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Sample records for amino-butyric acid gaba

  1. Contribution of Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) to salt stress responses of Nicotiana sylvestris CMSII mutant and wild type plants.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Ne?e; Bor, Melike; Karabudak, Tu?ba; Ozdemir, Filiz; Türkan, Ismail

    2012-03-15

    Plants accumulate high levels of Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in response to different environmental stresses and GABA metabolism has different functions such as osmotic and pH regulation, bypass of tricarboxylic acid cycle, and C:N balance. The cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) II mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris has a deletion in the mitochondrial gene nad7 which encodes the NAD7 subunit of complex I which causes increased leaf respiration, impaired photosynthesis, slower growth and increased amino acid levels. In this study we aimed to elucidate the role of GABA and GABA metabolism in different genotypes of the same plant system under salt stress (100mM NaCl) in short (24h) and long (7, 14 and 21 days) terms. We have investigated the differences in leaf fresh and dry weights, relative water content, photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.4) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) enzyme activities, GABA content and GAD gene expression profiles. GDH activity showed variations in CMSII and wild type (WT) plants in the first 24h. GAD gene expression profiles were in good agreement with the GAD enzyme activity levels in CMSII and WT plants after 24h. In long-term salinity, GAD activities increased in WT but, decreased in CMSII. GABA accumulation in WT and CMSII plants in short and long term was induced by salt stress. Variations in GDH and GAD activities in relation to GABA levels were discussed and GABA metabolism has been proposed to be involved in better performance of CMSII plants under long term salinity. PMID:22189426

  2. EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

  3. ?-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit and transporter expression in the gonad and liver of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Biggs, Katie; Seidel, Jason S; Wilson, Alex; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    ?-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. GABA receptors and synthesizing enzymes have also been localized to peripheral tissues including the liver, oviduct, uterus and ovary of mammals but the distribution and role of GABA in peripheral tissues of fish has not been fully investigated. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if mRNA encoding GABA synthesizing enzymes (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67; gad65 and gad67), GABA transporters, and GABAA receptor subunits are localized to liver and gonad of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (FHM) (2) investigate the effects of GABA on ovarian 17?-estradiol (E2) production, and (3) measure transcript responses in the ovary after in vitro incubation to GABA. Real-time PCR assays were developed for gad65, gad67, vesicular GABA transporter (vgat) and GABA transporter 1 (gat1), and select GABAA receptor subunits (gabra1, gabra5, gabrb1, gabrb2, gabrg1, gabrg2). All transcripts were localized to the brain as expected; however transcripts were also detected in the liver, ovary, and testis of FHMs. In the female liver, gad65 mRNA was significantly higher in expression compared to the male liver. Transcripts for gad67 were the highest in the brain>gonad>liver and in the gonads, gad67 was significantly higher in expression than gad65 mRNA. In the liver and gonad, the relative abundance of the subunits followed a general trend of gabrb1>gabrb2=gabrg1=gabrg2>gabra1=gabra5. To explore the effects of GABA in the ovary, tissue explants from reproductive female FHMs were treated with GABA (10(-10), 10(-8) and 10(-6)M) for 12h. GABA had no significant effect on 17?-estradiol production or on mRNA abundance for genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis (e.g., 11?hsd, cyp17, cyp19a). There was a significant decrease in estrogen receptor 2a (esr2a) mRNA with 10(-10)M GABA. This study begins to investigate the GABA system in non-neural tissues of teleost fish and addresses the broader topic regarding the peripheral roles of neurotransmitters. PMID:23672824

  4. Production of ?-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of ?-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  5. The dominant glutamic acid metabolic flux to produce ?-amino butyric acid over proline in Nicotiana tabacum leaves under water stress relates to its significant role in antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuili; Zhao, Li; Yu, Guanghui

    2011-08-01

    ?-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and proline play a crucial role in protecting plants during various environmental stresses. Their synthesis is from the common precursor glutamic acid, which is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase and ?(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase respectively. However, the dominant pathway under water stress has not yet been established. To explore this, excised tobacco leaves were used to simulate a water-stress condition. The results showed GABA content was much higher than that of proline in leaves under water-deficit and non-water-deficit conditions. Specifically, the amount of GABA significantly increased compared to proline under continuous water loss for 16 h, indicating that GABA biosynthesis is the dominant pathway from glutamic acid metabolism under these conditions. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein Western gel-blot analysis further confirmed this. To explore the function of GABA accumulation, a system producing superoxide anion (O(2) (-) ), peroxide hydrogen (H(2) O(2) ), and singlet oxygen ((1) O(2) ) was employed to investigate the scavenging role on free-radical production. The results demonstrated that the scavenging ability of GABA for O(2) (-) , H(2) O(2) , and (1) O(2) was significantly higher than that of proline. This indicated that GABA acts as an effective osmolyte to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species under water stress. PMID:21564543

  6. ?-Amino butyric acid and glutamate abnormalities in adolescent chronic marijuana smokers

    PubMed Central

    Prescot, Andrew P.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggests that exposure to marijuana throughout adolescence disrupts key cortical maturation processes occurring during this developmental phase. GABA-modulating pharmacologic treatments that elevate brain GABA concentration recently have been shown to decrease withdrawal symptoms and improve executive functioning in marijuana-dependent adult subjects. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the lower ACC glutamate previously reported in adolescent chronic marijuana smokers is associated with lower ACC GABA levels. Methods Standard and metabolite-edited proton MRS data were acquired from adolescent marijuana users (N = 13) and similarly aged non-using controls (N = 16) using a clinical 3T MRI system. Results The adolescent marijuana-using cohort showed significantly lower ACC GABA levels (?22%, p = 0.03), which paralleled significantly lower ACC glutamate levels (?14%, p = 0.01). Importantly, the lower ACC GABA and glutamate levels detected in the adolescent cohort remained significant after controlling for age and sex. Conclusions The present spectroscopic findings support functional neuroimaging data documenting cingulate dysfunction in marijuana-dependent adolescents. Glutamatergic and GABAergic abnormalities potentially underlie cingulate dysfunction in adolescent chronic marijuana users, and the opportunity for testing suitable pharmacologic treatments with a non-invasive pharmacodynamic evaluation exists. PMID:23522493

  7. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  8. Mutations in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid '-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h...

  9. Anti-convulsant activity of diazepam and clonidine on metaldehyde-induced seizures in mice: effects on brain gamma-amino butyric acid concentrations and monoamine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Homeida, A M; Cooke, R G

    1982-09-01

    Metaldehyde when administered orally to mice at a dose of 1 g kg-1 produced convulsions and death within 2 h. Brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were significantly reduced and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity significantly increased in these animals relative to controls. Treatment with either intraperitoneal diazepam or clonidine 20 min after administration of metaldehyde delayed the onset of toxic symptoms and reduced the mortality rate. In those mice which survived longer than 5 h, brain concentrations of GABA, though still not restored to control values, were significantly higher than those in the mice which died. Clonidine, unlike diazepam, also inhibited the increase in brain MAO activity. PMID:7143555

  10. Disorders of GABA metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Parviz, Mahsa; Vogel, Kara; Gibson, K. Michael; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical disorders known to affect inherited gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) metabolism are autosomal recessively inherited succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and GABA-transaminase deficiency. The clinical presentation of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency includes intellectual disability, ataxia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and epilepsy with a nonprogressive course in typical cases, although a progressive form in early childhood as well as deterioration in adulthood with worsening epilepsy are reported. GABA-transaminase deficiency is associated with a severe neonatal-infantile epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:25485164

  11. Mutations in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance. PMID:21070411

  12. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Miho; Fukuda, Atsuo; Nabekura, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction. PMID:25506316

  13. Production of gaba (? – Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods. PMID:24031948

  14. GABA release by hippocampal astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Le Meur, Karim; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Grandes, Pedro; Audinat, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes can directly influence neuronal activity through the release of various transmitters acting on membrane receptors expressed by neurons. However, in contrast to glutamate and ATP for instance, the release of GABA (?-amino-butyric acid) by astrocytes is still poorly documented. Here, we used whole-cell recordings in rat acute brain slices and electron microscopy to test whether hippocampal astrocytes release the inhibitory transmitter GABA. We observed that slow transient inhibitory currents due to the activation of GABAA receptors occur spontaneously in principal neurons of the three main hippocampal fields (CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus). These currents share characteristics with the slow NMDA receptor-mediated currents previously shown to result from astrocytic glutamate release: they occur in the absence of synaptic transmission and have variable kinetics and amplitudes as well as low frequencies. Osmotic pressure reduction, known to enhance transmitter release from astrocytes, similarly increased the frequency of non-synaptic GABA and glutamate currents. Simultaneous occurrence of slow inhibitory and excitatory currents was extremely rare. Yet, electron microscopy examination of immunostained hippocampal sections shows that about 80% of hippocampal astrocytes [positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] were immunostained for GABA. Our results provide quantitative characteristics of the astrocyte-to-neuron GABAergic signaling. They also suggest that all principal neurons of the hippocampal network are under a dual, excitatory and inhibitory, influence of astrocytes. The relevance of the astrocytic release of GABA, and glutamate, on the physiopathology of the hippocampus remains to be established. PMID:22912614

  15. Role of GABA Receptors in Fetal Lung Development in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Jin, Nili; Gao, Li; Wang, Yang; Xi, Dong; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Fluid accumulation is critical for lung distension and normal development. The multi-subunit ?-amino butyric acid type A receptors (GABAA) mainly act by mediating chloride ion (Cl?) fluxes. Since fetal lung actively secretes Cl?-rich fluid, we investigated the role of GABAA receptors in fetal lung development. The physiological ligand, GABA, and its synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, were predominantly localized to saccular epithelium. To examine the effect of activating GABAA receptors in fetal lung development in vivo, timed-pregnant rats of day 18 gestation underwent an in utero surgery for the administration of GABAA receptor modulators into the fetuses. The fetal lungs were isolated on day 21 of gestation and analyzed for changes in fetal lung development. Fetuses injected with GABA had a significantly higher body weight and lung weight when compared to phosphate-buffered saline (control)-injected fetuses. GABA-injected fetal lungs had a higher number of saccules than the control. GABA increased the number of alveolar epithelial type II cells as indicated by surfactant protein C-positive cells. However, GABA decreased the number of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts, but did not affect the number of Clara cells or alveolar type I cells. GABA-mediated effects were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. GABA also increased cell proliferation and Cl? efflux in fetal distal lung epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that GABAA receptors accelerate fetal lung development, likely through an enhanced cell proliferation and/or fluid secretion. PMID:21152393

  16. Effect of ?-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Producing Bacteria on In vitro Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bum Seung; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Jeong, Chang Dae; Soriano, Alvin P.; Lee, Ho-Il; Nam, Ki-Chang; Ha, Jong K.; Lee, Sang Suk

    2013-01-01

    The effects and significance of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) producing bacteria (GPB) on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine) using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM). Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05). Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05). Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation. PMID:25049853

  17. A functional role for both ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1 and GABA transporter-3 in the modulation of extracellular GABA and GABAergic tonic conductances in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kersanté, Flavie; Rowley, Samuel C S; Pavlov, Ivan; Gutièrrez-Mecinas, María; Semyanov, Alexey; Reul, Johannes M H M; Walker, Matthew C; Linthorst, Astrid C E

    2013-01-01

    Tonic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-mediated signalling controls neuronal network excitability in the hippocampus. Although the extracellular concentration of GABA (e[GABA]) is critical in determining tonic conductances, knowledge on how e[GABA] is regulated by different GABA transporters (GATs) in vivo is limited. Therefore, we studied the role of GATs in the regulation of hippocampal e[GABA] using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. Here we show that GAT-1, which is predominantly presynaptically located, is the major GABA transporter under baseline, quiescent conditions. Furthermore, a significant contribution of GAT-3 in regulating e[GABA] was revealed by administration of the GAT-3 inhibitor SNAP-5114 during simultaneous blockade of GAT-1 by NNC-711. Thus, the GABA transporting activity of GAT-3 (the expression of which is confined to astrocytes) is apparent under conditions in which GAT-1 is blocked. However, sustained neuronal activation by K+-induced depolarization caused a profound spillover of GABA into the extrasynaptic space and this increase in e[GABA] was significantly potentiated by sole blockade of GAT-3 (i.e. even when uptake of GAT-1 is intact). Furthermore, experiments using tetrodotoxin to block action potentials revealed that GAT-3 regulates extrasynaptic GABA levels from action potential-independent sources when GAT-1 is blocked. Importantly, changes in e[GABA] resulting from both GAT-1 and GAT-3 inhibition directly precipitate changes in tonic conductances in dentate granule cells as measured by whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Thus, astrocytic GAT-3 contributes to the regulation of e[GABA] in the hippocampus in vivo and may play an important role in controlling the excitability of hippocampal cells when network activity is increased. PMID:23381899

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Bis-CNB-GABA, a Photoactivatable Neurotransmitter with Low Receptor Interference and Chemical Two-Photon Uncaging Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivatable “caged” neurotransmitters allow optical control of neural tissue with high spatial and temporal precision. However, the development of caged versions of the chief vertebrate inhibitory neurotransmitter, ?-amino butyric acid (GABA), has been limited by the propensity of caged GABAs to interact with GABA receptors. We describe herein the synthesis and application of a practically useful doubly caged GABA analog, termed bis-?-carboxy-2-nitrobenzyl-GABA (bis-CNB-GABA). Uncaging of bis-CNB-GABA evokes inward GABAergic currents in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons with rise times of 2 ms, comparable to flash duration. Response amplitudes depend on the square of flash intensity, as expected for a chemical two-photon uncaging effect. Importantly, prior to uncaging, bis-CNB-GABA is inactive at the GABAA receptor, evoking no changes in holding current in voltage-clamped neurons and showing an IC50 of at least 2.5 mM as measured using spontaneous GABAergic synaptic currents. Bis-CNB-GABA is stable in solution, with an estimated half-life of 98 days in the light. We expect that bis-CNB-GABA will prove to be an effective tool for high-resolution chemical control of brain circuits. PMID:24422544

  19. Structure activity relationship of selective GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vogensen, Stine B; Jørgensen, Lars; Madsen, Karsten K; Jurik, Andreas; Borkar, Nrupa; Rosatelli, Emiliano; Nielsen, Birgitte; Ecker, Gerhard F; Schousboe, Arne; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2015-05-15

    A series of ?-amino acids with lipophilic diaromatic side chain was synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter subtypes mGAT1-4 in order to investigate structure activity relationships (SAR) for mGAT2 (corresponding to hBGT-1). Variation in the lipophilic diaromatic side chain was probed to understand the role of the side chain for activity. This yielded several selective compounds of which the best (1R,2S)-5a was more than 10 fold selective towards other subtypes, although potency was moderate. A docking study was performed to investigate possible binding modes of the compounds in mGAT2 suggesting a binding mode similar to that proposed for Tiagabine in hGAT1. Specific interactions between the transporter and the amino acid part of the ligands may account for a reverted preference towards mGAT2 over mGAT1. PMID:25882526

  20. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen. PMID:25345052

  1. Interrelation of resting state functional connectivity, striatal GABA levels, and cognitive control processes.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lauren; Quetscher, Clara; Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Dydak, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Beste, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Important issues for cognitive control are response selection processes, known to depend on fronto-striatal networks with recent evidence suggesting that striatal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels play an important role. Regional GABA concentrations have also been shown to modulate intrinsic connectivity, e.g. of the default mode network. However, the interrelation between striatal GABA levels, basal ganglia network (BGN) connectivity, and performance in cognitive control is elusive. In the current study, we measure striatal GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and resting state parameters using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting state parameters include activity within the BGN, as determined by the low frequency power (LFP) within the network, and the functional connectivity between the BGN and somatomotor network (SMN). Specifically, we examine the interrelation between GABA, resting state parameters, and performance (i.e., accuracy) in conflict monitoring using a Simon task. Response control was affected by striatal GABA+ levels and activity within the BGN, especially when response selection was complicated by altered stimulus-response mappings. The data suggest that there are two mechanisms supporting response selection accuracy. One is related to resting state activity within the BGN and modulated by striatal GABA+ levels. The other is related to decreased cortico-striatal network connectivity, unrelated to the GABAergic system. The inclusion of all three factors (i.e., striatal GABA+ levels, activity within the BGN, and BGN-SMN network connectivity) explained a considerable amount of variance in task accuracy. Striatal neurobiochemical (GABA+) and parameters of the resting state BGN represent important modulators of response control. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4383-4393, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26354091

  2. A Fluorescence-Coupled Assay for Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Reveals Metabolic Stress-Induced Modulation of GABA Content in Neuroendocrine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Joseph E.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24551133

  3. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  4. V1 surface size predicts GABA concentration in medial occipital cortex.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Pilatus, Ulrich; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have established a link between behavior and the anatomy of the primary visual cortex (V1). However, one often-raised criticism has been that these studies provide little insight into the mechanisms of the observed relationships. As inhibitory neural interactions have been postulated as an important mechanism for those behaviors related to V1 anatomy, we measured the concentration of inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the medial occipital cortex where V1 is located using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and estimated the surface area of V1 using fMRI retinotopic mapping. We found a significant positive relationship between GABA concentration and V1 surface area. This relationship was present irrespective of whether the MRS voxel had a fixed size across participants or was proportionally sized to each individual's V1 surface area. Hence, individuals with a larger V1 had a higher GABA concentration in the medial occipital cortex. By tying together V1 size and GABA concentration, our findings point towards individual differences in the level of neural inhibition that might partially mediate the relationships between behavior and V1 neuroanatomy. In addition, they illustrate how stable microscopic properties of neural activity and function are reflected in macro-measures of V1 structure. PMID:26416651

  5. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing ?-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  6. Cloning of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid (GABA). rho. sub 1 cDNA: A GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, G.R.; Lu, Luo; Kasch, L.M.; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Guggino, W.B.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. ); O'Hara, B.F.; Donovan, D.M.; Shimada, Shoichi ); Uhl, G.R. Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-04-01

    Type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. The authors have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence is 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABA{sub A} subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA {rho}{sub 1}, with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family.

  7. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system.

    PubMed

    Awad, R; Levac, D; Cybulska, P; Merali, Z; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2007-09-01

    In Canada, the use of botanical natural health products (NHPs) for anxiety disorders is on the rise, and a critical evaluation of their safety and efficacy is required. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available botanicals directly affect the primary brain enzymes responsible for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. Anxiolytic plants may interact with either glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and ultimately influence brain GABA levels and neurotransmission. Two in vitro rat brain homogenate assays were developed to determine the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts. Approximately 70% of all extracts that were tested showed little or no inhibitory effect (IC50 values greater than 1 mg/mL) and are therefore unlikely to affect GABA metabolism as tested. The aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) exhibited the greatest inhibition of GABA-T activity (IC50 = 0.35 mg/mL). Extracts from Centella asiatica (gotu kola) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) stimulated GAD activity by over 40% at a dose of 1 mg/mL. On the other hand, both Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) and Humulus lupulus (hops) showed significant inhibition of GAD activity (0.11-0.65 mg/mL). Several of these species may therefore warrant further pharmacological investigation. The relation between enzyme activity and possible in vivo mode of action is discussed. PMID:18066140

  8. Reproducibility and effect of tissue composition on cerebellar ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) MRS in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Long, Zaiyang; Dyke, Jonathan P; Ma, Ruoyun; Huang, Chaorui C; Louis, Elan D; Dydak, Ulrike

    2015-10-01

    MRS provides a valuable tool for the non-invasive detection of brain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vivo. GABAergic dysfunction has been observed in the aging cerebellum. The study of cerebellar GABA changes is of considerable interest in understanding certain age-related motor disorders. However, little is known about the reproducibility of GABA MRS in an aged population. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of GABA MRS in the aged cerebellum at 3.0 T and to examine the effect of differing tissue composition on GABA measurements. MRI and (1)H MRS examinations were performed on 10 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age, 75.2 ± 6.5 years) using a 3.0-T Siemens Tim Trio scanner. Among them, five subjects were scanned twice to assess the short-term reproducibility. The MEGA-PRESS (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) J-editing sequence was used for GABA detection in two volumes of interest (VOIs) in the left and right cerebellar dentate. MRS data processing and quantification were performed with LCModel 6.3-0L using two separate basis sets, generated from density matrix simulations using published values for chemical shifts and J couplings. Raw metabolite levels from LCModel outputs were corrected for cerebrospinal fluid contamination and relaxation. GABA-edited spectra yielded robust and stable GABA measurements with averaged intra-individual coefficients of variation for corrected GABA+ between 4.0 ± 2.8% and 13.4 ± 6.3%, and inter-individual coefficients of variation between 12.6% and 24.2%. In addition, there was a significant correlation between GABA+ obtained with the two LCModel basis sets. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility and reproducibility of cerebellar GABA-edited MRS at 3.0 T in an elderly population. This information might be helpful for studies using this technique to study GABA changes in normal or diseased aging brain, e.g. for power calculations and the interpretation of longitudinal observations. PMID:26314380

  9. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration improves action selection processes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish a task goal, real-life environments require us to develop different action control strategies in order to rapidly react to fast-moving visual and auditory stimuli. When engaging in complex scenarios, it is essential to prioritise and cascade different actions. Recent studies have pointed to an important role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the specific causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by administering 800?mg of synthetic GABA or 800?mg oral of microcrystalline cellulose (placebo). In a double-blind, randomised, between-group design, 30 healthy adults performed a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that the administration of GABA, compared to placebo, increased action selection when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, and when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. These findings, involving the systemic administration of synthetic GABA, provide the first evidence for a possible causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating performance in action cascading. PMID:26227783

  10. Neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors undergo cognate ligand chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum by endogenous GABA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Eshaq, Randa S.; Meshul, Charles K.; Moore, Cynthia; Hood, Rebecca L.; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Dysfunction of these receptors is associated with various psychiatric/neurological disorders and drugs targeting this receptor are widely used therapeutic agents. Both the efficacy and plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission depends on the number of surface GABAA receptors. An understudied aspect of receptor cell surface expression is the post-translational regulation of receptor biogenesis within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that exogenous GABA can act as a ligand chaperone of recombinant GABAA receptors in the early secretory pathway leading us to now investigate whether endogenous GABA facilitates the biogenesis of GABAA receptors in primary cerebral cortical cultures. In immunofluorescence labeling experiments, we have determined that neurons expressing surface GABAA receptors contain both GABA and its degradative enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T). Treatment of neurons with GABA-T inhibitors, a treatment known to increase intracellular GABA levels, decreases the interaction of the receptor with the ER quality control protein calnexin, concomittantly increasing receptor forward-trafficking and plasma membrane insertion. The effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction is not due to the activation of surface GABAA or GABAB receptors. Consistent with our hypothesis that GABA acts as a cognate ligand chaperone in the ER, immunogold-labeling of rodent brain slices reveals the presence of GABA within the rough ER. The density of this labeling is similar to that present in mitochondria, the organelle in which GABA is degraded. Lastly, the effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction was prevented by pretreatment with a GABA transporter inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that endogenous GABA acts in the rough ER as a cognate ligand chaperone to facilitate the biogenesis of neuronal GABAA receptors. PMID:26041994

  11. Molecular docking based screening of GABA (A) receptor inhibitors from plant derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sahila, Mohammed Marunnan; Babitha, Pallikkara Pulikkal; Bandaru, Srinivas; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Doss, Victor Arokia

    2015-01-01

    The present antipsychotic drugs have known to show serious concerns like extra pyramidal side effects therefore, pursuit for novel antipsychotic GABAnergic drugs has lately focused on the folkloric medicine from plant derivatives as better treatment option of schizophrenia. The present study centers to identify potential inhibitors of plant origin for GABA receptor through in silico approaches. Three compound datasets were undertaken in the study. The first set consisted of seven compounds which included Magnolol, Honokiol and other plant derivatives. The second set consisted of 16 derivatives of N-diarylalkenyl-piperidinecarboxylic acid synthesized by Zheng et al., 2006. The third dataset had thirty two compounds which were Magnolol and Honokiol analogues synthesized by Fuchs et al., 2014. All the compounds were docked at the allosteric site of the GABA (A) receptor. The compounds were further tested for ADMET and biological activity. We observed Honokiol and its derivatives demonstrated superior druglike properties than any compound undertaken in the study. Further, compound 61 [2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-propylphenol] of dataset three - a synthetic derivative of honokiol had better profile than its parent compound. In a possible attempt to identify compound with even better efficacious compound than 61, virtual screening was performed, 135 compounds akin to compound 61 were retrieved. Interestingly none of the 135 compounds showed better druggable properties than compound 61. Our in silico pharmacological profiling of compounds is in coherence and is complemented by the findings of Fuchs et al, which also revealed compound 61 to be the good potentiator of GABA receptor. Abbreviations GABA (A) R - Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Receptor, subtype A, GPCR - G Protein Coupled Receptor, OPLS - Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations, PDB - Protein Data Bank, PLP - Piece wise Linear Potential, T.E.S.T - Toxicity Estimation Software Tool, TCM - Traditional Chinese Medicine. PMID:26229288

  12. Glutamate and GABA contributions to medial prefrontal cortical activity to emotion: implications for mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Stan, Ana D; Schirda, Claudiu V; Bertocci, Michele A; Bebko, Genna M; Kronhaus, Dina M; Aslam, Haris A; LaBarbara, Eduard J; Tanase, Costin; Lockovich, Jeanette C; Pollock, Myrna H; Stiffler, Richelle S; Phillips, Mary L

    2014-09-30

    The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MdPFC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) play a critical role in implicit emotion regulation; however the understanding of the specific neurotransmitters that mediate such role is lacking. In this study, we examined relationships between MdPFC concentrations of two neurotransmitters, glutamate and ?-amino butyric acid (GABA), and BOLD activity in ACC during performance of an implicit facial emotion-processing task. Twenty healthy volunteers, aged 20-35 years, were scanned while performing an implicit facial emotion-processing task, whereby presented facial expressions changed from neutral to one of the four emotions: happy, anger, fear, or sad. Glutamate concentrations were measured before and after the emotion-processing task in right MdPFC using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). GABA concentrations were measured in bilateral MdPFC after the emotion-processing task. Multiple regression models were run to determine the relative contribution of glutamate and GABA concentration, age, and gender to BOLD signal in ACC to each of the four emotions. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between MdPFC GABA concentration and BOLD signal in subgenual ACC (p<0.05, corrected) to sad versus shape contrast. For the anger versus shape contrast, there was a significant negative correlation between age and BOLD signal in pregenual ACC (p<0.05, corrected) and a positive correlation between MdPFC glutamate concentration (pre-task) and BOLD signal in pregenual ACC (p<0.05, corrected). Our findings are the first to provide insight into relationships between MdPFC neurotransmitter concentrations and ACC BOLD signal, and could further understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying emotion processing in healthy and mood-disordered individuals. PMID:24973815

  13. Phosphonic acid analogs of GABA through reductive dealkylation of phosphonic diesters with lithium trialkylborohydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Sarwat; Muni, Niraj J.; Greenwood, Nicholas P.; Pepperberg, Dr. David R.; Standaert, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    Lithium trialkylborohydrides were found to effect rapid monodealkylation of phosphonic diesters, and this reaction was applied to the synthesis of alkylphosphonic acid 2-aminoethyl esters [H2N(CH2)2OP(OH)R, 4], a little-explored class of analogs of the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Compound 4a (R = Me) proved to be a potent antagonist at human ?1 GABAC receptors (expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes), with an IC50 of 11.1 M, but is inactive at ?1?2?2 GABAA receptors.

