endogenous GABA.

    PubMed

    Logie, Christopher; Bagetta, Vincenza; Bracci, Enrico

    2013-09-25

    Corticostriatal terminals have presynaptic GABA(B) receptors that limit glutamate release, but how these receptors are activated by endogenous GABA released by different types of striatal neurons is still unknown. To address this issue, we used single and paired whole-cell recordings combined with stimulation of corticostriatal fibers in rats and mice. In the presence of opioid, GABA(A), and NK1 receptor antagonists, antidromic stimulation of a population of striatal projection neurons caused suppression of subsequently evoked EPSPs in projection neurons. These effects were larger at intervals of 500 ms than 1 or 2 s, and were fully blocked by the selective GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 52432. Bursts of spikes in individual projection neurons were not able to inhibit evoked EPSPs. Similarly, spikes in fast spiking interneurons and low-threshold spike interneurons failed to elicit detectable effects mediated by GABA(B) receptors. Conversely, spikes in individual neurogliaform interneurons suppressed evoked EPSPs, and these effects were blocked by CGP 52432. These results provide the first demonstration of how GABA(B) receptors are activated by endogenous GABA released by striatal neuronal types. PMID:24068811

  2. Conserved site for neurosteroid modulation of GABA A receptors.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Alastair M; Clarke, Laura; da Silva, Helena; Smart, Trevor G

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses whether the potentiation site for neurosteroids on GABA(A) receptors is conserved amongst different GABA(A) receptor isoforms. The neurosteroid potentiation site was previously identified in the alpha1beta2gamma2S receptor by mutation of Q241 to methionine or leucine, which reduced the potentiation of GABA currents by the naturally occurring neurosteroids, allopregnanolone or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). By using heterologous expression of GABA(A) receptors in HEK cells, in combination with whole-cell patch clamp recording methods, a relatively consistent potentiation by allopregnanolone of GABA-activated currents was evident for receptors composed of one alpha subunit isoform (alpha2-5) assembled with beta3 and gamma2S subunits. Using mutant alphabetagamma receptors, the neurosteroid potentiation was universally dependent on the conserved glutamine residue in M1 of the respective alpha subunit. Studying wild-type and mutant receptors composed of alpha4beta3delta subunits revealed that the delta subunit is unlikely to contribute to the neurosteroid potentiation binding site and probably affects the efficacy of potentiation. Thus, in keeping with the ability of neurosteroids to potentiate GABA currents via a broad variety of GABA(A) receptor isoforms in neurons, the potentiation site is structurally highly conserved on this important neurotransmitter receptor family. PMID:18762201

  3. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}3} M, enhanced potassium stimulated ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA{sub A} agonist muscimol, 10{sup {minus}4} M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA{sub B} agonist ({plus minus})baclofen, 10{sup {minus}4} M, did not affect the release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA{sub A}, but not GABA{sub B}, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA{sub A} receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}4} M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA{sub A} receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA{sub A} receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat.

  4. Competing pathways in the photo-Favorskii rearrangement and release of esters: Studies on fluorinated p-hydroxyphenacyl GABA and glutamate phototriggers

    PubMed Central

    Stensrud, Kenneth; Noh, Jihyun; Kandler, Karl; Wirz, Jakob; Heger, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Three new trifluoromethylated p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) caged γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) derivatives have been examined for their efficacy as photoremovable protecting groups in aqueous solution. By replacing hydrogen with fluorine, e.g., a m-trifluoromethyl or a m-trifluoromethoxy vs. m-methoxy substituents on the pHP chromophore, modest increases in the quantum yields for release of the amino acids GABA and glutamate were realized as well as improved lipophilicity. The pHP triplet undergoes a photo-Favorskii rearrangement with concomitant release of the amino acid substrate. Deprotonation competes with the rearrangement from the triplet excited state and yields the pHP conjugate base that, upon reprotonation, regenerate the starting ketoester, a chemically unproductive or “energy wasting” process. Employing picosecond pump–probe spectroscopy, GABA derivatives 2 – 5 are characterized by short triplet lifetimes, a manifestation of their rapid release of GABA. The bioavailability of released GABA at the GABAA receptor improved when the release took place from m-OCF3 (2) but decreased for m-CF3 (3) when compared with the parent pHP derivative. These studies demonstrate that pKa and lipophilicity exert significant but sometimes opposing influences on the photochemistry and biological activity of pHP phototriggers. PMID:19572582

  5. Effects of ABA and CaCl2 on GABA accumulation in fava bean germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Hui, Qianru; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-03-01

    Effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and CaCl2 on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation of germinated fava bean under hypoxia-NaCl stress were investigated. Exogenous ABA resulted in the enhancement of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. CaCl2 increased both enzyme activities in shoot and GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. ABA downregulated GAD expression in cotyledon and radicle, while upregulated that in shoot; it also upregulated DAO expression in each organ. CaCl2 upregulated GAD expression in cotyledon, while downregulated that in radicle. However, it upregulated DAO expression in shoot, downregulated that in radicle. ABA inhibitor fluridon and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited GAD and DAO activities significantly so that inhibited GABA accumulation through reducing ABA biosynthesis and chelating Ca(2+), respectively. However, they upregulated GAD and DAO expression in varying degrees. These results indicate that ABA and Ca(2+) participate in GABA biosynthesis in fava bean during germination under hypoxia-NaCl stress. PMID:26644273

  6. Assessment of GABA concentration in human brain using two-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y; Cohen, B M; Bang, J Y; Yang, M; Renshaw, P F

    2000-12-22

    A quantitative method to assess in vivo brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels is proposed using a J-resolved, two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) technique. Localized, J-resolved 2D MR spectra were obtained from a 12-cm(3) voxel in the occipital lobe of 36 healthy volunteers (18 male and 18 female, age: 25.1+/-4.8 years). Based on phantom measurements, a GABA resonance peak located at 2.94 ppm, 7.45 Hz, in J-resolved 2D MRS overlaps the least with other resonance peaks which arise from N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, glutamate and glutamine. Measurements of this resonance peak yield in vivo GABA concentrations of 1.01+/-0.36 micromol/cm(3) for male and 1.16+/-0.43 micromol/cm(3) for female volunteers, without correction for T1 and T2 relaxation effects. These results are in good agreement with previously reported data and suggest that, with further development, 2D MRS may provide a practical means to estimate the concentration of this important neurotransmitter. PMID:11120443

  7. Linking GABA and glutamate levels to cognitive skill acquisition during development

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Beatrix; King, Andrew J.; Near, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Developmental adjustments in the balance of excitation and inhibition are thought to constrain the plasticity of sensory areas of the cortex. It is unknown however, how changes in excitatory or inhibitory neurochemical expression (glutamate, γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)) contribute to skill acquisition during development. Here we used single‐voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H‐MRS) to reveal how differences in cortical glutamate vs. GABA ratios relate to face proficiency and working memory abilities in children and adults. We show that higher glutamate levels in the inferior frontal gyrus correlated positively with face processing proficiency in the children, but not the adults, an effect which was independent of age‐dependent differences in underlying cortical gray matter. Moreover, we found that glutamate/GABA levels and gray matter volume are dissociated at the different maturational stages. These findings suggest that increased excitation during development is linked to neuroplasticity and the acquisition of new cognitive skills. They also offer a new, neurochemical approach to investigating the relationship between cognitive performance and brain development across the lifespan. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4334–4345, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350618

  8. Downregulation of tonic GABA currents following epileptogenic stimulation of rat hippocampal cultures

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin-shun; Yao, Jun; Fang, Cheng; Luscher, Bernhard; Chen, Gong

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in GABAergic inhibitory transmission are a hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy and have been replicated in animal and tissue culture models of epilepsy. GABAergic inhibition comprises phasic and tonic inhibition that is mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, respectively. We have recently demonstrated that chronic stimulation with cyclothiazide (CTZ) or kainic acid (KA) induces robust epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report a downregulation of tonic GABA inhibition after chronic epileptogenic stimulation of rat hippocampal cultures. Chronic pretreatment of hippocampal neurons with CTZ or KA resulted in a marked reduction in GABAergic inhibition, as shown by a significant decrease in whole-cell GABA currents and in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Interestingly, synaptically localized GABAA receptors remained relatively stable, as evidenced by the unaltered amplitude of mIPSCs, as well as the unchanged punctate immunoreactivity of γ2 subunit-containing postsynaptic GABAA receptors. In contrast, tonic GABA currents, assessed either by a GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline or a selective extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP, were significantly reduced following epileptogenic stimulation. These results reveal a novel form of neural plasticity, that epileptogenic stimulation can selectively downregulate extrasynaptic GABAA receptors while leaving synaptic GABAA receptors unchanged. Thus, in addition to synaptic alteration of GABAergic transmission, regulation of tonic inhibition may also play an important role during epileptogenesis. PMID:16990405

  9. Volumetric navigated MEGA-SPECIAL for real-time motion and shim corrected GABA editing.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Muhammad G; Alhamud, A; Near, Jamie; van der Kouwe, Andr J W; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-03-01

    Mescher-Garwood (MEGA) editing with spin echo full intensity acquired localization (MEGA-SPECIAL, MSpc) is a technique to acquire ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) without macromolecule (MM) contamination at a TE of 68 ms. However, due to the requirement of multiple shot-localization, it is often susceptible to subject motion and B0 inhomogeneity. A method is presented for real-time shim and motion correction (ShMoCo) using volumetric navigators to correct for motion and motion-related B0 inhomogeneity during MSpc acquisition. A phantom experiment demonstrates that ShMoCo restores the GABA peak and improves spectral quality in the presence of motion and zero- and first-order shim changes. The ShMoCo scans were validated in three subjects who performed up-down and left-right head rotations. Qualitative assessment of these scans indicates effective reduction of subtraction artefacts and well edited GABA peaks, while quantitative analysis indicates superior fitting and spectral quality relative to scans with no correction. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663075

  10. Motor dysfunction in cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific vesicular GABA transporter knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Kayakabe, Mikiko; Kakizaki, Toshikazu; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Atsushi; Nakazato, Yoichi; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Saito, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Noboru; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian central nervous system and plays modulatory roles in neural development. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is an essential molecule for GABAergic neurotransmission due to its role in vesicular GABA release. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are GABAergic projection neurons that are indispensable for cerebellar function. To elucidate the significance of VGAT in cerebellar PCs, we generated and characterized PC-specific VGAT knockout (L7-VGAT) mice. VGAT mRNAs and proteins were specifically absent in the 40-week-old L7-VGAT PCs. The morphological characteristics, such as lamination and foliation of the cerebellar cortex, of the L7-VGAT mice were similar to those of the control littermate mice. Moreover, the protein expression levels and patterns of pre- (calbindin and parvalbumin) and postsynaptic (GABA-A receptor α1 subunit and gephyrin) molecules between the L7-VGAT and control mice were similar in the deep cerebellar nuclei that receive PC projections. However, the L7-VGAT mice performed poorly in the accelerating rotarod test and displayed ataxic gait in the footprint test. The L7-VGAT mice also exhibited severer ataxia as VGAT deficits progressed. These results suggest that VGAT in cerebellar PCs is not essential for the rough maintenance of cerebellar structure, but does play an important role in motor coordination. The L7-VGAT mice are a novel model of ataxia without PC degeneration, and would also be useful for studying the role of PCs in cognition and emotion. PMID:24474904

  11. Polycomblike protein PHF1b: a transcriptional sensor for GABA receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABAAR) contains the recognition sites for a variety of agents used in the treatment of brain disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy. A better understanding of how receptor expression is regulated in individual neurons may provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Towards this goal we have studied transcription of a GABAAR subunit gene (GABRB1) whose activity is autologously regulated by GABA via a 10 base pair initiator-like element (β1-INR). Methods By screening a human cDNA brain library with a yeast one-hybrid assay, the Polycomblike (PCL) gene product PHD finger protein transcript b (PHF1b) was identified as a β1-INR associated protein. Promoter/reporter assays in primary rat cortical cells demonstrate that PHF1b is an activator at GABRB1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that presence of PHF1 at endogenous Gabrb1 is regulated by GABAAR activation. Results PCL is a member of the Polycomb group required for correct spatial expression of homeotic genes in Drosophila. We now show that PHF1b recognition of β1-INR is dependent on a plant homeodomain, an adjacent helix-loop-helix, and short glycine rich motif. In neurons, it co-immunoprecipitates with SUZ12, a key component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) that regulates a number of important cellular processes, including gene silencing via histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Conclusions The observation that chronic exposure to GABA reduces PHF1 binding and H3K27 monomethylation, which is associated with transcriptional activation, strongly suggests that PHF1b may be a molecular transducer of GABAAR function and thus GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the central nervous system. PMID:23879974

  12. Spectral-Editing Measurements of GABA in the Human Brain with and without Macromolecule Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley D.; Puts, Nicolaas A.J.; Barker, Peter B.; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The conventional spectral-editing experiment used to measure GABA in the human brain also contains a contribution from macromolecules (MM), and the combined GABA plus MM signal is often referred to as “GABA+”. More recently, methods have been developed to estimate GABA free from MM contamination. In this study, the relationship between GABA acquired with MM suppression and conventional GABA+ measurements was examined. Methods GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS experiments with and without MM suppression were performed in the sensorimotor and occipital cortex of 12 healthy subjects at 3 Tesla. The correlation between GABA+ and MM-suppressed GABA measures was then determined. Results Across all data, a significant correlation between GABA+ and MM-suppressed GABA was found (r = 0.48; P = 0.02). Regionally, the sensorimotor voxel showed a trend toward a correlation of r = 0.53, P = 0.07 and the occipital voxel did not show a correlation, r = 0.058, P = 0.9. Conclusion GABA+ and MM-suppressed GABA are moderately correlated, but statistical power to reveal this relationship may vary regionally. The MM signal, while often assumed to be functionally irrelevant, appears to show inter-individual and inter-regional variance that impacts the correlation of GABA+ and MM-suppressed GABA. PMID:25521836

  13. Involvement of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in the effects of endogenous glutamate on extracellular concentrations of dopamine and GABA in the nucleus accumbens of the awake rat.

    PubMed

    Segovia, G; Mora, F

    2001-01-15

    We have investigated the effects of perfusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) on the endogenous glutamate-evoked changes of extracellular dopamine and alpha-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nucleus accumbens of the awake rat. Local infusion of the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxilic acid in the nucleus accumbens produced an increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate, dopamine, and GABA. At the dose of 4 mM, the increase of extracellular glutamate, dopamine, and GABA were 3.73 +/- 0.46 microM (n = 8; p < 0.001), 4.70 +/- 0.92 nM (n = 6; p < 0.001) and 0.36 +/- 0.08 microM (n = 8; p < 0.001), respectively. Perfusion of the NMDA-receptor antagonist CPP attenuated the increases of dopamine by 90% (n = 5; p < 0.001), but enhanced the increases of GABA by 70% (n = 7; p < 0.01). Perfusion of the AMPA-receptor antagonist DNQX did not attenuate the increases of GABA. These results suggest a differential mediation of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors in the actions of endogenous glutamate on extracellular concentration of dopamine and GABA. PMID:11275404

  14. A homogeneous assay to assess GABA transporter activity.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Karla K; McKenna, Beth Ann; Pauletti, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    This unit describes a convenient functional uptake assay for GABA transport into cell lines transiently transfected with GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) and other GAT isoforms. This facile, homogeneous assay allows for the determination of K(m), V(max), and K(i) values. The assay utilizes commercially available microtiter plates that contain scintillant embedded in the bottom of the wells. Whereas a signal is generated as the cell accumulates the labeled neurotransmitter, label in the medium is undetected. While GABA uptake is observed in several cell lines transfected with GAT-1, K(m) values for GABA uptake may vary with the cell line. This indicates that the choice of cell line is an important consideration when conducting uptake assays. PMID:21953387

  15. Metabotropic GABA signalling modulates longevity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Lei; Gong, Jianke; Yuan, Fengling; Zhang, Bi; Liu, Hongkang; Zheng, Tianlin; Yu, Teng; Xu, X. Z. Shawn; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important but poorly understood role in modulating longevity. GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is best known to regulate nervous system function and behaviour in diverse organisms. Whether GABA signalling affects aging, however, has not been explored. Here we examined mutants lacking each of the major neurotransmitters in C. elegans, and find that deficiency in GABA signalling extends lifespan. This pro-longevity effect is mediated by the metabotropic GABAB receptor GBB-1, but not ionotropic GABAA receptors. GBB-1 regulates lifespan through G protein-PLCβ signalling, which transmits longevity signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO, a key regulator of lifespan. Mammalian GABAB receptors can functionally substitute for GBB-1 in lifespan control in C. elegans. Our results uncover a new role of GABA signalling in lifespan regulation in C. elegans, raising the possibility that a similar process may occur in other organisms. PMID:26537867

  16. Metabotropic GABA signalling modulates longevity in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chun, Lei; Gong, Jianke; Yuan, Fengling; Zhang, Bi; Liu, Hongkang; Zheng, Tianlin; Yu, Teng; Xu, X Z Shawn; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important but poorly understood role in modulating longevity. GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is best known to regulate nervous system function and behaviour in diverse organisms. Whether GABA signalling affects aging, however, has not been explored. Here we examined mutants lacking each of the major neurotransmitters in C. elegans, and find that deficiency in GABA signalling extends lifespan. This pro-longevity effect is mediated by the metabotropic GABAB receptor GBB-1, but not ionotropic GABAA receptors. GBB-1 regulates lifespan through G protein-PLCβ signalling, which transmits longevity signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO, a key regulator of lifespan. Mammalian GABAB receptors can functionally substitute for GBB-1 in lifespan control in C. elegans. Our results uncover a new role of GABA signalling in lifespan regulation in C. elegans, raising the possibility that a similar process may occur in other organisms. PMID:26537867

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum sorting and kinesin-1 command the targeting of axonal GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Viviana; Valenzuela, José Ignacio; Salas, Daniela A; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Otero, Carolina; Thiede, Christina; Schmidt, Christoph F; Couve, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    In neuronal cells the intracellular trafficking machinery controls the availability of neurotransmitter receptors at the plasma membrane, which is a critical determinant of synaptic strength. Metabotropic γ amino-butyric acid (GABA) type B receptors (GABA(B)Rs) are neurotransmitter receptors that modulate synaptic transmission by mediating the slow and prolonged responses to GABA. GABA(B)Rs are obligatory heteromers constituted by two subunits, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2. GABA(B)R1a and GABA(B)R1b are the most abundant subunit variants. GABA(B)R1b is located in the somatodendritic domain whereas GABA(B)R1a is additionally targeted to the axon. Sushi domains located at the N-terminus of GABA(B)R1a constitute the only difference between both variants and are necessary and sufficient for axonal targeting. The precise targeting machinery and the organelles involved in sorting and transport have not been described. Here we demonstrate that GABA(B)Rs require the Golgi apparatus for plasma membrane delivery but that axonal sorting and targeting of GABA(B)R1a operate in a pre-Golgi compartment. In the axon GABA(B)R1a subunits are enriched in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and their dynamic behavior and colocalization with other secretory organelles like the ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) suggest that they employ a local secretory route. The transport of axonal GABA(B)R1a is microtubule-dependent and kinesin-1, a molecular motor of the kinesin family, determines axonal localization. Considering that progression of GABA(B)Rs through the secretory pathway is regulated by an ER retention motif our data contribute to understand the role of the axonal ER in non-canonical sorting and targeting of neurotransmitter receptors. PMID:22952914

  18. Sensory integration in mouse insular cortex reflects GABA circuit maturation.

    PubMed

    Gogolla, Nadine; Takesian, Anne E; Feng, Guoping; Fagiolini, Michela; Hensch, Takao K

    2014-08-20

    Insular cortex (IC) contributes to a variety of complex brain functions, such as communication, social behavior, and self-awareness through the integration of sensory, emotional, and cognitive content. How the IC acquires its integrative properties remains unexplored. We compared the emergence of multisensory integration (MSI) in the IC of behaviorally distinct mouse strains. While adult C57BL/6 mice exhibited robust MSI, this capacity was impaired in the inbred BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of idiopathic autism. The deficit reflected weakened γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) circuits and compromised postnatal pruning of cross-modal input. Transient pharmacological enhancement by diazepam in BTBR mice during an early sensitive period rescued inhibition and integration in the adult IC. Moreover, impaired MSI was common across three other monogenic models (GAD65, Shank3, and Mecp2 knockout mice) displaying behavioral phenotypes and parvalbumin-circuit abnormalities. Our findings offer developmental insight into a key neural circuit relevant to neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia and autism. PMID:25088363

  19. Experiment K-6-18. Study of muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex, hippcampus and spinal code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N.; Damelio, F.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Frontal lobe samples of rat brains flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were processed for the study of muscarinic (cholinergic) and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors and for immunocytochemical localization of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although radioactive labeling of both muscarinic cholinergic and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors proved to be successful with the techniques employed, distinct receptor localization of individual laminae of the frontal neocortex was not possible since the sampling of the area was different in the various groups of animals. In spite of efforts made for proper orientation and regional identification of laminae, it was found that a densitometric (quantitation of autoradiograms) analysis of the tissue did not contribute to the final interpretation of the effects of weightlessness on these receptors. As to the immunocytochemical studies the use of both markers, GFAP and GABA antiserum, confirmed the suitability of the techniques for use in frozen material. However, similar problems to those encountered in the receptor studies prevented an adequate interpretation of the effects of micro-G exposure on the localization and distribution of GABA and GFAP. This study did, however, confirm the feasibility of investigating neurotransmitters and their receptors in future space flight experiments.

  20. Inter- and intracellular relationship of substance P-containing neurons with serotonin and GABA in the dorsal raphe nucleus: combination of autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Mâgoul, R; Onteniente, B; Oblin, A; Calas, A

    1986-06-01

    Double-labeling experiments were performed at the electron microscopic level in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat, in order to study the inter- and intracellular relationship of substance P with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. Autoradiography for either [3H]serotonin or [3H]GABA was coupled, on the same tissue section, with peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry for substance P in colchicine-treated animals. Intercellular relationships were represented by synaptic contacts made by [3H]serotonin-labeled terminals on substance P-containing somata and dendrites, and by substance P-containing terminals on [3H]GABA-labeled cells. Intracellular relationships were suggested by the occurrence of the peptide within [3H]serotonin-containing and [3H]GABA-containing cell bodies and fibers. Doubly labeled varicosities of the two kinds were also observed in the supraependymal plexus adjacent to the dorsal raphe nucleus. The results demonstrated that, in addition to reciprocal synaptic interactions made by substance P with serotonin and GABA, the dorsal raphe nucleus is the site of intracellular relationships between the peptide and either the amine or the amino acid. PMID:2422252

  1. Nicotine self-administration differentially modulates glutamate and GABA transmission in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to enhance the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoliang; Chen, Hao; Wu, Xingjun; Matta, Shannon G.; Sharp, Burt M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mechanisms by which chronic nicotine self-administration augments hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress are only partially understood. Nicotine self-administration alters neuropeptide expression in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons within paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and increases PVN responsiveness to norepinephrine during mild footshock stress. Glutamate and GABA also modulate CRF neurons, but their roles in enhanced HPA responsiveness to footshock during chronic self-administration are unknown. We show that nicotine self-administration augmented footshock-induced PVN glutamate release, but further decreased GABA release. In these rats, intra-PVN kynurenic acid, a glutamate receptor antagonist, blocked enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone responses to footshock. In contrast, peri-PVN kynurenic acid, which decreases activity of GABA afferents to PVN, enhanced footshock-induced corticosterone secretion only in control rats self-administering saline. Additionally, in rats self-administering nicotine, footshock-induced elevation of corticosterone was significantly less than in controls after intra-PVN saclofen (GABA-B receptor antagonist). Therefore, the exaggerated reduction in GABA release by footshock during nicotine self-administration disinhibits CRF neurons. This disinhibition combined with enhanced glutamate input provides a new mechanism for HPA sensitization to stress by chronic nicotine self-administration. This mechanism, which does not preserve homeostatic plasticity, supports the concept that smoking functions as a chronic stressor that sensitizes the HPA to stress. PMID:20202080

  2. Discovery and optimization of an azetidine chemical series as a free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) antagonist: from hit to clinic.

    PubMed

    Pizzonero, Mathieu; Dupont, Sonia; Babel, Marielle; Beaumont, Stphane; Bienvenu, Natacha; Blanqu, Roland; Cherel, Latitia; Christophe, Thierry; Crescenzi, Benedetta; De Lemos, Elsa; Delerive, Philippe; Deprez, Pierre; De Vos, Steve; Djata, Fatoumata; Fletcher, Stephen; Kopiejewski, Sabrina; L'Ebraly, Christelle; Lefranois, Jean-Michel; Lavazais, Stphanie; Manioc, Murielle; Nelles, Luc; Oste, Line; Polancec, Denis; Qunhen, Vanessa; Soulas, Florilne; Triballeau, Nicolas; van der Aar, Ellen M; Vandeghinste, Nick; Wakselman, Emanuelle; Brys, Reginald; Saniere, Laurent

    2014-12-11

    FFA2, also called GPR43, is a G-protein coupled receptor for short chain fatty acids which is involved in the mediation of inflammatory responses. A class of azetidines was developed as potent FFA2 antagonists. Multiparametric optimization of early hits with moderate potency and suboptimal ADME properties led to the identification of several compounds with nanomolar potency on the receptor combined with excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. The most advanced compound, 4-[[(R)-1-(benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl)-2-methyl-azetidine-2-carbonyl]-(3-chloro-benzyl)-amino]-butyric acid 99 (GLPG0974), is able to inhibit acetate-induced neutrophil migration strongly in vitro and demonstrated ability to inhibit a neutrophil-based pharmacodynamic (PD) marker, CD11b activation-specific epitope [AE], in a human whole blood assay. All together, these data supported the progression of 99 toward next phases, becoming the first FFA2 antagonist to reach the clinic. PMID:25380412

  3. Stress metabolism in green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.): expression of dehydrins and accumulation of GABA during drying.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Daniela; Breitenstein, Björn; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In order to produce tradeable standard green coffee, processed beans must be dried. The drying procedure affects the abundance of relevant aroma substances, e.g. carbohydrates. Using molecular tools, the corresponding metabolic basis is analyzed. A decrease in water potential of the still living coffee seeds induces massive drought stress responses. As a marker for these stress reactions, accumulation of a general stress metabolite, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and associated gene expression of drought stress-associated dehydrins were monitored. The results of this study indicate that metabolism in drying coffee beans is quite complex since several events trigger accumulation of GABA. The first peak of GABA accumulation during drying is correlated with expression of isocitrate lyase and thus with ongoing germination processes in coffee seeds. Two subsequent peaks of GABA accumulation correspond to maxima of dehydrin gene expression and are thought to be induced directly by drought stress in the embryo and endosperm tissue, respectively. Apart from the significance for understanding basic seed physiology, metabolic changes in coffee seeds during processing provide valuable information for understanding the role and effect of the steps of green coffee processing on the quality of the resulting coffee. PMID:20208063

  4. Optoactivation of parvalbumin neurons in the spinal dorsal horn evokes GABA release that is regulated by presynaptic GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Ma, Rui; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Ping; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-05-01

    Among heterogeneous neural cells in the spinal dorsal horn, parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons are one subtype of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-containing interneurons. Using an optogenetic approach, we expressed blue light-sensitive cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) via a viral vector on PV neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Combined with in vitro whole-cell recordings, we activated ChR2 expressed on PV neurons by blue light and recorded GABAA receptor-mediated light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (L-IPSCs). The L-IPSCs were action potential-dependent and abolished by the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin, indicating a synchronic GABA release from presynaptic terminals. Activation of GABAB receptors (the metabotropic receptors of GABA) on presynaptic terminals by a putative agonist, baclofen, depressed the amplitude of L-IPSCs. This depression was largely occluded by pretreatment with the highly selective Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+) channel blocker ω-agatoxin IVA. N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker ω-conotoxin GVIA showed less effects on either L-IPSCs or baclofen depression. We conclude that optoactivation of PV-ChR2 neurons in the spinal dorsal horn induces GABA release from presynaptic terminals, which is modulated by presynaptic GABAB receptors that are coupled to P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. Importantly, our studies provide a simple and reliable optogenetic approach to study dorsal horn neural circuits. PMID:25817363

  5. Functional Recovery After Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With Reduced GABAergic Inhibition in the Cerebral Cortex: A GABA PET Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yang, Eun Joo; Cho, Kyehee; Lim, Jong Youb; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2014-01-24

    Background: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasticity plays an important role in stroke motor recovery in a mouse model. However, little is known about changes over time in neuronal excitability mediated by GABA receptors in human stroke patients. Objectives: To establish the mechanism of neuroplasticity during the recovery phase following ischemic stroke by assessing the changes in cerebral GABA activity using [(18)F]flumazenil ([(18)F]FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: A total of 10 patients with unilateral ischemic stroke were studied at 1 month (T0) and 3 months (T1) postonset using [(18)F]FMZ PET. Changes in regional GABAergic activity were assessed longitudinally, and values were also compared with those in 15 age-matched controls. Upper-extremity motor function was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer score (FMS). Results: During the follow-up period, statistical parametric mapping analysis demonstrated a decrease in GABAA receptor availability throughout the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, especially the contralateral hemisphere. GABAA availability in the bilateral primary motor cortex, contralateral supplemental motor cortex, and globus pallidus at T0 was positively correlated with the FMS score at T1. Conclusions: This is the first prospective, controlled longitudinal study showing that the change in GABA receptor availability over time is significantly related to motor recovery after stroke in humans. This work supports the rationale for a novel strategy to promote motor recovery after stroke. PMID:24463186

  6. [Influence of GABA(C)-Receptor Antagonist on Formation of Evoked Potentials in Columns of the Rat Somatosensory Cortex].

    PubMed

    Matukhno, A E; Lysenko, L V; Andreeva, Y V; Sukhov, A G

    2015-01-01

    Microelectrode studies of evoked potentials (EP) in neuronal column of rats barrel cortex show activating action of selective GABA(C)-receptor antagonist 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl-methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) mainly on secondary components of EP of supragranular afferent layers of column compared to the efferent infragranular layers. These data suggest localization of GABA(C)-receptors on pre- synaptic terminals of thalamo-cortical glutamatergic afferents and ascending apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. A blockade of GABA(C)-receptors with the selective antagonist TPM PA leads to dose-dependent afferent depolarization with development of presynaptic inhibition and suppression of primary components of EP GABA(C)-receptors blocker produces different effects on secondary components of EP in supragranular layers of the cortex caused by the development of neuronal after hyperpolarization followed by high-amplitude primary response and afterdepolarization followed by low-amplitude primary responses with subsequent activation of different voltage-gated channels and formation of different level of cortical direct current potential gradients. PMID:26841661

  7. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  8. Control of cortical neuronal migration by glutamate and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Heiko J.; Fukuda, A.; Kilb, W.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca2+ transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis. PMID:25688185

  9. Control of cortical neuronal migration by glutamate and GABA.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Fukuda, A; Kilb, W

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca(2+) transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis. PMID:25688185

  10. Opsoclonus in a patient with increased titers of anti-GAD antibody provides proof for the conductance-based model of saccadic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Wilmot, George

    2016-03-15

    Paucity in gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) due to blockage in the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), as seen in the syndrome of anti-GAD antibody, causes adult onset cerebellar ataxia, muscle rigidity, and episodic spasms. Downbeat nystagmus, saccadic dysmetria, impaired ocular pursuit, and impaired cancelation of vestibular ocular reflex are typical ocular motor deficits in patients with syndrome of anti-GAD antibody. We describe opsoclonus, in addition to downbeat nystagmus, in a patient with increased titers of anti-GAD antibody. Paucity in GABA leading to disinhibition to Purkinje target neurons at deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei might have caused downbeat nystagmus in our patient. Anti-GAD antibody can also increase levels of glutamate the precursor of GABA and the substrate for the action of GAD. We propose that opsoclonus might be due to increased levels of glutamate and subsequent hyperexcitability of excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons leading to reverberation in their reciprocally innervating circuit. PMID:26944142

  11. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a bacterial GABA receptor with a Venus flytrap fold.