  14. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ?-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration.

  15. Stimulation of GABA-Induced Ca2+ Influx Enhances Maturation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, David J.; Mattis, Virginia B.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Allen, Nicholas D.; Kemp, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal use of patient-derived, induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling neuronal diseases is crucially dependent upon the proper physiological maturation of derived neurons. As a strategy to develop defined differentiation protocols that optimize electrophysiological function, we investigated the role of Ca2+ channel regulation by astrocyte conditioned medium in neuronal maturation, using whole-cell patch clamp and Ca2+ imaging. Standard control medium supported basic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons, as assayed by the ability to fire simple, single, induced action potentials. In contrast, treatment with astrocyte conditioned medium elicited complex and spontaneous neuronal activity, often with rhythmic and biphasic characteristics. Such augmented spontaneous activity correlated with astrocyte conditioned medium-evoked hyperpolarization and was dependent upon regulated function of L-, N- and R-type Ca2+ channels. The requirement for astrocyte conditioned medium could be substituted by simply supplementing control differentiation medium with high Ca2+ or ?-amino butyric acid (GABA). Importantly, even in the absence of GABA signalling, opening Ca2+ channels directly using Bay K8644 was able to hyperpolarise neurons and enhance excitability, producing fully functional neurons. These data provide mechanistic insight into how secreted astrocyte factors control differentiation and, importantly, suggest that pharmacological modulation of Ca2+ channel function leads to the development of a defined protocol for improved maturation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. PMID:24278369

  16. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  17. SYSTEMIC ADMINISTRATION OF KAINIC ACID INCREASES GABA LEVELS IN PERFUSATE FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ventral hippocampi of male, Fischer-344 rats were implanted with microdialysis probes and the effects of systemically administered kainic acid (KA) (8 mg/kg, s.c.) on the in vivo release of amino acids were measured for four hours after administration. n order to measure GABA...

  18. Activation of GABA-A receptors during postnatal brain development increases anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Bakhtiari, Amir; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Disturbances of the gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) system during postnatal development can have long-lasting consequences for later life behavior, like the individual's response to stress. However, it is unclear which postnatal windows of sensitivity to GABA-ergic modulations are associated with what later-life behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether neonatal activation of the GABA-A receptor during two postnatal periods, an early window (postnatal day 3-5) and a late window (postnatal day 14-16), can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male mice in later life. To this end, mice were treated with either saline or muscimol (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500?g/kg) during the early and late postnatal periods. An additional group of mice was treated with the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline+muscimol. When grown to adulthood male mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels were also measured. The results indicate that early postnatal and to a lesser extent later postnatal exposure to the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol increased anxiety-like behavior and stress-induced CORT levels in adults. Moreover, the early postnatal treatment with muscimol increased depression-like behavior with increasing baseline CORT levels. The anxiogenic and depression-like later-life consequences could be antagonized by bicuculline. Our findings suggest that GABA-A receptor signaling during early-life can influence anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in later life. Our findings help to increase insight in the developmental mechanisms contributing to stress-related disorders. PMID:25983020

  19. Molecular and Therapeutic Potential and Toxicity of Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Chateauvieux, Sébastien; Morceau, Franck; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA) transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties. PMID:20798865

  20. Co-localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter in cytochrome oxidase patches of macaque striate cortex

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, DANIEL L.; ECONOMIDES, JOHN R.; HORTON, JONATHAN C.

    2015-01-01

    The patches in primary visual cortex constitute hot spots of metabolic activity, manifested by enhanced levels of cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity. They are also labeled preferentially by immunostaining for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and parvalbumin. However, calbindin shows stronger immunoreactivity outside patches. In light of this discrepancy, the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was examined in striate cortex of two normal macaques. VGAT immunoreactivity was strongest in layers 4B, 4C?, and 5. In tangential sections, the distribution of CO, GAD, and VGAT was compared in layer 2/3. There was a close match between all three labels. This finding indicates that GABA synthesis is enriched in patches, and that inhibitory synapses are more active in patches than interpatches. PMID:26579566

  1. 2005 Nature Publishing Group GABA (-aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    several thousand GABA molecules into the synaptic cleft,generating a peak GABA concentration of them, the binding of GABA triggers the near-synchronous opening of their ion channels. VARIATIONS | The proper functioning of the adult mammalian brain relies on the orchestrated regulation of neural activity

  2. Associate editor: B.L. Roth The human reelin gene: Transcription factors (+), repressors (-)

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    hypermethylation facilitated by the over-expression of the methylating enzyme DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 1. Using: Schizophrenia; Methylation; Migration; GABA; Gene; Promoter; Histone deacetylase; DNA methyltransferase, bipolar disorder; Dnmt, DNA methyltransferase; GABA, gamma-amino butyric acid; GAD, glutamic acid

  3. Glutamate-modulated production of GABA in immortalized astrocytes transduced by a glutamic acid decarboxylase-expressing retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Sacchettoni, S A; Benchaibi, M; Sindou, M; Belin, M F; Jacquemont, B

    1998-01-01

    Replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus expressing the GAD67 gene under the control of the GFAP promoter was produced using selected clones of a fibroblast-packaging cell line. A spontaneously immortalized astrocyte cell line was infected with this virus and cellular clones expressing GAD67 selected. Astrocyte and fibroblast clones expressed functional GAD (detected by glutamic acid decarboxylation), but only fibroblasts were able to also produce GABA in the extracellular medium. When exposed to 200 microM glutamate, despite an observed difference in the rates of glutamate accumulation in control and GAD67-expressing astrocytes, similar proportions of glutamate taken up were detected. In GAD67-expressing astrocytes, the glutamate was mainly converted into GABA, suggesting GAD transgene activity to be dominant over other glutamate metabolic pathways, such as glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Moreover, rapid GABA release into the cell medium was also observed, suggesting the involvement of reverse GABA transporters. The use of the GFAP promoter might be able to take advantage of its activation in response to factors inducing reactive gliosis observed in pathological insults. GAD67-expressing astrocytes might therefore be used for future grafting in pathological situations in which an excess of glutamate results in neuronal dysfunction or cell death. PMID:9436790

  4. Reciprocal regulation of fatty acid release in the brain by GABA and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Birkle, D L

    1992-01-01

    Several model systems have been used to test the hypothesis that the release of FFA in the brain is regulated by depolarization of neurons. This FFA release is likely the result of the activation of phospholipase A2. The increased neuronal activity that occurs due to synchronous depolarization during seizures causes activation of phospholipase A2. Decreasing neuronal activity by administering the anxiolytic, diazepam, appears to decrease the activity of phospholipase A2. The GABA antagonist, bicuculline, which causes depolarization by negating the hyperpolarizing tone imposed on neurons by GABA, causes FFA release in synaptosomes and in neurons in tissue culture. Likewise, the glutamate agonist, kainic acid, which depolarizes neurons by opening sodium channels, increases the activity of phospholipase A2. PC-specific phospholipase C, another enzyme important in the generation of the second messenger, DG, is also activated by depolarization. Several important questions remain to be answered. The site of FFA release, in terms of the pre-vs. postsynaptic membrane, is not clear, although the experiments with synaptosomes support the hypothesis that activation of phospholipase A2 may be an important regulator of presynaptic events. This idea has also been suggested by studies on the phenomenon of long-term potentiation, where free 20:4 or its metabolites may be involved in presynaptic facilitation of neurotransmitter release (Freeman et al., 1990; Massicotte et al., 1990; Williams et al., 1989; also see Dorman, this volume). The activation of the PI cycle and subsequent stimulation of protein kinase C may be a postsynaptic event important in the integration of inputs at the dendrite and soma or a presynaptic event involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release (Taniyama et al., 1990; El-Fakahany et al., 1990; also see Nishizuka, this volume). Therefore the stimulation of a PC-specific phospholipase C, which is capable of generating large amounts of DG over a prolonged period of time (Exton, 1990; Martinson et al., 1990; Diaz-Laviada et al., 1990), could occur at either site. Another important question is the role of FFA and DG in affecting cell-cell signaling events, particularly with regard to ion fluxes. Modulation of an acetylcholine-linked K+ channel in the heart by FFA and their oxygenation products has been reported (Kim and Clapham, 1989). The cardiac muscarinic receptor is linked to a hyperpolarizing K+ channel via a G protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1353287

  5. Presumed case of “stiff–horse syndrome” caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations. PMID:22753968

  6. Detection of amino acid neurotransmitters by surface enhanced Raman scattering and hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Khetani, Altaf; Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Smith, Brett; Anis, Hanan; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2012-03-01

    The present work explores the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detecting the neurotransmitters such as glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These amino acid neurotransmitters that respectively mediate fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, are important for neuroendocrine control, and upsets in their synthesis are also linked to epilepsy. Our SERS-based detection scheme enabled the detection of low amounts of GLU (10-7 M) and GABA (10-4 M). It may complement existing techniques for characterizing such kinds of neurotransmitters that include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrography (MS). This is mainly because SERS has other advantages such as ease of sample preparation, molecular specificity and sensitivity, thus making it potentially applicable to characterization of experimental brain extracts or clinical diagnostic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) further enhanced the Raman signal relative to that in a standard cuvette providing sensitive detection of GLU and GABA in micro-litre volume of aqueous solutions.

  7. Arachidonic acid attenuates learning and memory dysfunction induced by repeated isoflurane anesthesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunjiang; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Yun; Diao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) on learning and memory dysfunction in rats exposed to repeated isoflurane anesthesia and the underlying mechanisms. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham control group, isoflurane group, low dose ARA + isoflurane group, moderate dose ARA + isoflurane group, high dose ARA + isoflurane group. The Morris water maze test was performed to assess learning and memory function and the hippocampus tissues were obtained for biochemical analysis. The results showed that administration of ARA improved learning and memory deficit induced by repeated isofluane anesthesia in Morris water maze test and in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, ARA increased the activities of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of acetycholine (Ach) and ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), whereas decreased the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE), the content of glutamate (Glu) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the radio of Glu/GABA. Meanwhile, ARA elevated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibited the activity of caspase-3. In conclusion, ARA has potential therapeutic value in alleviating isoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment. The mechanism might be involved in regulating the cholinergic and Glu/GABA regulatory system, decreasing oxidative damage and inhibiting cell apoptosis. PMID:26550146

  8. Gestational changes of GABA levels and GABA binding in the human uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Erdoe, S.L.; Villanyi, P.; Laszlo, A.

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the activities of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, and the nature of the sodium-independent binding of GABA were examined in uterine tissue pieces obtained surgically from pregnant and non-pregnant women. GABA concentrations were reduced, while the activity of GABA-transaminase and the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA significantly increased in specimens from pregnant subjects. These findings suggest some gestation-related functional role for the GABA system in the human uterus.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of novel heteroaromatic substrates of GABA aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Hawker, Dustin D.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Two principal neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of mammalian neuronal activity, namely, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and L-glutamic acid, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Low GABA levels in the brain have been implicated in epilepsy and several other neurological diseases. Because of GABA’s poor ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a successful strategy to raise brain GABA concentrations is the use of a compound that does cross the BBB and inhibits or inactivates GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme responsible for GABA catabolism. Vigabatrin, a mechanism-based inactivator of GABA-AT, is currently a successful therapeutic for epilepsy, but has harmful side effects, leaving a need for improved GABA-AT inactivators. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of heteroaromatic GABA analogues as substrates of GABA-AT, which will be used as the basis for the design of novel enzyme inactivators. PMID:22944334

  10. Role of a gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor mutation in the evolution and spread of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera resistance to cyclodiene insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. The corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was partially controlled by ...

  11. Stable isotope dilution HILIC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of glutamic acid, glutamine, pyroglutamic acid, GABA and theanine in mouse brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yasuto; Unno, Keiko; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed the stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) technique for the accurate, reasonable and simultaneous quantification of glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), pyroglutamic acid (pGlu), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and theanine in mouse brain tissues. The quantification of these analytes was accomplished using stable isotope internal standards and the HILIC separating mode to fully correct the intramolecular cyclization during the electrospray ionization. It was shown that linear calibrations were available with high coefficients of correlation (r(2) ?>?0.999, range from 10 pmol/mL to 50?nmol/mL). For application of the theanine intake, the determination of Glu, Gln, pGlu, GABA and theanine in the hippocampus and central cortex tissues was performed based on our developed method. In the region of the hippocampus, the concentration levels of Glu and pGlu were significantly reduced during reality-based theanine intake. Conversely, the concentration level of GABA increased. This result showed that transited theanine has an effect on the metabolic balance of Glu analogs in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26033549

  12. Imidase catalyzing desymmetric imide hydrolysis forming optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Masutoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shizawa, Hiroaki; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Yasohara, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The recent use of optically active 3-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs in human therapeutics has identified a need for an efficient, stereoselective method of their synthesis. Here, bacterial strains were screened for enzymes capable of stereospecific hydrolysis of 3-substituted glutarimides to generate (R)-3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides. The bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis NBRC13111 and Burkholderia phytofirmans DSM17436 were discovered to hydrolyze 3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutarimide (CGI) to (R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutaric acid monoamide (CGM) with 98.1 % enantiomeric excess (e.e.) and 97.5 % e.e., respectively. B. phytofirmans DSM17436 could also hydrolyze 3-isobutyl glutarimide (IBI) to produce (R)-3-isobutyl glutaric acid monoamide (IBM) with 94.9 % e.e. BpIH, an imidase, was purified from B. phytofirmans DSM17436 and found to generate (R)-CGM from CGI with specific activity of 0.95 U/mg. The amino acid sequence of BpIH had a 75 % sequence identity to that of allantoinase from A. faecalis NBRC13111 (AfIH). The purified recombinant BpIH and AfIH catalyzed (R)-selective hydrolysis of CGI and IBI. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the enzymatic properties of BpIH and AfIH revealed that both enzymes were stable in the range of pH 6-10, with an optimal pH of 9.0, stable at temperatures below 40 °C, and were not metalloproteins. These results indicate that the use of this class of hydrolase to generate optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamide could simplify the production of specific chiral GABA analogs for drug therapeutics. PMID:26205522

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of genistein, the active principle of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): alterations in the free amino acid pool and ammonia levels in the fluke, Fasciolopsis buski.

    PubMed

    Kar, Pradip Kumar; Tandon, Veena; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2004-12-01

    The crude root-peel extract of Flemingia vestita, its active principle genistein and the reference flukicide oxyclozanide were tested against Fasciolopsis buski, the giant intestinal trematode. The amino acid composition of F. buski was demonstrated using HPLC and it was observed that the free amino acid (FAA) pool of the control worm consisted of aspartate, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glutamine, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, histidine, arginine, phosphoserine, taurine, citrulline, ornithine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Of the amino acids detected valine was found to be the maximum in quantitative analysis. In qualitative analysis the FAA pool of the parasites under various treatments remained same as that of the control; however, quantitatively the level of various FAAs in the parasite was significantly affected. The treated parasites showed a marked decrease in the levels of arginine, ornithine, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, and taurine following treatment with 20 mg/ml of crude peel extract, 0.5 mg/ml of genistein and 20 mg/ml of the reference drug, though an increase in the levels of glutamic acid, glutamine, phosphoserine, citrulline and GABA was noticeable. Enhanced levels of GABA and citrulline under the influence of genistein may be implicated in alterations of nitric oxide release and consequent neurological change (e.g. paralysis) in the parasite. Ammonia in the tissue homogenate as well as in the incubation medium showed a quantitative increase compared to the controls after treatment with the various test materials. The ammonia level increased by 40.7%, 66.4% and 18.16% in treatments with F. vestita, genistein and oxyclozanide, respectively, at the mentioned dosages. The changes in the levels of the amino acids and nitrogen components post treatment suggest that the amino acid metabolism in the parasite may have been altered under the influence of the test materials. PMID:15464437

  14. Closing the loop on the GABA shunt in plants: are GABA metabolism and signaling entwined?

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Simon; Fromm, Hillel

    2015-01-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is found in uni- and multi-cellular organisms and is involved in many aspects of plant life cycle. GABA metabolism occurs by the action of evolutionary conserved enzymes that constitute the GABA shunt, bypassing two steps of the TCA cycle. The central position of GABA in the interface between plant carbon and nitrogen metabolism is well established. In parallel, there is evidence to support a role for GABA as a signaling molecule in plants. Here we cover some of the recent findings on GABA metabolism and signaling in plants and further suggest that the metabolic and signaling aspects of GABA may actually be inseparable. PMID:26106401

  15. Neurotoxins from snake venoms and ?-conotoxin ImI inhibit functionally active ionotropic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Shelukhina, Irina V; Son, Lina V; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Zhmak, Maxim N; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Ivanov, Igor A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Starkov, Vladislav G; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-09-11

    Ionotropic receptors of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAAR) regulate neuronal inhibition and are targeted by benzodiazepines and general anesthetics. We show that a fluorescent derivative of ?-cobratoxin (?-Ctx), belonging to the family of three-finger toxins from snake venoms, specifically stained the ?1?3?2 receptor; and at 10 ?m ?-Ctx completely blocked GABA-induced currents in this receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes (IC50 = 236 nm) and less potently inhibited ?1?2?2 ? ?2?2?2 > ?5?2?2 > ?2?3?2 and ?1?3? GABAARs. The ?1?3?2 receptor was also inhibited by some other three-finger toxins, long ?-neurotoxin Ls III and nonconventional toxin WTX. ?-Conotoxin ImI displayed inhibitory activity as well. Electrophysiology experiments showed mixed competitive and noncompetitive ?-Ctx action. Fluorescent ?-Ctx, however, could be displaced by muscimol indicating that most of the ?-Ctx-binding sites overlap with the orthosteric sites at the ?/? subunit interface. Modeling and molecular dynamic studies indicated that ?-Ctx or ?-bungarotoxin seem to interact with GABAAR in a way similar to their interaction with the acetylcholine-binding protein or the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. This was supported by mutagenesis studies and experiments with ?-conotoxin ImI and a chimeric Naja oxiana ?-neurotoxin indicating that the major role in ?-Ctx binding to GABAAR is played by the tip of its central loop II accommodating under loop C of the receptors. PMID:26221036

  16. Role for pro-inflammatory cytokines in regulating expression of GABA transporter type 1 and 3 in specific brain regions of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Yin, Jian; Qin, Wei; Sha, Suxu; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Changbin

    2015-03-01

    In general, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) contribute to regulation of epilepsy-associated pathophysiological processes in the central nerve system. In this report, we examined the specific activation of PICs, namely IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in rat brain after kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE). Also, we examined the role played by PICs in regulating expression of GABA transporter type 1 and 3 (GAT-1 and GAT-3, respectively), which are the two important subtypes of GATs responsible for the regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the brain. Our results show that IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? were significantly increased in the parietal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of KA-rats as compared with sham control animals (P < 0.05, KA rats vs. control rats). KA-induced SE also significantly increased (P < 0.05 vs. controls) the protein expression of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in those brain regions. In addition, central administration of antagonists to IL-1? and TNF-? receptors significantly attenuated amplified GAT-1 and GAT-3 (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control for each antagonist group). However, antagonist to IL-6 receptor failed to attenuate enhancement in expression of GAT-1 and GAT-3 induced by KA-induced SE. Overall, our data demonstrate that PIC pathways are activated in the specific brain regions during SE which thereby selectively leads to upregulation of GABA transporters. As a result, it is likely that de-inhibition of GABA system is increased in the brain. This support a role for PICs in engagement of the adaptive mechanisms associated with epileptic activity, and has pharmacological implications to target specific PICs for neuronal dysfunction and vulnerability related to epilepsy. PMID:25708016

  17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptides in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damelio, F.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid and the neuropeptides substance P and Met-enkephalin in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive (GAD-IR) terminals and fibers were observed in the AP and particularly in the ASP. A gradual decrease in the density of terminals was seen towards the solitary complex. The DMNV revealed irregularly scattered GAD-IR terminals within the neuropil or closely surrounding neuronal cell bodies. The LVN, particularly the dorsal division, showed numerous axon terminals which were mostly localize around large neurons and their proximal dendrites. Substance P immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed high density in the solitary complex, in particular within the lateral division. The ASP showed medium to low density of SP-IR fibers and terminals. The AP exhibited a small number of fibers and terminals irregularly distributed. The DMNV revealed a high density of SP-IR terminals and fibers that were mainly concentrated in the periphery. Very few terminals were detected in the LVN. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive (Met-Enk-IR) fibers and terminals showed high density and uniform distribution in the DMNV. Scattered terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, and NTS (particularly the lateral division). The very few fibers were observed in the LVN surrounded the neuronal cell bodies. The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

  18. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of ?-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  19. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2011-05-14

    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages. PMID:21458095

  20. Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Streeter, C C; Gerbarg, P L; Saper, R B; Ciraulo, D A; Brown, R P

    2012-05-01

    A theory is proposed to explain the benefits of yoga practices in diverse, frequently comorbid medical conditions based on the concept that yoga practices reduce allostatic load in stress response systems such that optimal homeostasis is restored. It is hypothesized that stress induces (1) imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, (2) underactivity of the gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter system, and (3) increased allostatic load. It is further hypothesized that yoga-based practices (4) correct underactivity of the PNS and GABA systems in part through stimulation of the vagus nerves, the main peripheral pathway of the PNS, and (5) reduce allostatic load. Depression, epilepsy, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain exemplify medical conditions that are exacerbated by stress, have low heart rate variability (HRV) and low GABAergic activity, respond to pharmacologic agents that increase activity of the GABA system, and show symptom improvement in response to yoga-based interventions. The observation that treatment resistant cases of epilepsy and depression respond to vagal nerve stimulation corroborates the need to correct PNS underactivity as part of a successful treatment plan in some cases. According to the proposed theory, the decreased PNS and GABAergic activity that underlies stress-related disorders can be corrected by yoga practices resulting in amelioration of disease symptoms. This has far-reaching implications for the integration of yoga-based practices in the treatment of a broad array of disorders exacerbated by stress. PMID:22365651

  1. Recent advances in GABA research.

    PubMed

    Kardos, J

    1999-05-01

    In this article I throw attention on to this GABA issue by outlining several aspects of current interest in the field of GABA research. The theme was selected in association with the Pharmacology and Therapeutical Potential of the GABA System symposium of the Second European Congress of Pharmacology held in July 1999 in Budapest, Hungary. A wide range of topics relating to the GABA system were outlined, including new members of the GABAA receptor gene family, subunit composition of native GABA(A) receptors, surface expression and clustering of GABA(A) receptor subunits, allosteric modulation of GABA(A) receptors, localization of agonist binding sites, GABA release, GABA(A)-GABA(B) receptor crosstalk, GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor functions in different brain areas, altered transport and GABA(A) receptor pattern in different models of epilepsy. PMID:10397362

  2. Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA protein, and nucleic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, F.K.; Omer, V.E.V.

    1988-02-01

    The opportunity of maternal exposure to various chemicals in the work place and the general environments have increased, and the fetus and neonate may be at greater risk than the adult. However, the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of the chlorinated phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), the main chemicals in Agent Orange, are well documented only in laboratory animals. The brain of the developing fetus is vulnerable to the toxic effects of the phenoxy herbicides which readily cross the placental barrier and distribute into fetal tissues, including brain. Although the neurochemical basis for the behavioral teratogenicity of the phenoxy herbicides is not know, it was recently reported that non-teratogenic doses of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T delayed the ontogeny of dopamine and serotonin in the brain of the developing rate. This communication provides further descriptive information about the ontogeny of rat brain nucleic acid, protein, glutamate and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) following in utero exposure to non-teratogenic levels of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D/2,4,5-T.

  3. Characteristic Expressions of GABA Receptors and GABA Producing/Transporting Molecules in Rat Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Kozue; Yatabe, Midori Sasaki; Abe, Asami; Suzuki, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Junko; Yatabe, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important neurotransmitter, but recent reports have revealed the expression of GABAergic components in peripheral, non-neural tissues. GABA administration induces natriuresis and lowers blood pressure, suggesting renal GABA targets. However, systematic evaluation of renal GABAergic components has not been reported. In this study, kidney cortices of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used to assay for messenger RNAs of GABA-related molecules using RT-PCR. In WKY kidney cortex, GABAA receptor subunits, ?1, ?3, ?, ? and ?, in addition to both types of GABAB receptors, R1 and R2, and GABAC receptor ?1 and ?2 subunit mRNAs were detected. Kidney cortex also expressed mRNAs of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65, GAD67, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase and GABA transporter, GAT2. Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry were performed for those molecules detected by RT-PCR. By immunofluorescent observation, co-staining of ?1, ?3, and ? subunits was observed mainly on the apical side of cortical tubules, and immunoblot of kidney protein precipitated with ? subunit antibody revealed ?1 and ?3 subunit co-assembly. This is the first report of GABAA receptor ? subunit in the kidney. In summary, unique set of GABA receptor subunits and subtypes were found in rat kidney cortex. As GABA producing enzymes, transporters and degrading enzyme were also detected, a possible existence of local renal GABAergic system with an autocrine/paracrine mechanism is suggested. PMID:25188493

  4. Characteristic expressions of GABA receptors and GABA producing/transporting molecules in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kozue; Yatabe, Midori Sasaki; Abe, Asami; Suzuki, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Junko; Yatabe, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important neurotransmitter, but recent reports have revealed the expression of GABAergic components in peripheral, non-neural tissues. GABA administration induces natriuresis and lowers blood pressure, suggesting renal GABA targets. However, systematic evaluation of renal GABAergic components has not been reported. In this study, kidney cortices of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used to assay for messenger RNAs of GABA-related molecules using RT-PCR. In WKY kidney cortex, GABAA receptor subunits, ?1, ?3, ?, ? and ?, in addition to both types of GABAB receptors, R1 and R2, and GABAC receptor ?1 and ?2 subunit mRNAs were detected. Kidney cortex also expressed mRNAs of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65, GAD67, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase and GABA transporter, GAT2. Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry were performed for those molecules detected by RT-PCR. By immunofluorescent observation, co-staining of ?1, ?3, and ? subunits was observed mainly on the apical side of cortical tubules, and immunoblot of kidney protein precipitated with ? subunit antibody revealed ?1 and ?3 subunit co-assembly. This is the first report of GABAA receptor ? subunit in the kidney. In summary, unique set of GABA receptor subunits and subtypes were found in rat kidney cortex. As GABA producing enzymes, transporters and degrading enzyme were also detected, a possible existence of local renal GABAergic system with an autocrine/paracrine mechanism is suggested. PMID:25188493

  5. Lens GABA receptors are a target of GABA-related agonists that mitigate experimental myopia.

    PubMed

    Frederikse, Peter H; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2015-06-01

    Coordinated growth of eye tissues is required to achieve visual acuity. However, visual experience also guides this process. Experimental myopia can be produced by altering light entering the eye, but also by changing light/dark regimens. Drug discovery studies demonstrated that ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related agonists (e.g., baclofen) will mitigate experimental myopia, and are also drugs studied for their capacity to affect neurodevelopmental disorders that include Fragile X Syndrome and related autism spectrum disorders. GABA receptors thought to mediate these responses in the eye have been studied in the neural retina as well as the cornea and sclera which are both innervated tissues. In addition to neurons, lenses express GAD25/65/67 GABA metabolic enzymes and at least 13 GABA receptor subunits with developmental expression profiles that match neural development. Evidence that lens GABA receptors are expressed in a cell environment comparable to neurons is seen in the lens expression of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors together with an unexpectedly comprehensive array of associated signaling proteins that include post-synaptic-density 95 (PSD95), calcium calmodulin kinase II? (CaMKII?), Fragile X Syndrome mental retardation protein (FMRP), ephrin receptors, Ca(V)1.2, 1.3 channels, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), and neuronal C-src among others. Moreover, lens cells share fundamental molecular regulatory mechanisms that integrate the regulation and function of these genes at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in neurons. GABA has trophic, growth promoting effects early in neuron development and later assumes its classic inhibitory role in the adult neural system. We hypothesize that the extensive parallels between GABA and glutamate receptor biology in lens and brain identifies the lens as a site of GABA agonist drug action affecting experimental myopia, acting through lens GABA receptors to similarly affect growth in both elongated cell types. PMID:25841296

  6. Development and Validation of a HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of L-Glutamic Acid and ?-Aminobutyric Acid in Mice Brain.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, J S; Shaikh, M F; Khatwani, P F; Kulkarni, Savita R; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2013-11-01

    A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and ?-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ninhydrin as a derivatising agent. Quantitation of the method was achieved by densitometric method at 550 nm over the concentration range of 10-100 ng/spot. This method showed good separation of amino acids in the brain homogenate with Rf value of L-glutamic acid and ?-amino butyric acid as 21.67±0.58 and 33.67±0.58, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for L-glutamic acid was found to be 10 and 20 ng and for ?-amino butyric acid it was 4 and 10 ng, respectively. The method was also validated in terms of accuracy, precision and repeatability. The developed method was found to be precise and accurate with good reproducibility and shows promising applicability for studying pathological status of disease and therapeutic significance of drug treatment. PMID:24591747

  7. The heptahelical domain of GABA(B2) is activated directly by CGP7930, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(B) receptor.

    PubMed

    Binet, Virginie; Brajon, Carole; Le Corre, Laurent; Acher, Francine; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Prézeau, Laurent

    2004-07-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABA(B)) receptor is well recognized as being composed of two subunits, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2). Both subunits share structural homology with other class-III G-protein-coupled receptors. They are composed of two main domains: a heptahelical domain (HD) typical of all G-protein-coupled receptors and a large extracellular domain (ECD). Although GABA(B1) binds GABA, GABA(B2) is required for GABA(B1) to reach the cell surface. However, it is still not demonstrated whether the association of these two subunits is always required for function in the brain. Indeed, GABA(B2) plays a major role in the coupling of the heteromer to G-proteins, such that it is possible that GABA(B2) can transmit a signal in the absence of GABA(B1). Today only ligands interacting with GABA(B1) ECD have been identified. Thus, the compounds acting exclusively on the GABA(B2) subunit will be helpful in analyzing the specific role of this subunit in the brain. Here, we explored the mechanism of action of CGP7930, a compound described as a positive allosteric regulator of the GABA(B) receptor. We showed that it activates the wild type GABA(B) receptor but with a low efficacy. The GABA(B2) HD is necessary for this effect, although one cannot exclude that CGP7930 could also bind to GABA(B1). Of interest, CGP7930 could activate GABA(B2) expressed alone and is the first described agonist of GABA(B2). Finally, we show that CGP7930 retains its agonist activity on a GABA(B2) subunit deleted of its ECD. This demonstrates that the HD of GABA(B2) behaves similar to a rhodopsin-like receptor, because it can reach the cell surface alone, can couple to G-protein, and be activated by agonists. These data open new strategies for studying the mechanism of activation of GABA(B) receptor and examine any possible role of homomeric GABA(B2) receptors. PMID:15126507

  8. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical vectors. PMID:22919677

  9. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows

    PubMed Central

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical vectors. PMID:22919677

  10. Glutamate and GABA in Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Teresa C.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue, and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms. Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle. PMID:23966982

  11. GABA Predicts Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Sonia; Near, Jamie; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-01-01

    Our perception of time constrains our experience of the world and exerts a pivotal influence over a myriad array of cognitive and motor functions. There is emerging evidence that the perceived duration of subsecond intervals is driven by sensory-specific neural activity in human and nonhuman animals, but the mechanisms underlying individual differences in time perception remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that elevated visual cortex GABA impairs the coding of particular visual stimuli, resulting in a dampening of visual processing and concomitant positive time-order error (relative underestimation) in the perceived duration of subsecond visual intervals. Participants completed psychophysical tasks measuring visual interval discrimination and temporal reproduction and we measured in vivo resting state GABA in visual cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Time-order error selectively correlated with GABA concentrations in visual cortex, with elevated GABA associated with a rightward horizontal shift in psychometric functions, reflecting a positive time-order error (relative underestimation). These results demonstrate anatomical, neurochemical, and task specificity and suggest that visual cortex GABA contributes to individual differences in time perception. PMID:24647956

  12. GABA selectively increases mucin-1 expression in isolated pig jejunum.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Sponder, Gerhard; Pieper, Robert; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Deiner, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is expressed in the central nervous system and in various other tissues including the intestine. Moreover, GABA can be ingested in vegetarian diets or produced by bacterial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. As previous studies in lung have suggested a link between locally increased GABA availability and mucin 5AC production, the present study sought to test whether the presence or lack of GABA (and its precursor glutamine) has an effect on intestinal mucin expression. Porcine jejunum epithelial preparations were incubated with two different amounts of GABA or glutamine on the mucosal side for 4 h, and changes in the relative gene expression of seven different mucins, enzymes involved in mucin shedding, GABA B receptor, enzymes involved in glutamine/GABA metabolism, glutathione peroxidase 2, and interleukin 10 were examined by quantitative PCR (TaqMan(®) assays). Protein expression of mucin-1 (MUC1) was analyzed by Western blot. On the RNA level, only MUC1 was significantly up-regulated by both GABA concentrations compared with the control. Glutamine-treated groups showed the same trend. On the protein level, all treatment groups showed a significantly higher MUC1 expression than the control group. We conclude that GABA selectively increases the expression of MUC1, a cell surface mucin that prevents the adhesion of microorganisms, because of its size and negative charge, and therefore propose that the well-described positive effects of glutamine on enterocytes and intestinal integrity are partly attributable to effects of its metabolite GABA. PMID:26471792

  13. Effect of GABA and baclofen on gastric mucosal protective factors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, W R; Maiti, R N; Goel, R K; Bhattacharya, S K

    1998-02-01

    GABA and baclofen (BAC), a GABA-mimetic agent, were investigated for antiulcerogenic activity. Orally administered GABA (100 mg/kg) and BAC (10 mg/kg) showed significant ulcer protection when given either alone for one day or for 4 days, or when given together with aspirin (ASP; 200 mg/kg x 3 days) in their 4 days treatment time in pylorus-ligated rats. Both the drugs showed a tendency to increase acid and decrease peptic output, and increased gastric mucus secretion in terms of total carbohydrate to protein ratio (TC:P) in both the above treatment groups. ASP tended to decrease acid and increase peptic output and significantly decreased TC:P ratio. Both GABA and BAC tended to reverse aspirin-induced effects, though they had little per se effect on TC:P ratio of gastric mucosal glycoproteins except an increase in sialic acid content both after one day or four days treatment. No, per se, effect on cell shedding (DNA and protein content of gastric juice) or cell proliferation (DNA/mg protein) was noted with GABA or BAC but the enhanced cell shedding induced by ASP was attenuated by them. ASP was found to enhance cell proliferation. However, neither of drug showed any effect on cell proliferation when given either alone or in combination with ASP. The antiulcerogenic effect of GABA and BAC may be due to their predominant effects on mucosal defensive factors like enhanced mucin secretion and decreased cell shedding or mucosal damage. PMID:9754049

  14. Identification and functional characterization of a dual GABA/taurine transporter in the bullfrog retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes, fluorescence imaging, and radiotracer flux techniques were used to investigate the physiological response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the major retinal inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is released tonically in the dark by amphibian horizontal cells, but is not taken up by the nearby Muller cells. Addition of GABA to the apical bath produced voltage responses in the bullfrog RPE that were not blocked nor mimicked by any of the major GABA-receptor antagonists or agonists. Nipecotic acid, a substrate for GABA transport, inhibited the voltage effects of GABA. GABA and nipecotic acid also inhibited the voltage effects of taurine, suggesting that the previously characterized beta- alanine sensitive taurine carrier also takes up GABA. The voltage responses of GABA, taurine, nipecotic acid, and beta-alanine all showed first-order saturable kinetics with the following Km's: GABA (Km = 160 microM), beta-alanine (Km = 250 microM), nipecotic acid (Km = 420 microM), and taurine (Km = 850 microM). This low affinity GABA transporter is dependent on external Na, partially dependent on external Cl, and is stimulated in low [K]o, which approximates subretinal space [K]o during light onset. Apical GABA also produced a significant conductance increase at the basolateral membrane. These GABA-induced conductance changes were blocked by basal Ba2+, suggesting that GABA decreased basolateral membrane K conductance. In addition, the apical membrane Na/K ATPase was stimulated in the presence of GABA. A model for the interaction between the GABA transporter, the Na/K ATPase, and the basolateral membrane K conductance accounts for the electrical effects of GABA. Net apical-to-basal flux of [3H]-GABA was also observed in radioactive flux experiments. The present study shows that a high capacity GABA uptake mechanism with unique pharmacological properties is located at the RPE apical membrane and could play an important role in the removal of GABA from the subretinal space (SRS). This transporter could also coordinate the activities of GABA and taurine in the SRS after transitions between light and dark. PMID:8786352

  15. Evidence for a Revised Ion/Substrate Coupling Stoichiometry of GABA Transporters.

    PubMed

    Willford, Samantha L; Anderson, Cynthia M; Spencer, Shelly R; Eskandari, Sepehr

    2015-08-01

    Plasma membrane ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs) are electrogenic transport proteins that couple the cotranslocation of Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA across the plasma membrane of neurons and glia. A fundamental property of the transporter that determines its ability to concentrate GABA in cells and, hence, regulate synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA concentrations, is the ion/substrate coupling stoichiometry. Here, we scrutinized the currently accepted 2 Na(+):1 Cl(-):1 GABA stoichiometry because it is inconsistent with the measured net charge translocated per co-substrate (Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA). We expressed GAT1 and GAT3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and utilized thermodynamic and uptake under voltage-clamp measurements to determine the stoichiometry of the GABA transporters. Voltage-clamped GAT1-expressing oocytes were internally loaded with GABA, and the reversal potential (V rev) of the transporter-mediated current was recorded at different external concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), or GABA. The shifts in V rev for a tenfold change in the external Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA concentration were 84 ± 4, 30 ± 1, and 29 ± 1 mV, respectively. To determine the net charge translocated per Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA, we measured substrate fluxes under voltage clamp in cells expressing GAT1 or GAT3. Charge flux to substrate flux ratios were 0.7 ± 0.1 charge/Na(+), 2.0 ± 0.2 charges/Cl(-), and 2.1 ± 0.1 charges/GABA. Altogether, our results strongly suggest a 3 Na(+):1 Cl(-):1 GABA coupling stoichiometry for the GABA transporters. The revised stoichiometry has important implications for understanding the contribution of GATs to GABAergic signaling in health and disease. PMID:25824654

  16. Molecular mechanisms of GABA(B) receptor activation: new insights from the mechanism of action of CGP7930, a positive allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Binet, V; Goudet, C; Brajon, C; Le Corre, L; Acher, F; Pin, J-P; Prézeau, L

    2004-11-01

    The GABA(B) (gamma-aminobutyric acid-B) receptor is composed of two subunits, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2). Both subunits share structural homology with other class-III G-protein-coupled receptors. They contain two main domains, a heptahelical domain typical of all G-protein-coupled receptors and a large ECD (extracellular domain). It has not been demonstrated whether the association of these two subunits is always required for function. However, GABA(B2) plays a major role in coupling with G-proteins, and GABA(B1) has been shown to bind GABA. To date, only ligands interacting with GABA(B1)-ECD have been identified. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of action of CGP7930, a compound described as a positive allosteric regulator of the GABA(B) receptor. We have shown that it can weakly activate the wild-type GABA(B) receptor, but also the GABA(B2) expressed alone, thus being the first described agonist of GABA(B2). CGP7930 retains its weak agonist activity on a GABA(B2) subunit deleted of its ECD. Thus the heptahelical domain of GABA(B2) behaves similar to a rhodopsin-like receptor. These results open new strategies for studying the mechanism of activation of GABA(B) receptor and examine any possible role of GABA(B2). PMID:15494037

  17. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

    PubMed Central

    De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Villalobos-Leal, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Daytime restricted feeding (DRF) is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO. PMID:24809054

  18. Cotransmission of acetylcholine and GABA.

    PubMed

    Granger, Adam J; Mulder, Nicole; Saunders, Arpiar; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2016-01-01

    Neurons that produce acetylcholine (ACh) are positioned to broadly influence the brain, with axonal arborizations that extend throughout the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. While the action of these neurons has typically been attributed entirely to ACh, neurons often release more than one primary neurotransmitter. Here, we review evidence for the cotransmission of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA from cholinergic neurons throughout the mammalian central nervous system. Functional cotransmission of ACh and GABA has been reported in the retina and cortex, and anatomical studies suggest that GABA cotransmission is a common feature of nearly all forebrain ACh-producing neurons. Further experiments are necessary to confirm the extent of GABA cotransmission from cholinergic neurons, and the contribution of GABA needs to be considered when studying the functional impact of activity in ACh-producing neurons. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'. PMID:26220313

  19. GABA stimulation and blockade in the hypothalamus and midbrain: effects on feeding and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J; Alheid, G F; Newberg, A; Grossman, S P

    1977-12-01

    Microinjections of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BM) (100 ng), into the anterolateral hypothalamus (LH) increased ingestion of sweet milk. A subsequent injection of BM 48 hrs. later produced a type of kindling effect consisting of feeding related automatisms, such as gnawing and biting. The behavioral effects of injections of 100 ng of GABA into the LH were variable. GABA injections into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reliably increased food intake. GABA injections into the origin of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) suppressed it. Similar injections into the origin of the mesolimbic DA cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) had no effect on feeding behavior. Following BM injections into the SN, a moderate increase in tilt box activity was observed. A second injection of the GABA blocker 6 days later exaggerated this effect. Short latency extreme hyperactivation was accompanied by unidirectional barrel rolling which persisted until blocked by local injections of GABA. PMID:594097

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here, we show that GABA co-release in dopamine neurons does not use the conventional GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol (EtOH) at concentrations seen in blood alcohol after binge drinking, and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction. PMID:26430123

  1. Molecular pharmacology of an insect GABA receptor

    E-print Network

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2010-10-12

    and bacteria, where it serves a metabolic role in the Krebs cycle; it is synthesized by decarboxylation of glutamate by the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. In the 1950s GABA was discovered to be a free amino acid in the brain (Roberts and Frankel, 1950... .Coli 53 2.10.4 Transformation of DH5? cells 53 2.10.5 Plasmid minipreps and restriction digests 54 6 2.11 Assessment of antagonists using TEVC 54 2.12 Mutant cycle analysis 54 2.13 Whole insect bioassays 55...

  2. Two Types of Identified Ascending Interneurons With Distinct GABA Receptors in the Crayfish Terminal Abdominal Ganglion

    E-print Network

    Nagayama, Toshiki

    -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its agonist muscimol sends an axon anteriorly through the opposite connective by the sensory stimula- axon projection, and receive excitatory inputs from the hairtion and GABA injection by the bath application of GABAA and GABAB antag- onists, although bath application of low-chloride saline

  3. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  4. The CGP7930 analogue 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (BSPP) potentiates baclofen action at GABA(B) autoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Parker, David A S; Marino, Victor; Ong, Jennifer; Puspawati, Ni Made; Prager, Rolf H

    2008-09-01

    The pharmacological actions of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (BSPP), a putative presynaptic GABA(B) receptor modulator, were examined in electrically stimulated rat neocortical brain slices preloaded with [3H]-GABA or [3H]-glutamic acid. At 10 mmol/L, BSPP inhibited the release of [3H]-GABA in the presence of baclofen, but not that of [3H]-glutamic acid. This effect was sensitive to the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (+)-(S)-5,5-dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid (Sch 50911). Alone, BSPP had no effect on the release of [3H]-GABA or [3H]-glutamic acid. It is concluded that BSPP selectively potentiates the action of baclofen at GABA(B) autoreceptors, but not heteroreceptors and may be a useful ligand to discriminate between presynaptic GABA(B) receptor subtypes. PMID:18430050

  5. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA. PMID:26500584

  6. Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, D. A.; Huguenard, J. R.; Prince, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents evoked by applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to acutely dissociated thalamic neurones were analysed by voltage-clamp techniques, and the effects of the anticonvulsant succinimides ethosuximide (ES) and alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS) and the convulsants tetramethylsuccinimide (TMS), picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and bicuculline methiodide were assessed. 2. TMS (1 microM-10 microM) reduced responses to iontophoretically applied GABA, as did picrotoxin (0.1-100 microM), PTZ (1-100 mM) and bicuculline (1-100 microM). 3. ES, in high concentrations (1-10 mM), reduced GABA responses to a lesser extent, and also occluded the reductions in GABA-evoked currents produced by TMS, picrotoxin, and PTZ. ES did not occlude the effects of bicuculline on GABA responses. Therefore, we propose that ES acts as a partial agonist at the picrotoxin GABA-blocking receptor. 4. MPS had no effect on GABA responses (at a concentration of 1 mM), and, like ES, occluded the GABA-blocking actions of TMS, apparently acting as a full antagonist. 5. The anticonvulsant actions of ES and MPS against TMS and PTZ-induced seizures may thus involve two independent mechanisms: (1) the occlusion of TMS and PTZ GABA-blocking effects; and (2) the previously described specific effect of ES and MPS on low-threshold calcium current of thalamic neurones. The latter cellular mechanism may be more closely related to petit mal anticonvulsant activity. PMID:2119843

  7. Development of tolerance to the effects of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA) on GABA release from rat cerebral cortex, spinal cord and retina.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, M. J.; Shah, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of acute and chronic vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA) (GVG) administration on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and release in rat cortical slices, spinal cord slices and retinas were studied. 2. GVG (250 mgkg-1 i.p.) administered to rats 18 h before death (acute administration) produced an almost 3 fold increase in GABA levels of the cortex and spinal cord and a 6 fold increase in retinal GABA. The levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine and taurine were unaffected. 3. When GVG (250 mgkg-1 i.p.) was administered daily for 17 days (chronic administration) a similar (almost 3 fold) increase in cortical GABA occurred but the increases in spinal and retinal GABA were reduced by approximately 40%. 4. Acute administration of GVG strikingly increased the potassium-evoked release (KCl 50 mM) of GABA from all three tissues. This enhanced evoked release was reduced by about 50% in tissues taken from rats that had been chronically treated with GVG. 5. Acute administration of GVG reduced GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) activity by approximately 80% in cortex and cord and by 98% in the retina. Following the chronic administration of GVG, there was a trend for GABA-T activities to recover (significant only in cortex). Acute administration of GVG had no effect on glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in cortex or spinal cord. However, chronic treatment resulted in significant decreases in GAD activity in both the cortex and cord (35% and 50% reduction respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2379037

  8. Amiloride and GMQ Allosteric Modulation of the GABA-A ?1 Receptor: Influences of the Intersubunit Site.

    PubMed

    Snell, Heather D; Gonzales, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Amiloride, a diuretic used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, and 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) are guanidine compounds that modulate acid-sensing ion channels. Both compounds have demonstrated affinity for a variety of membrane proteins, including members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, such as the heteromeric GABA-A ??? receptors. The actions of these guanidine compounds on the homomeric GABA-A ?1 receptor remains unclear, especially in light of how many GABA-A ??? receptor modulators have different effects in the GABA-A ?1 receptors. We sought to characterize the influence of amiloride and GMQ on the human GABA-A ?1 receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The diuretic amiloride potentiated the human GABA-A ?1 GABA-mediated current, whereas GMQ antagonized the receptor. Furthermore, a GABA-A second transmembrane domain site, the intersubunit site, responsible for allosteric modulation in the heteromeric GABA-A receptors mediated amiloride's positive allosteric actions. In contrast, the mutation did not remove GMQ antagonism but only changed the guanidine compound's potency within the human GABA-A ?1 receptor. Through modeling and introduction of point mutations, we propose that the GABA-A ?1 intersubunit site plays a role in mediating the allosteric effects of amiloride and GMQ. PMID:25829529

  9. Na(+)-dependent GABA transport system scavenges endogenous external GABA and prevents desensitization of GABAA receptors in rat cerebrocortical synaptoneurosomes.

    PubMed

    Im, W B; Blakeman, D P; Davis, J P

    1990-06-25

    Muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake in rat cerebrocortical synaptoneurosomes was reduced upon exposure of the membrane sacs to low Na+ media. This Na+ requirement led us to examine the role of the Na(+)-dependent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport system in 36Cl- uptake. Incubation of the synaptoneurosomes with nipecotic acid, a specific inhibitor of the GABA transport system, for 10 min increased the level of endogenous external GABA from less than 10 to 150 microM and induced the same signs of desensitization as observed with high muscimol-treated synaptoneurosomes; a marked reduction of muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake and an appearance of a slow bicuculline-sensitive 36Cl- uptake, probably due to a continuous recovery of a population of GABAA receptors from desensitization. Similar results were obtained upon dissipation of Na+ electrochemical gradient across the membranes by inhibition of Na+, K(+)-ATPase with ouabain or by blocking energy metabolism with azide or N-ethylmaleimide. We propose that the Na(+)-dependent GABA transport system, its operation being dependent on inwardly directed Na+ electrochemical gradient, is responsible for scavenging endogenous GABA released from the synaptoneurosomes, and thus prevents desensitization of GABAA receptors. PMID:2169957

  10. Alterations in GABA-related transcriptome in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Arion, D; Unger, T; Maldonado-Avilés, J G; Morris, H M; Volk, D W; Mirnics, K; Lewis, D A

    2008-02-01

    In subjects with schizophrenia, impairments in working memory are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction appears to be due, at least in part, to abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory circuitry. To test the hypothesis that altered GABA-mediated circuitry in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia reflects expression changes of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmission, we conducted a systematic expression analysis of GABA-related transcripts in the DLPFC of 14 pairs of schizophrenia and age-, sex- and post-mortem interval-matched control subjects using a customized DNA microarray with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Subjects with schizophrenia exhibited expression deficits in GABA-related transcripts encoding (1) presynaptic regulators of GABA neurotransmission (67 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(67)) and GABA transporter 1), (2) neuropeptides (somatostatin (SST), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)) and (3) GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha4, beta3, gamma2 and delta). Real-time qPCR and/or in situ hybridization confirmed the deficits for six representative transcripts tested in the same pairs and in an extended cohort, respectively. In contrast, GAD(67), SST and alpha1 subunit mRNA levels, as assessed by in situ hybridization, were not altered in the DLPFC of monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications. These findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with alterations in inhibitory inputs from SST/NPY-containing and CCK-containing subpopulations of GABA neurons and in the signaling via certain GABA(A) receptors that mediate synaptic (phasic) or extrasynaptic (tonic) inhibition. In concert with previous findings, these data suggest that working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is mediated by altered GABA neurotransmission in certain DLPFC microcircuits. PMID:17471287

  11. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12405783

  12. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance. PMID:26388884

  13. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A.; Ryan, Peter R.; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  14. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sandra S.; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W.; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores.