    PubMed

    Moréra, Solange; Gueguen-Chaignon, Virginie; Raffoux, Aurélie; Faure, Denis

    2008-12-01

    In response to infection by the pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants synthesize several stress amino acids, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which modulates the expression of bacterial virulence factors. GABA penetrates into the bacterial cytoplasm via an ABC transporter that is associated with the periplasmic receptor Atu2422. Mature receptor Atu2422 (without its signal peptide) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A complete data set was collected to 1.35 A resolution at 100 K. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Molecular replacement was performed and the initial electron-density maps revealed a closed form of this Venus flytrap (VFT) receptor, suggesting the presence of an endogenous E. coli ligand. PMID:19052373

  12. Modulation of radioligand binding to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex by a new component from Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Youn; Choi, Hyoung-Chul; Cho, Jungsook; Kang, Byung-Soo; Lim, Jae-Chul; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2002-01-01

    Four sesquiterpenes, beta-selinene, isocurcumenol, nootkatone and aristolone and one triterpene, oleanolic acid were isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and tested for their ability to modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor function by radioligand binding assays using rat cerebrocortical membranes. Among these compounds, only isocurcumenol, one of the newly identified constituents of this plant, was found to inhibit [3H]Ro15-1788 binding and enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the presence of GABA. These results suggest that isocurcumenol may serve as a benzodiazepine receptor agonist and allosterically modulate GABAergic neurotransmission via enhancement of endogenous receptor ligand binding. PMID:11824542

  13. Effect of acetylcholine and GABA on the transfer function of electromotility in isolated outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Sziklai, I; He, D Z; Dallos, P

    1996-05-01

    Outer hair cells (OHC) from high- and low-frequency regions were separately isolated from guinea pig cochleas. The cells were inserted with their ciliary pole first into a partitioning microchamber so that only 20-50% of the cell length was excluded. Somatic length changes due to transcellular electrical stimulation were measured at the cuticular plate in the inserted portion of the cells. Transfer curves of electromotility of the OHCs were obtained by both a series of brief (2.5 ms) and longer (30 ms) square pulses with opposite polarity and linearly increasing size from 40 to 280 mV in both negative and positive directions. Alterations in the transient and steady-state electromotility transfer curves were examined by application of acetylcholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to the synaptic pole. ACh, in the concentration range of 10-30 microM, evoked a significant magnitude and gain increase of electromotility in both transient and steady-state responses without a measurable shift in the operating point of the displacement-voltage transfer curve. A tonotopic response magnitude difference is found for ACh challenge. Basal turn OHCs responded with greater magnitude increase (+90% increase from control) than apical turn OHCs (+40%). GABA exerted an opposite effect, again in a location-dependent manner. Magnitude response decreased about 30% for long cells and 14% for short ones. Atropin, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, completely blocked the increase in electromotility response due to ACh. However, D-tubocurarine, a nicorinic receptor antagonist, while not blocking the ACh effect, altered the cell's apparent operating point. Bicuculline methiodide, a GABAA-receptor antagonist, completely arrested GABA influences on the electromotility response. These results suggest that both ACh and GABA can change the electromotile activity of OHCs, in a tonotopically biased manner. ACh challenge evokes greater magnitude responses in basal turn OHCs, whereas GABA induces greater motility response decrease in apical turn OHCs. The control of the gain and magnitude of electromotility by the transmitter substances appear to involve at least two mechanisms. One is probably related to conformational changes of the voltage-to-movement converter molecules and a change in their number in an effective operational pool, the other operates via changing the electrical resistance of the basolateral cell membrane. PMID:8793511

  14. Actions of picrodendrin antagonists on dieldrin-sensitive and -resistant Drosophila GABA receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Ozoe, Y.; Koike, K.; Ohmoto, T.; Nikaido, T.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. A series of terpenoid compounds, recently isolated from Picrodendron baccatum, share a picrotoxane skeleton with picrotoxinin, an antagonist of ionotropic GABA receptors. Referred to as picrodendrins, they inhibit the binding of [35S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to rat GABAA receptors. Hitherto, their effects on GABA receptors have not been investigated electrophysiologically. Under two-electrode voltage-clamp, the actions of picrodendrins and related terpenoids have been assayed on homooligomeric GABA receptors formed by the expression of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit (RDLac) in Xenopus oocytes. 2. All the terpenoids tested, dose-dependently antagonized currents induced by 30 microM (EC50) GABA. 3. Tutin and its analogues (dihydrotutin and isohyenanchin) differ in the structure of their axial C4 substituents. Of these compounds, tutin, which bears an isopropenyl group at this carbon atom, was the most potent antagonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, whereas isohyenanchin, which bears a hydroxyisopropyl group, was the least potent antagonist tested. 4. Picrodendrins differ mainly in the structure of their C9 substituents. The IC50s of picrodendrins ranged from 17 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-Q) to 1006 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-O). As such, the most potent picrodendrins (Q, A and B) were approximately equipotent with picrotoxinin as antagonists of RDLac homo-oligomers. 5. Certain picrodendrin compounds effected a use-dependent blockade of RDLac homo-oligomers. Such a biphasic block was not observed with tutin analogues. 6. Picrotoxin-resistant RDLacA3025 homo-oligomers, which have a single amino acid substitution (A302S) in the 2nd transmembrane region, were markedly less sensitive to picrodendrin-O than the wild-type, dieldrin-sensitive, homo-oligomers. 7. The relative potency of tutin analogues demonstrates that the structure-activity relationship of the C4 substituent of picrotoxane-based compounds is conserved in vertebrates and insects. However, the relative order of potency of picrodendrins on RDLac homo-oligomers is distinctly different from that observed in previous radioligand binding studies performed on vertebrate GABAA receptors. As picrodendrin compounds differ in the structure of their C9 substituents, these data suggest that the optimal convulsant pharmacophores of vertebrate GABAA receptors and RDLac homo-oligomers differ with respect to this substituent. PMID:8982503

  15. GABA receptors, alcohol dependence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Tucci, Marianna; Sartore, Daniela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Di Pietra, Laura; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the connection between alcohol dependence and criminal behavior by an integrated genetic-environmental approach. The research, structured as a case-control study, examined 186 alcohol-dependent males; group 1 (N = 47 convicted subjects) was compared with group 2 (N = 139 no previous criminal records). Genetic results were innovative, highlighting differences in genotype distribution (p = 0.0067) in group 1 for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs 3780428, located in the intronic region of subunit 2 of the GABA B receptor gene (GABBR2). Some environmental factors (e.g., grade repetition) were associated with criminal behavior; others (e.g., attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous) were inversely related to convictions. The concomitant presence of the genetic and environmental factors found to be associated with the condition of alcohol-dependent inmate showed a 4-fold increase in the risk of antisocial behavior. The results need to be replicated on a larger population to develop new preventive and therapeutic proposals. PMID:23822588

  16. Evaluation of improved γ-aminobutyric acid production in yogurt using Lactobacillus plantarum NDC75017.

    PubMed

    Shan, Y; Man, C X; Han, X; Li, L; Guo, Y; Deng, Y; Li, T; Zhang, L W; Jiang, Y J

    2015-04-01

    Most γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but the yield of GABA is limited in most of these GABA-producing strains. In this study, the production of GABA was carried out by using Lactobacillus plantarum NDC75017, a strain screened from traditional fermented dairy products in China. Concentrations of substrate (l-monosodium glutamate, L-MSG) and coenzyme (pyridoxal-5-phosphate, PLP) of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and culture temperature were investigated to evaluate their effects on GABA yield of Lb. plantarum NDC75017. The results indicated that GABA production was related to GAD activity and biomass of Lb. plantarum NDC75017. Response surface methodology was used to optimize conditions of GABA production. The optimal factors for GABA production were L-MSG at 80 mM, PLP at 18 μM, and a culture temperature of 36 °C. Under these conditions, production of GABA was maximized at 314.56 mg/100 g. Addition of Lb. plantarum NDC75017 to a commercial starter culture led to higher GABA production in fermented yogurt. Flavor and texture of the prepared yogurt and the control yogurt did not differ significantly. Thus, Lb. plantarum NDC75017 has good potential for manufacture of GABA-enriched fermented milk products. PMID:25622870

  17. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Javier A; Forsythe, Paul; Chew, Marianne V; Escaravage, Emily; Savignac, Hélène M; Dinan, Timothy G; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F

    2011-09-20

    There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. In this work, we show that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in GABA(B1b) mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice. In addition, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced GABA(Aα2) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but increased GABA(Aα2) in the hippocampus. Importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Moreover, the neurochemical and behavioral effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. PMID:21876150

  18. Accuracy and stability of measuring GABA, glutamate, and glutamine by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A phantom study at 4 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Michael E.; Lauriat, Tara L.; Shanahan, Meghan; Renshaw, Perry F.; Jensen, J. Eric

    2011-02-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the potential to provide valuable information about alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), and glutamine (Gln) in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to use this technique effectively, it is important to establish the accuracy and reproducibility of the methodology. In this study, phantoms with known metabolite concentrations were used to compare the accuracy of 2D J-resolved MRS, single-echo 30 ms PRESS, and GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS for measuring all three aforementioned neurochemicals simultaneously. The phantoms included metabolite concentrations above and below the physiological range and scans were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 1 month time-points. For GABA measurement, MEGA-PRESS proved optimal with a measured-to-target correlation of R2 = 0.999, with J-resolved providing R2 = 0.973 for GABA. All three methods proved effective in measuring Glu with R2 = 0.987 (30 ms PRESS), R2 = 0.996 (J-resolved) and R2 = 0.910 (MEGA-PRESS). J-resolved and MEGA-PRESS yielded good results for Gln measures with respective R2 = 0.855 (J-resolved) and R2 = 0.815 (MEGA-PRESS). The 30 ms PRESS method proved ineffective in measuring GABA and Gln. When measurement stability at in vivo concentration was assessed as a function of varying spectral quality, J-resolved proved the most stable and immune to signal-to-noise and linewidth fluctuation compared to MEGA-PRESS and 30 ms PRESS.

  19. GABA Receptors Genes Polymorphisms and Alcohol Dependence: No Evidence of an Association in an Italian Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Marianna; Di Pietra, Laura; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2014-01-01

    Objective The genes encoding for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A and B receptors may be considered as candidates for alcoholism; genetic alterations at this level may produce structural and functional diversity and thus play a role in the response to alcohol addiction treatment. To investigate these aspects further, we conducted a preliminary genetic association study on a population of Italian male alcohol addicts, focusing on GABA A and B receptors. Methods A total of 186 alcohol-dependent subjects (in the first phase 139, then 47 more samples) and 182 controls were genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes encoding the alpha-1 subunit of GABA A receptor (GABRA1) and subunits 1 and 2 of GABA B receptor (GABBR1 and GABBR2). The chi-squared test for allele and genotype distributions and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium analysis of both subjects and controls were performed. Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Results Preliminary results comparing 139 alcohol-dependent subjects and 182 controls showed differences in genotype distribution in the former for SNP rs29253, located in the intron region of the GABBR1 gene. In order to clarify the meaning of this association, 47 more samples from alcohol-dependent subjects were tested for this SNP only: the previously found association was not confirmed. Conclusion The lack of significant differences between the two groups does not provide evidence that GABRA 1 and GABBR1 and 2 genes are candidates for alcoholism in this population. Further studies with larger samples are needed, together with investigation of other components of the GABA pathway. PMID:25191505

  20. Insights into the binding of GABA to the insect RDL receptor from atomistic simulations: a comparison of models.

    PubMed

    Comitani, Federico; Cohen, Netta; Ashby, Jamie; Botten, Dominic; Lummis, Sarah C R; Molteni, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The resistance to dieldrin (RDL) receptor is an insect pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC). It is activated by the neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to its extracellular domain; hence elucidating the atomistic details of this interaction is important for understanding how the RDL receptor functions. As no high resolution structures are currently available, we built homology models of the extracellular domain of the RDL receptor using different templates, including the widely used acetylcholine binding protein and two pLGICs, the Erwinia Chrysanthemi ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC) and the more recently resolved GluCl. We then docked GABA into the selected three dimensional structures, which we used as starting points for classical molecular dynamics simulations. This allowed us to analyze in detail the behavior of GABA in the binding sites, including the hydrogen bond and cation-? interaction networks it formed, the conformers it visited and the possible role of water molecules in mediating the interactions; we also estimated the binding free energies. The models were all stable and showed common features, including interactions consistent with experimental data and similar to other pLGICs; differences could be attributed to the quality of the models, which increases with increasing sequence identity, and the use of a pLGIC template. We supplemented the molecular dynamics information with metadynamics, a rare event method, by exploring the free energy landscape of GABA binding to the RDL receptor. Overall, we show that the GluCl template provided the best models. GABA forming direct salt-bridges with Arg211 and Glu204, and cation-? interactions with an aromatic cage including Tyr109, Phe206 and Tyr254, represents a favorable binding arrangement, and the interaction with Glu204 can also be mediated by a water molecule. PMID:24442887

  1. Elevated prefrontal cortex GABA in patients with major depressive disorder after TMS treatment measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Marc J.; Mao, Xiangling; Banerjee, Samprit; Goodman, Zachary; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.; Kang, Guoxin; Liston, Conor; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2016-01-01

    Background GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems are central to the pathophysiology of depression and are potential targets of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We assessed the effect of 10-Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with major depressive disorder on the levels of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the combined resonance of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) as assessed in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Methods Currently depressed individuals between the ages of 23 and 68 years participated in a 5-week naturalistic, open-label treatment study of rTMS, with 1H MRS measurements of MPFC GABA and Glx levels at baseline and following 5 weeks of the rTMS intervention. We applied rTMS pulses over the left DLPFC at 10 Hz and 80%–120% of motor threshold for 25 daily sessions, with each session consisting of 3000 pulses. We assessed therapeutic response using the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD24). The GABA and Glx levels are expressed as ratios of peak areas relative to the area of the synchronously acquired and similarly fitted unsuppressed voxel water signal (W). Results Twenty-three currently depressed individuals (7 men) participated in the study. GABA/W in the MPFC increased 13.8% (p = 0.013) in all depressed individuals. There were no significant effects of rTMS on Glx/W. GABA/W and Glx/W were highly correlated in severely depressed patients at baseline but not after TMS. Limitations The primary study limitations are the open-label design and the inclusion of participants currently taking stable regimens of antidepressant medications. Conclusion These results implicate GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the mechanism of action of rTMS for major depression, warranting further investigation in larger samples. PMID:26900793

  2. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time.