  15. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.; Beadle, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (( 35S)TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of (35S)TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 {plus minus} 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 {plus minus} 40 fmol/mg protein. (35S)TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of (35S)TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on (35S)TBPS binding. These results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current.

  16. GABA modulation of SVZ-derived progenitor ventral cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Chun; Puche, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a proliferative region that provides neurons to olfactory bulb throughout life. The new neurons undergo cell migration from SVZ and travel until they reach their final destination. We previously showed in the early postnatal mouse a ventral migratory subpopulation from SVZ targets the Islands of Calleja (ICC) in the basal forebrain. However, unlike the well-characterized rostral migratory stream, little is known about the guidance mechanisms operating in the ventrally directed migratory pathway. In this study, we examined the role of neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in SVZ-derived progenitor ventral migration and the involvement of this neurotransmitter in the cytoarchitectual organization of dispersed cells into the tight clusters of the ICC. Our results show that the ventral SVZ cell migration rate was enhanced by GABA acting through a GABAA receptor and that GABA acts as a directional guidance cue for ventral migrating cells. Furthermore, disruption of GABA signaling inhibited the formation of Island clusters in vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that GABA is an important guidance and organizational cue for the Island of Calleja. PMID:25421254

  17. GABA-shunt enzymes activity in GH3 cells with reduced level of PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoform

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Antoni

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Suppression of PMCA2 or PMCA3 slows down proliferation of GH3 cells. {yields} PMCA2 suppression lowers the activity of GABA-shunt enzymes. {yields} PMCA3 suppression increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65. {yields} PMCA2 and PMCA3 function appears to be linked to regulation of GABA metabolism. -- Abstract: GABA ({gamma}-aminobutyric acid) is important neurotransmitter and regulator of endocrine functions. Its metabolism involves three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67), GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). As many cellular processes GABA turnover can depend on calcium homeostasis, which is maintained by plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs). In excitable cells PMCA2 and PMCA3 isoforms are particularly important. In this study we focused on GABA-metabolizing enzymes expression and activity in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells with suppressed expression of PMCA2 or PMCA3. We observed that PMCA3-reduced cells have increased GAD65 expression. Suppression of PMCA2 caused a decrease in total GAD and GABA-T activity. These results indicate that PMCA2 and PMCA3 presence may be an important regulatory factor in GABA metabolism. Results suggest that PMCA2 and PMCA3 function is rather related to regulation of GABA synthesis and degradation than supplying cells with metabolites, which can be potentially energetic source.

  18. Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dagorn, Audrey; Chapalain, Annelise; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Chevalier, Sylvie; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37) to GABA (10?5 M) increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial) cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains. PMID:23743829

  19. Temperature dependence and GABA modulation of (TH)triazolam binding in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, M.E.; Concas, A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    The hypnotic triazolam (TZ), a triazolobenzodiazepine displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) effect of (TH)TZ binding in the rat brain. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity with increasing temperatures (K/sub d/ = 0.27 +/- 08 nM at 0C; K/sub d/ = 1.96 +/- 0.85 nM at 37C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1220 +/- 176 fmoles/mg protein at 0C and 1160 +/- 383 fmoles/mg protein at 37C). Saturation studies of (TH)TZ binding in the presence or absence of GABA (100 M) showed a GABA-shift. At 0C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.16 +/- 0.04/+GABA) and at 37C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 1.84 +/- 0.44 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.95 +/- 0.29 nM/+GABA). In contrast to reported literature, the authors findings show that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors with a temperature dependence and GABA-shift consistent with predicted behavior for benzodiazepine agonists. 20 references, 3 tables.

  20. A comparative density functional theory study of electronic structure and optical properties of ?-aminobutyric acid and its cocrystals with oxalic and benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Filho, J. G.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Ladeira, L. O.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In this letter, we study the electronic structure and optical properties of the active medicinal component ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its cocrystals with oxalic (OXA) and benzoic (BZA) acid by means of the density functional theory formalism. It is shown that the cocrystallization strongly weakens the zwitterionic character of the GABA molecule leading to striking differences among the electronic band structures and optical absorption spectra of the GABA crystal and GABA:OXA, GABA:BZA cocrystals, originating from distinct sets of hydrogen bonds. Calculated band widths and ?-sol band gap estimates indicate that both GABA and GABA:OXA, GABA:BZA cocrystals are indirect gap insulators.

  1. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  2. Focal Uncaging of GABA Reveals a Temporally Defined Role for GABAergic Inhibition during Appetitive Associative Olfactory Conditioning in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raccuglia, Davide; Mueller, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key modulator of physiological processes including learning. With respect to associative learning, the exact time in which GABA interferes with the molecular events of learning has not yet been clearly defined. To address this issue, we used two…

  3. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki; Yoshida, Ryo; Ohta, Shinji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields}We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. {yields} Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. {yields} Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. {yields} Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. {yields} Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The {Delta}uga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for {Delta}uga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan extension. These results strongly suggest reduced activity of the GABA-metabolizing enzymes extends lifespan by shifting carbon metabolism toward respiration, as calorie restriction does.

  4. GABA in Paraventricular Nucleus Regulates Adipose Afferent Reflex in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Gao, Run; Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Gao, Xing-Ya; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) induces adipose afferent reflex (AAR), and thereby causes a general sympathetic activation. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is important in control of sympathetic outflow. This study was designed to investigate the role of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in PVN in regulating the AAR. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were continuously recorded. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to electrical stimulation of the right epididymal WAT (eWAT) afferent nerve. Electrical stimulation of eWAT afferent nerve increase RSNA. Bilateral microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuated the AAR. The effect of isoguvacine on the AAR was greater than that of baclofen. The GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine enhanced the AAR, while the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-35348 had no significant effect on the AAR. Bilateral PVN microinjection of vigabatrin, a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, to increase endogenous GABA levels in the PVN abolished the AAR. The inhibitory effect of vigabatrin on the AAR was attenuated by the pretreatment with gabazine or CGP-35348. Pretreatment with combined gabazine and CGP-35348 abolished the effects of vigabatrin. Conclusions Activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the PVN inhibits the AAR. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the PVN enhances the AAR. Endogenous GABA in the PVN plays an important role in regulating the AAR. PMID:26317425

  5. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  6. Correlation between the enhancement of flunitrazepam binding by GABA and seizure susceptibility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.; Wehner, J.M.

    1987-06-08

    Various populations of mice exhibit differential sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents. The relationship of seizure susceptibility to alterations in the GABA receptor complex was investigated in six different populations of mice consisting of four inbred strains (C57BL, DBA, C3H, and BALB) and two selected lines (long sleep and short sleep). Seizure activity was induced by intraperitoneal administration of the GAD inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and latencies to seizure onset and tonus were measured. In naive mice of the same populations, GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding was measured in extensively washed whole brain membranes at several GABA concentrations. Both differential seizure sensitivity to 3-mercaptopropionic acid and differential enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding by GABA were observed in these six populations of mice. Correlational analyses indicated a positive correlation between the degree of GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding and resistance to the seizure-inducing properties of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. These data suggest that genetic differences in sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents that disrupt the GABAergic system may be related to differences in coupling between the various receptors associated with the GABA receptor complex.

  7. The transporter GAT1 plays an important role in GABA-mediated carbon-nitrogen interactions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Batushansky, Albert; Kirma, Menny; Grillich, Nicole; Pham, Phuong A.; Rentsch, Doris; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate derived ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthetized in the cytosol prior to delivery to the mitochondria where it is catabolized via the TCA cycle. GABA accumulates under various environmental conditions, but an increasing number of studies show its involvement at the crossroad between C and N metabolism. To assess the role of GABA in modulating cellular metabolism, we exposed seedlings of A. thaliana GABA transporter gat1 mutant to full nutrition medium and media deficient in C and N combined with feeding of different concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM) of exogenous GABA. GC-MS based metabolite profiling showed an expected effect of medium composition on the seedlings metabolism of mutant and wild type alike. That being said, a significant interaction between GAT1 deficiency and medium composition was determined with respect to magnitude of change in relative amino acid levels. The effect of exogenous GABA treatment on metabolism was contingent on both the medium and the genotype, leading for instance to a drop in asparagine under full nutrition and low C conditions and glucose under all tested media, but not to changes in GABA content. We additionally assessed the effect of GAT1 deficiency on the expression of glutamate metabolism related genes and genes involved in abiotic stress responses. These results suggest a role for GAT1 in GABA-mediated metabolic alterations in the context of the C-N equilibrium of plant cells. PMID:26483804

  8. Aging of whiskey increases the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor response.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hirofumi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Aoshima, Hitoshi

    2003-08-27

    It is known that the target of most mood-defining compounds such as ethanol is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activities in the human brain. Because both extracts of whiskey by pentane and fragrant components in whiskey potentiate the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting cRNAs prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors in order to study the effects of whiskey itself on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. Whiskey itself also potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors generally more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response increased with the aging period of the whiskey. Inhalation of whiskey to mice increased the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital more than that of the same concentration of ethanol as the whiskey. These results suggest that not only ethanol but also minor components in whiskey play an important role in the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and possibly the sedative effect of whiskey. Although the minor components are present in extremely small quantities compared with ethanol in alcoholic beverages, they may modulate the mood or consciousness of humans through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic compounds are easily absorbed into the brain across the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12926865

  9. GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Tyzio, Roman; Khazipov, Rustem

    2007-10-01

    Developing networks follow common rules to shift from silent cells to coactive networks that operate via thousands of synapses. This review deals with some of these rules and in particular those concerning the crucial role of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric acid (GABA), which operates primarily via chloride-permeable GABA(A) receptor channels. In all developing animal species and brain structures investigated, neurons have a higher intracellular chloride concentration at an early stage leading to an efflux of chloride and excitatory actions of GABA in immature neurons. This triggers sodium spikes, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and acts in synergy with NMDA channels by removing the voltage-dependent magnesium block. GABA signaling is also established before glutamatergic transmission, suggesting that GABA is the principal excitatory transmitter during early development. In fact, even before synapse formation, GABA signaling can modulate the cell cycle and migration. The consequence of these rules is that developing networks generate primitive patterns of network activity, notably the giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs), largely through the excitatory actions of GABA and its synergistic interactions with glutamate signaling. These early types of network activity are likely required for neurons to fire together and thus to "wire together" so that functional units within cortical networks are formed. In addition, depolarizing GABA has a strong impact on synaptic plasticity and pathological insults, notably seizures of the immature brain. In conclusion, it is suggested that an evolutionary preserved role for excitatory GABA in immature cells provides an important mechanism in the formation of synapses and activity in neuronal networks. PMID:17928584

  10. “Brain MR spectroscopy in autism spectrum disorder—the GABA excitatory/inhibitory imbalance theory revisited”

    PubMed Central

    Brix, Maiken K.; Ersland, Lars; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Grüner, Renate; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Hammar, Åsa; Craven, Alexander R.; Noeske, Ralph; Evans, C. John; Walker, Hanne B.; Midtvedt, Tore; Beyer, Mona K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) from voxels placed in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was measured from 14 boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 24 gender and age-matched typically developing (TD) control group. Our main aims were to compare the concentration of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) between the two groups, and to investigate the relationship between brain metabolites and autism symptom severity in the ASD group. We did find a significant negative correlation in the ASD group between Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and GABA+/Cr, which may imply that severity of symptoms in ASD is associated with differences in the level of GABA in the brain, supporting the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalance theory. However we did not find a significant difference between the two groups in GABA levels. PMID:26157380

  11. GABA withdrawal syndrome: GABAA receptor, synapse, neurobiological implications and analogies with other abstinences.

    PubMed

    Calixto, E

    2016-01-28

    The sudden interruption of the increase of the concentration of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), determines an increase in neuronal activity. GABA withdrawal (GW) is a heuristic analogy, with withdrawal symptoms developed by other GABA receptor-agonists such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, and neurosteroids. GW comprises a model of neuronal excitability validated by electroencephalogram (EEG) in which high-frequency and high-amplitude spike-wave complexes appear. In brain slices, GW was identified by increased firing synchronization of pyramidal neurons and by changes in the active properties of the neuronal membrane. GW induces pre- and postsynaptic changes: a decrease in GABA synthesis/release, and the decrease in the expression and composition of GABAA receptors associated with increased calcium entry into the cell. GW is an excellent bioassay for studying partial epilepsy, epilepsy refractory to drug treatment, and a model to reverse or prevent the generation of abstinences from different drugs. PMID:26592722

  12. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  13. Decreased Phosphorylated Protein Kinase B (Akt) in Individuals with Autism Associated with High Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Low Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, phosphorylated Akt concentration was measured in 37 autistic children and 12, gender and age similar neurotypical, controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Akt levels were compared to biomarkers known to be associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor) pathways and severity levels of 19 autism-related symptoms. We found phosphorylated Akt levels significantly lower in autistic children and low Akt levels correlated with high EGFR and HGF and low gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not other biomarkers. Low Akt levels also correlated significantly with increased severity of receptive language, conversational language, hypotonia, rocking and pacing, and stimming, These results suggest a relationship between decreased phosphorylated Akt and selected symptom severity in autistic children and support the suggestion that the AKT pathways may be associated with the etiology of autism. PMID:26508828

  14. Kainic acid-induced status epilepticus alters GABA receptor subunit mRNA and protein expression in the developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Laurén, H B; Lopez-Picon, F R; Korpi, E R; Holopainen, I E

    2005-09-01

    Kainic acid-induced status epilepticus leads to structural and functional changes in inhibitory GABAA receptors in the adult rat hippocampus, but whether similar changes occur in the developing rat is not known. We have used in situ hybridization to study status epilepticus-induced changes in the GABAAalpha1-alpha5, beta1-beta3, gamma1 and gamma2 subunit mRNA expression in the hippocampus of 9-day-old rats during 1 week after the treatment. Immunocytochemistry was applied to detect the alpha1, alpha2 and beta3 subunit proteins in the control and treated rats. In the saline-injected control rats, the alpha1 and alpha4 subunit mRNA expression significantly increased between the postnatal days 9-16, whereas those of alpha2, beta3 and gamma2 subunits decreased. The normal developmental changes in the expression of alpha1, alpha2, beta3 and gamma2 subunit mRNAs were altered after the treatment. The immunostainings with antibodies to alpha1, alpha2 and beta3 subunits confirmed the in situ hybridization findings. No neuronal death was detected in any hippocampal subregion in the treated rats. Our results show that status epilepticus disturbs the normal developmental expression pattern of GABAA receptor subunit in the rat hippocampus during the sensitive postnatal period of brain development. These perturbations could result in altered functional and pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors. PMID:15992369

  15. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.; Schwartz, R.D.

    1987-09-07

    ..gamma..-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride (/sup 36/Cl/sup -/) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regional variation in muscimol-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br/sup -/>Cl/sup -/greater than or equal toNO/sub 3//sup -/>I/sup -/greater than or equal toSCN/sup -/>>C/sub 3/H/sub 5/OO/sup -/greater than or equal toClO/sub 4//sup -/>F/sup -/, consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl/sup -/ channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Letícia C.; Saraiva, Tessália D. L.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Miranda, Fábio; Freire, Matheus; Renan, Wendel; Júnior, Alberto F. O.; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Souza, Bianca M.; Castro, Camila P.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Rocha, Clarissa S.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; de Aguiar, Edgar L.; Folador, Edson L.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Gonçalves, Lucas A.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Azevedo, Marcela; Agresti, Pamela C. M.; Silva, Renata F.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Almeida, Sintia S.; Hassan, Syed S.; Pereira, Vanessa B.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity. PMID:25278529

  17. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  18. Molecular basis of the alternative recruitment of GABA(A) versus glycine receptors through gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Maric, Hans Michael; Kasaragod, Vikram Babu; Hausrat, Torben Johann; Kneussel, Matthias; Tretter, Verena; Strømgaard, Kristian; Schindelin, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptors (GABA(A)Rs, GlyRs) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and contribute to many synaptic functions, dysfunctions and human diseases. GABA(A)Rs are important drug targets regulated by direct interactions with the scaffolding protein gephyrin. Here we deduce the molecular basis of this interaction by chemical, biophysical and structural studies of the gephyrin-GABA(A)R ?3 complex, revealing that the N-terminal region of the ?3 peptide occupies the same binding site as the GlyR ? subunit, whereas the C-terminal moiety, which is conserved among all synaptic GABA(A)R ? subunits, engages in unique interactions. Thermodynamic dissections of the gephyrin-receptor interactions identify two residues as primary determinants for gephyrin's subunit preference. This first structural evidence for the gephyrin-mediated synaptic accumulation of GABA(A)Rs offers a framework for future investigations into the regulation of inhibitory synaptic strength and for the development of mechanistically and therapeutically relevant compounds targeting the gephyrin-GABA(A)R interaction. PMID:25531214

  19. Thalamic GABA Predicts Fine Motor Performance in Manganese-Exposed Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zaiyang; Li, Xiang-Rong; Xu, Jun; Edden, Richard A. E.; Qin, Wei-Ping; Long, Li-Ling; Murdoch, James B.; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Dydak, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) may lead to parkinsonian symptoms including motor deficits. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation and performance of movement. Therefore this study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that an alteration of GABA following Mn exposure may be associated with fine motor performance in occupationally exposed workers and may underlie the mechanism of Mn-induced motor deficits. A cohort of nine Mn-exposed male smelter workers from an Mn-iron alloy factory and 23 gender- and age-matched controls were recruited and underwent neurological exams, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements, and Purdue pegboard motor testing. Short-echo-time MRS was used to measure N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (mI). GABA was detected with a MEGA-PRESS J-editing MRS sequence. The mean thalamic GABA level was significantly increased in smelter workers compared to controls (p?=?0.009). Multiple linear regression analysis reveals (1) a significant association between the increase in GABA level and the duration of exposure (R2?=?0.660, p?=?0.039), and (2) significant inverse associations between GABA levels and all Purdue pegboard test scores (for summation of all scores R2?=?0.902, p?=?0.001) in the smelter workers. In addition, levels of mI were reduced significantly in the thalamus and PCC of smelter workers compared to controls (p?=?0.030 and p?=?0.009, respectively). In conclusion, our results show clear associations between thalamic GABA levels and fine motor performance. Thus in Mn-exposed subjects, increased thalamic GABA levels may serve as a biomarker for subtle deficits in motor control and may become valuable for early diagnosis of Mn poisoning. PMID:24505436

  20. Selective mGAT2 (BGT-1) GABA uptake inhibitors: design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Vogensen, Stine B; Jørgensen, Lars; Madsen, Karsten K; Borkar, Nrupa; Wellendorph, Petrine; Skovgaard-Petersen, Jonas; Schousboe, Arne; White, H Steve; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2013-03-14

    ?-Amino acids sharing a lipophilic diaromatic side chain were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse GABA transporter subtypes mGAT1-4. The parent amino acids were also characterized. Compounds 13a, 13b, and 17b displayed more than 6-fold selectivity for mGAT2 over mGAT1. Compound 17b displayed anticonvulsive properties inferring a role of mGAT2 in epileptic disorders. These results provide new neuropharmacological tools and a strategy for designing subtype selective GABA transport inhibitors. PMID:23398473

  1. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing Chen Jingyuan

    2009-04-15

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  2. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A; Jenkins, Andrew; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases. PMID:25904555

  3. GABA stimulates human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through overexpressed GABAA receptor theta subunit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Hui; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan-Dong; Liu, Yan-Hong; Li, Feng; Ju, Qiang; Xie, Ping-Li; Li, Guan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor ? subunit (GABRQ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for detecting the expression of GABRQ receptor among HCC cell line HepG2, normal liver cell line L-02, non-malignant Chang’s liver cells, 8 samples of HCC tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues. HepG2 cells were treated with GABA at serial concentrations (0, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 ?mol/L), and their proliferating abilities were analyzed with the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, cell cycle analysis and tumor implanted in nude mice. Small interfering RNA was used for knocking down the endogenous GABRQ in HepG2. Proliferating abilities of these cells treated with or without GABA were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified the overexpression of GABRQ in HCC cell lines and half of the tested HCC tissues. Knockdown of endogenous GABRQ expression in HepG2 attenuated HCC cell growth, suggesting its role in HCC cell viability. We studied the effect of GABA in the proliferation of GABRQ-positive cell lines in vitro and in vivo, and found that GABA increased HCC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRQ-expressing HepG2 cells, but not GABRQ-knockdown HepG2 cells, which means that GABA stimulates HepG2 cell growth through GABRQ. CONCLUSION: GABRQ play important roles in HCC development and progression and could be a promising molecular target for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of HCC. PMID:22690081

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE -Aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester induce

    E-print Network

    Lübbert, Hermann

    -dependent with considerably different kinetics for both compounds. While partial inhibition occurred using L-arginine, Pp root ganglion F12 Nutrient mixture F12 GABA -Aminobutyric acid GAT GABA transporter L-Arg L-Arginine

  5. Molecular cloning of a GABA receptor subunit from Laodelphax striatella (Fallén) and patch clamp analysis of the homo-oligomeric receptors expressed in a Drosophila cell line.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, K; Nakao, T; Abe, R; Nagatomi, Y; Hirase, K; Ozoe, Y

    2007-12-01

    A cDNA encoding a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit was cloned from the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatella. The L. striatella GABA receptor subunit was found to have high amino acid sequence similarity to the bd-type splice variant of the Drosophila GABA receptor Rdl subunit and several other GABA receptor subunits, with identities of over 70%. The cDNA was inserted into the expression vector pAc5.1-lac-Hygro. Clonal cell lines stably expressing homo-oligomeric L. striatella GABA receptors were generated by transfecting the vector into D.mel-2 cells. Expression of functional GABA receptors in the cell lines was demonstrated by whole-cell patch clamp recordings. GABA induced inward currents with an EC(50) value of 29 microM and a Hill coefficient of 1.7. The GABA-evoked responses reversed close to the Nernst equilibrium potential for chloride ions. The amplitudes of agonist-induced currents were found to be in the order muscimol (100 microM) >/= GABA (100 microM) > isoguvacine (100 microM) > cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) (100 microM) > 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL) (1 mM). Antagonists such as fipronil (100 nM), 4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB) (100 nM), dieldrin (100 nM) and SR95531 (gabazine) (1 microM) suppressed GABA-induced currents. The functional expression of a GABA receptor from an agricultural pest presents a unique opportunity to discover new molecules active at this important target site. PMID:18093001

  6. GABA concentration in superior temporal sulcus predicts gamma power and perception in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Balz, Johanna; Keil, Julian; Roa Romero, Yadira; Mekle, Ralf; Schubert, Florian; Aydin, Semiha; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In everyday life we are confronted with inputs of multisensory stimuli that need to be integrated across our senses. Individuals vary considerably in how they integrate multisensory information, yet the neurochemical foundations underlying this variability are not well understood. Neural oscillations, especially in the gamma band (>30Hz) play an important role in multisensory processing. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contributes to the generation of gamma band oscillations (GBO), which can be sustained by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Hence, differences in the GABA and glutamate systems might contribute to individual differences in multisensory processing. In this combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electroencephalography study, we examined the relationships between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), source localized GBO, and illusion rate in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In 39 human volunteers we found robust relationships between GABA concentration, GBO power, and the SIFI perception rate (r-values=0.44 to 0.53). The correlation between GBO power and SIFI perception rate was about twofold higher when the modulating influence of the GABA level was included in the analysis as compared to when it was excluded. No significant effects were obtained for glutamate concentration. Our study suggests that the GABA level shapes individual differences in audiovisual perception through its modulating influence on GBO. GABA neurotransmission could be a promising target for treatment interventions of multisensory processing deficits in clinical populations, such as schizophrenia or autism. PMID:26546865

  7. Free amino acids, copper, iron and zinc composition in sera of patients with thyrometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; al-Awqati, M A; Issac, D; Yadav, G K; Bahman, M A

    1990-02-01

    Free amino acids together with copper, iron and zinc were measured in sera of 67 adult patients with thyrotoxicosis (n = 29) or hypothyroidism (n = 38). In contradistinction to the almost indifferences exhibited by the three metals, many amino acids displayed significant relationships with the thyrometabolic activity (mainly tyrosine and arginine with r values of 0.5 and 0.44, respectively). Additional analyses revealed certain patterns, between trace metals and amino acids, which conferred challenging difficulties to interpretation. Thus while zinc was associated positively with some amino acids (such as glutamic acid and alanine), copper correlated almost invariably in a negative manner with citrulline, alpha-amino-butyric acid, proline, glycine and valine. This new information should contribute to our knowledge of the complex metabolism of both trace metals and amino acids. PMID:2323728

  8. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of ?-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. PMID:24638845

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a GABA receptor subunit from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Vázquez, Eric N; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara E; Uribe, R M; Arias, Juan M; García, Ubaldo

    2016-02-01

    Molecular cloning has introduced an unexpected, large diversity of neurotransmitter hetero- oligomeric receptors. Extensive research on the molecular structure of the ?-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) has been of great significance for understanding how the nervous system works in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, only two examples of functional homo-oligomeric GABA-activated Cl(-) channels have been reported. In the vertebrate retina, the GABA?1 subunit of various species forms homo-oligomeric receptors; in invertebrates, a cDNA encoding a functional GABA-activated Cl(-) channel has been isolated from a Drosophila melanogaster head cDNA library. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, these subunits function efficiently as a homo-oligomeric complex. To investigate the structure-function of GABA channels from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we cloned a subunit and expressed it in human embryonic kidney cells. Electrophysiological recordings show that this subunit forms a homo-oligomeric ionotropic GABAR that gates a bicuculline-insensitive Cl(-) current. The order of potency of the agonists was GABA?>?trans-4-amino-crotonic acid?=?cis-4-aminocrotonic acid?>?muscimol. These data support the notion that X-organ sinus gland neurons express at least two GABA subunits responsible for the formation of hetero-oligomeric and homo-oligomeric receptors. In addition, by in situ hybridization studies we demonstrate that most X-organ neurons from crayfish eyestalk express the isolated pcGABAA ? subunit. This study increases the knowledge of the genetics of the crayfish, furthers the understanding of this important neurotransmitter receptor family, and provides insight into the evolution of these genes among vertebrates and invertebrates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26577600

  10. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity

    PubMed Central

    Savtchenko, Leonid; Megalogeni, Maria; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Walker, Matthew C.; Pavlov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    GABA transporters control extracellular GABA, which regulates the key aspects of neuronal and network behaviour. A prevailing view is that modest neuronal depolarization results in GABA transporter type-1 (GAT-1) reversal causing non-vesicular GABA release into the extracellular space during intense network activity. This has important implications for GABA uptake-targeting therapies. Here we combined a realistic kinetic model of GAT-1 with experimental measurements of tonic GABAA receptor currents in ex vivo hippocampal slices to examine GAT-1 operation under varying network conditions. Our simulations predict that synaptic GABA release during network activity robustly prevents GAT-1 reversal. We test this in the 0 Mg2+ model of epileptiform discharges using slices from healthy and chronically epileptic rats and find that epileptiform activity is associated with increased synaptic GABA release and is not accompanied by GAT-1 reversal. We conclude that sustained efflux of GABA through GAT-1 is unlikely to occur during physiological or pathological network activity. PMID:25798861

  11. GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    LS mice are more sensitive to benzodiazepine-induced anesthesia; however, the two lines do not differ in their hypothermic response to flurazepam. SS mice are more resistant to 3-mercaptopropionic acid-induced seizures and more sensitive to the anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines. The various correlates of GABA and benzodiazepine actions probably are the results of different mechanisms of action and/or differential regional control. Bicuculline competition for /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites is greater in SS cerebellar tissue and /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding is greater in the mid-brain region of LS mice. GABA enhancement of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepma binding is greater in SS mice. Ethanol also enhances /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding and increases the levels of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding above those observed for GABA. Using correlational techniques on data from LS and SS mice and several inbred mouse strains, it was demonstrated that a positive relationship exists between the degree of receptor coupling within the GABA receptor complex and the degree of resistance to seizures.

  12. The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dongliang; liu, Yao; Li, Xiaohong; liu, Jinggen; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However, the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders. PMID:25999814

  13. Functional Maturation of GABA Synapses During Postnatal Development of the Monkey Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Miyamae, Takeaki; Pafundo, Diego E; Yoshino, Hiroki; Rotaru, Diana C; Hoftman, Gil; Datta, Dibyadeep; Zhang, Yun; Hammond, Mahjub; Sampson, Allan R; Fish, Kenneth N; Bard Ermentrout, G; Lewis, David A

    2015-11-01

    Development of inhibition onto pyramidal cells may be crucial for the emergence of cortical network activity, including gamma oscillations. In primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inhibitory synaptogenesis starts in utero and inhibitory synapse density reaches adult levels before birth. However, in DLPFC, the expression levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synapse-related gene products changes markedly during development until young adult age, suggesting a highly protracted maturation of GABA synapse function. Therefore, we examined the development of GABA synapses by recording GABAAR-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (GABAAR-IPSCs) from pyramidal cells in the DLPFC of neonatal, prepubertal, peripubertal, and adult macaque monkeys. We found that the decay of GABAAR-IPSCs, possibly including those from parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons, shortened by prepubertal age, while their amplitude increased until the peripubertal period. Interestingly, both GABAAR-mediated quantal response size, estimated by miniature GABAAR-IPSCs, and the density of GABAAR synaptic appositions, measured with immunofluorescence microscopy, were stable with age. Simulations in a computational model network with constant GABA synapse density showed that the developmental changes in GABAAR-IPSC properties had a significant impact on oscillatory activity and predicted that, whereas DLPFC circuits can generate gamma frequency oscillations by prepubertal age, mature levels of gamma band power are attained at late stages of development. PMID:24904071

  14. Contribution of polyamines metabolism and GABA shunt to chilling tolerance induced by nitric oxide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yansheng; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-04-15

    Effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on polyamines (PAs) catabolism, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, proline accumulation and chilling injury of banana fruit under cold storage was investigated. Banana fruit treated with NO sustained lower chilling injury index than the control. Notably elevated nitric oxide synthetase activity and endogenous NO level were observed in NO-treated banana fruit. PAs contents in treated fruit were significantly higher than control fruit, due to the elevated activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase. NO treatment increased the activities of diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase and glutamate decarboxylase, while reduced GABA transaminase activity to lower levels compared with control fruit, which resulted the accumulation of GABA. Besides, NO treatment upregulated proline content and significantly enhanced the ornithine aminotransferase activity. These results indicated that the chilling tolerance induced by NO treatment might be ascribed to the enhanced catabolism of PAs, GABA and proline. PMID:26616957

  15. Genetic differences in the ethanol sensitivity of GABA sub A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wafford, K.A.; Burnett, D.M.; Dunwiddie, T.V.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-07-20

    Animal lines selected for differences in drug sensitivity can be used to help determine the molecular basis of drug action. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice differ markedly in their genetic sensitivity to ethanol. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference, mRNA from brains of LS and SS mice was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the ethanol sensitivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA{sub A})- and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) - activated ion channels was tested. Ethanol facilitated GABA responses in oocytes injected with mRNA from LS mice but antagonized responses in oocytes injected with mRNA from SS animals. Ethanol inhibited NMDA responses equally in the two lines. Thus, genes coding for the GABA{sub A} receptor or associated proteins may be critical determinants of individual differences in ethanol sensitivity.

  16. The “Stop” and “Go” of Nicotine Dependence: Role of GABA and Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Manoranjan S.; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of tobacco smoking. Importantly, chronic nicotine exposure alters the function of brain reward systems, resulting in the development of a nicotine-dependent state. This nicotine-dependent state is associated with aversive affective and somatic signs upon abstinence from smoking, often leading to relapse in abstinent smokers. This article reviews the role of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, in both the reinforcing effects of nicotine and development of nicotine dependence. Evidence suggests that blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission attenuates both nicotine intake and nicotine seeking. In contrast, both nicotine intake and nicotine seeking are attenuated when GABA neurotransmission is facilitated. In conclusion, medications that either attenuate/negatively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission or facilitate/positively modulate GABA neurotransmission may be useful for promoting smoking cessation in humans. PMID:23732855

  17. A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sonja M; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Guillemin, Isabelle; Friauf, Eckhard; Rosenmund, Christian; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop

    2006-05-18

    The type of vesicular transporter expressed by a neuron is thought to determine its neurotransmitter phenotype. We show that inactivation of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (Viaat, VGAT) leads to embryonic lethality, an abdominal defect known as omphalocele, and a cleft palate. Loss of Viaat causes a drastic reduction of neurotransmitter release in both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons, indicating that glycinergic neurons do not express a separate vesicular glycine transporter. This loss of GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic transmission does not impair the development of inhibitory synapses or the expression of KCC2, the K+ -Cl- cotransporter known to be essential for the establishment of inhibitory neurotransmission. In the absence of Viaat, GABA-synthesizing enzymes are partially lost from presynaptic terminals. Since GABA and glycine compete for vesicular uptake, these data point to a close association of Viaat with GABA-synthesizing enzymes as a key factor in specifying GABAergic neuronal phenotypes. PMID:16701208

  18. An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Guadalupe; Bao, Jin; Marty, Alain; Augustine, George J.; Franconville, Romain; Jalil, Abdelali; Bradley, Jonathan; Llano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    While it has been proposed that the conventional inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA can be excitatory in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned concerning the circumstances and the cellular mechanisms governing potential excitatory GABA action. Using a combination of optogenetics and two-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we find that activation of chloride-permeable GABAA receptors in parallel fibers (PFs) of the cerebellar molecular layer of adult mice causes parallel fiber excitation. Stimulation of PFs at submaximal stimulus intensities leads to GABA release from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs), thus creating a positive feedback loop that enhances excitation near the center of an activated PF bundle. Our results imply that elevated chloride concentration can occur in specific intracellular compartments of mature mammalian neurons and suggest an excitatory role for GABAA receptors in the cerebellar cortex of adult mice. PMID:26236197

  19. Valerian Inhibits Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis by Activating GABA(A) Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Kato, Ayumi; Ishii, Naomi; Wei, Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor (GABA(A)R) system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(A)R agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis) at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(A)R alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P+ foci by activating GABA(A)R-mediated signaling. PMID:25419570

  20. Presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors modulate GABA release in the mouse dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Smith, B N

    2015-11-12

    Regulation of GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) potently influences vagal output to the viscera. The presence of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) on GABAergic terminals that rapidly alter GABA release onto DMV motor neurons has been suggested previously, but the receptor subtypes contributing to the response are unknown. We examined the effect of selective activation and inhibition of iGluRs on tetrodotoxin-insensitive, miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in DMV neurons using patch-clamp recordings in brainstem slices from mice. Capsaicin, which activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors and increases mIPSC frequency in the DMV via an iGluR-mediated, heterosynaptic mechanism, was also applied to assess GABA release subsequent to capsaicin-stimulated glutamate release. Application of glutamate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), or kainic acid (KA), but not AMPA, resulted in increased mIPSC frequency in most neurons. Inhibition of AMPA/KA receptors reduced mIPSC frequency, but selective antagonism of AMPA receptors did not alter GABA release, implicating the presence of presynaptic KA receptors on GABAergic terminals. Whereas NMDA application increased mIPSC frequency, blocking NMDA receptors was without effect, indicating that presynaptic NMDA receptors were present, but not activated by ambient glutamate levels in the slice. The effect of NMDA was prevented by AMPA/KA receptor blockade, suggesting indirect involvement of NMDA receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin on GABA release was prevented when AMPA/KA or NMDA, but not AMPA receptors were blocked. Results of these studies indicate that presynaptic NMDAR and KA receptors regulate GABA release in the DMV, representing a heterosynaptic arrangement for rapidly modulating parasympathetic output, especially when synaptic excitation is elevated. PMID:26343294

  1. Low visual cortex GABA levels in hepatic encephalopathy: links to blood ammonia, critical flicker frequency, and brain osmolytes.

    PubMed

    Oeltzschner, Georg; Butz, Markus; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is not fully understood yet. Hyperammonemia due to liver failure and subsequent disturbance of cerebral osmolytic balance is thought to play a pivotal role in the emergence of HE. The aim of this in-vivo MR spectroscopy study was to investigate the levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its correlations with clinical symptoms of HE, blood ammonia, critical flicker frequency, and osmolytic levels. Thirty patients with minimal HE or HE1 and 16 age-matched healthy controls underwent graduation of HE according to the West-Haven criteria and including the critical flicker frequency (CFF), neuropsychometric testing and blood testing. Edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) was used to non-invasively measure the concentrations of GABA, glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), and myo-inositol (mI) - all normalized to creatine (Cr) - in visual and sensorimotor cortex. GABA/Cr in the visual area was significantly decreased in mHE and HE1 patients and correlated both to the CFF (r = 0.401, P = 0.013) and blood ammonia levels (r = -0.434, P = 0.006). Visual GABA/Cr was also strongly linked to mI/Cr (r = 0.720, P < 0.001) and Gln/Cr (r = -0.699, P < 0.001). No group differences or correlations were found for GABA/Cr in the sensorimotor area. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with a regional specific decrease of GABA levels in the visual cortex, while no changes were revealed for the sensorimotor cortex. Correlations of visual GABA/Cr with CFF, blood ammonia, and osmolytic regulators mI and Gln indicate that decreased visual GABA levels might contribute to HE symptoms, most likely as a consequence of hyperammonemia. PMID:26359122

  2. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-12-08

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity /sup 3/H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light /sup 3/H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib.

  3. Glutamate release induced by activation of glycine and GABA transporters in spinal cord is enhanced in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Luca; Zappettini, Simona; Stigliani, Sara; Paluzzi, Silvio; Raiteri, Maurizio; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2005-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease, involving both upper and lower motor neurons, the cause of which is obscure, although glutamate (GLU)-induced excitotoxicity has been suggested to play a major role. We studied the release of [3H]d-aspartate ([3H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate evoked by glycine (GLY) or GABA from spinal cord synaptosomes in mice expressing a mutant form of human SOD1 with a Gly93Ala substitution ([SOD1-G93A(+)]), a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in mice expressing the non-mutated form of human SOD1 [SOD1+], and in non-transgenic littermates [SOD1(-)/G93A(-)]. In parallel experiments, we also studied the release of [3H]GABA evoked by GLY and that of [3H]GLY evoked by GABA. Mutant mice were killed at advanced phase of pathology or during the pre-symptomatic period. In SOD1(-)/G93A(-) or SOD1(+) mice GLY evoked [3H]d-ASP and [3H]GABA release, while GABA caused [3H]d-ASP, but not [3H]GLY, release. The GLY-evoked release of [3H]d-ASP, but not that of [3H]GABA, and the GABA-evoked [3H]d-ASP release, but not that of [3H]GLY, were more pronounced in SOD1-G93A(+) than in SOD1(+) or SOD1(-)/G93A(-) mice. Furthermore, the excessive potentiation of [3H]d-ASP by GLY or GABA was already present in asymptomatic 30-40 day-old SOD1-G93A(+) mice. The releases of endogenous glutamate and GABA also were enhanced by GLY and the GLY-evoked release of endogenous glutamate, but not of endogenous GABA, was higher in SOD1-G93A(+) than in control animals. Potentiation of the spontaneous amino acid release is likely to be mediated by activation of a GLY or a GABA transporter, since the effect of GLY was counteracted by the GLY transporter blocker glycyldodecylamide but not by the GLY receptor antagonists strychnine and 5,7-dichlorokynurenate while the effect of GABA was diminished by the GABA transporter blocker SKF89976-A but not by the GABA receptor antagonists SR9531 and CGP52432. It is concluded that the glutamate release machinery seems excessively functional in SOD1-G93A(+) animals. PMID:15885796

  4. Frontal GABA levels change during working memory.

    PubMed

    Michels, Lars; Martin, Ernst; Klaver, Peter; Edden, Richard; Zelaya, Fernando; Lythgoe, David J; Lüchinger, Rafael; Brandeis, Daniel; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging metrics are thought to reflect changes in neurotransmitter flux, but changes in neurotransmitter levels have not been demonstrated in humans during a cognitive task, and the relationship between neurotransmitter dynamics and hemodynamic activity during cognition has not yet been established. We evaluate the concentration of the major inhibitory (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate + glutamine: Glx) neurotransmitters and the cerebral perfusion at rest and during a prolonged delayed match-to-sample working memory task. Resting GABA levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex correlated positively with the resting perfusion and inversely with the change in perfusion during the task. Further, only GABA increased significantly during the first working memory run and then decreased continuously across subsequent task runs. The decrease of GABA over time was paralleled by a trend towards decreased reaction times and higher task accuracy. These results demonstrate a link between neurotransmitter dynamics and hemodynamic activity during working memory, indicating that functional neuroimaging metrics depend on the balance of excitation and inhibition required for cognitive processing. PMID:22485128

  5. GABA Binding to an Insect GABA Receptor: A Molecular Dynamics and Mutagenesis Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Jamie A.; McGonigle, Ian V.; Price, Kerry L.; Cohen, Netta; Comitani, Federico; Dougherty, Dennis A.; Molteni, Carla; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2012-01-01

    RDL receptors are GABA-activated inhibitory Cys-loop receptors found throughout the insect CNS. They are a key target for insecticides. Here, we characterize the GABA binding site in RDL receptors using computational and electrophysiological techniques. A homology model of the extracellular domain of RDL was generated and GABA docked into the binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted critical GABA binding interactions with aromatic residues F206, Y254, and Y109 and hydrophilic residues E204, S176, R111, R166, S176, and T251. These residues were mutated, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and their functions assessed using electrophysiology. The data support the binding mechanism provided by the simulations, which predict that GABA forms many interactions with binding site residues, the most significant of which are cation-? interactions with F206 and Y254, H-bonds with E204, S205, R111, S176, T251, and ionic interactions with R111 and E204. These findings clarify the roles of a range of residues in binding GABA in the RDL receptor, and also show that molecular dynamics simulations are a useful tool to identify specific interactions in Cys-loop receptors. PMID:23200041

  6. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Arpiar; Granger, Adam J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. PMID:25723967

  7. Mechanism of action of GABA on intracellular pH and on surface pH in crayfish muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kaila, K; Saarikoski, J; Voipio, J

    1990-01-01

    1. The mode of action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on intracellular pH (pHi) and surface pH (pHs) was studied in crayfish muscle fibres using H(+)-selective microelectrodes. The extracellular HCO3- concentration was varied (0-30 mM) at constant pH (7.4). 2. GABA (5 x 10(-6)-10(-3) M) produced a reversible fall in pHi which showed a dependence on the concentrations of both GABA and HCO3-. The fall in pHi was associated with a transient increase in pHs and it was inhibited by a K(+)-induced depolarization. 3. In the presence of 30 mM-HCO3-, a near-saturating concentration of GABA (0.5 mM) produced a mean fall in pHi of 0.43 units. This change in pHi accounted for about two-thirds of the GABA-induced decrease (from -66 to -29 mV) in the sarcolemmal H+ driving force, while the rest was due to the simultaneous depolarization. 4. The apparent net efflux of HCO3- (JHCO3e) produced by a given concentration of GABA was estimated on the basis of the instantaneous rate of change of pHi. In the presence of 30 mM-HCO3-, JHCO3e following exposure to 0.5 mM-GABA had a mean value of 8.0 mmol l-1 min-1. Under steady-state conditions (at plateau acidosis), the intracellular acid load produced by 0.5 mM-GABA was about 25% of that seen at the onset of the application. 5. The GABA-induced HCO3- permeability, calculated on the basis of the flux data, showed a concentration dependence similar to that of the GABA-activated conductance described in previous work. 6. The GABA-induced increase in pHs was immediately blocked by both a membrane-permeant inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (acetazolamide, 10(-6) M) and by a poorly permeant inhibitor (benzolamide, 10(-6) M). 7. Application of acetazolamide (10(-4) M) for 5 min or more produced a decrease of up to 60% in the maximum rate of fall of pHi at GABA concentrations higher than 20 microM. 8. The recovery of the GABA-induced acidosis was associated with a fall in pHs. The recovery was completely blocked in solutions devoid of Na+ or of Cl-, as well as by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-5) M). This indicates that the maintenance of a non-equilibrium H+ gradient at plateau acidosis and the recovery of pHi are attributable to Na(+)-dependent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange. 9. We conclude that the effects of GABA on pHi and pHs are due to electrodiffusion of HCO3- across postsynaptic anion channels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1698980

  8. GABA and glutamate specifically induce contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma.

    PubMed

    Ellwanger, Kornelia; Eich, Andre; Nickel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are nerve- and muscleless. Nevertheless, they react to external stimuli in a coordinated way, by body contraction, oscule closure or stopping pumping activity. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, but evidence has been found for chemical messenger-based systems. We used the sponge Tethya wilhelma to test the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (L: -Glu) on its contraction behaviour. Minimal activating concentrations were found to be 0.5 microM (GABA) and 50 microM (L: -Glu), respectively. Taking maximum relative contraction speed and minimal relative projected body area as a measure of the sponge's response, a comparison of the dose-response curves indicated a higher sensitivity of the contractile tissue for GABA than for L: -Glu. The concentrations eliciting the same contractile response differ by about 100-fold more than the entire concentration range tested. In addition, desensitising effects and spasm-like reactions were observed. Presumably, a GABA/L: -Glu metabotropic receptor-based system is involved in the regulation of contraction in T. wilhelma. We discuss a coordination system for sponges based on hypothetical chemical messenger pathways. PMID:17021832

  9. Oxytocin regulates changes of extracellular glutamate and GABA levels induced by methamphetamine in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jia; Han, Wen-Yan; Yang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Li-Hui; Dong, Ying-Xu; Wang, Fang; Song, Ming; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2012-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, affects adaptive processes of the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of OT on extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) induced by methamphetamine (MAP) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) of freely moving mice, using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The results showed that OT had no effect on basal Glu levels, but attenuated MAP-induced Glu increase in the mPFC and decrease in the DHC. OT increased the basal levels of extracellular GABA in mPFC and DHC of mice, and inhibited the MAP-induced GABA decrease in DHC. Western blot results indicated that OT significantly inhibited the increased glutamatergic receptor (NR1 subunit) levels in the PFC after acute MAP administration, whereas OT further enhanced the elevated levels of glutamatergic transporter (GLT1) induced by MAP in the hippocampus of mice. Atosiban, a selective inhibitor of OT receptor, antagonized the effects of OT. The results provided the first neurochemical evidence that OT, which exerted its action via its receptor, decreased Glu release induced by MAP, and attenuated the changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission partially via regulation of NR1 and GLT1 expression. OT-induced extracellular GABA increase also suggests that OT acts potentially as an inhibitory neuromodulator in mPFC and DHC of mice. PMID:22507692

  10. 3D GABA imaging with real-time motion correction, shim update and reacquisition of adiabatic spiral MRSI.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Wolfgang; Gagoski, Borjan; Hess, Aaron T; Bhat, Himanshu; Tisdall, M Dylan; van der Kouwe, Andre J W; Strasser, Bernhard; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Trattnig, Siegfried; Grant, Ellen; Rosen, Bruce; Andronesi, Ovidiu C

    2014-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are the major neurotransmitters in the brain. They are crucial for the functioning of healthy brain and their alteration is a major mechanism in the pathophysiology of many neuro-psychiatric disorders. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the only way to measure GABA and Glu non-invasively in vivo. GABA detection is particularly challenging and requires special MRS techniques. The most popular is MEscher-GArwood (MEGA) difference editing with single-voxel Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) localization. This technique has three major limitations: a) MEGA editing is a subtraction technique, hence is very sensitive to scanner instabilities and motion artifacts. b) PRESS is prone to localization errors at high fields (?3T) that compromise accurate quantification. c) Single-voxel spectroscopy can (similar to a biopsy) only probe steady GABA and Glu levels in a single location at a time. To mitigate these problems, we implemented a 3D MEGA-editing MRS imaging sequence with the following three features: a) Real-time motion correction, dynamic shim updates, and selective reacquisition to eliminate subtraction artifacts due to scanner instabilities and subject motion. b) Localization by Adiabatic SElective Refocusing (LASER) to improve the localization accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio. c) K-space encoding via a weighted stack of spirals provides 3D metabolic mapping with flexible scan times. Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments prove that our MEGA-LASER sequence enables 3D mapping of GABA+ and Glx (Glutamate+Gluatmine), by providing 1.66 times larger signal for the 3.02ppm multiplet of GABA+ compared to MEGA-PRESS, leading to clinically feasible scan times for 3D brain imaging. Hence, our sequence allows accurate and robust 3D-mapping of brain GABA+ and Glx levels to be performed at clinical 3T MR scanners for use in neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:25255945

  11. Two-color, two-photon uncaging of glutamate and GABA.

    PubMed

    Kantevari, Srinivas; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Kanemoto, Yuya; Kasai, Haruo; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R

    2010-02-01

    We developed a caged GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which, when combined with an appropriate caged glutamate, allows bimodal control of neuronal membrane potential with subcellular resolution using optically independent two-photon uncaging of each neurotransmitter. We used two-color, two-photon uncaging to fire and block action potentials from rat hippocampal CA1 neurons in brain slices with 720-nm and 830-nm light, respectively. Our method should be generalizable to other chemical messenger pairs. PMID:20037590

  12. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin C against the ethanol and nicotine modulation of GABA(B) receptor and PKA-alpha expression in prenatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M I; Lee, H Y; Kim, M O