  3. Effects of microiontophoretic pentobarbitone on conditioned inhibitions mediated by GABA-A receptors in the cuneate nucleus of the rat in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Andres-Trelles, F; Orviz, P

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effects of microiontophoretic sodium pentobarbitone on the conditioned inhibition of the negative potential (N-wave) evoked in the cuneate nucleus of the rat bv electrical stimulation (5 V, 0.2 ms, 0.5 Hz) of the ipsilateral forepaw. Five- or seven-barelled micropipettes were used, the tip being placed at a depth of 600-900 micron below the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata. The conditioned inhibition was elicited by a previous identical stimulus. When the interval between the stimuli is shorter than about 40 ms (short duration) the inhibition is thought to be mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting on GABA-A receptors. When it is longer (long duration conditioned inhibition) GABA-A receptors are not thought to be involved. Microiontophoretic sodium pentobarbitone potentiated both short (15 ms) and long (45 ms) duration conditioned inhibitions. The effect was current-dependent and appeared whether or not the first N-wave was depressed. Microiontophoretic application of (-)-bicuculline methiodide (a GABA-A antagonist) reduced the potentiation by pentobarbitone up to the basal inhibition when the interval between the stimuli was 45 ms or longer and to a greater extent when it was 30 ms or shorter. It seems likely that pentobarbitone prolongs the GABA-ergic mechanism which produces the short duration inhibition, making it visible with long stimulus intervals, super-imposed upon the normal long duration conditioned inhibition which is not potentiated by local pentobarbitone. PMID:2880989

  4. Marlin-1, a novel RNA-binding protein associates with GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Couve, Andrés; Restituito, Sophie; Brandon, Julia M; Charles, Kelly J; Bawagan, Hinayana; Freeman, Katie B; Pangalos, Menelas N; Calver, Andrew R; Moss, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. Whereas heterodimerization between GABA(B) receptor GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits is essential for functional expression, how neurons coordinate the assembly of these critical receptors remains to be established. Here we have identified Marlin-1, a novel GABA(B) receptor-binding protein that associates specifically with the GABA(B)R1 subunit in yeast, tissue culture cells, and neurons. Marlin-1 is expressed in the brain and exhibits a granular distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. Marlin-1 binds different RNA species including the 3'-untranslated regions of both the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 mRNAs in vitro and also associates with RNA in cultured neurons. Inhibition of Marlin-1 expression via small RNA interference technology results in enhanced intracellular levels of the GABA(B)R2 receptor subunit without affecting the level of GABA(B)R1. Together our results suggest that Marlin-1 functions to regulate the cellular levels of GABA(B) R2 subunits, which may have significant effects on the production of functional GABA(B) receptor heterodimers. Therefore, our observations provide an added level of regulation for the control of GABA(B) receptor expression and for the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:14718537

  5. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid gamma-aminobutyric acid in neurological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, D; Löscher, W

    1982-01-01

    In 49 patients with various neurological disorders plasma and CSF gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were determined by radioreceptor assay. The CSF GABA concentration of 127 +/- 47 pmol/ml (range: 65-275; n = 52) was independent of the age, the sex and the intake of various drugs including benzodiazepines, baclofen and antidepressants. Patients with diverse neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, ischaemic strokes, intracranial tumour and polyneuropathies had similar CSF GABA levels. The mean plasma GABA concentration was 309 +/- 79 pmol/ml (range: 179-498; n = 44). The correlation between the GABA concentrations of CSF and plasma was very poor (r = 0.18; n = 44). Therefore plasma GABA is not a suitable indicator for CSF GABA. PMID:7143013

  6. Asymmetrical effect of GABA on the postural orientation in Clione.

    PubMed

    Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N; Selverston, A I; Arshavsky, Y I

    2000-09-01

    The marine mollusk Clione limacina, when swimming, normally stabilizes the vertical body orientation by means of the gravitational tail reflexes. Horizontal swimming or swimming along inclined ascending trajectories is observed rarely. Here we report that GABA injection into intact Clione resulted in a change of the stabilized orientation and swimming with a tilt of approximately 45 degrees to the left. The analysis of modifications in the postural network underlying this effect was done with in vitro experiments. The CNS was isolated together with the statocysts. Spike discharges in the axons of two groups of motoneurons responsible for the left and right tail flexion, as well as in the axons of CPB3 interneurons mediating signals from the statocyst receptors to the motoneurons, were recorded extracellularly when the preparation was rotated in space. Normally the tail motoneurons of the left and right groups were activated with the contralateral tilt of the preparation. Under the effect of GABA, the gravitational responses in the right group of motoneurons and in the corresponding interneurons were dramatically reduced while the responses in the left group remained unchanged. The most likely site of the inhibitory GABA action is the interneurons mediating signals from the statocysts to the right group of tail motoneurons. The GABA-induced asymmetry of the left and right gravitational tail reflexes, observed in the in vitro experiments, is consistent with a change of the stabilized orientation caused by GABA in the intact Clione. PMID:10980037

  7. GABA and Dopamine Release from Different Brain Regions in Mice with Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Methamidophos

    PubMed Central

    Noriega-Ortega, Blanca Rosa; Armienta-Aldana, Ernesto; Cervantes-Pompa, José Ángel; Armienta-Aldana, Eduardo; Hernández-Ruíz, Enrique; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates such as methamidophos, usually used in the agricultural field, have harmful effects on humans. Exposures to insecticides has been associated with many disorders, including damage to the central and peripheral nervous system. Chronic exposure to organophosphates may lead to persistent neurological and neurobehavioral effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of methamidophos on [3H]-dopamine (DA) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from different brain regions after chronic exposure to it for 3, 6 or 9 months. After a six-month methamidophos treatment, the mice showed high susceptibility to convulsive seizures and a reduction in stimulated gamma aminobutyric acid release from the cerebral cortex and hippocampal slices, whereas stimulated (DA) release was slightly decreased from the striatum after three months of methamidophos exposure. The results indicate changes in gamma aminobutyric acid and dopamine neurotransmission, suggesting a specific neuronal damage. PMID:22272056

  8. Proopiomelanocortin expression in both GABA and glutamate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hentges, Shane T.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Pennock, Reagan L.; King, Connie M.; Low, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons have been intensively studied because of their essential role in regulating energy balance and body weight. Many effects of POMC neurons can be attributed to their release of cognate neuropeptides from secretory granules in axon terminals. However, these neurons also synaptically release non-peptide neurotransmitters. The aim of this study was to settle the controversy whether there are separate populations of POMC neurons that release GABA or glutamate. Transgenic mice expressing a red fluorescent protein driven by Pomc neuronal regulatory elements (POMC-DsRed) were crossed to mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in GABAergic neurons (GAD67-gfp). Approximately 40% of POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the double transgenic mice expressed the GAD67-gfp transgene. In vitro neurotransmitter release was detected using whole-cell electrophysiologic recordings in cultured GAD67-gfp-positive and -negative POMC neurons that had formed recurrent synapses (autapses). Autapses from GAD67-gfp-positive neurons were uniformly GABAergic. In contrast, autapses from the GAD67-gfp-negative POMC neurons exclusively exhibited postsynaptic currents mediated by glutamate. Together, these results indicate that there are two subpopulations of POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus differentiated by their amino acid neurotransmitter phenotype. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from POMC neurons in live brain slices indicated that GABAergic and glutamatergic POMC neurons are under similar pre- and post-synaptic regulation although the GABAergic POMC neurons are smaller and have higher input resistance. GABAergic and glutamatergic POMC neurons may mediate distinct aspects of POMC neuron function, including the regulation of energy homeostasis. PMID:19864580

  9. Learning-Dependent Plasticity of the Barrel Cortex Is Impaired by Restricting GABA-Ergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Posluszny, Anna; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Turzynska, Danuta; Zakrzewska, Renata; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Experience-induced plastic changes in the cerebral cortex are accompanied by alterations in excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Increased excitatory drive, necessary for plasticity, precedes the occurrence of plastic change, while decreased inhibitory signaling often facilitates plasticity. However, an increase of inhibitory interactions was noted in some instances of experience-dependent changes. We previously reported an increase in the number of inhibitory markers in the barrel cortex of mice after fear conditioning engaging vibrissae, observed concurrently with enlargement of the cortical representational area of the row of vibrissae receiving conditioned stimulus (CS). We also observed that an increase of GABA level accompanied the conditioning. Here, to find whether unaltered GABAergic signaling is necessary for learning-dependent rewiring in the murine barrel cortex, we locally decreased GABA production in the barrel cortex or reduced transmission through GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at the time of the conditioning. Injections of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), an inhibitor of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), into the barrel cortex prevented learning-induced enlargement of the conditioned vibrissae representation. A similar effect was observed after injection of gabazine, an antagonist of GABAARs. At the behavioral level, consistent conditioned response (cessation of head movements in response to CS) was impaired. These results show that appropriate functioning of the GABAergic system is required for both manifestation of functional cortical representation plasticity and for the development of a conditioned response. PMID:26641862

  10. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and other glutamate and GABA receptor antibody encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    De Bruijn, Marienke A A M; Titulaer, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few year, antibodies to various central nervous system receptors, particularly the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, have been found to be associated with autoimmune neurologic disorders. The receptors include the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and GABA type A and B receptors (respectively GABAAR and GABABR). Compared to the previously described paraneoplastic antibodies directed at intracellular targets, the patients with receptor antibodies are often younger, they less frequently have malignancies, and they respond better to immunotherapy. Many of the patients have limbic encephalitis with amnesia, disorientation, seizures, and psychological or psychiatric symptoms, but those with NMDAR antibodies usually develop a more widespread form of encephalitis, often leading to a decrease in consciousness and requirement for long-term intensive care treatment. The autoantibodies bind directly to the synaptic or extrasynaptic receptors on the membrane surface, and have direct effects on signal transduction in central synapses. These conditions are very important to recognize as the symptoms and complications can be fatal when not treated in time, whereas with immunotherapy many patients recover considerably. PMID:27112679

  11. Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tjen-A-Looi SC; Li P; Longhurst JC

    2009-06-01

    A long-loop pathway, involving the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM), is essential in electroacupuncture (EA) attenuation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflex responses. The ARC provides excitatory input to the vlPAG, which, in turn, inhibits neuronal activity in the rVLM. Although previous studies have shown that endocannabinoid CB(1) receptor activation modulates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsolateral PAG in stress-induced analgesia, an important role for endocannabinoids in the vlPAG has not yet been observed. We recently have shown (Fu LW, Longhurst JC. J Appl Physiol; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91648.2008) that EA reduces the local vlPAG concentration of GABA, but not glutamate, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography from extracellular samples collected by microdialysis. We, therefore, hypothesized that, during EA, endocannabinoids, acting through CB(1) receptors, presynaptically inhibit GABA release to disinhibit the vlPAG and ultimately modulate excitatory reflex blood pressure responses. Rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented to measure heart rate and blood pressure. Gastric distention-induced blood pressure responses of 18 +/- 5 mmHg were reduced to 6 +/- 1 mmHg by 30 min of low-current, low-frequency EA applied bilaterally at pericardial P 5-6 acupoints overlying the median nerves. Like EA, microinjection of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG to increase endocannabinoids locally reduced the gastric distention cardiovascular reflex response from 21 +/- 5 to 3 +/- 4 mmHg. This inhibition was reversed by pretreatment with the GABA(A) antagonist gabazine (27 mM, 50 nl), suggesting that endocannabinoids exert their action through a GABAergic receptor mechanism in the vlPAG. The EA-related inhibition from 18 +/- 3 to 8 +/- 2 mmHg was reversed to 14 +/- 2 mmHg by microinjection of the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251 (2 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG. Pretreatment with gabazine eliminated reversal following CB(1)-receptor blockade. Thus EA releases endocannabinoids and activates presynaptic CB(1) receptors to inhibit GABA release in the vlPAG. Reduction of GABA release disinhibits vlPAG cells, which, in turn, modulate the activity of rVLM neurons to attenuate the sympathoexcitatory reflex responses.

  12. Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA.

    PubMed

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Li, Peng; Longhurst, John C

    2009-06-01

    A long-loop pathway, involving the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM), is essential in electroacupuncture (EA) attenuation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflex responses. The ARC provides excitatory input to the vlPAG, which, in turn, inhibits neuronal activity in the rVLM. Although previous studies have shown that endocannabinoid CB(1) receptor activation modulates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsolateral PAG in stress-induced analgesia, an important role for endocannabinoids in the vlPAG has not yet been observed. We recently have shown (Fu LW, Longhurst JC. J Appl Physiol; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91648.2008) that EA reduces the local vlPAG concentration of GABA, but not glutamate, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography from extracellular samples collected by microdialysis. We, therefore, hypothesized that, during EA, endocannabinoids, acting through CB(1) receptors, presynaptically inhibit GABA release to disinhibit the vlPAG and ultimately modulate excitatory reflex blood pressure responses. Rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented to measure heart rate and blood pressure. Gastric distention-induced blood pressure responses of 18 +/- 5 mmHg were reduced to 6 +/- 1 mmHg by 30 min of low-current, low-frequency EA applied bilaterally at pericardial P 5-6 acupoints overlying the median nerves. Like EA, microinjection of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG to increase endocannabinoids locally reduced the gastric distention cardiovascular reflex response from 21 +/- 5 to 3 +/- 4 mmHg. This inhibition was reversed by pretreatment with the GABA(A) antagonist gabazine (27 mM, 50 nl), suggesting that endocannabinoids exert their action through a GABAergic receptor mechanism in the vlPAG. The EA-related inhibition from 18 +/- 3 to 8 +/- 2 mmHg was reversed to 14 +/- 2 mmHg by microinjection of the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251 (2 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG. Pretreatment with gabazine eliminated reversal following CB(1)-receptor blockade. Thus EA releases endocannabinoids and activates presynaptic CB(1) receptors to inhibit GABA release in the vlPAG. Reduction of GABA release disinhibits vlPAG cells, which, in turn, modulate the activity of rVLM neurons to attenuate the sympathoexcitatory reflex responses. PMID:19325030

  13. Regulation of Local Ambient GABA Levels via Transporter-Mediated GABA Import and Export for Subliminal Learning.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Perception of supraliminal stimuli might in general be reflected in bursts of action potentials (spikes), and their memory traces could be formed through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Memory traces for subliminal stimuli might be formed in a different manner, because subliminal stimulation evokes a fraction (but not a burst) of spikes. Simulations of a cortical neural network model showed that a subliminal stimulus that was too brief (10 msec) to perceive transiently (more than about 500 msec) depolarized stimulus-relevant principal cells and hyperpolarized stimulus-irrelevant principal cells in a subthreshold manner. This led to a small increase or decrease in ongoing-spontaneous spiking activity frequency (less than 1 Hz). Synaptic modification based on STDP during this period effectively enhanced relevant synaptic weights, by which subliminal learning was improved. GABA transporters on GABAergic interneurons modulated local levels of ambient GABA. Ambient GABA molecules acted on extrasynaptic receptors, provided principal cells with tonic inhibitory currents, and contributed to achieving the subthreshold neuronal state. We suggest that ongoing-spontaneous synaptic alteration through STDP following subliminal stimulation may be a possible neuronal mechanism for leaving its memory trace in cortical circuitry. Regulation of local ambient GABA levels by transporter-mediated GABA import and export may be crucial for subliminal learning. PMID:25774546

  14. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.; Bruinvels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render it unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  15. Wakefulness Is Governed by GABA and Histamine Cotransmission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ye, Zhiwen; Houston, Catriona M; Zecharia, Anna Y; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Uygun, David S; Parker, Susan; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Yustos, Raquel; Franks, Nicholas P; Brickley, Stephen G; Wisden, William

    2015-07-01

    Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus form a widely projecting, wake-active network that sustains arousal. Yet most histaminergic neurons contain GABA. Selective siRNA knockdown of the vesicular GABA transporter (vgat, SLC32A1) in histaminergic neurons produced hyperactive mice with an exceptional amount of sustained wakefulness. Ablation of the vgat gene throughout the TMN further sharpened this phenotype. Optogenetic stimulation in the caudate-putamen and neocortex of "histaminergic" axonal projections from the TMN evoked tonic (extrasynaptic) GABAA receptor Cl(-) currents onto medium spiny neurons and pyramidal neurons. These currents were abolished following vgat gene removal from the TMN area. Thus wake-active histaminergic neurons generate a paracrine GABAergic signal that serves to provide a brake on overactivation from histamine, but could also increase the precision of neocortical processing. The long range of histamine-GABA axonal projections suggests that extrasynaptic inhibition will be coordinated over large neocortical and striatal areas. PMID:26094607

  16. gamma. -Aminobutyric acid in synovial membrane of rat knee joint

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, A.; Kondo, M.; Taniyama, K.; Tanaka, S.

    1988-01-01

    ..gamma..-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was measured, and the release of GABA was studied in the synovial membrane of the rat knee joint. GABA content of the synovial membrane was 20.1 nmol/g tissue. Ten days after unilateral dissection of the sciatic nerve, femoral nerve or both nerves, the GABA contents of the ipsilateral membrane were 13.8, 14.6 and 7.8 nmol/g tissue, respectively. High K/sup +/ evoked the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release of (/sup 3/H) GABA from the synovial membranes of intact rats preloaded with (/sup 3/H) GABA, but did not evoke release from the membrane ipsilateral to the dissection of both sciatic and femoral nerves. Evoked release of (/sup 3/H) GABA was obtained in the synovial membrane preloaded with (/sup 3/H) GABA in the presence of ..beta..-alanine, but not in the presence of 2,4L-diaminobutyric acid. These results indicate that GABA is present in the neuronal elements of the synovial membrane of the rat knee joint.