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure has various deleterious effects on neuronal development and can induce various defects in developing brain, resulting in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor (R) is known to play an important role during the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Our study was designed to investigate the effect of ethanol (100 mM), nicotine (50 microM) (for 30 min and 1 h), vitamin C (vitC, 0.5 mM), ethanol plus vitC, and nicotine plus vitC on expression level of GABA(B1), GABA(B2)R, and protein kinase A-alpha (PKA) in prenatal rat cortical and hippocampal neurons at gestational days (GD) 17.5. The results showed that, upon ethanol and nicotine exposure, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2)R protein expression increased significantly in the cortex and hippocampus for a short (30 min) and long term (1 h), whereas only GABA(B2)R subunit was decreased upon nicotine exposure for a long term in the cortex. Furthermore, PKA expression in cortex and hippocampus increased with ethanol exposure during short term, whereas long-term exposure results increased in cortex and decreased in hippocampus. Moreover, the cotreatment of vitC with ethanol and nicotine showed significantly decreased expression of GABA(B1), GABA(B2)R, and PKA in cortex and hippocampus for a long-term exposure. Mitochondrial membrane potential, Fluoro-jade-B, and propidium iodide staining were used to elucidate possible neurodegeneration. Our results suggest the involvement of GABA(B)R and PKA in nicotine and ethanol-mediated neurodevelopmental defects and the potential use of vitC as a effective protective agent for FAS-related deficits. PMID:20175221

  14. Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Chen, Hongmei; Samaco, Rodney C; Xue, Mingshan; Chahrour, Maria; Yoo, Jong; Neul, Jeffrey L; Gong, Shiaoching; Lu, Hui-Chen; Heintz, Nathaniel; Ekker, Marc; Rubenstein, John L R; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Rosenmund, Christian; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2010-11-11

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), cause Rett syndrome and several neurodevelopmental disorders including cognitive disorders, autism, juvenile-onset schizophrenia and encephalopathy with early lethality. Rett syndrome is characterized by apparently normal early development followed by regression, motor abnormalities, seizures and features of autism, especially stereotyped behaviours. The mechanisms mediating these features are poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking Mecp2 from GABA (?-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons recapitulate numerous Rett syndrome and autistic features, including repetitive behaviours. Loss of MeCP2 from a subset of forebrain GABAergic neurons also recapitulates many features of Rett syndrome. MeCP2-deficient GABAergic neurons show reduced inhibitory quantal size, consistent with a presynaptic reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (Gad2) levels, and GABA immunoreactivity. These data demonstrate that MeCP2 is critical for normal function of GABA-releasing neurons and that subtle dysfunction of GABAergic neurons contributes to numerous neuropsychiatric phenotypes. PMID:21068835

  15. Role of GABA Deficit in Sensitivity to the Psychotomimetic Effects of Amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyung-Heup; Sewell, Andrew; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Krystal, John; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Some schizophrenia patients are more sensitive to amphetamine (AMPH)-induced exacerbations in psychosis-an effect that correlates with higher striatal dopamine release. This enhanced vulnerability may be related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits observed in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that a pharmacologically induced GABA deficit would create vulnerability to the psychotomimetic effects to the 'subthreshold' dose of AMPH in healthy subjects, which by itself would not induce clinically significant increase in positive symptoms. To test this hypothesis, a GABA deficit was induced by intravenous infusion of iomazenil (IOM; 3.7??g/kg), an antagonist and partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptor. A subthreshold dose of AMPH (0.1?mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion. Healthy subjects received placebo IOM followed by placebo AMPH, active IOM followed by placebo AMPH, placebo IOM followed by active AMPH, and active IOM followed by active AMPH in a randomized, double-blind crossover design over 4 test days. Twelve healthy subjects who had a subclinical response to active AMPH alone were included in the analysis. Psychotomimetic effects (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)), perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)), and subjective effects (visual analog scale) were captured before and after the administration of drugs. IOM significantly augmented AMPH-induced peak changes in PANSS positive symptom subscale and both subjective and objective CADSS scores. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions. In conclusion, GABA deficits increased vulnerability to amphetamine-induced psychosis-relevant effects in healthy subjects, suggesting that pre-existing GABA deficits may explain why a subgroup of schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to AMPH. PMID:25953357

  16. Colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (amphibia; Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Dünker, N

    1998-01-01

    Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, a member of the limbless Gymnophiona, has a specialized subterranean burrowing mode of life and a predominantly olfactory-guided orientation. The only visually guided behavior seems to be negative phototaxis. As these animals possess extremely small eyes (only 540 microm in diameter in adults), functional investigations of single retinal cells by electrophysiological methods have so far failed. Therefore, the content and distribution of retinal transmitters have been investigated as indications of a functioning sense organ in an animal that is supposed to be blind. Previous immunohistochemical investigation of the retinal transmitter system revealed immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway. The present studies have been performed in order to determine a possible colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of the caecilian retina. Therefore retinal cryostat sections of various developmental stages have been investigated by the indirect fluorescence method. In single-label preparations, serotonin is localized to cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GABA immunocytochemistry labels a variety of cell types in the inner nuclear layer as well as cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. In double-label preparations, some of the serotonergic cells are found to express GABA immunoreactivity and some GABAergic neurons also label for serotonin immunocytochemistry. Thus, despite the fact that caecilians mainly rely on olfaction and are believed to have a reduced visual system, their retina exhibits a surprisingly "normal" distribution of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, also typical of other anamniotes with a well-developed visual system, including the partial colocalization of serotonin and GABA at all developmental stages of I. kohtaoensis. These results indicate that a functional system that is under no strong selective pressure obviously has a long evolutionary persistence irrespective of its need for use. PMID:9462859

  17. Hippocampal extracellular GABA correlates with metabolism in human epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cavus, I.; Kim, J.; Hetherington, H. P.; Spencer, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    As the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain, GABA is an important modulator of hyperexcitability in epilepsy patients. Given the high energetic cost of neurotransmission and synaptic activity, GABA concentrations may be hypothesized to correlate with metabolic function. We studied human epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial EEG monitoring for seizure localization to examine microdialysis measures of extracellular GABA (ecGABA), pre-operative MR spectroscopic measures of neuronal mitochondrial function (NAA/Cr), and wherever possible, neuropathology and hippocampal volumetry. Two groups undergoing intracranial monitoring for seizure localization were studied: surgically treated hippocampal epilepsy (MTLE) and neocortical (non-hippocampal seizure onset) epilepsy. All data are hippocampal and thus these groups allow comparisons between the epileptogenic and non-epileptogenic regions. ecGABA was measured using in vivo microdialysis performed during intracranial monitoring. Pre-operative in vivo MR spectroscopic imaging was performed to measure the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) to creatine. Standard methods for neuropathology and hippocampal volumetry were used. In the neocortical group, increased ecGABA correlated with greater NAA/Cr (R=+0.70, p<0.015, n=12) while in the MTLE group, increased ecGABA linked with decreased NAA/Cr (R=?0.94, p<0.001, n=8). In MTLE, ecGABA (increased) and NAA/Cr (decreased) correlated with increased glial cell numbers (R=+0.71, p<0.01, n=12, R=?0.76 p<0.03 respectively). No relationship was seen between ecGABA and hippocampal volumes in either group. In epilepsy, ecGABA increases occur across a range of metabolic function. Outside the seizure focus, ecGABA and NAA/Cr increase together; in contrast, within the seizure focus, ecGABA increases with declining mitochondrial function. PMID:18807158

  18. Zolpidem modulation of phasic and tonic GABA currents in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Smith, Bret N.

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a widely prescribed sleep aid with relative selectivity for GABAA receptors containing ?1–3 subunits. We examined the effects of zolpidem on the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from DMV neurons in transverse brainstem slices from rat. Zolpidem prolonged the decay time of mIPSCs and of muscimol-evoked whole-cell GABAergic currents, and it occasionally enhanced the amplitude of mIPSCs. The effects were blocked by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist. Zolpidem also hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, with a concomitant decrease in input resistance and action potential firing activity in a subset of cells. Zolpidem did not clearly alter the GABAA receptor-mediated tonic current (Itonic) under baseline conditions, but after elevating extracellular GABA concentration with nipecotic acid, a non-selective GABA transporter blocker, zolpidem consistently and significantly increased the tonic GABA current. This increase was suppressed by flumazenil and gabazine. These results suggest that ?1–3 subunits are expressed in synaptic GABAA receptors on DMV neurons. The baseline tonic GABA current is likely not mediated by these same low affinity, zolpidem-sensitive GABAA receptors. However, when the extracellular GABA concentration is increased, zolpidem-sensitive extrasynaptic GABAA receptors containing ?1–3 subunits contribute to the Itonic. PMID:20226798

  19. Electrophoretic method for the determination of the proportion of gamma-aminobutyric acid in a mixture of labeled neurotransmitter and its catabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Cupello, A.; Rapallino, M.V.; Besio, G.; Mainardi, P.

    1987-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for the separation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from its metabolites after GABA-transaminase attack is presented. The method is based on the fact that at neutral pH GABA has no net electrical charge, whereas its major metabolites, succinic acid and Krebs cycle intermediates, are negatively charged. The method appears to be especially suitable for evaluation of true-labeled neurotransmitter within the radioactivity which is found in synaptosomes after labeled GABA-uptake studies.

  20. Evidence for glutamate, GABA and NO in coordinating behaviour in the sponge, Ephydatia muelleri (Demospongiae, Spongillidae).

    PubMed

    Elliott, Glen R D; Leys, Sally P

    2010-07-01

    The view that sponges lack tissue level organisation, epithelia, sensory cells and coordinated behaviour is challenged by recent molecular studies showing the existence in Porifera of molecules and proteins that define cell signalling systems in higher order metazoans. Demonstration that freshwater sponges can contract their canals in an organised manner in response to both external and endogenous stimuli prompted us to examine the physiology of the contraction behaviour. Using a combination of digital time-lapse microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis, immunocytochemistry and pharmacological manipulations, we tested the role of the diffusible amino acids glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a short-lived diffusible gas, nitric oxide (NO), in triggering or modulating contractions in Ephydatia muelleri. We identified pools of glutamate, glutamine and GABA used to maintain a metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptor signalling system. Glutamate induced contractions and propagation of a stereotypical behaviour inflating and deflating the canal system, acting in a dose-dependent manner. Glutamate-triggered contractions were blocked by the metabatropic glutamate receptor inhibitor AP3 and by incubation of the sponge in an allosteric competitive inhibitor of glutamate, Kynurenic acid. Incubation in GABA inhibited glutamate-triggered contractions of the sponge. Nitric oxide synthase, involved in the formation of the diffusible gas NO, was localised using NADPH-diaphorase to mesenchyme cells in the osculum and pinacoderm. A cGMP assay showed the same cells were labelled suggesting that the NO system is functional. Our findings suggest sponges coordinate behaviour using chemical messenger systems common to other animals. PMID:20543130

  1. Kinetic and pharmacological properties of the GABA-induced chloride current in Aplysia neurones: a 'concentration clamp' study.

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Y.; Akaike, N.; Kijima, H.

    1988-01-01

    1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) was applied by the 'concentration clamp' technique to isolated neurones of Aplysia. GABA induced a chloride current (ICl) due to activation of a single class of chloride-channel. 2. The concentration-response curve for the peak ICl gave an apparent dissociation constant of 6.4 X 10(-5) M and a Hill coefficient of 0.88. The current-voltage relationship was linear in the voltage range examined (-40 to +10 mV). 3. The activation phase of the ICl could be fitted to a single exponential function and desensitization followed the sum of two exponential functions. The time constants of activation and desensitization decreased with increasing concentrations of GABA but were voltage-independent. The recovery process from desensitization also followed the sum of two exponential functions. 4. As for the rate-limiting step of the channel activation, the hyperbolic relationship between the activation rate and GABA concentration showed that the rapid binding assumption holds, suggesting that the isomerization step is rate-limiting. The apparent channel closing rate constant was estimated to be 10 s-1 from the ordinate intercept of the linear part of the above relationship at lower concentrations. 5. Muscimol and beta-alanine induced a ICl, which cross-desensitized with that evoked by GABA. The GABA-ICl was not enhanced by diazepam (10(-6) M) or alpha-chloralose (10(-3) M), in fact depressant effects were evident. 6. Pentobarbitone decreased the GABA-ICl non-competitively without altering activation or desensitization kinetics. The concentration-inhibition curve gave a KD value of 8.9 x 10(-5) M and a Hill coefficient of 1.0. 7. These results suggest that GABA activates a single class of Cl channel in Aplysia neurones, which have one binding site for the agonist. The GABA receptor-Cl channel complex in Aplysia is pharmacologically and perhaps structurally different from that in vertebrates. PMID:2463030

  2. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man.

    PubMed

    Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man. PMID:25901095

  3. Oxytocin-mediated GABA inhibition during delivery attenuates autism pathogenesis in rodent offspring.

    PubMed

    Tyzio, Roman; Nardou, Romain; Ferrari, Diana C; Tsintsadze, Timur; Shahrokhi, Amene; Eftekhari, Sanaz; Khalilov, Ilgam; Tsintsadze, Vera; Brouchoud, Corinne; Chazal, Genevieve; Lemonnier, Eric; Lozovaya, Natalia; Burnashev, Nail; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2014-02-01

    We report that the oxytocin-mediated neuroprotective ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) excitatory-inhibitory shift during delivery is abolished in the valproate and fragile X rodent models of autism. During delivery and subsequently, hippocampal neurons in these models have elevated intracellular chloride levels, increased excitatory GABA, enhanced glutamatergic activity, and elevated gamma oscillations. Maternal pretreatment with bumetanide restored in offspring control electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes. Conversely, blocking oxytocin signaling in naïve mothers produced offspring having electrophysiological and behavioral autistic-like features. Our results suggest a chronic deficient chloride regulation in these rodent models of autism and stress the importance of oxytocin-mediated GABAergic inhibition during the delivery process. Our data validate the amelioration observed with bumetanide and oxytocin and point to common pathways in a drug-induced and a genetic rodent model of autism. PMID:24503856

  4. Assignment of the human GABA transporter gene (GABATHG) locus to chromosome 3p24-p25

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Guo, Li-He

    1995-09-01

    An essential regulatory process of synaptic transmission is the inactivation of released neurotransmitters by the transmitter-specific uptake mechanism, {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system; its activity is terminated by a high-affinity Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} -dependent specific GABA transporter (GAT), which carries the neurotransmitter to the presynaptic neuron and/or glial elements surrounding the synaptic cleft. Deficiency of the transporter may cause epilepsy and some other nervous diseases. The human GAT gene (GABATHG), approximately 25 kb in length, has been cloned and sequenced by our colleagues (7). Here the results of the in situ hybridization mapping with the gene are presented. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Effect of exogenous ?-aminobutyric acid treatment on proline accumulation and chilling injury in peach fruit after long-term cold storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, Haitao; Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

    2011-02-23

    The effect of exogenous ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on chilling injury of peach fruit was investigated. Freshly harvested peaches were treated with 1, 5, or 10 mM GABA at 20 °C for 10 min and then stored at 1 °C for up to 5 weeks. The results showed that all of the GABA treatments could reduce chilling injury of peach fruit with 5 mM being the most effective concentration. GABA treatment significantly enhanced the accumulation of endogenous GABA and proline, which resulted from the increased activities of glutamate decarboxylase, ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, and ornithine ?-aminotransferase and decreased proline dehydrogenase activity. Our results revealed that GABA treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit, and the reduction in chilling by GABA may be due to the induction of endogenous GABA and proline accumulation. These data are the first evidence that exogenous GABA induced chilling tolerance in postharvest horticultural products. PMID:21287990

  6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid loaded halloysite nanotubes and in vitro-in vivo evaluation for brain delivery.

    PubMed

    K?r?ml?o?lu, Gülsel Yurtda?; Yazan, Yasemin; Erol, Kevser; Çengelli Ünel, Çi?dem

    2015-11-30

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key neurotransmitter where it usually inhibits impulse transmission. GABA release blockage or postsynaptic reaction were determined to provoke epileptic convulsions. The aim of the present study was the development of brain-targeted, nanosized, nontoxic, biocompatible, highly specific formulations. Incorporation of GABA into halloysite nanotubes (HNT) was performed using different methods. Particle size, zeta potential and pH measurements, morphological, thermal, XRD, FTIR analyses and GABA quantification by validated HPLC method were used for the characterization of the systems prepared. Release pattern of GABA from the nanotubes was determined using a dialysis membrane. Following successful incorporation of GABA into HNTs for brain delivery, nanotube formulation coded HNT-GABA H1 was selected for in vivo studies. Smaller particle size with narrow size distribution, possible HNT-GABA interaction indicated by thermal, XRD and FTIR analyses and prolonged release were the parameters considered in this selection. Moreover, HNT-GABA H1 remained stable for 3-month storage period and showed higher cell viability values than GABA. Rats were used in in vivo studies and potential of anticonvulsant effect of GABA was determined in the pentylenetetrazole model of seizure. HNT-GABA H1 was found to increase latency of seizure, decrease ending time of the convulsion, duration of severe convulsion and mortality rate significantly compared to pure GABA. After administration of HNT-GABA H1, GABA concentration in Stratum corsatum measured by enzyme immune assay showed that it was not significantly higher than GABA administered alone. These findings suggest that GABA loaded HNTs reduces the duration of all phases of convulsion indicating efficient delivery of GABA to all brain areas to interfere with epileptic mechanism. PMID:26387616

  7. Study of GABA in Healthy Volunteers: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yi; Mao, Fei; Mao, Junjun; Lu, Xiaolan; Jiang, Dongdong; Wan, Yun; Lv, Jia-Ying; Cao, Guoying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Naiqing; Atkinson, Mark; Greiner, Dale L.; Prud'homme, Gerald J.; Jiao, Zheng; Li, Yiming; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p < 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes. PMID:26617516

  8. Excitatory Actions of GABA in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joo; Lee, C. Justin; Schroeder, Analyne; Kim, Yoon Sik; Jung, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Do Young; Son, Eun Ju; Han, Hee Chul; Hong, Seung Kil; Colwell, Christopher S.; Kim, Yang In

    2008-01-01

    Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are responsible for the generation of circadian oscillations, and understanding how these neurons communicate to form a functional circuit is a critical issue. The neurotransmitter GABA and its receptors are widely expressed in the SCN where they mediate cell-to-cell communication. Previous studies have raised the possibility that GABA can function as an excitatory transmitter in adult SCN neurons during the day, but this work is controversial. In the present study, we first tested the hypothesis that GABA can evoke excitatory responses during certain phases of the daily cycle by broadly sampling how SCN neurons respond to GABA using extracellular single-unit recording and gramicidin-perforated-patch recording techniques. We found that, although GABA inhibits most SCN neurons, some level of GABA-mediated excitation was present in both dorsal and ventral regions of the SCN, regardless of the time of day. These GABA-evoked excitatory responses were most common during the night in the dorsal SCN region. The Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) inhibitor, bumetanide, prevented these excitatory responses. In individual neurons, the application of bumetanide was sufficient to change GABA-evoked excitation to inhibition. Calcium-imaging experiments also indicated that GABA-elicited calcium transients in SCN cells are highly dependent on the NKCC isoform 1 (NKCC1). Finally, Western blot analysis indicated that NKCC1 expression in the dorsal SCN is higher in the night. Together, this work indicates that GABA can play an excitatory role in communication between adult SCN neurons and that this excitation is critically dependent on NKCC1. PMID:18495878

  9. Endocytosis of GABA(C) receptors depends on subunit composition and is regulated by protein kinase C-? and protein phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Linck, Lisa; Binder, Jasmin; Haynl, Christian; Enz, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Neuronal excitability depends on the surface concentration of neurotransmitter receptors. Type C gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(C)R) are composed of ? subunits that are highly expressed in the retina. Molecular mechanisms that guide the surface concentration of this receptor type are largely unknown. Previously, we reported physical interactions of GABA(C)R ? subunits with protein kinase C-? (PKC?) via adapter proteins of the ZIP protein family, as well as of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) via PNUTS. Here, we demonstrate that co-expressing ?1 with ZIP3 and PKC? enhanced basal internalization of GABA(C)R, while receptor internalization was reduced in the presence of PNUTS and PP1. Co-expression of ?1 with individual binding partners showed no alterations, except for PP1. Heterooligomeric GABA(C)R composed of ?1 and ?2 subunits had a significant higher endocytosis rate than ?1 containing homooligomeric receptors. Mutant constructs lacking binding sites for protein interactions ensured the specificity of our data. Finally, substitution of serine and threonine residues with alanines indicated that GABA(C)R internalization depends on serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases, but not on tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that GABA(C)R internalization is reciprocally regulated by PKC? and PP1 that are anchored to the receptor via ZIP3 or PNUTS respectively. PMID:25868914

  10. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}3} M, enhanced potassium stimulated ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA{sub A} agonist muscimol, 10{sup {minus}4} M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA{sub B} agonist ({plus minus})baclofen, 10{sup {minus}4} M, did not affect the release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA{sub A}, but not GABA{sub B}, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA{sub A} receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}4} M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA{sub A} receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA{sub A} receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat.

  11. Neurosteroids and GABA-A Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingde

    2011-01-01

    Neurosteroids represent a class of endogenous steroids that are synthesized in the brain, the adrenals, and the gonads and have potent and selective effects on the GABAA-receptor. 3?-hydroxy A-ring reduced metabolites of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, and testosterone are positive modulators of GABAA-receptor in a non-genomic manner. Allopregnanolone (3?-OH-5?-pregnan-20-one), 5?-androstane-3?, 17?-diol (Adiol), and 3?5?-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (3?5?-THDOC) enhance the GABA-mediated Cl- currents acting on a site (or sites) distinct from the GABA, benzodiazepine, barbiturate, and picrotoxin binding sites. 3?5?-P and 3?5?-THDOC potentiate synaptic GABAA-receptor function and activate ?-subunit containing extrasynaptic receptors that mediate tonic currents. On the contrary, 3?-OH pregnane steroids and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) are GABAA-receptor antagonists and induce activation-dependent inhibition of the receptor. The activities of neurosteroid are dependent on brain regions and types of neurons. In addition to the slow genomic action of the parent steroids, the non-genomic, and rapid actions of neurosteroids play a significant role in the GABAA-receptor function and shift in mood and memory function. This review describes molecular mechanisms underlying neurosteroid action on the GABAA-receptor, mood changes, and cognitive functions. PMID:22654809

  12. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

  13. Electrophysiological characterization of methyleugenol: a novel agonist of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Huang, Chen; Peng, Zhong; Xie, Yuxuan; Deng, Shining; Nie, Yan-Zhen; Xu, Tian-Le; Ge, Wei-Hong; Li, Wei-Guang; Li, Fei

    2014-09-17

    Methyleugenol (ME) is a natural constituent isolated from many plant essential oils having multiple biological effects including anticonvulsant and anesthetic activities, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify ME as a novel agonist of ionotropic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. At lower concentrations (?30 ?M), ME significantly sensitized GABA-induced, but not glutamate- or glycine-induced, currents in cultured hippocampal neurons, indicative of a preferentially modulatory role of this compound for A type GABA receptors (GABAARs). In addition, ME at higher concentrations (?100 ?M) induced a concentration-dependent, Cl(-)-permeable current in hippocampal neurons, which was inhibited by a GABAAR channel blocker, picrotoxin, and a competitive GABAAR antagonist, bicuculline, but not a specific glycine receptor inhibitor, strychnine. Moreover, ME activated a similar current mediated by recombinant ?1-?2-?2 or ?5-?2-?2 GABAARs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Consequently, ME produced a strong inhibition of synaptically driven neuronal excitation in hippocampal neurons. Together, these results suggest that ME represents a novel agonist of GABAARs, shedding additional light on future development of new therapeutics targeting GABAARs. The present study also adds GABAAR activation to the list of molecular targets of ME that probably account for its biological activities. PMID:24980777

  14. Investigation of Glutamine and GABA Levels in Patients With Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy Using MEGAPRESS

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A.; O’Gorman, Ruth L.; Nashef, Lina; Elwes, Robert D.; Edden, Richard A.; Murdoch, James B.; Barker, Gareth J.; Richardson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) comprise a group of clinical syndromes associated with spike wave discharges, putatively linked to alterations in neurotransmission. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients with IGE have altered glutamine and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels indicative of altered excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in frontal regions. Materials and Methods Single-voxel MEGA-edited PRESS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectra were acquired from a 30-mL voxel in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in 13 patients with IGE (8 female) and 16 controls (9 female) at 3T. Metabolite concentrations were derived using LCModel. Differences between groups were investigated using an unpaired t-test. Results Patients with IGE were found to have significantly higher glutamine than controls (P = 0.02). GABA levels were also elevated in patients with IGE (P = 0.03). Conclusion Patients with IGE have increased frontal glutamine and GABA compared with controls. Since glutamine has been suggested to act as a surrogate for metabolically active glutamate, it may represent a marker for excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:24585443

  15. Linking GABA and glutamate levels to cognitive skill acquisition during development.

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Krause, Beatrix; King, Andrew J; Near, Jamie; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2015-11-01

    Developmental adjustments in the balance of excitation and inhibition are thought to constrain the plasticity of sensory areas of the cortex. It is unknown however, how changes in excitatory or inhibitory neurochemical expression (glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) contribute to skill acquisition during development. Here we used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) to reveal how differences in cortical glutamate vs. GABA ratios relate to face proficiency and working memory abilities in children and adults. We show that higher glutamate levels in the inferior frontal gyrus correlated positively with face processing proficiency in the children, but not the adults, an effect which was independent of age-dependent differences in underlying cortical gray matter. Moreover, we found that glutamate/GABA levels and gray matter volume are dissociated at the different maturational stages. These findings suggest that increased excitation during development is linked to neuroplasticity and the acquisition of new cognitive skills. They also offer a new, neurochemical approach to investigating the relationship between cognitive performance and brain development across the lifespan. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4334-4345, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350618

  16. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of alpha-substituted N-benzylamides of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid with potential GABA-ergic activity. Part 6. Search for new anticonvulsant compounds.