  17. gamma-Aminobutyric acid-mediated regulation of the activity-dependent olfactory bulb dopaminergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Yosuke; Sasaki, Hayato; Huerta, Patricio T; Estevez, Alvaro G; Baker, Harriet; Cave, John W

    2009-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulates the proliferation and migration of olfactory bulb (OB) interneuron progenitors derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ), but the role of GABA in the differentiation of these progenitors has been largely unexplored. This study examines the role of GABA in the differentiation of OB dopaminergic interneurons using neonatal forebrain organotypic slice cultures prepared from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene promoter (ThGFP). KCl-mediated depolarization of the slices induced ThGFP expression. The addition of GABA to the depolarized slices further increased GFP fluorescence by inducing ThGFP expression in an additional set of periglomerular cells. These findings show that GABA promoted differentiation of SVZ-derived OB dopaminergic interneurons and suggest that GABA indirectly regulated Th expression and OB dopaminergic neuron differentiation through an acceleration of the maturation rate for the dopaminergic progenitors. Additional studies revealed that the effect of GABA on ThGFP expression required activation of L- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels as well as GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. These voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and GABA receptors have previously been shown to be required for the coexpressed GABAergic phenotype in the OB interneurons. Together, these findings suggest that Th expression and the differentiation of OB dopaminergic interneurons are coupled to the coexpressed GABAergic phenotype and demonstrate a novel role for GABA in neurogenesis. PMID:19301430

  18. Extrasynaptic Release of GABA by Retinal Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Hajime; Puopolo, Michelino; Raviola, Elio

    2009-01-01

    GABA release by dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells of the mouse retina was detected by measuring Cl− currents generated by isolated perikarya in response to their own neurotransmitter. The possibility that the Cl− currents were caused by GABA release from synaptic endings that had survived the dissociation of the retina was ruled out by examining confocal Z series of the surface of dissociated tyrosine hydroxylase-positive perikarya after staining with antibodies to preand postsynaptic markers. GABA release was caused by exocytosis because 1) the current events were transient on the millisecond time scale and thus resembled miniature synaptic currents; 2) they were abolished by treatment with a blocker of the vesicular proton pump, bafilomycin A1; and 3) their frequency was controlled by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Because DA cell perikarya do not contain presynaptic active zones, release was by necessity extrasynaptic. A range of depolarizing stimuli caused GABA exocytosis, showing that extrasynaptic release of GABA is controlled by DA cell electrical activity. With all modalities of stimulation, including long-lasting square pulses, segments of pacemaker activity delivered by the action-potential-clamp method and high-frequency trains of ramps, discharge of GABAergic currents exhibited considerable variability in latency and duration, suggesting that coupling between Ca2+ influx and transmitter exocytosis is extremely loose in comparison with the synapse. Paracrine signaling based on extrasynaptic release of GABA by DA cells and other GABAergic amacrines may participate in controlling the excitability of the neuronal processes that interact synaptically in the inner plexiform layer. PMID:19403749

  19. ?-Hydroxybutyrate is the preferred substrate for GABA and glutamate synthesis while glucose is indispensable during depolarization in cultured GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Lund, Trine M; Obel, Linea F; Risa, ystein; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    The ketogenic diet has multiple beneficial effects not only in treatment of epilepsy, but also in that of glucose transporter 1 deficiency, cancer, Parkinson's disease, obesity and pain. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the mechanism behind this metabolic therapy. Patients on a ketogenic diet reach high plasma levels of ketone bodies, which are used by the brain as energy substrates. The interaction between glucose and ketone bodies is complex and there is still controversy as to what extent it affects the homeostasis of the neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate and GABA. The present study was conducted to study this metabolic interaction in cultured GABAergic neurons exposed to different combinations of (13)C-labeled and unlabeled glucose and ?-hydroxybutyrate. Depolarization was induced and the incorporation of (13)C into glutamate, GABA and aspartate was analyzed. The presence of ?-hydroxybutyrate together with glucose did not affect the total GABA content but did, however, decrease the aspartate content to a lower value than when either glucose or ?-hydroxybutyrate was employed alone. When combinations of the two substrates were used (13)C-atoms from ?-hydroxybutyrate were found in all three amino acids to a greater extent than (13)C-atoms from glucose, but only the (13)C contribution from [1,6-(13)C]glucose increased upon depolarization. In conclusion, ?-hydroxybutyrate was preferred over glucose as substrate for amino acid synthesis but the total content of aspartate decreased when both substrates were present. Furthermore only the use of glucose increased upon depolarization. PMID:21684314

  20. Effect of taurine on the concentrations of glutamate, GABA, glutamine and alanine in the rat striatum and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Svetlana M; Oja, Simos S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-01

    Taurine, a non-protein amino acid, acts as an osmoregulator and inhibitory neuromodulator in the brain. Here we studied the effects of intraperitoneal injections of taurine on the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, and their precursors, glutamine and alanine, in the rat striatum and hippocampus. Injections of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg taurine led to a gradual increase in taurine tissue concentrations in both hippocampus and striatum. Glutamate and GABA also increased in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Glutamine increased and alanine decreased markedly in both brain structures. The results corroborate the neuromodulatory role of taurine in the brain. Taurine administration results in an imbalance in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the glutamatergic (hippocampus) and GABAergic (striatum) brain structures, affecting more markedly the neurotransmitter precursors. PMID:18605241

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid GABA measurements: basic and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Hare, T A

    1983-03-01

    The valid measurement of GABA concentration in the CSF for studying in vivo alterations of central nervous system GABAergic activity requires that consideration be given to several factors that affect GABA concentration. These factors include in vivo variables such as the caudocranial concentration gradient in CSF, age, sex, precursor intake, medications, and physical activity, as well as in vitro alterations that can occur during collection, storage, preparation of sample, and analysis. The influence of these factors can be minimized with proper methodology. PMID:6342764

  2. Mechanisms and functions of GABA co-release.

    PubMed

    Tritsch, Nicolas X; Granger, Adam J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2016-03-01

    The 'one neuron, one neurotransmitter' doctrine states that synaptic communication between two neurons occurs through the release of a single chemical transmitter. However, recent findings suggest that neurons that communicate using more than one classical neurotransmitter are prevalent throughout the adult mammalian CNS. In particular, several populations of neurons previously thought to release only glutamate, acetylcholine, dopamine or histamine also release the major inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Here, we review these findings and discuss the implications of GABA co-release for synaptic transmission and plasticity. PMID:26865019

  3. Inhibition of the kinase WNK1/HSN2 ameliorates neuropathic pain by restoring GABA inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Schmouth, Jean-François; Lavastre, Valérie; Latremoliere, Alban; Zhang, Jinwei; Andrews, Nick; Omura, Takao; Laganière, Janet; Rochefort, Daniel; Hince, Pascale; Castonguay, Geneviève; Gaudet, Rébecca; Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; Sotocinal, Susana G; Duan, JingJing; Ward, Catherine; Khanna, Arjun R; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Dion, Patrick A; Woolf, Clifford J; Inquimbert, Perrine; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-01-01

    HSN2is a nervous system predominant exon of the gene encoding the kinase WNK1 and is mutated in an autosomal recessive, inherited form of congenital pain insensitivity. The HSN2-containing splice variant is referred to as WNK1/HSN2. We created a knockout mouse specifically lacking theHsn2exon ofWnk1 Although these mice had normal spinal neuron and peripheral sensory neuron morphology and distribution, the mice were less susceptible to hypersensitivity to cold and mechanical stimuli after peripheral nerve injury. In contrast, thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were similar to control mice in an inflammation-induced pain model. In the nerve injury model of neuropathic pain, WNK1/HSN2 contributed to a maladaptive decrease in the activity of the K(+)-Cl(-)cotransporter KCC2 by increasing its inhibitory phosphorylation at Thr(906)and Thr(1007), resulting in an associated loss of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-mediated inhibition of spinal pain-transmitting nerves. Electrophysiological analysis showed that WNK1/HSN2 shifted the concentration of Cl(-)such that GABA signaling resulted in a less hyperpolarized state (increased neuronal activity) rather than a more hyperpolarized state (decreased neuronal activity) in mouse spinal nerves. Pharmacologically antagonizing WNK activity reduced cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia, decreased KCC2 Thr(906)and Thr(1007)phosphorylation, and restored GABA-mediated inhibition (hyperpolarization) of injured spinal cord lamina II neurons. These data provide mechanistic insight into, and a compelling therapeutic target for treating, neuropathic pain after nerve injury. PMID:27025876

  4. Glutamate and GABA imbalance promotes neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus after stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Wang, He; Liu, Yuan; Li, Ying-yu; Chen, Can; Liu, Liang-ming; Wu, Ya-min; Li, Sen; Yang, Ce

    2014-01-01

    Background People who experience traumatic events have an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, PTSD-related pathological changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain poorly understood. Material/Methods We investigated the effect of a PTSD-like animal model induced by severe stress. The experimental rats received 20 inescapable electric foot shocks in an enclosed box for a total of 6 times in 3 days. The physiological state (body weight and plasma corticosterone concentrations), emotion, cognitive behavior, brain morphology, apoptosis, and balance of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were observed. Cell damages were examined with histological staining (HE, Nissl, and silver impregnation), while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using an Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) binding and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Results In comparison with the sham litter-mates, the stressed rats showed decreased body weight, inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, increase in freezing response to trauma reminder, hypoactivity and anxiety-like behaviors in elevated plus maze and open field test, poor learning in Morris water maze, and shortened latency in hot-plate test. There were significant damages in the hippocampus but not in the prefrontal cortex. Imbalance between glutamate and GABA was more evident in the hippocampus than in the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions These results suggest that neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus after severe traumatic stress is related to the imbalance between glutamate and GABA. Such modifications may resemble the profound changes observed in PTSD patients. PMID:24675061

  5. Analysis of Glutamate, GABA, Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, and Metabolites Using Microbore UHPLC with Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of microbore ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with electrochemical detection for offline analysis of a number of well-known neurotransmitters in less than 10 μL microdialysis fractions is described. Two methods are presented for the analysis of monoamine or amino acid neurotransmitters, using the same UHPLC instrument. Speed of analysis of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindole aceticacid (5-HIAA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was predominated by the retention behavior of NA, the nonideal behavior of matrix components, and the loss in signal of 5-HT. This method was optimized to meet the requirements for detection sensitivity and minimizing the size of collected fractions, which determines temporal resolution in microdialysis. The amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were analyzed after an automated derivatization procedure. Under optimized conditions, Glu was resolved from a number of early eluting system peaks, while the total runtime was decreased to 15 min by a 4-fold increase of the flow rate under UHPLC conditions. The detection limit for Glu and GABA was 10 nmol/L (15 fmol in 1.5 μL); the monoamine neurotransmitters had a detection limit between 32 and 83 pmol/L (0.16–0.42 fmol in 5 μL) in standard solutions. Using UHPLC, the analysis times varied from 15 min to less than 2 min depending on the complexity of the samples and the substances to be analyzed. PMID:23642417

  6. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine in different regions of the cerebellum after x-irradiation-induced neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, M.A.; McBride, W.J.; Rohde, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were determined in the cortex, molecular layer, and deep nuclei of cerebella of adult rats exposed to X-irradiation at 12-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of late-forming granule cells; 12-15x group) and 8-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of granule and stellate cells; 8-15x group). Also, the levels of the four amino acids were measured in the crude synaptosomal fraction (P2) isolated from the whole cerebella of the control, 12-15x, and 8-15x groups. The level of Glu was significantly decreased by (1) 6-20% in the cerebellar cortex; (2) 15-20% in the molecular layer; and (3) 25-50% in the P2 fraction of the X-irradiated groups relative to control values. The content of Glu in the deep nuclei was not changed by X-irradiation treatment. Regional levels of Asp were unchanged by X-irradiation, while its level in P2 decreased by 15-30% after treatment. The levels of GABA and Tau in the molecular layer, deep nuclei, or P2 were not changed in the experimental groups. However, there was a 15% increase in the levels of GABA and Tau in the cerebellar cortex of the 8-15x group relative to control values. The data support the proposed role of glutamate as the excitatory transmitter released from the cerebellar granule cells but are inconclusive regarding a transmitter role for either Tau or GABA from cerebellar stellate cells.

  7. Early development of GABAergic cells of the retina in sharks: an immunohistochemical study with GABA and GAD antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Candal, Eva; Carrera, Iván; Anadón, Ramón; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2008-09-01

    We studied the ontogeny and organization of GABAergic cells in the retina of two elasmobranches, the lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the brown shyshark (Haploblepharus fuscus) by using immunohistochemistry for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Both antibodies revealed the same pattern of immunoreactivity and both species showed similar organization of GABAergic cells. GABAergic cells were first detected in neural retina of embryos at stage 26, which showed a neuroepithelial appearance without any layering. In stages 27-29 the retina showed similar organization but the number of neuroblastic GABAergic cells increased. When layering became apparent in the central retina (stage-30 embryos), GABAergic cells mainly appeared organized in the outer and inner retina, and GABAergic processes and fibres were seen in the primordial inner plexiform layer (IPL), optic fibre layer and optic nerve stalk. In stage-32 embryos, layering was completed in the central retina, where immunoreactivity appeared in perikarya of the horizontal cell layer, inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell layer, and in numerous processes coursing in the IPL, optic fibre layer and optic nerve. From stage 32 to hatching (stage 34), the layered retina extends from centre-to-periphery, recapitulating that observed in the central retina at earlier stages. In adults, GABA/GAD immunoreactivity disappears from the horizontal cell layer except in the marginal retina. Our results indicate that the source of GABA in the shark retina can be explained by its synthesis by GAD. Such synthesis precedes layering and synaptogenesis, thus supporting a developmental role for GABA in addition to act as neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. PMID:18524536

  8. Enhanced production of gamma-aminobutyric acid using rice bran extracts by Lactobacillus sakei B2-16.

    PubMed

    Kook, Moo-Chang; Seo, Myung-Ji; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Pyun, Yu-Ryang; Cho, Seok-Cheol; Park, Hoon

    2010-04-01

    An efficient and simple fermentation process was developed for the production of gamma-amminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus sakei B2-16. When the L. sakei B2-16 was cultivated in the rice bran extracts medium containing 4% sucrose, 1% yeast extract and 12% monosodium glutamate, the maximum GABA concentration reached 660.0 mM with 100% conversion yield, showing the 2.4-fold higher GABA concentration compared to the modified MRS medium without the rice bran extracts. The GABA production was scaled-up from a laboratory scale (5 L) to a pilot (300 L) and a plant scales (5,000 L) to investigate the application possibility of GABA production to industrial fields. The GABA production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to the laboratory scale using rice bran extracts medium which could be effective for the low-cost production of GABA. PMID:20467250

  9. Hyperglycosylation and reduced GABA currents of mutated GABRB3 polypeptide in remitting childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyabi; Olsen, Richard W; Medina, Marco T; Schwartz, Emily; Alonso, Maria Elisa; Duron, Reyna M; Castro-Ortega, Ramon; Martinez-Juarez, Iris E; Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Machado-Salas, Jesus; Silva, Rene; Bailey, Julia N; Bai, Dongsheng; Ochoa, Adriana; Jara-Prado, Aurelio; Pineda, Gregorio; Macdonald, Robert L; Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V

    2008-06-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) accounts for 10% to 12% of epilepsy in children under 16 years of age. We screened for mutations in the GABA(A) receptor (GABAR) beta 3 subunit gene (GABRB3) in 48 probands and families with remitting CAE. We found that four out of 48 families (8%) had mutations in GABRB3. One heterozygous missense mutation (P11S) in exon 1a segregated with four CAE-affected persons in one multiplex, two-generation Mexican family. P11S was also found in a singleton from Mexico. Another heterozygous missense mutation (S15F) was present in a singleton from Honduras. An exon 2 heterozygous missense mutation (G32R) was present in two CAE-affected persons and two persons affected with EEG-recorded spike and/or sharp wave in a two-generation Honduran family. All mutations were absent in 630 controls. We studied functions and possible pathogenicity by expressing mutations in HeLa cells with the use of Western blots and an in vitro translation and translocation system. Expression levels did not differ from those of controls, but all mutations showed hyperglycosylation in the in vitro translation and translocation system with canine microsomes. Functional analysis of human GABA(A) receptors (alpha 1 beta 3-v2 gamma 2S, alpha 1 beta 3-v2[P11S]gamma 2S, alpha 1 beta 3-v2[S15F]gamma 2S, and alpha 1 beta 3-v2[G32R]gamma 2S) transiently expressed in HEK293T cells with the use of rapid agonist application showed that each amino acid transversion in the beta 3-v2 subunit (P11S, S15F, and G32R) reduced GABA-evoked current density from whole cells. Mutated beta 3 subunit protein could thus cause absence seizures through a gain in glycosylation of mutated exon 1a and exon 2, affecting maturation and trafficking of GABAR from endoplasmic reticulum to cell surface and resulting in reduced GABA-evoked currents. PMID:18514161

  10. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  11. Intracellular studies of GABA and taurine action on the neurons of the cat sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, A A; Batuev, A S

    1979-01-01

    The action of taurine and GABA on the cat cerebral cortex neurons was studied. Electrophoretically administered taurine and GABA hyperpolarized the neuron membrane. GABA, in contrast to taurine, sharply increased the somatic membrane conductance. Taurine action was weaker than that of GABA and its effects were not always observed. However, in a number of instances it exerted inhibitory influence similar to GABA action. Some facts make it possible to suppose that taurine acts mainly on the neuron dendrites. The data obtained are in accordance with the supposition that taurine might be an inhibitory transmitter in the cerebral cortex. PMID:423315

  12. GABA Transporter-1 Deficiency Confers Schizophrenia-Like Behavioral Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhe; Fang, Qi; Xiao, Xian; Wang, Yi-Zhi; Cai, You-Qing; Cao, Hui; Hu, Gang; Chen, Zhong; Fei, Jian; Gong, Neng; Xu, Tian-Le

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. The hyper-dopamine and hypo-NMDA receptor hypotheses have been the most enduring ideas. Recently, emerging evidence implicates alterations of the major inhibitory system, GABAergic neurotransmission in the schizophrenic patients. However, the pathophysiological role of GABAergic system in schizophrenia still remains dubious. In this study, we took advantage of GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) knockout (KO) mouse, a unique animal model with elevated ambient GABA, to study the schizophrenia-related behavioral abnormalities. We found that GAT1 KO mice displayed multiple behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenic positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Moreover, GAT1 deficiency did not change the striatal dopamine levels, but significantly enhanced the tonic GABA currents in prefrontal cortex. The GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin could effectively ameliorate several behavioral defects of GAT1 KO mice. These results identified a novel function of GAT1, and indicated that the elevated ambient GABA contributed critically to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, several commonly used antipsychotic drugs were effective in treating the locomotor hyperactivity in GAT1 KO mice, suggesting the utility of GAT1 KO mice as an alternative animal model for studying schizophrenia pathogenesis and developing new antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23922840

  13. Single rodent mesohabenular axons release glutamate and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Mejias-Aponte, Carlos; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Huiling; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Lupica, Carl R.; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in reward, aversion, addiction, and depression, through descending interactions with several brain structures, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA provides reciprocal inputs to LHb, but their actions are unclear. Here we show that the majority of rat and mouse VTA neurons innervating LHb co-express markers for both glutamate-signaling (vesicular glutamate transporter 2, VGluT2) and GABA-signaling (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD; and vesicular GABA transporter, VGaT). A single axon from these mesohabenular neurons co-expresses VGluT2-protein and VGaT-protein, and surprisingly establishes symmetric and asymmetric synapses on LHb neurons. In LHb slices, light activation of mesohabenular fibers expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) driven by VGluT2 or VGaT promoters elicits release of both glutamate and GABA onto single LHb neurons. In vivo light-activation of mesohabenular terminals inhibits or excites LHb neurons. Our findings reveal an unanticipated type of VTA neuron that co-transmits glutamate and GABA, and provides the majority of mesohabenular inputs. PMID:25242304

  14. Impaired striatal GABA transmission in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Silvia; Muzio, Luca; De Chiara, Valentina; Grasselli, Giorgio; Musella, Alessandra; Musumeci, Gabriele; Mandolesi, Georgia; De Ceglia, Roberta; Maida, Simona; Biffi, Emilia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Menegon, Andrea; Bernardi, Giorgio; Furlan, Roberto; Martino, Gianvito; Centonze, Diego

    2011-07-01

    Synaptic dysfunction triggers neuronal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). While excessive glutamate signaling has been reported in the striatum of EAE, it is still uncertain whether GABA synapses are altered. Electrophysiological recordings showed a reduction of spontaneous GABAergic synaptic currents (sIPSCs) recorded from striatal projection neurons of mice with MOG((35-55))-induced EAE. GABAergic sIPSC deficits started in the acute phase of the disease (20-25days post immunization, dpi), and were exacerbated at later time-points (35, 50, 70 and 90dpi). Of note, in slices they were independent of microglial activation and of release of TNF-α. Indeed, sIPSC inhibition likely involved synaptic inputs arising from GABAergic interneurons, because EAE preferentially reduced sIPSCs of high amplitude, and was associated with a selective loss of striatal parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons, which contact striatal projection neurons in their somatic region, giving rise to more efficient synaptic inhibition. Furthermore, we found also that the chronic persistence of pro-inflammatory cytokines were able, per se, to produce profound alterations of electrophysiological network properties, that were reverted by GABA administration. The results of the present investigation indicate defective GABA transmission in MS models depending from alteration of PV cells number and, in part, deriving from the effects of a chronic inflammation, and suggest that pharmacological agents potentiating GABA signaling might be considered to limit neuronal damage in MS patients. PMID:20940040

  15. The GABA system in schizophrenia: cells, molecules and microcircuitry.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2015-09-01

    This is an overview of several papers that have been published in the Special Issue of Schizophrenia Research entitled The GABA System in Schizophrenia: Cells, Molecules and Microcircuitry. This issue presents a broad range of original reports and scholarly reviews regarding recent progress in studies of neural circuitry in corticolimbic brain regions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26255083

  16. Co-activation of VTA DA and GABA neurons mediates nicotine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tolu, S; Eddine, R; Marti, F; David, V; Graupner, M; Pons, S; Baudonnat, M; Husson, M; Besson, M; Reperant, C; Zemdegs, J; Pagès, C; Hay, Y A H; Lambolez, B; Caboche, J; Gutkin, B; Gardier, A M; Changeux, J-P; Faure, P; Maskos, U

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all drugs of abuse, nicotine acts on several different cell types and afferents. Identifying the precise action of nicotine on this microcircuit, in vivo, is important to understand reinforcement, and finally to develop efficient smoking cessation treatments. We used a novel lentiviral system to re-express exclusively high-affinity nAChRs on either dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons, or both, in the VTA. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we show that, contrary to widely accepted models, the activation of GABA neurons in the VTA plays a crucial role in the control of nicotine-elicited DAergic activity. Our results demonstrate that both positive and negative motivational values are transmitted through the dopamine (DA) neuron, but that the concerted activity of DA and GABA systems is necessary for the reinforcing actions of nicotine through burst firing of DA neurons. This work identifies the GABAergic interneuron as a potential target for smoking cessation drug development. PMID:22751493

  17. GABA-Synthesizing Enzymes in Calbindin and Calretinin Neurons in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Brad R; Sweet, Robert A; Lewis, David A; Fish, Kenneth N

    2016-05-01

    Non-overlapping groups of cortical γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons are identifiable by the presence of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR), or parvalbumin (PV). Boutons from PV neuron subtypes are also distinguishable by differences in protein levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67. Multilabel fluorescence microscopy was used to determine if this diversity extends to boutons of CB and CR neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex. CB and CR neurons gave rise to 3 subpopulations of GAD-containing boutons: GAD65+, GAD67+, and GAD65/GAD67+. Somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing neurons, subtypes of CB and CR neurons, respectively, also gave rise to these distinct bouton subpopulations. At the transcript level, CB and CR neurons contained mRNA encoding GAD67-only or both GADs. Thus, the distinct subpopulations of CB/GAD+ and CR/GAD+ boutons arise from 2 unique subtypes of CB and CR neurons. The different CB and CR GAD-expressing neurons targeted the same projection neurons and neuronal structures immunoreactive for PV, CR, or CB. These findings suggest that GABA synthesis from CB/GAD67+ and CR/GAD67+ neurons would presumably be more vulnerable to disease-associated deficits in GAD67 expression, such as in schizophrenia, than neurons that also contain GAD65. PMID:25824535

  18. GABA and enkephalin tonically alter sympathetic outflows in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Belinda R; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-12-01

    GABA and enkephalin provide significant innervation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Despite some investigation as to the identity of premotor sources of these innervations no comprehensive analyses have been conducted. Similarly, although data describing the cardiovascular effects of blockade of GABAA receptors in the spinal cord is available, the effects at other sympathetic outflows are unknown. In contrast the sympathetic effects of opioid blockade in the spinal cord are unclear. The aims of this study were to identify potential sympathetic premotor sources of GABAergic and enkephalinergic input to the spinal cord and to describe the sympathetic and cardiovascular effects of spinal GABAA receptor and delta/mu opioid receptor blockade in urethane anaesthetised rats. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA were found in all regions containing sympathetic premotor neurons, with the medullary raphe and RVMM providing the major GABAergic projections, while the PVN, RVMM and medullary raphe provided the major enkephalinergic projections. Intrathecal injection of bicuculline, a GABAA antagonist, elicited large and prolonged increases in all outflows measured, confirming previous work describing a tonic GABAergic influence on vasomotor tone, and revealing a tonic GABAergic inhibition of interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature. Intrathecal naloxone elicited transient small inhibitory effects only on MAP and HR. Thus GABA acting in the spinal cord plays an important role in the tonic suppression of sympathetic outflows while enkephalin appears to play only a minor role. PMID:26329875

  19. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA by an amacrine cell: Evidence for independent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mally, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial resolution of the cholinergic cells was measured by illuminating the retina with moving gratings composed of light and dark bars. Retinas that were labelled with {sup 3}H-choline released acetylcholine in response to moving gratings composed of bars as small as 50 {mu}m; 300 to 800 {mu}m wide bars yielded maximal responses. Responses were obtained to gratings moving at speeds from 50 to 6000 {mu}m/sec. Three groups recently reported that the cholinergic cells also contain GABA. To confirm these findings, retinas were double-labeled with {sup 3}H-GABA and DAPI, and processed for autoradiography. The cells that accumulate DAPI were heavily labelled with silver grains due to uptake of {sup 3}H-GABA. Incubation of retinas in the presence of elevated concentrations of K{sup +} caused them to release both acetylcholine and GABA, and autoradiography showed depletion of radioactive GABA, and autoradiography showed depletion of radioactive GABA from the cholinergic amacrine cells. Retinas were double-labeled with {sup 14}C-GABA and {sup 3}H-acetylcholine, allowing simultaneous measurement of their release. The release of {sup 14}C-GABA was independent of extracellular Ca{sup ++}. Radioactive GABA synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-glutamate behave the same as radioactive GABA accumulated from the medium. In the same experiments, the simultaneously measured release of {sup 3}H-acetylcholine was strongly Ca{sup ++}-dependent, indicating that acetylcholine and GABA are released by different mechanisms.

  20. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Meagan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1–2min intervals). Results: Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5–50ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. PMID:25552433

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans Neuromuscular Junction: GABA Receptors and Ivermectin Action

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, Guillermina; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human and animal helminth infections remains staggeringly high, thus urging the need for concerted efforts towards this area of research. GABA receptors, encoded by the unc-49 gene, mediate body muscle inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes and are targets of anthelmintic drugs. Thus, the characterization of nematode GABA receptors provides a foundation for rational anti-parasitic drug design. We therefore explored UNC-49 channels from C. elegans muscle cultured cells of the first larval stage at the electrophysiological and behavioral levels. Whole-cell recordings reveal that GABA, muscimol and the anthelmintic piperazine elicit macroscopic currents from UNC-49 receptors that decay in their sustained presence, indicating full desensitization. Single-channel recordings show that all drugs elicit openings of ∼2.5 pA (+100 mV), which appear either as brief isolated events or in short bursts. The comparison of the lowest concentration required for detectable channel opening, the frequency of openings and the amplitude of macroscopic currents suggest that piperazine is the least efficacious of the three drugs. Macroscopic and single-channel GABA-activated currents are profoundly and apparently irreversibly inhibited by ivermectin. To gain further insight into ivermectin action at C. elegans muscle, we analyzed its effect on single-channel activity of the levamisol-sensitive nicotinic receptor (L-AChR), the excitatory receptor involved in neuromuscular transmission. Ivermectin produces a profound inhibition of the frequency of channel opening without significant changes in channel properties. By revealing that ivermectin inhibits C. elegans muscle GABA and L-AChR receptors, our study adds two receptors to the already known ivermectin targets, thus contributing to the elucidation of its pleiotropic effects. Behavioral assays in worms show that ivermectin potentiates piperazine-induced paralysis, thus suggesting that their combination is a good strategy to overcome the increasing resistance of parasites, an issue of global concern for human and animal health. PMID:24743647

  2. Different transporter systems regulate extracellular GABA from vesicular and non-vesicular sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inseon; Volynski, Kirill; Brenner, Tanja; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Walker, Matthew; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Tonic GABA type A (GABAA) conductance is a key factor regulating neuronal excitability and computation in neuronal networks. The magnitude of the tonic GABAA conductance depends on the concentration of ambient GABA originating from vesicular and non-vesicular sources and is tightly regulated by GABA uptake. Here we show that the transport system regulating ambient GABA responsible for tonic GABAA conductances in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depends on its source. In mice, GABA from vesicular sources is regulated by mouse GABA transporter 1 (mGAT1), while that from non-vesicular sources by mouse GABA transporters 3/4 (mGAT3/4). This finding suggests that the two transporter systems do not just provide backup for each other, but regulate distinct signaling pathways. This allows individual tuning of the two signaling systems and indicates that drugs designed to act at specific transporters will have distinct therapeutic actions. PMID:23494150

  3. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. PMID:24128504

  4. Influence of light on the free amino acid content and γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis in Brassica juncea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2013-09-11

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) is an important enzyme in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis. Here we report the influence of light on amino acid accumulation and investigate the molecular mechanism by which light influences GABA biosynthesis at the seedling stage of two mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars (green-leaf and purple-leaf). Gene expression profiles of four GAD-encoding genes (GAD1, GAD2, GAD4a, and GAD4b) and their impact on GABA biosynthesis were analyzed. Light exerted an obvious influence on amino acid accumulation in mustard seedlings. GAD gene expression was also significantly regulated by light/dark or dark treatment, which differentially regulated GABA biosynthesis in B. juncea seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the seeds of purple cultivars contain a higher amount of free amino acids and GABA than do the seeds of green cultivars. After seed germination, however, the accumulation of free amino acids peaked in dark-treated seedlings on day 9 in both cultivars, whereas GABA synthesis peaked at 9 days under light conditions. This study may provide a foundation for understanding the effect of light on amino acids, particularly GABA biosynthesis in Brassica plants. PMID:23909820

  5. Effects of simulated microgravity on the expression of presynaptic proteins distorting the GABA/glutamate equilibrium - A proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Iqbal, Javed; Liu, Yahui; Su, Rui; Lu, Song; Peng, Guang; Zhang, Yongqian; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2015-11-01