    PubMed

    Malawska, Barbara; Kulig, Katarzyna; Gajda, Justyna; Szczeblewski, Dominik; Musia?, Anna; Wieckowski, Krzysztof; Maciag, Dorota; Stables, James P

    2007-01-01

    In the recent study we have extended our investigations to the new anticonvulsant derivatives of alpha-substituted N-benzylamides of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Among the obtained compounds N-benzylamide of alpha-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline)-GHB (9) has demonstrated activity against maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures in mice (at 100 mg/kg ip) and in rats (at 30 mg/kg, po dose). Lactone 8 and amide 9 have possessed a weak effect on [3H]-muscimol binding. Molecular modeling studies have revealed that anticonvulsant activity of the alpha-substituted amides of GHB might partially be explained by the orientation of the terminal benzylamide fragment. PMID:17665862

  17. Experiment K-6-18. Study of muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex, hippcampus and spinal code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N.; Damelio, F.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Frontal lobe samples of rat brains flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were processed for the study of muscarinic (cholinergic) and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors and for immunocytochemical localization of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although radioactive labeling of both muscarinic cholinergic and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors proved to be successful with the techniques employed, distinct receptor localization of individual laminae of the frontal neocortex was not possible since the sampling of the area was different in the various groups of animals. In spite of efforts made for proper orientation and regional identification of laminae, it was found that a densitometric (quantitation of autoradiograms) analysis of the tissue did not contribute to the final interpretation of the effects of weightlessness on these receptors. As to the immunocytochemical studies the use of both markers, GFAP and GABA antiserum, confirmed the suitability of the techniques for use in frozen material. However, similar problems to those encountered in the receptor studies prevented an adequate interpretation of the effects of micro-G exposure on the localization and distribution of GABA and GFAP. This study did, however, confirm the feasibility of investigating neurotransmitters and their receptors in future space flight experiments.

  18. Discovery and optimization of an azetidine chemical series as a free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) antagonist: from hit to clinic.

    PubMed

    Pizzonero, Mathieu; Dupont, Sonia; Babel, Marielle; Beaumont, Stéphane; Bienvenu, Natacha; Blanqué, Roland; Cherel, Laëtitia; Christophe, Thierry; Crescenzi, Benedetta; De Lemos, Elsa; Delerive, Philippe; Deprez, Pierre; De Vos, Steve; Djata, Fatoumata; Fletcher, Stephen; Kopiejewski, Sabrina; L'Ebraly, Christelle; Lefrançois, Jean-Michel; Lavazais, Stéphanie; Manioc, Murielle; Nelles, Luc; Oste, Line; Polancec, Denis; Quénéhen, Vanessa; Soulas, Florilène; Triballeau, Nicolas; van der Aar, Ellen M; Vandeghinste, Nick; Wakselman, Emanuelle; Brys, Reginald; Saniere, Laurent

    2014-12-11

    FFA2, also called GPR43, is a G-protein coupled receptor for short chain fatty acids which is involved in the mediation of inflammatory responses. A class of azetidines was developed as potent FFA2 antagonists. Multiparametric optimization of early hits with moderate potency and suboptimal ADME properties led to the identification of several compounds with nanomolar potency on the receptor combined with excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. The most advanced compound, 4-[[(R)-1-(benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl)-2-methyl-azetidine-2-carbonyl]-(3-chloro-benzyl)-amino]-butyric acid 99 (GLPG0974), is able to inhibit acetate-induced neutrophil migration strongly in vitro and demonstrated ability to inhibit a neutrophil-based pharmacodynamic (PD) marker, CD11b activation-specific epitope [AE], in a human whole blood assay. All together, these data supported the progression of 99 toward next phases, becoming the first FFA2 antagonist to reach the clinic. PMID:25380412

  19. Prefrontal GABA concentration changes in women-Influence of menstrual cycle phase, hormonal contraceptive use, and correlation with premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    De Bondt, Timo; De Belder, Frank; Vanhevel, Floris; Jacquemyn, Yves; Parizel, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Prefrontal regions are involved in processing emotional stimuli and are a topic of interest in clinical and neurological research. Although sex steroids are potent neuromodulators, the influence of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive use is rarely taken into account in neuroimaging studies. Our purpose was to evaluate changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in women, as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with phases of the menstrual cycle and use of hormonal contraceptives, and to assess correlations with premenstrual symptoms.Three MRI sessions per cycle were obtained in the natural cycle group, and two sessions in the hormonal contraceptives group. In addition to an anatomical scan, single voxel MRS in the prefrontal area was performed. After quality control, 10 women with natural cycle and 21 women taking hormonal contraceptives were included for analysis. Peripheral blood samples were obtained to determine endogenous hormone concentrations. Subjects were asked to complete a daily rating of severity of problems questionnaire, to quantify premenstrual symptoms. In the natural cycle group, we found a significant increase in prefrontal GABA concentration at the time of ovulation. Conversely, in the hormonal contraceptives group, no differences were found between the pill phase and pill-free phase. GABA concentrations did not significantly correlate with endogenous hormone levels, nor with premenstrual symptoms. Our results indicate that spectroscopically measured GABA concentrations are higher during ovulation in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We suggest that neuroimaging studies should take into account this variability. PMID:25481417

  20. Effect of gamma-vinyl GABA in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Y; Mear, J Y; Tell, G; Schechter, P H; Lhermitte, F; Agid, Y

    1982-05-01

    Gamma-Vinyl GABA, an irreversible inhibitor of GABA-transaminase, was administered orally in two daily doses of 250 mg to 10 patients with cerebellar ataxia (9 with Friedreich's ataxia, one with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy) for at least one month in an open study. No significant difference occurred in the disability scores of cerebellar symptomatology for the group as a whole, but seven patients showed some improvement in scores with treatment and two patients claimed marked subjective amelioration. Tolerance to Gamma-Vinyl-GABA treatment was excellent. These preliminary results suggest that further studies with well-tolerated agents which enhance CNS GABA-ergic function are warranted in patients with cerebellar ataxia. PMID:7104882

  1. Metabotropic GABA signalling modulates longevity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Lei; Gong, Jianke; Yuan, Fengling; Zhang, Bi; Liu, Hongkang; Zheng, Tianlin; Yu, Teng; Xu, X. Z. Shawn; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important but poorly understood role in modulating longevity. GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is best known to regulate nervous system function and behaviour in diverse organisms. Whether GABA signalling affects aging, however, has not been explored. Here we examined mutants lacking each of the major neurotransmitters in C. elegans, and find that deficiency in GABA signalling extends lifespan. This pro-longevity effect is mediated by the metabotropic GABAB receptor GBB-1, but not ionotropic GABAA receptors. GBB-1 regulates lifespan through G protein-PLC? signalling, which transmits longevity signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO, a key regulator of lifespan. Mammalian GABAB receptors can functionally substitute for GBB-1 in lifespan control in C. elegans. Our results uncover a new role of GABA signalling in lifespan regulation in C. elegans, raising the possibility that a similar process may occur in other organisms. PMID:26537867

  2. Metabotropic GABA signalling modulates longevity in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chun, Lei; Gong, Jianke; Yuan, Fengling; Zhang, Bi; Liu, Hongkang; Zheng, Tianlin; Yu, Teng; Xu, X Z Shawn; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important but poorly understood role in modulating longevity. GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is best known to regulate nervous system function and behaviour in diverse organisms. Whether GABA signalling affects aging, however, has not been explored. Here we examined mutants lacking each of the major neurotransmitters in C. elegans, and find that deficiency in GABA signalling extends lifespan. This pro-longevity effect is mediated by the metabotropic GABAB receptor GBB-1, but not ionotropic GABAA receptors. GBB-1 regulates lifespan through G protein-PLC? signalling, which transmits longevity signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO, a key regulator of lifespan. Mammalian GABAB receptors can functionally substitute for GBB-1 in lifespan control in C. elegans. Our results uncover a new role of GABA signalling in lifespan regulation in C. elegans, raising the possibility that a similar process may occur in other organisms. PMID:26537867

  3. Putrescine, a source of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the adrenal gland of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Caron, P C; Cote, L J; Kremzner, L T

    1988-01-01

    Putrescine is the major source of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rat adrenal gland. Diamine oxidase, and not monoamine oxidase, is essential for GABA formation from putrescine in the adrenal gland. Aminoguanidine, a diamine oxidase inhibitor, decreases the GABA concentration in the adrenal gland by more than 70% after 4 h, and almost to zero in 24 h. Studies using [14C]putrescine confirm that [14C]GABA is the major metabolite of putrescine in the adrenal gland. Inhibition of GABA transaminase by amino-oxyacetic acid does not change the GABA concentration in the adrenal gland, as compared with the brain, where the GABA concentration rises. With aminoguanidine, the turnover time of GABA originating from putrescine in the adrenal gland is 5.6 h, reflecting a slower rate of GABA metabolism compared with the brain. Since GABA in the adrenal gland is almost exclusively derived from putrescine, the role of GABA may relate to the role of putrescine as a growth factor and regulator of cell metabolism. PMID:3135801

  4. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Ming A; Stanford, Arielle D; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C; Lisanby, Sarah H; Schroeder, Charles E; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case-control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7) had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9). However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16) significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia. PMID:24749063

  5. Effects of non-sedative anxiolytic drugs on responses to GABA and on diazepam-induced enhancement of these responses on mouse neurones in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    De Deyn, P. P.; Macdonald, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    1. Intracellular microelectrode recording techniques were performed on mouse spinal cord and cerebral hemisphere neurones grown in primary dissociated cell culture. The effects of several anxiolytics applied by local pressure ejection on responses to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) evoked by iontophoresis were investigated. Responses to GABA were depolarizing since intracellular chloride ion concentration was increased by injection from potassium chloride (3M)-filled recording micropipettes and neurones were held at large negative membrane potentials (-70 to -90 mV). The agents studied were six 'non-sedative anxiolytics', CL 218,872 (3-methyl-6-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-b) pyridazine), PK 8165 (2-phenyl-4-(2-(4-piperidinyl)ethyl)-quinoline), PK 9084 (2-phenyl-4-(2-(3-piperidinyl)ethyl)-quinoline), CGS 9896 (2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-dihydropyrazolo(4,3-c)quinoline-3(3H)-one) , ZK 91296 (ethyl 5-benzyloxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline-3-beta-carboxylate), buspirone (8-4-[4-(2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl]butyl-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane- 7,9- dione), and two sedative anxiolytics, diazepam and zopiclone [( 6-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin- 5- yl]4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate). 2. Direct effects on responses to GABA were studied for all drugs applied in varying concentrations. For the drugs which significantly altered responses to GABA, the effects of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonists Ro 15-1788 (ethyl-8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5a)-(1,4)benzodi azepine - 3-carboxylate) and CGS 8216 (2-phenylpyrazolo(4,3-c)-quinolin-3(5H)-one) were evaluated. For the drugs devoid of significant direct effect on responses to GABA, the influence on diazepam-induced enhancement of responses to GABA was evaluated. 3. Diazepam, zopiclone and CL 218,872 concentration-dependently and reversibly enhanced responses to GABA. Maximal enhancement was 82% for diazepam (500 nM), 64% for zopiclone (10 microM) and 20% for CL 218,872 (10 microM). PK 8165 effects varied with concentration, enhancing responses to GABA (up to 18%) at nM concentrations and reducing responses to GABA (up to 90%) at microM concentrations. CGS 9896, ZK 9126, PK 9084 and buspirone, in concentrations ranging from 1 nM to 10 microM, lacked significant direct effects on responses to GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2905900

  6. Molecular aspects of age-related cognitive decline: the role of GABA signaling.

    PubMed

    McQuail, Joseph A; Frazier, Charles J; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Alterations in inhibitory interneurons contribute to cognitive deficits associated with several psychiatric and neurological diseases. Phasic and tonic inhibition imparted by ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors regulates neural activity and helps to establish the appropriate network dynamics in cortical circuits that support normal cognition. This review highlights basic science demonstrating that inhibitory signaling is altered in aging, and discusses the impact of age-related shifts in inhibition on different forms of memory function, including hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory and prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent working memory. The clinical appropriateness and tractability of select therapeutic candidates for cognitive aging that target receptors mediating inhibition are also discussed. PMID:26070271

  7. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  8. Control of cortical neuronal migration by glutamate and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Heiko J.; Fukuda, A.; Kilb, W.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca2+ transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis. PMID:25688185

  9. Actions of picrodendrin antagonists on dieldrin-sensitive and -resistant Drosophila GABA receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Ozoe, Y.; Koike, K.; Ohmoto, T.; Nikaido, T.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. A series of terpenoid compounds, recently isolated from Picrodendron baccatum, share a picrotoxane skeleton with picrotoxinin, an antagonist of ionotropic GABA receptors. Referred to as picrodendrins, they inhibit the binding of [35S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to rat GABAA receptors. Hitherto, their effects on GABA receptors have not been investigated electrophysiologically. Under two-electrode voltage-clamp, the actions of picrodendrins and related terpenoids have been assayed on homooligomeric GABA receptors formed by the expression of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit (RDLac) in Xenopus oocytes. 2. All the terpenoids tested, dose-dependently antagonized currents induced by 30 microM (EC50) GABA. 3. Tutin and its analogues (dihydrotutin and isohyenanchin) differ in the structure of their axial C4 substituents. Of these compounds, tutin, which bears an isopropenyl group at this carbon atom, was the most potent antagonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, whereas isohyenanchin, which bears a hydroxyisopropyl group, was the least potent antagonist tested. 4. Picrodendrins differ mainly in the structure of their C9 substituents. The IC50s of picrodendrins ranged from 17 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-Q) to 1006 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-O). As such, the most potent picrodendrins (Q, A and B) were approximately equipotent with picrotoxinin as antagonists of RDLac homo-oligomers. 5. Certain picrodendrin compounds effected a use-dependent blockade of RDLac homo-oligomers. Such a biphasic block was not observed with tutin analogues. 6. Picrotoxin-resistant RDLacA3025 homo-oligomers, which have a single amino acid substitution (A302S) in the 2nd transmembrane region, were markedly less sensitive to picrodendrin-O than the wild-type, dieldrin-sensitive, homo-oligomers. 7. The relative potency of tutin analogues demonstrates that the structure-activity relationship of the C4 substituent of picrotoxane-based compounds is conserved in vertebrates and insects. However, the relative order of potency of picrodendrins on RDLac homo-oligomers is distinctly different from that observed in previous radioligand binding studies performed on vertebrate GABAA receptors. As picrodendrin compounds differ in the structure of their C9 substituents, these data suggest that the optimal convulsant pharmacophores of vertebrate GABAA receptors and RDLac homo-oligomers differ with respect to this substituent. PMID:8982503

  10. Accuracy and stability of measuring GABA, glutamate, and glutamine by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A phantom study at 4 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Michael E.; Lauriat, Tara L.; Shanahan, Meghan; Renshaw, Perry F.; Jensen, J. Eric

    2015-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the potential to provide valuable information about alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), and glutamine (Gln) in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to use this technique effectively, it is important to establish the accuracy and reproducibility of the methodology. In this study, phantoms with known metabolite concentrations were used to compare the accuracy of 2D J-resolved MRS, single-echo 30 ms PRESS, and GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS for measuring all three aforementioned neurochemicals simultaneously. The phantoms included metabolite concentrations above and below the physiological range and scans were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 1 month time-points. For GABA measurement, MEGA-PRESS proved optimal with a measured-to-target correlation of R2 = 0.999, with J-resolved providing R2 = 0.973 for GABA. All three methods proved effective in measuring Glu with R2 = 0.987 (30 ms PRESS), R2 = 0.996 (J-resolved) and R2 = 0.910 (MEGA-PRESS). J-resolved and MEGA-PRESS yielded good results for Gln measures with respective R2 = 0.855 (J-resolved) and R2 = 0.815 (MEGA-PRESS). The 30 ms PRESS method proved ineffective in measuring GABA and Gln. When measurement stability at in vivo concentration was assessed as a function of varying spectral quality, J-resolved proved the most stable and immune to signal-to-noise and linewidth fluctuation compared to MEGA-PRESS and 30 ms PRESS. PMID:21130670

  11. GABA and Dopamine Release from Different Brain Regions in Mice with Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Methamidophos.

    PubMed

    Noriega-Ortega, Blanca Rosa; Armienta-Aldana, Ernesto; Cervantes-Pompa, José Ángel; Armienta-Aldana, Eduardo; Hernández-Ruíz, Enrique; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Organophosphates such as methamidophos, usually used in the agricultural field, have harmful effects on humans. Exposures to insecticides has been associated with many disorders, including damage to the central and peripheral nervous system. Chronic exposure to organophosphates may lead to persistent neurological and neurobehavioral effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of methamidophos on [(3)H]-dopamine (DA) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from different brain regions after chronic exposure to it for 3, 6 or 9 months. After a six-month methamidophos treatment, the mice showed high susceptibility to convulsive seizures and a reduction in stimulated gamma aminobutyric acid release from the cerebral cortex and hippocampal slices, whereas stimulated (DA) release was slightly decreased from the striatum after three months of methamidophos exposure. The results indicate changes in gamma aminobutyric acid and dopamine neurotransmission, suggesting a specific neuronal damage. PMID:22272056

  12. GABA and Dopamine Release from Different Brain Regions in Mice with Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Methamidophos

    PubMed Central

    Noriega-Ortega, Blanca Rosa; Armienta-Aldana, Ernesto; Cervantes-Pompa, José Ángel; Armienta-Aldana, Eduardo; Hernández-Ruíz, Enrique; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates such as methamidophos, usually used in the agricultural field, have harmful effects on humans. Exposures to insecticides has been associated with many disorders, including damage to the central and peripheral nervous system. Chronic exposure to organophosphates may lead to persistent neurological and neurobehavioral effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of methamidophos on [3H]-dopamine (DA) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from different brain regions after chronic exposure to it for 3, 6 or 9 months. After a six-month methamidophos treatment, the mice showed high susceptibility to convulsive seizures and a reduction in stimulated gamma aminobutyric acid release from the cerebral cortex and hippocampal slices, whereas stimulated (DA) release was slightly decreased from the striatum after three months of methamidophos exposure. The results indicate changes in gamma aminobutyric acid and dopamine neurotransmission, suggesting a specific neuronal damage. PMID:22272056

  13. Learning-Dependent Plasticity of the Barrel Cortex Is Impaired by Restricting GABA-Ergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Posluszny, Anna; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Turzynska, Danuta; Zakrzewska, Renata; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Experience-induced plastic changes in the cerebral cortex are accompanied by alterations in excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Increased excitatory drive, necessary for plasticity, precedes the occurrence of plastic change, while decreased inhibitory signaling often facilitates plasticity. However, an increase of inhibitory interactions was noted in some instances of experience-dependent changes. We previously reported an increase in the number of inhibitory markers in the barrel cortex of mice after fear conditioning engaging vibrissae, observed concurrently with enlargement of the cortical representational area of the row of vibrissae receiving conditioned stimulus (CS). We also observed that an increase of GABA level accompanied the conditioning. Here, to find whether unaltered GABAergic signaling is necessary for learning-dependent rewiring in the murine barrel cortex, we locally decreased GABA production in the barrel cortex or reduced transmission through GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at the time of the conditioning. Injections of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), an inhibitor of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), into the barrel cortex prevented learning-induced enlargement of the conditioned vibrissae representation. A similar effect was observed after injection of gabazine, an antagonist of GABAARs. At the behavioral level, consistent conditioned response (cessation of head movements in response to CS) was impaired. These results show that appropriate functioning of the GABAergic system is required for both manifestation of functional cortical representation plasticity and for the development of a conditioned response. PMID:26641862

  14. Presynaptic gating of excitation in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA

    PubMed Central

    Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Anderson, Wayne B.; Vaughan, Christopher W.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) controls forebrain serotonin neurotransmission to influence emotional states. GABA neurotransmission in the DR has been implicated in regulating sleep/wake states and influencing anxiety and aggression. To gain insight into how GABA regulates DR activity, we analyzed the organization of both GABA and glutamate axons in the rat DR using a high-resolution immunofluorescence technique, array tomography, as well as EM. This analysis revealed that a third or more of GABA-containing axons are organized in synaptic triads with a glutamatergic axon and a common postsynaptic target. Electrophysiological recordings showed that GABA has the capacity to presynaptically gate glutamate release in the DR through a combination of GABA-A and GABA-B receptor-mediated effects. Thus, GABA–glutamate synaptic triads are a common feature of the network architecture of the DR with the potential to regulate excitation of the nucleus. PMID:24019494

  15. P2X7 receptor activation downmodulates Na(+)-dependent high-affinity GABA and glutamate transport into rat brain cortex synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Barros-Barbosa, A R; Lobo, M G; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P; Cordeiro, J M

    2015-10-15

    Sodium-dependent high-affinity amino-acid transporters play crucial roles in terminating synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). However, there is lack of information about the mechanisms underlying the regulation of amino-acid transport by fast-acting neuromodulators, like ATP. Here, we investigated whether activation of the ATP-sensitive P2X7 receptor modulates Na(+)-dependent high-affinity ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate uptake into nerve terminals (synaptosomes) of the rat cerebral cortex. Radiolabeled neurotransmitter accumulation was evaluated by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The cell-permeant sodium-selective fluorescent indicator, SBFI-AM, was used to estimate Na(+) influx across plasma membrane. 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP (BzATP, 3-300 ?M), a prototypic P2X7 receptor agonist, concentration-dependently decreased [(3)H]GABA (14%) and [(14)C]glutamate (24%) uptake; BzATP decreased transport maximum velocity (Vmax) without affecting the Michaelis constant (Km) values. The selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079 (3 ?M), prevented inhibition of [(3)H]GABA and [(14)C]glutamate uptake by BzATP (100 ?M). The inhibitory effect of BzATP coincided with its ability to increase intracellular Na(+) and was mimicked by Na(+) ionophores, like gramicidin and monensin. Increases in intracellular Na(+) (with veratridine or ouabain) or substitution of extracellular Na(+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG)(+) all decreased [(3)H]GABA and [(14)C]glutamate uptake and attenuated BzATP effects. Uptake inhibition by BzATP (100 ?M) was also attenuated by calmidazolium, which selectively inhibits Na(+) currents through the P2X7 receptor pore. In conclusion, disruption of the Na(+) gradient by P2X7 receptor activation downmodulates high-affinity GABA and glutamate uptake into rat cortical synaptosomes. Interference with amino-acid transport efficacy may constitute a novel target for therapeutic management of cortical excitability. PMID:26299340

  16. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  17. Effect of acute and subchronic nicotine treatment on cortical efflux of [3H]-D-aspartate and endogenous GABA in freely moving guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Beani, L.; Tanganelli, S.; Antonelli, T.; Ferraro, L.; Morari, M.; Spalluto, P.; Nordberg, A.; Bianchi, C.