    Microgravity may cause cognition-related changes in the animal nervous system due to the resulting uneven flow of fluids in the body. These changes may restrict the long-term stay of humans in space for various purposes. In this study, a rat tail suspension model (30(o) ) was used to explore the effects of 21 days of prolonged simulated microgravity (SM) on the expression of proteins involved in cognitive functions in the rat hippocampus. SM decreased the content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased the content of glutamate (Glu) in the rat hippocampus. A comparative (18) O-labeled quantitative proteomics strategy was applied to detect the differential expression of synaptic proteins under SM. Fifty-three proteins were found to be differentially expressed under SM. Microgravity induces difficulty in the formation of the SNARE complex due to the down-regulation of vesicle-associated membrane protein 3(VAMP3) and syntaxin-1A. Synaptic vesicle recycling may also be affected due to the dysregulation of syntaxin-binding protein 5 (tomosyn), rab3A and its effector rim2. Both processes are disturbed, indicating that presynaptic proteins mediate a GABA/Glu imbalance under SM. These findings provide clues for understanding the mechanism of the GABA/Glu equilibrium in the hippocampus induced by microgravity in space and represent steps toward safe space travel. PMID:26359799

  6. Inhibition of recombinant N-type and native high voltage-gated neuronal Ca{sup 2+} channels by AdGABA: Mechanism of action studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Sandoval, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Zoidis, Grigoris; Felix, Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    High-voltage activated Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub V}) channels play a key role in the regulation of numerous physiological events by causing transient changes in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration. These channels consist of a pore-forming Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 1} protein and three auxiliary subunits (Ca{sub V}{beta}, Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} and Ca{sub V}{gamma}). Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} is an important component of Ca{sub V} channels in many tissues and of great interest as a drug target. It is well known that anticonvulsant agent gabapentin (GBP) binds to Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} and reduces Ca{sup 2+} currents by modulating the expression and/or function of the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 1} subunit. Recently, we showed that an adamantane derivative of GABA, AdGABA, has also inhibitory effects on Ca{sub V} channels. However, the importance of the interaction of AdGABA with the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} subunit has not been conclusively demonstrated and the mechanism of action of the drug has yet to be elucidated. Here, we describe studies on the mechanism of action of AdGABA. Using a combined approach of patch-clamp recordings and molecular biology we show that AdGABA inhibits Ca{sup 2+} currents acting on Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} only when applied chronically, both in a heterologous expression system and in dorsal root-ganglion neurons. AdGABA seems to require uptake and be acting intracellularly given that its effects are prevented by an inhibitor of the L-amino acid transport system. Interestingly, a mutation in the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} that abolishes GBP binding did not affect AdGABA actions, revealing that its mechanism of action is similar but not identical to that of GBP. These results indicate that AdGABA is an important Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} ligand that regulates Ca{sub V} channels.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals oral Lactobacillus promotion of increases in brain GABA, N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Janik, Rafal; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Stanisz, Andrew M; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John; Stanisz, Greg J

    2016-01-15

    The gut microbiome has been shown to regulate the development and functions of the enteric and central nervous systems. Its involvement in the regulation of behavior has attracted particular attention because of its potential translational importance in clinical disorders, however little is known about the pathways involved. We previously have demonstrated that administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) to healthy male BALB/c mice, promotes consistent changes in GABA-A and -B receptor sub-types in specific brain regions, accompanied by reductions in anxiety and depression-related behaviors. In the present study, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we quantitatively assessed two clinically validated biomarkers of brain activity and function, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and total N-acetyl aspartate+N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid (tNAA), as well as GABA, the chief brain inhibitory neurotransmitter. Mice received 1×10(9) cfu of JB-1 per day for 4weeks and were subjected to MRS weekly and again 4weeks after cessation of treatment to ascertain temporal changes in these neurometabolites. Baseline concentrations for Glx, tNAA and GABA were equal to 10.4±0.3mM, 8.7±0.1mM, and 1.2±0.1mM, respectively. Delayed increases were first seen for Glx (~10%) and NAA (~37%) at 2weeks which persisted only to the end of treatment. However, Glx was still elevated 4weeks after treatment had ceased. Significantly elevated GABA (~25%) was only seen at 4weeks. These results suggest specific metabolic pathways in our pursuit of mechanisms of action of psychoactive bacteria. They also offer through application of standard clinical neurodiagnostic techniques, translational opportunities to assess biomarkers accompanying behavioral changes induced by alterations in the gut microbiome. PMID:26577887

  8. Glutamate, GABA, and Other Cortical Metabolite Concentrations during Early Abstinence from Alcohol and their Associations with Neurocognitive Changes*

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of alcohol dependence on cortical concentrations of glutamate (Glu) or gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to study cross-sectionally and longitudinally the concentrations of these Glu and GABA in alcohol dependent individuals (ALC) during early abstinence from alcohol. Methods Twenty ALC were studied at about one week of abstinence from alcohol (baseline) and 36 ALC at five weeks of abstinence and compared to 16 light/non-drinking controls (LD). Eleven ALC were studied twice during abstinence. Participants underwent clinical interviewing, blood work, neuropsychological testing, structural imaging and single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla. Absolute concentrations of Glu, GABA and those of other 1H MRS-detectable metabolites were measured in the anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital cortex (POC) and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Relationships of metabolite levels to drinking severity and neurocognition were also assessed. Results ALC at baseline had lower concentrations of Glu, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and choline- (Cho) and creatine-containing metabolites than LD in the ACC, but normal GABA and myo-inositol (mI) levels. At five weeks of abstinence, metabolite concentrations were not significantly different between groups. Between one and five weeks of abstinence, Glu, NAA and Cho levels in the ACC increased significantly. Higher cortical mI concentrations in ALC related to worse neurocognitive outcome. Conclusion These MRS data suggest compromised and regionally specific bioenergetics/metabolism in one-week-abstinent ALC that largely normalizes over four weeks of sustained abstinence. The correlation between mI levels and neurocognition affirms the functional relevance of this putative astrocyte marker. PMID:22503310

  9. Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Li, Peng; Longhurst, John C.

    2009-01-01

    A long-loop pathway, involving the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM), is essential in electroacupuncture (EA) attenuation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflex responses. The ARC provides excitatory input to the vlPAG, which, in turn, inhibits neuronal activity in the rVLM. Although previous studies have shown that endocannabinoid CB1 receptor activation modulates ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsolateral PAG in stress-induced analgesia, an important role for endocannabinoids in the vlPAG has not yet been observed. We recently have shown (Fu LW, Longhurst JC. J Appl Physiol; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91648.2008) that EA reduces the local vlPAG concentration of GABA, but not glutamate, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography from extracellular samples collected by microdialysis. We, therefore, hypothesized that, during EA, endocannabinoids, acting through CB1 receptors, presynaptically inhibit GABA release to disinhibit the vlPAG and ultimately modulate excitatory reflex blood pressure responses. Rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented to measure heart rate and blood pressure. Gastric distention-induced blood pressure responses of 18 5 mmHg were reduced to 6 1 mmHg by 30 min of low-current, low-frequency EA applied bilaterally at pericardial P 56 acupoints overlying the median nerves. Like EA, microinjection of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG to increase endocannabinoids locally reduced the gastric distention cardiovascular reflex response from 21 5 to 3 4 mmHg. This inhibition was reversed by pretreatment with the GABAA antagonist gabazine (27 mM, 50 nl), suggesting that endocannabinoids exert their action through a GABAergic receptor mechanism in the vlPAG. The EA-related inhibition from 18 3 to 8 2 mmHg was reversed to 14 2 mmHg by microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (2 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG. Pretreatment with gabazine eliminated reversal following CB1-receptor blockade. Thus EA releases endocannabinoids and activates presynaptic CB1 receptors to inhibit GABA release in the vlPAG. Reduction of GABA release disinhibits vlPAG cells, which, in turn, modulate the activity of rVLM neurons to attenuate the sympathoexcitatory reflex responses. PMID:19325030

  10. ANXIETY IN MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FREE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M.; Ellis, Steven P.; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B.; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Methods and Materials Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Results Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Conclusions Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. PMID:24865448

  11. Rapid determination of 4-aminobutyric acid and L-glutamic acid in biological decarboxylation process by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Sahori; Yamano, Naoko; Kawasaki, Norioki; Ando, Hisanori; Nakayama, Atsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    4-Aminobutylic acid (GABA) is a monomer of plastic polyamide 4. Bio-based polyamide 4 can be produced by using GABA obtained from biomass. The production of L-glutamic acid (Glu) from biomass has been established. GABA is produced by decarboxylation of Glu in biological process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with derivatization is generally used to determine the concentration of GABA and Glu in reacted solution samples for the efficient production of GABA. In this study, we have investigated the rapid determination of GABA and Glu by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) without derivatization. The determination was achieved with the use of a shortened capillary, a new internal standard for GABA, and optimization of sheath liquid composition. Determined concentrations of GABA and Glu by CE-MS were compared with those by pre-column derivatization HPLC with phenylisothiocyanate. The determined values by CE-MS were close to those by HPLC with pre-column derivatization. These results suggest that the determination of GABA and Glu in reacted solution is rapid and simplified by the use of CE-MS. PMID:25940446

  12. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Waye, Andrew; Annal, Malar; Tang, Andrew; Picard, Gabriel; Harnois, Frdric; Guerrero-Analco, Jos A; Saleem, Ammar; Hewitt, L Mark; Milestone, Craig B; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-01-15

    Pulp and paper wood feedstocks have been previously implicated as a source of chemicals with the ability to interact with or disrupt key neuroendocrine endpoints important in the control of reproduction. We tested nine Canadian conifers commonly used in pulp and paper production as well as 16 phytochemicals that have been observed in various pulp and paper mill effluent streams for their ability to interact in vitro with the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), and bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-BZD). These neuroendocrine endpoints are also important targets for treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, epilepsy, or depression. MAO and GAD were inhibited by various conifer extracts of different polarities, including major feedstocks such as balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. MAO was selectively stimulated or inhibited by many of the tested phytochemicals, with inhibition observed by a group of phenylpropenes (e.g. isoeugenol and vanillin). Selective GAD inhibition was also observed, with all of the resin acids tested being inhibitory. GABA(A)-BZD ligand displacement was also observed. We compiled a table identifying which of these phytochemicals have been described in each of the species tested here. Given the diversity of conifer species and plant chemicals with these specific neuroactivities, it is reasonable to propose that MAO and GAD inhibition reported in effluents is phytochemical in origin. We propose disruption of these neuroendocrine endpoints as a possible mechanism of reproductive inhibition, and also identify an avenue for potential research and sourcing of conifer-derived neuroactive natural products. PMID:24041600

  13. Localization of glycine, GABA and neuropeptide containing neurons in tiger salamander retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Putative glycinergic and GABAergic neurons in the salamander retina were localized by a parallel analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) and a comparative analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA, like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR) at the light microscopic level. Good correspondence of labeling of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR as well as that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake and GABA-IR were observed. In addition, GAD immunoreactive neurons contained GABA-IR as well. Extensive colocalization of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR and that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA-IR and perhaps GAD-IR were indicated by the similarities in the distribution, morphology and labeling frequency of neurons and lamination in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). However, the Gly-IR and the GABA-IR probes appeared to be more sensitive and can thus be a reliable marker for glycine and GABA containing neurons respectively.

  14. The Relationship between Fearfulness, GABA+, and Fear-Related BOLD Responses in the Insula

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, Ilona; Evans, C. John; Lewis, Caroline; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G.; Caseras, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA plays a crucial role in anxiety and fear, but its relationship to brain activation during fear reactions is not clear. Previous studies suggest that GABA agonists lead to an attenuation of emotion-processing related BOLD signals in the insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GABA concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in this region. In 44 female participants with different levels of fearfulness, GABA concentration in the left insula was measured using a GABA+ MRS acquisition during rest; additionally, BOLD signals were obtained during performance of a fear provocation paradigm. Fearfulness was not associated with GABA+ in the left insula, but could predict fear-related BOLD responses in a cluster in the left anterior insula. The BOLD signal change in this cluster did not correlate with GABA+ concentration. However, we found a significant positive correlation between GABA+ concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in a different cluster that included parts of the left insula, amygdala and putamen. Our findings indicate that low insular GABA concentration is not a predisposition for fearfulness, and that several factors influence whether a correlation between GABA and BOLD can be found. PMID:25811453

  15. The relationship between fearfulness, GABA+, and fear-related BOLD responses in the insula.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ilona; Evans, C John; Lewis, Caroline; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G; Caseras, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA plays a crucial role in anxiety and fear, but its relationship to brain activation during fear reactions is not clear. Previous studies suggest that GABA agonists lead to an attenuation of emotion-processing related BOLD signals in the insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GABA concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in this region. In 44 female participants with different levels of fearfulness, GABA concentration in the left insula was measured using a GABA+ MRS acquisition during rest; additionally, BOLD signals were obtained during performance of a fear provocation paradigm. Fearfulness was not associated with GABA+ in the left insula, but could predict fear-related BOLD responses in a cluster in the left anterior insula. The BOLD signal change in this cluster did not correlate with GABA+ concentration. However, we found a significant positive correlation between GABA+ concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in a different cluster that included parts of the left insula, amygdala and putamen. Our findings indicate that low insular GABA concentration is not a predisposition for fearfulness, and that several factors influence whether a correlation between GABA and BOLD can be found. PMID:25811453

  16. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-12-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated. PMID:25451092

  17. Identification of a naturally occurring Pro385-Ser385 substitution in the GABA(A) receptor alpha6 subunit gene in alcoholics and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Iwata, N; Virkkunen, M; Goldman, D

    2000-05-01

    In the rat, variation in alcohol and benzodiazepine sensitivity has been correlated with an inherited variant of the GABA(A)alpha6 receptor. Our goal was to identify polymorphisms in the human GABA(A)alpha6 receptor gene and determine whether a variant of the receptor is associated with alcoholism. The GABA(A)alpha6 receptor gene coding region was screened in 80 unrelated patients with alcoholism using single strand conformational polymorphism analysis. For rapid genotyping, a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed. A relatively abundant amino acid substitution and three synonymous DNA substitutions were detected. The synonymous variants, 35A>G, 665A>G, and 1031G>C had rare-allele frequencies of 0.25, 0.02, and 0.47, respectively. The Pro385Ser substitution is located in the second intracellular domain of the receptor adjacent to a putative phosphorylation site. Pro385Ser has rarer allele frequencies of 3.3% and 4.8% in 196 Finnish alcoholic patients and 189 controls, respectively (P = NS). A naturally occurring non-conservative Pro385Ser was detected in the GABA(A)alpha6 receptor. The variant is not associated with alcoholism. PMID:10889535

  18. Supraspinal modulation of pain by cannabinoids: the role of GABA and glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Rea, K; Roche, M; Finn, D P

    2007-01-01

    Recent physiological, pharmacological and anatomical studies provide evidence that one of the main roles of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release. This article aims to review this evidence in the context of its implications for pain. We first provide a brief overview of supraspinal regulation of nociception, followed by a review of the evidence that the brain's endocannabinoid system modulates nociception. We look in detail at regulation of supraspinal GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons by the endocannabinoid system and by exogenously administered cannabinoids. Finally, we review the evidence that cannabinoid-mediated modulation of pain involves modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in key brain regions. PMID:17828292

  19. Retinal GABA neurons: localization in vertebrate species using an antiserum to rabbit brain glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Brandon, C

    1985-10-01

    Retinal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons have been localized immunocytochemically using a new antiserum against rabbit brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The animals examined were: dogfish, ratfish, goldfish, catfish, turtle, chick, mouse, rat, pig, rabbit, cat and New World monkey. GAD-containing processes, observed as punctate deposits of immunochemical reaction product, formed discrete bands within the inner plexiform layers of all retinas examined. Immunoreactive, and therefore presumably GABAergic, amacrine cells were observed in all species. Displaced GABAergic amacrine cells were observed in the retinas of goldfish, catfish, turtle and chick, and sparsely in the rabbit as well. GABAergic horizontal cells were detected in catfish, goldfish, chick and turtle. Interplexiform cells in the cat and the rat were clearly immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase; this is the first report of GABAergic interplexiform cells in the rat. PMID:2994837

  20. Expression of rice glutamate decarboxylase in Bifidobacterium longum enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid production.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Bum; Ji, Geun-Eog; Park, Myeong-Soo; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2005-11-01

    Bifidobacteria are important for the production of fermented dairy products and probiotic formulas but have a low capacity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production. To develop a Bifidobacterium strain with an enhanced GABA production, we transformed Bifidobacterium longum with a rice glutamate decarboxylase (OsGADC(-)) gene by electroporation. When the transformed strain was cultured in medium containing monosodium glutamate, the amount of GABA increased significantly compared with those of untransformed Bifidobacterium. Thus, by introducing a plant derived GAD gene, a Bifidobacterium strain has been genetically engineered to produce high levels of GABA from glutamate. PMID:16247674

  1. Low CSF gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in Parkinson's Disease. Effect of levodopa and carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V

    1982-07-01

    Levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in CSF were measured in patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 14) and sex-matched controls (n = 14). One patient underwent a spinal tap before and after treatment. The mean (+/- SD) CSF GABA levels were 200 +/- 70 pmole/mL in controls and 121 +/- 52 pmole/mL in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the untreated patients with Parkinson's disease, the CSF GABA level was 95 +/- 31 pmole/mL (n = 7) and in those who were treated with levodopa and carbidopa the level was 144 +/- 53 pmole/mL (n = 8). No significant difference was seen in plasma GABA levels between the controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The decreased GABA level in CSF, which was elevated by levodopa, supports the concept that in Parkinson's disease, the GABA-dopamine interaction in the substantia nigra may be an important compensatory mechanism counteracting the dopamine neuronal loss. PMID:7103767

  2. Local inhibition of GABA affects precedence effect in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Ningyu; Wang, Dan; Jia, Jun; Liu, Jinfeng; Xie, Yan; Wen, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaoting

    2014-01-01

    The precedence effect is a prerequisite for faithful sound localization in a complex auditory environment, and is a physiological phenomenon in which the auditory system selectively suppresses the directional information from echoes. Here we investigated how neurons in the inferior colliculus respond to the paired sounds that produce precedence-effect illusions, and whether their firing behavior can be modulated through inhibition with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We recorded extracellularly from 36 neurons in rat inferior colliculus under three conditions: no injection, injection with saline, and injection with gamma-aminobutyric acid. The paired sounds that produced precedence effects were two identical 4-ms noise bursts, which were delivered contralaterally or ipsilaterally to the recording site. The normalized neural responses were measured as a function of different inter-stimulus delays and half-maximal interstimulus delays were acquired. Neuronal responses to the lagging sounds were weak when the inter-stimulus delay was short, but increased gradually as the delay was lengthened. Saline injection produced no changes in neural responses, but after local gamma-aminobutyric acid application, responses to the lagging stimulus were suppressed. Application of gamma-aminobutyric acid affected the normalized response to lagging sounds, independently of whether they or the paired sounds were contralateral or ipsilateral to the recording site. These observations suggest that local inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat inferior colliculus shapes the neural responses to lagging sounds, and modulates the precedence effect. PMID:25206830

  3. Comparison of gamma-aminobutyric acid effects in different parts of the cat ileum.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Itzev, D; Milanov, P

    1999-02-26

    The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and those of a GABA(A) (muscimol) and a GABA(B) (baclofen) receptor agonists were determined on the spontaneous activity of longitudinally or circularly oriented preparations (segments) isolated from terminal, proximal and distal parts of the cat ileum. GABA applied at 1 microM to 2 mM caused dose-dependent biphasic changes (relaxation and contraction) in spontaneous activity of the longitudinal and circular layers in the terminal and distal parts of the cat ileum and monophasic changes (contraction) in the proximal part. The potency of GABA to elicit relaxant and/or contractile effects in different parts of the ileum showed a proximal-to-terminal increasing pattern. In the longitudinal layer of the distal and terminal ileum, muscimol (100 microM) mimicked the relaxation phase of the GABA effect, while baclofen (100 microM) simulated the contractile phase. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin abolished GABA- and muscimol-induced relaxation and suppressed, but failed to prevent GABA- and baclofen-induced contractions. In addition, 2-hydroxysaclofen antagonized the baclofen-induced contractile effect, reduced the GABA-induced contractile phase but failed to prevent GABA- and muscimol-induced relaxation. In the circular layer of the same regions, muscimol mimicked the biphasic GABA effects, while baclofen was without effect. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin completely prevented the GABA- and muscimol effects, while 2-hydroxysaclofen failed to antagonize them. In the longitudinal and circular layers of the proximal ileum, muscimol (100 microM) exerted a 'GABA-like' transient contractile effect, while baclofen (100 microM) did not elicit any response. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin antagonized the GABA- and muscimol-induced contractile responses of longitudinal and circular layers, while 2-hydroxysaclofen was ineffective. The results suggested that the inhibitory and/or excitatory action of GABA on cholinergic transmission in different regions of cat ileum varies along an increasing gradient towards the terminal ileum and is mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in the terminal and distal ileum and by GABA(A) receptors in the proximal ileum. PMID:10096769

  4. GABA and Endocannabinoids Mediate Depotentiation of Schaffer Collateral Synapses Induced by Stimulation of Temperoammonic Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses in the hippocampus is thought to play a key role in episodic memory formation. Because the hippocampus is a shorter-term, limited capacity storage system, repeated bouts of learning and synaptic plasticity require that SC synapses reset to baseline at some point following LTP. We previously showed that repeated low frequency activation of temperoammonic (TA) inputs to the CA1 region depotentiates SC LTP without persistently altering basal transmission. This heterosynaptic depotentiation involves adenosine A1 receptors but not N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors or L-type calcium channels. In the present study, we used rat hippocampal slices to explore other messengers contributing to TA-induced SC depotentiation, and provide evidence for the involvement of cannabinoid-1 and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type-A receptors as more proximal signaling events leading to synaptic resetting, with A1 receptor activation serving as a downstream event. Surprisingly, we found that TA-induced SC depotentiation is independent of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate glutamate receptors. We also examined the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and found a role for extracellular-signal related kinase 1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not c-Jun-N-terminal kinase. These results indicate that low frequency stimulation of TA inputs to CA1 activates a complex signaling network that instructs SC synaptic resetting. The involvement of GABA and endocannabinoids suggest mechanisms that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction associated with substance abuse and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26862899

  5. Activation of Axonal Receptors by GABA Spillover Increases Somatic Firing

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Axons can be depolarized by ionotropic receptors and transmit subthreshold depolarizations to the soma by passive electrical spread. This raises the possibility that axons and axonal receptors can participate in integration and firing in neurons. Previously, we have shown that exogenous GABA depolarizes cerebellar granule cell axons through local activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and the soma through electrotonic spread of the axonal potential resulting in increased firing. We show here that excitability of granule cells is also increased by release of endogenous GABA from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) and spillover activation of parallel fiber GABAARs in mice and rats. Changes in granule cell excitability were assessed by excitability testing after activation of MLIs with channelrhodopsin or electrical stimulation in the molecular layer. In granule cells lacking an axon, excitability was not changed, suggesting that axonal receptors are required. To determine the distance over which subthreshold potentials may spread, we estimated the effective axonal electrical length constant (520 μm) by excitability testing and focal uncaging of RuBi–GABA on the axon at varying distances from the soma. These data suggest that GABAAR-mediated axonal potentials can participate in integration and firing of cerebellar granule cells. PMID:24155298

  6. Wakefulness Is Governed by GABA and Histamine Cotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Ye, Zhiwen; Houston, Catriona M.; Zecharia, Anna Y.; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Uygun, David S.; Parker, Susan; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Yustos, Raquel; Franks, Nicholas P.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Wisden, William

    2015-01-01

    Summary Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus form a widely projecting, wake-active network that sustains arousal. Yet most histaminergic neurons contain GABA. Selective siRNA knockdown of the vesicular GABA transporter (vgat, SLC32A1) in histaminergic neurons produced hyperactive mice with an exceptional amount of sustained wakefulness. Ablation of the vgat gene throughout the TMN further sharpened this phenotype. Optogenetic stimulation in the caudate-putamen and neocortex of “histaminergic” axonal projections from the TMN evoked tonic (extrasynaptic) GABAA receptor Cl− currents onto medium spiny neurons and pyramidal neurons. These currents were abolished following vgat gene removal from the TMN area. Thus wake-active histaminergic neurons generate a paracrine GABAergic signal that serves to provide a brake on overactivation from histamine, but could also increase the precision of neocortical processing. The long range of histamine-GABA axonal projections suggests that extrasynaptic inhibition will be coordinated over large neocortical and striatal areas. PMID:26094607

  7. Effect of storage time and natural corrosion inhibitor on carbohydrate and carboxylic acids content in canned tomato puree.

    PubMed

    Grassino, A Nincevic; Grabaric, Z; De Sio, F; Cacace, D; Pezzani, A; Squitieri, G

    2012-06-01

    In this research compositional changes of tinplate-canned tomato purées, with or without the addition of essential onion oil were investigated. The study was focused on the analyses of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids in two groups of canned samples (with or without nitrates) to determine whether their chemical composition was affected with storage time. The measurements were performed by high performance liquid chromatography, during six months of storage. The contents of glucose, fructose and two major organic acids, citric and malic, were found in the concentration range 1.77-1.97%, 1.86-2.09%, 0.60-0.75% and 0.23-0.30%, respectively, in all canned samples. Compared to carbohydrates and organic acids, amino acids were found in minor quantities, among them, as most abundant ones were glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic and γ-amino butyric acids. The results show that contents of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids are significantly affected by the change of storage time in majority of analyzed samples. The results also indicated that the influence of essential onion oil on composition of canned tomato purée is within the range of changes due to storage time measured for all other types of cans. Therefore the addition of essential onion oil as natural efficient corrosion inhibitor, as it was found in our previous work, can be recommended for canned tomato purée. PMID:22701055

  8. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical period plasticity in the rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, Gabriele; Allegra, Manuela; Cerri, Chiara; Naskar, Shovan; Bony, Guillaume; Zunino, Giulia; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Cancedda, Laura

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates “critical periods” for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here, we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in controlling plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical period plasticity in visual cortical circuits, without affecting overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, down-regulation of BDNF expression, and reduced density of extracellular matrix-perineuronal nets. Early interference with depolarizing GABA decreased perinatal BDNF signaling, and pharmacological increase of BDNF signaling during GABA interference rescued the effects on plasticity and its regulators later in life. We conclude that depolarizing GABA exerts a long-lasting, selective modulation of plasticity of cortical circuits by a strong crosstalk with BDNF. PMID:25485756

  9. The role of glycineB binding site and glycine transporter (GlyT1) in the regulation of [3H]GABA and [3H]glycine release in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Harsing, L G; Solyom, S; Salamon, C

    2001-09-01

    The effect of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), a selective glutamate receptor agonist, on the release of previously incorporated [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA) was examined in superfused striatal slices of the rat. NMDA (0.01 to 1.0 mM) increased [3H]GABA overflow with an EC50 value of 0.09 mM. The [3H]GABA releasing effect of NMDA was an external Ca2+-dependent process and the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (0.1 mM) potentiated this effect. These findings support the view that NMDA evokes GABA release from vesicular pool in striatal GABAergic neurons. Addition of glycine (1 mM), a cotransmitter for NMDA receptor, did not influence the NMDA-induced [3H]GABA overflow. Kynurenic acid (1 mM), an antagonist of glycineB site, decreased the [3H]GABA-releasing effect of NMDA and this reduction was suspended by addition of 1 mM glycine. Neither glycine nor kynurenic acid exerted effects on resting [3H]GABA outflow. These data suggest that glycineB binding site at NMDA receptor may be saturated by glycine released from neighboring cells. Glycyldodecylamide (GDA) and N-dodecylsarcosine, inhibitors of glycineT1 transporter, inhibited the uptake of [3H]glycine (IC50 33 and 16 microM) in synaptosomes prepared from rat hippocampus. When hippocampal slices were loaded with [3H]glycine, resting efflux was detected whereas electrical stimulation failed to evoke [3H]glycine overflow. Neither GDA (0.1 mM) nor N-dodecylsarcosine (0.3 mM) influenced [3H]glycine efflux. Using Krebs-bicarbonate buffer with reduced Na+ for superfusion of hippocampal slices produced an increased [3H]glycine outflow and electrical stimulation further enhanced this release. These experiments speak for glial and neuronal [3H]glycine release in hippocampus with a dominant role of the former one. GDA, however, did not influence resting or stimulated [3H]glycine efflux even when buffer with low Na+ concentration was applied. PMID:11699943

  10. Multiple mechanisms of picrotoxin block of GABA-induced currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K W; Covey, D F; Rothman, S M

    1993-01-01

    1. We have examined the effect of picrotoxin on GABA-induced currents in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. In addition, we used the putative picrotoxin receptor antagonist, alpha-isopropyl-alpha-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (alpha IMGBL), and the picrotoxin agonist, beta-ethyl-beta-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (beta EMGBL) to explore the mechanisms of picrotoxin's interaction with the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore complex. 2. The picrotoxin block of GABA current was use dependent, suggesting that the site of picrotoxin block is exposed by the conformational change initiated by GABA binding to the receptor. 3. The alkyl-substituted butyrolactone antagonist, alpha IMGBL, selectively blocked the use-dependent mechanism of picrotoxin effect. After the apparent complete inhibition of the use-dependent effect, there was a residual picrotoxin effect that was independent of the time or concentration of GABA application. This indicates that the picrotoxin block of the GABA current is mediated by two different mechanisms. alpha IMGBL influences just one of these mechanisms. 4. The picrotoxin receptor agonist, beta EMGBL, exclusively blocked the GABA current in a use-dependent manner. Consistent with a use-dependent mechanism, the rate of onset of block increased with GABA concentration. Surprisingly, the fraction of GABA current block decreased with increasing GABA concentration. 5. These results suggest that the relationship of picrotoxin and gamma-butyrolactones with the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore is quite complex. They are consistent with at least two possible models of agonist-antagonist interactions. Both cases require different antagonist affinities for the various kinetic states of the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore. However, there is no need to require that either picrotoxin or beta EMGBL acts as an open channel blocker. PMID:8229811

  11. An ultrastructural study of GABA-immunoreactive neurons and terminals in the septum of the rat.

    PubMed

    Onténiente, B; Geffard, M; Campistron, G; Calas, A

    1987-01-01

    The fine structure and types of contact made by GABAergic elements in the septal nuclei were studied at the electronmicroscopic level by means of peroxidase immunocytochemistry, using anti-GABA antibodies. Observations were made on normal and colchicine-injected rats. GABA-immunoreactivity was distributed within somata, dendrites, axonal varicosities and terminals, and myelinated axons. The peroxidase reaction product was diffuse in the cytoplasm; cytoplasmic organelles were generally devoid of immunoreactivity, while showing a strong reaction on the outer surface of their membrane. GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-I) neurons were small (10 microns on average) to medium (20 microns) in size, with round or multipolar cell bodies. Additionally, labeled large (30 microns) cells were observed within the myelinated fibers of the medial septal nucleus after intraseptal administration of colchicine. No difference in the ultrastructural features and distribution of the immunoreactivity of the 2 kinds of cell was noticed, except for a higher number of synaptic contacts on large neurons of the medial septum. GABA-I cells of the medial and lateral nuclei received synapses on their soma and dendrites, made by both immunonegative and GABA-I terminals. Nonimmunoreactive boutons contacting GABA-I cell bodies were of 2 types: those containing small, clear synaptic vesicles and those that additionally contained large dense vesicles. Synaptic vesicles of GABA-I boutons were rarely labeled internally, but showed varying electron densities. Synapses made by GABA-I boutons on GABA-I or unlabeled somata and dendrites were always of symmetrical type. Synapses made by non-GABA-I boutons on GABA-I cells were either symmetrical or asymmetrical. PMID:3543251

  12. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino...

  13. Quantification of ?-Aminobutyric Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a clinical diagnostic test. Determination of GABA in CSF (50 ?L) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ioniz