    1991-01-01

    1. The [3H]-D-aspartate preloading of the parietal cortex of freely moving guinea-pigs equipped with epidural cups makes it possible to investigate drug effects on the efflux of this radiolabel, assumed as a marker of the glutamatergic structures underlying the cup. In the same model, the efflux of [3H]-gamma-aminobutyric acid ([3H]-GABA) and endogenous GABA can be measured. 2. Nicotine, 0.9-3.6 mg kg-1, s.c., or 3-5 micrograms, i.c.v., increased the efflux of [3H]-D-aspartate but reduced that of GABA. 3. These effects were mediated through mecamylamine-sensitive receptors but the ganglionic blocking agent was devoid of any primary activity. 4. The inhibition of GABA efflux induced by nicotine 3.6 mg kg-1, s.c., was abolished by methysergide 2 mg kg-1, i.p. and was reduced by naloxone 3 mg kg-1, i.p. pretreatment, suggesting the involvement of tryptaminergic and opioid systems. In contrast, muscarinic and catecholamine antagonists were ineffective. 5. Chronic treatment with nicotine (3.6 mg kg-1, twice daily for 16 days) reduced the facilitatory effect of [3H]-D-aspartate and abolished the inhibition of endogenous GABA efflux. 6. A slight increase in the number of nicotinic binding sites (by use of [3H]-nicotine as ligand) was found in the neocortex of chronically treated guinea-pigs. 7. The higher degree of tolerance to chronic nicotine treatment shown by GABA as compared with [3H]-D-aspartate efflux suggests that adaptative changes of the inhibitory neuronal pools prevail. This may contribute to the reinforcing and addictive properties of nicotine. PMID:1664759

  18. Influence of GABA-gated bicarbonate conductance on potential, current and intracellular chloride in crayfish muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kaila, K; Pasternack, M; Saarikoski, J; Voipio, J

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on membrane potential and conductance as well as on the intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) and intracellular pH (pHi) were studied in crayfish muscle fibres using a three-microelectrode voltage clamp and ion-selective microelectrodes. In the presence of CO2-HCO3-, the intracellular HCO3- activity (aiHCO3) was estimated from pHi. 2. In a nominally HCO3(-)-free solution, a near-saturating concentration of GABA (0.2 mM) produced a marked increase in membrane conductance but little change in potential. In a solution containing 30 mM-HCO3- (equilibrated with 5% CO2 + 95% air; pH 7.4), the GABA-induced increase in conductance was associated with a depolarization of about 15 mV, with an increase in aiCl and with a decrease in aiHCO3. All these effects were blocked by picrotoxin (PTX). The depolarizing action of GABA was augmented following depletion of extracellular and intracellular Cl-. 3. The GABA-induced increase in aiCl which took place in the presence of HCO3- was blocked by clamping the membrane potential at its resting level. This indicates that the increase in aiCl was due to passive redistribution of Cl-. In both the presence and absence of HCO3-, the GABA-activated transmembrane flux of Cl- showed reversal at the level of the resting potential, which indicates that under steady-state conditions the Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl) is identical to the resting potential. 4. In a Cl(-)-free, 30 mM-HCO3(-)-containing solution, 0.5 mM-GABA produced a PTX-sensitive increase in conductance which amounted to 15% of the conductance activated in the presence of Cl-. In the absence of both Cl- and HCO3-, the respective figure was 2.8%. Assuming constant-field conditions, the conductance data yielded a permeability ratio PHCO3/PCl of 0.42 for the GABA-activated channels. 5. In a Cl(-)-containing, HCO3(-)-free solution, the reversal potential of the GABA-activated current (EGABA) was, by about 1 mV, less negative than the resting membrane potential (RP). In a solution containing Cl- and 30 mM-HCO3-, EGABA-RP was 12 mV. Simultaneous measurements of EGABA, aiCl and aiHCO3 (pHi) gave a PHCO3/PCl value of 0.33. 6. In a Cl(-)-free, HCO3(-)-containing solution EGABA was close to the HCO3- equilibrium potential (EHCO3) and an experimental acidosis which produced a negative shift in EHCO3 was associated with a similar shift in EGABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2481729

  19. The Role of Genetic Sex in Affect Regulation and Expression of GABA-Related Genes Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Chang, Lun-Ching; Oh, Hyunjung; Wang, Xingbin; Tseng, George C.; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N?=?51 MDD subjects, 50 controls), we show that the previously reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST), a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N?=?214; two frontal cortex regions) and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N?=?170 subjects), we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model [Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice], in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N???12/group), we show that genetic sex (i.e., X/Y-chromosome) influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice) and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice). This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males?GABA-related genes and anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24062698

  20. Co-activation of VTA DA and GABA neurons mediates nicotine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tolu, S; Eddine, R; Marti, F; David, V; Graupner, M; Pons, S; Baudonnat, M; Husson, M; Besson, M; Reperant, C; Zemdegs, J; Pagès, C; Hay, Y A H; Lambolez, B; Caboche, J; Gutkin, B; Gardier, A M; Changeux, J-P; Faure, P; Maskos, U

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all drugs of abuse, nicotine acts on several different cell types and afferents. Identifying the precise action of nicotine on this microcircuit, in vivo, is important to understand reinforcement, and finally to develop efficient smoking cessation treatments. We used a novel lentiviral system to re-express exclusively high-affinity nAChRs on either dopaminergic (DAergic) or ?-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons, or both, in the VTA. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we show that, contrary to widely accepted models, the activation of GABA neurons in the VTA plays a crucial role in the control of nicotine-elicited DAergic activity. Our results demonstrate that both positive and negative motivational values are transmitted through the dopamine (DA) neuron, but that the concerted activity of DA and GABA systems is necessary for the reinforcing actions of nicotine through burst firing of DA neurons. This work identifies the GABAergic interneuron as a potential target for smoking cessation drug development. PMID:22751493

  1. Expression of spinal cord GABA transporter 1 in morphine-tolerant male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shokoofeh, Siroosi; Homa, Manaheji; Leila, Dargahi; Samira, Daniali

    2015-11-15

    Chronic morphine exposure produces morphine tolerance. One of the mechanisms of morphine tolerance involves ?-aminobutric acid (GABA), whose level is regulated by GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GAT-1 in the spinal cord during morphine treatment. Morphine was administrated to rats via drinking water for 21 days. On day 21, a single dose of morphine (10mg/kg) was injected, followed by the administration of 5% formalin after 30min. Expression of GAT-1 in the lumbar spinal cord during morphine treatment was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay. In another set of experiments, a morphine-tolerant group was treated with a GAT-1 inhibitor, ethyl nipecotate (60mg/kg), 5min prior to the formalin test. To assess a possible analgesic effect of the GAT-1 inhibitor, a non-tolerant group was injected only with ethyl nipecotate 5min prior to the formalin test. Our results indicated that a chronic consumption of morphine led to morphine tolerance. Morphine tolerance was also concomitant with GAT-1 up-regulation in the lumbar spinal cord. The GAT-1 inhibitor ethyl nipecotate improved the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the morphine-tolerant group. Ethyl nipecotate also had an antinociceptive effect on the non-tolerant group. Thus, our data suggest that GAT-1 overexpression in the spinal cord plays an important role in morphine tolerance. PMID:26463038

  2. Trial of Zolpidem, Eszopiclone, and Other GABA Agonists in a Patient with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andrew Young; Weirich, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive, debilitating neurodegenerative disease of the Parkinson-plus family of syndromes. Unfortunately, there are no pharmacologic treatments for this condition, as most sufferers of the classic variant respond poorly to Parkinson medications such as levodopa. Zolpidem, a gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist specific to the ?-1 receptor subtype, has been reported to show improvements in symptoms of PSP patients, including motor dysfunction, dysarthria, and ocular disturbances. We observed a 73-year-old woman with a six-year history of PSP, who, upon administration of a single 12.5?mg dose of sustained-release zolpidem, exhibited marked enhancements in speech, facial expressions, and fine motor skills for five hours. These results were reproduced upon subsequent clinic visits. In an effort to find a sustainable medication that maximized these beneficial effects while minimizing side effects and addressing some of her comorbid neuropsychological conditions, a trial of five other GABA receptor agonists was performed with the patient's consent, while she and her caregivers were blinded to the specific medications. She and her caretakers subsequently reported improvements, especially visual, while on eszopiclone, and, to a lesser degree, temazepam and flurazepam. PMID:25371679

  3. Trial of Zolpidem, Eszopiclone, and Other GABA Agonists in a Patient with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew Young; Weirich, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive, debilitating neurodegenerative disease of the Parkinson-plus family of syndromes. Unfortunately, there are no pharmacologic treatments for this condition, as most sufferers of the classic variant respond poorly to Parkinson medications such as levodopa. Zolpidem, a gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist specific to the ?-1 receptor subtype, has been reported to show improvements in symptoms of PSP patients, including motor dysfunction, dysarthria, and ocular disturbances. We observed a 73-year-old woman with a six-year history of PSP, who, upon administration of a single 12.5?mg dose of sustained-release zolpidem, exhibited marked enhancements in speech, facial expressions, and fine motor skills for five hours. These results were reproduced upon subsequent clinic visits. In an effort to find a sustainable medication that maximized these beneficial effects while minimizing side effects and addressing some of her comorbid neuropsychological conditions, a trial of five other GABA receptor agonists was performed with the patient's consent, while she and her caregivers were blinded to the specific medications. She and her caretakers subsequently reported improvements, especially visual, while on eszopiclone, and, to a lesser degree, temazepam and flurazepam. PMID:25371679

  4. Optogenetic stimulation of GABA neurons can decrease local neuronal activity while increasing cortical blood flow.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Eitan; Chan, Allen W; Xie, Yicheng; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the link between direct activation of inhibitory neurons, local neuronal activity, and hemodynamics. Direct optogenetic cortical stimulation in the sensorimotor cortex of transgenic mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 in GABAergic neurons (VGAT-ChR2) greatly attenuated spontaneous cortical spikes, but was sufficient to increase blood flow as measured with laser speckle contrast imaging. To determine whether the observed optogenetically evoked gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-neuron hemodynamic responses were dependent on ionotropic glutamatergic or GABAergic synaptic mechanisms, we paired optogenetic stimulation with application of antagonists to the cortex. Incubation of glutamatergic antagonists directly on the cortex (NBQX and MK-801) blocked cortical sensory evoked responses (as measured with electroencephalography and intrinsic optical signal imaging), but did not significantly attenuate optogenetically evoked hemodynamic responses. Significant light-evoked hemodynamic responses were still present after the addition of picrotoxin (GABA-A receptor antagonist) in the presence of the glutamatergic synaptic blockade. This activation of cortical inhibitory interneurons can mediate large changes in blood flow in a manner that is by and large not dependent on ionotropic glutamatergic or GABAergic synaptic transmission. This supports the hypothesis that activation of inhibitory neurons can increase local cerebral blood flow in a manner that is not entirely dependent on levels of net ongoing neuronal activity. PMID:26082013

  5. GABA and enkephalin tonically alter sympathetic outflows in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Belinda R; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-12-01

    GABA and enkephalin provide significant innervation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Despite some investigation as to the identity of premotor sources of these innervations no comprehensive analyses have been conducted. Similarly, although data describing the cardiovascular effects of blockade of GABAA receptors in the spinal cord is available, the effects at other sympathetic outflows are unknown. In contrast the sympathetic effects of opioid blockade in the spinal cord are unclear. The aims of this study were to identify potential sympathetic premotor sources of GABAergic and enkephalinergic input to the spinal cord and to describe the sympathetic and cardiovascular effects of spinal GABAA receptor and delta/mu opioid receptor blockade in urethane anaesthetised rats. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA were found in all regions containing sympathetic premotor neurons, with the medullary raphe and RVMM providing the major GABAergic projections, while the PVN, RVMM and medullary raphe provided the major enkephalinergic projections. Intrathecal injection of bicuculline, a GABAA antagonist, elicited large and prolonged increases in all outflows measured, confirming previous work describing a tonic GABAergic influence on vasomotor tone, and revealing a tonic GABAergic inhibition of interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature. Intrathecal naloxone elicited transient small inhibitory effects only on MAP and HR. Thus GABA acting in the spinal cord plays an important role in the tonic suppression of sympathetic outflows while enkephalin appears to play only a minor role. PMID:26329875

  6. GABA Transporter-1 Deficiency Confers Schizophrenia-Like Behavioral Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhe; Fang, Qi; Xiao, Xian; Wang, Yi-Zhi; Cai, You-Qing; Cao, Hui; Hu, Gang; Chen, Zhong; Fei, Jian; Gong, Neng; Xu, Tian-Le

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. The hyper-dopamine and hypo-NMDA receptor hypotheses have been the most enduring ideas. Recently, emerging evidence implicates alterations of the major inhibitory system, GABAergic neurotransmission in the schizophrenic patients. However, the pathophysiological role of GABAergic system in schizophrenia still remains dubious. In this study, we took advantage of GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) knockout (KO) mouse, a unique animal model with elevated ambient GABA, to study the schizophrenia-related behavioral abnormalities. We found that GAT1 KO mice displayed multiple behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenic positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Moreover, GAT1 deficiency did not change the striatal dopamine levels, but significantly enhanced the tonic GABA currents in prefrontal cortex. The GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin could effectively ameliorate several behavioral defects of GAT1 KO mice. These results identified a novel function of GAT1, and indicated that the elevated ambient GABA contributed critically to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, several commonly used antipsychotic drugs were effective in treating the locomotor hyperactivity in GAT1 KO mice, suggesting the utility of GAT1 KO mice as an alternative animal model for studying schizophrenia pathogenesis and developing new antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23922840

  7. Spectral editing of weakly coupled spins using variable flip angles in PRESS constant echo time difference spectroscopy: Application to GABA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Jeff; Hanstock, Chris C.; Wilman, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    A general in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy editing technique is presented to detect weakly coupled spin systems through subtraction, while preserving singlets through addition, and is applied to the specific brain metabolite ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 4.7 T. The new method uses double spin echo localization (PRESS) and is based on a constant echo time difference spectroscopy approach employing subtraction of two asymmetric echo timings, which is normally only applicable to strongly coupled spin systems. By utilizing flip angle reduction of one of the two refocusing pulses in the PRESS sequence, we demonstrate that this difference method may be extended to weakly coupled systems, thereby providing a very simple yet effective editing process. The difference method is first illustrated analytically using a simple two spin weakly coupled spin system. The technique was then demonstrated for the 3.01 ppm resonance of GABA, which is obscured by the strong singlet peak of creatine in vivo. Full numerical simulations, as well as phantom and in vivo experiments were performed. The difference method used two asymmetric PRESS timings with a constant total echo time of 131 ms and a reduced 120° final pulse, providing 25% GABA yield upon subtraction compared to two short echo standard PRESS experiments. Phantom and in vivo results from human brain demonstrate efficacy of this method in agreement with numerical simulations.

  8. Different transporter systems regulate extracellular GABA from vesicular and non-vesicular sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inseon; Volynski, Kirill; Brenner, Tanja; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Walker, Matthew; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Tonic GABA type A (GABAA) conductance is a key factor regulating neuronal excitability and computation in neuronal networks. The magnitude of the tonic GABAA conductance depends on the concentration of ambient GABA originating from vesicular and non-vesicular sources and is tightly regulated by GABA uptake. Here we show that the transport system regulating ambient GABA responsible for tonic GABAA conductances in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depends on its source. In mice, GABA from vesicular sources is regulated by mouse GABA transporter 1 (mGAT1), while that from non-vesicular sources by mouse GABA transporters 3/4 (mGAT3/4). This finding suggests that the two transporter systems do not just provide backup for each other, but regulate distinct signaling pathways. This allows individual tuning of the two signaling systems and indicates that drugs designed to act at specific transporters will have distinct therapeutic actions. PMID:23494150

  9. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals oral Lactobacillus promotion of increases in brain GABA, N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Janik, Rafal; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Stanisz, Andrew M; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John; Stanisz, Greg J

    2016-01-15

    The gut microbiome has been shown to regulate the development and functions of the enteric and central nervous systems. Its involvement in the regulation of behavior has attracted particular attention because of its potential translational importance in clinical disorders, however little is known about the pathways involved. We previously have demonstrated that administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) to healthy male BALB/c mice, promotes consistent changes in GABA-A and -B receptor sub-types in specific brain regions, accompanied by reductions in anxiety and depression-related behaviors. In the present study, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we quantitatively assessed two clinically validated biomarkers of brain activity and function, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and total N-acetyl aspartate+N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid (tNAA), as well as GABA, the chief brain inhibitory neurotransmitter. Mice received 1×10(9) cfu of JB-1 per day for 4weeks and were subjected to MRS weekly and again 4weeks after cessation of treatment to ascertain temporal changes in these neurometabolites. Baseline concentrations for Glx, tNAA and GABA were equal to 10.4±0.3mM, 8.7±0.1mM, and 1.2±0.1mM, respectively. Delayed increases were first seen for Glx (~10%) and NAA (~37%) at 2weeks which persisted only to the end of treatment. However, Glx was still elevated 4weeks after treatment had ceased. Significantly elevated GABA (~25%) was only seen at 4weeks. These results suggest specific metabolic pathways in our pursuit of mechanisms of action of psychoactive bacteria. They also offer through application of standard clinical neurodiagnostic techniques, translational opportunities to assess biomarkers accompanying behavioral changes induced by alterations in the gut microbiome. PMID:26577887

  10. Ketamine reverses stress-induced depression-like behavior and increased GABA levels in the anterior cingulate: an 11.7 T 1H-MRS study in rats.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Michaels, Mark S; Sheikh, Imran S; McKelvey, George; Galloway, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain and is primarily responsible for modulating excitatory tone. Clinical neuroimaging studies show decreased GABA levels in the anterior cingulate of patients with mood disorders, including major depressive disorder. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is an animal model thought to mimic the stressful events that may precipitate clinical depression in humans. In this study male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a modified CUS paradigm that used a random pattern of unpredictable stressors twice daily for 10 days to explore the early developmental stages of depression-like endophenotypes. Control rats were handled daily for 10 days. Some rats from each treatment group received an injection of ketamine (40 mg/kg) after the final stressor. One day following the final stressor rats were tested for behavioral effects in the forced swim test and then euthanized to collect trunk blood and anterior cingulate brain samples. GABA levels were measured in anterior cingulate samples ex vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 11.7 T. Animals subjected to CUS had lower body weights, higher levels of blood corticosterone, and increased immobility in the forced swim test; all of which suggest that the stress paradigm induced a depression-like phenotype. GABA levels in the anterior cingulate were significantly increased in the stressed animals compared to controls. Administration of ketamine on the last day of treatment blunted the depression-like behavior and increased GABA levels in the anterior cingulate following CUS. These data indicate that stress disrupts GABAergic signaling, which may over time lead to symptoms of depression and ultimately lower basal levels of cortical (1)H-MRS GABA that are seen in humans with depression. Furthermore, the data suggests that ketamine modulates cortical GABA levels as a mechanism of its antidepressant activity. PMID:24246571

  11. The Relationship between Fearfulness, GABA+, and Fear-Related BOLD Responses in the Insula

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, Ilona; Evans, C. John; Lewis, Caroline; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G.; Caseras, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA plays a crucial role in anxiety and fear, but its relationship to brain activation during fear reactions is not clear. Previous studies suggest that GABA agonists lead to an attenuation of emotion-processing related BOLD signals in the insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GABA concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in this region. In 44 female participants with different levels of fearfulness, GABA concentration in the left insula was measured using a GABA+ MRS acquisition during rest; additionally, BOLD signals were obtained during performance of a fear provocation paradigm. Fearfulness was not associated with GABA+ in the left insula, but could predict fear-related BOLD responses in a cluster in the left anterior insula. The BOLD signal change in this cluster did not correlate with GABA+ concentration. However, we found a significant positive correlation between GABA+ concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in a different cluster that included parts of the left insula, amygdala and putamen. Our findings indicate that low insular GABA concentration is not a predisposition for fearfulness, and that several factors influence whether a correlation between GABA and BOLD can be found. PMID:25811453

  12. Localization of glycine, GABA and neuropeptide containing neurons in tiger salamander retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Putative glycinergic and GABAergic neurons in the salamander retina were localized by a parallel analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) and a comparative analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA, like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR) at the light microscopic level. Good correspondence of labeling of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR as well as that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake and GABA-IR were observed. In addition, GAD immunoreactive neurons contained GABA-IR as well. Extensive colocalization of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR and that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA-IR and perhaps GAD-IR were indicated by the similarities in the distribution, morphology and labeling frequency of neurons and lamination in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). However, the Gly-IR and the GABA-IR probes appeared to be more sensitive and can thus be a reliable marker for glycine and GABA containing neurons respectively.

  13. Supraspinal modulation of pain by cannabinoids: the role of GABA and glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Rea, K; Roche, M; Finn, D P

    2007-01-01

    Recent physiological, pharmacological and anatomical studies provide evidence that one of the main roles of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release. This article aims to review this evidence in the context of its implications for pain. We first provide a brief overview of supraspinal regulation of nociception, followed by a review of the evidence that the brain's endocannabinoid system modulates nociception. We look in detail at regulation of supraspinal GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons by the endocannabinoid system and by exogenously administered cannabinoids. Finally, we review the evidence that cannabinoid-mediated modulation of pain involves modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in key brain regions. PMID:17828292

  14. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated. PMID:25451092

  15. Quantification of ?-Aminobutyric Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a clinical diagnostic test. Determination of GABA in CSF (50 ?L) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of free and total GABA requires two individual sample preparations and mass spectrometry analyses. Free GABA in CSF is determined by a 1:2 dilution with internal standard (GABA-D2) and injected directly onto the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Determination of total GABA in CSF requires additional sample preparation in order to hydrolyze all the bound GABA in the sample to the free form. This requires hydrolyzing the sample by boiling in acidic conditions (hydrochloric acid) for 4 h. The sample is then further diluted 1:10 with a 90 % acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid solution and injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Each assay is quantified using a five-point standard curve and is linear from 6 nM to 1000 nM and 0.63 ?M to 80 ?M for free and total GABA, respectively. PMID:26602123

  16. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino...

  17. Differential distribution of GABA and glycine terminals in the inferior colliculus of rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Choy Buentello, David; Bishop, Deborah C; Oliver, Douglas L

    2015-12-15

    The inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain component of the auditory pathway, integrates virtually all inputs from the auditory brainstem. These are a mixture of excitatory and inhibitory ascending inputs, and the inhibitory transmitters include both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (GLY). Although the presence of these inhibitory inputs is well established, their relative location in the IC is not, and there is little information on the mouse. Here, we study the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 and GLY transporter 2 (T2) in axonal terminals to better understand the relative contributions of these inputs. Large-scale mosaic composite images of immunohistochemistry sections of rat and mice were used to isolate the signals related to the concentrations of these axonal terminals in the tissue, and the ratio of GLYT2/GAD67 in each pixel was calculated. GLYT2 was seen only in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), whereas GAD67 was seen throughout the IC. The map of the GAD67 and GLYT2 axonal distribution revealed a gradient that runs from ventrolateral to dorsomedial along the axis of the laminae of the ICC and perpendicular to the tonotopic axis. Although anatomically different, both the mouse and the rat had relatively more GAD67 dorsomedially in the ICC and relatively more GLYT2 ventrolaterally. This organization of GABA and GLY inputs may be related to functional zones with different properties in ICC that are based, in part, on different sets of inhibitory inputs to each zone. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:2683-2697, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25976159

  18. Striatal cholinergic interneurons drive GABA release from dopamine terminals

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Hammack, Nora; Yang, Cindy F.; Shah, Nirao M.; Seal, Rebecca P.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal cholinergic interneurons are implicated in motor control, associative plasticity, and reward-dependent learning. Synchronous activation of cholinergic interneurons triggers large inhibitory synaptic currents in dorsal striatal projection neurons, providing one potential substrate for control of striatal output, but the mechanism for these GABAergic currents is not fully understood. Using optogenetics and whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we find that a large component of these inhibitory responses derive from action-potential-independent disynaptic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic receptors. Cholinergically-driven IPSCs were not affected by ablation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons, but were greatly reduced after acute treatment with vesicular monoamine transport inhibitors or selective destruction of dopamine terminals with 6-hydroxydopamine, indicating that GABA release originated from dopamine terminals. These results delineate a mechanism in which striatal cholinergic interneurons can co-opt dopamine terminals to drive GABA release and rapidly inhibit striatal output neurons. PMID:24613418

  19. Heterogeneous susceptibility of GABA(A) receptor-mediated IPSCs to depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Martin, L A; Wei, D S; Alger, B E

    2001-05-01

    Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in central neurons is mediated by a transient reduction of [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from interneurons. DSI is induced by a retrograde signal emitted from principal cells. We used electrophysiological recordings from CA1 neurons of the rat hippocampal slice to test the hypothesis that only certain classes of interneurons are susceptible to DSI. DSI of action potential-dependent, spontaneous, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in hippocampus is facilitated by carbachol (3 microM), which increases the occurrence of large sIPSCs. Besides carbachol, noradrenaline (norepinephrine; 10 microM), or elevated extracellular potassium (8 mM), could abruptly increase the occurrence of large sIPSCs and DSI in many cases. DSI appeared and disappeared concomitantly with the onset and offset of these large sIPSCs. In contrast, application of AP-5 and CNQX often markedly increased baseline sIPSC activity without enhancing DSI. A brief train of extracellular electrical stimulation could trigger the onset of prolonged, repetitive IPSC activity that was susceptible to DSI. The magnitude of DSI of single evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) in a given pyramidal cell could be altered by changes in stimulus strength, but there was no simple relationship between stimulus strength and DSI. Baclofen (0.5-5 microM) eliminated the increase in sIPSC activity and DSI induced by carbachol. A GABA(B)receptor antagonist, CGP 35348, reversed the effects of baclofen. Carbachol-induced sIPSCs had relatively rapid rise and decay phases. There was no marked distinction between DSI-susceptible and non-susceptible sIPSCs. Nevertheless, two kinetically distinct components of the eIPSC could be distinguished by their decay times. DSI reduced GABA(A),(fast) without affecting GABA(A),(slow). Furosemide (frusemide), which blocks only GABA(A),(fast), reduced the eIPSC and occluded DSI. The data suggest that, with respect to DSI, there are at least three functionally distinct types of IPSCs. Two types (one susceptible to DSI and one not) have relatively rapid kinetics are probably made by perisomatic synapses. A third, slow IPSC, which is insensitive to DSI, may be produced by distal dendritic synapses. PMID:11313439

  20. Regional concentrations of GABA, serotonin and noradrenaline in brain at onset of seizures induced by lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Suñol, C; Tusell, J M; Gelpí, E; Rodríguez-Farré, E

    1988-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the modifications induced by the pesticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in the regional concentration of neurotransmitters in brain, taking the tonic-clonic seizure as the main sign of its neurotoxic action. The animals were given lindane (150 mg/kg p.o. in olive oil) and killed at the onset of the first seizure (mean latency time: 18.3 +/- 5.5 min, n = 16). The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the biogenic amines noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT), as well as its corresponding acidic metabolite, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric or electrochemical detection in different areas of the brain: hippocampus, mesencephalon, colliculi, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, striatum and thalamus. The concentration of GABA in whole tissue was only significantly decreased in the colliculi. The concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were decreased in the colliculi, striatum and frontal cortex, suggesting a decreased synthesis and release of 5-HT, but increased in the parietal cortex. The concentration of NA was significantly decreased in the parietal cortex. Thus, the results indicate that lindane induces some modifications of the concentration of neurotransmitters in cortical structures, basal nuclei, midbrain and colliculi. These changes may be consequent upon the proposed interaction of lindane with the GABAergic system, although a direct action of lindane on other neurotransmitter systems cannot be excluded. PMID:2458533

  1. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical period plasticity in the rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, Gabriele; Allegra, Manuela; Cerri, Chiara; Naskar, Shovan; Bony, Guillaume; Zunino, Giulia; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Cancedda, Laura

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates “critical periods” for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here, we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in controlling plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical period plasticity in visual cortical circuits, without affecting overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, down-regulation of BDNF expression, and reduced density of extracellular matrix-perineuronal nets. Early interference with depolarizing GABA decreased perinatal BDNF signaling, and pharmacological increase of BDNF signaling during GABA interference rescued the effects on plasticity and its regulators later in life. We conclude that depolarizing GABA exerts a long-lasting, selective modulation of plasticity of cortical circuits by a strong crosstalk with BDNF. PMID:25485756

  2. NeurobiologyofAging, Vol.8, pp. 441M47.PergamonJournalsLtd., 1987.Printedin the U.S.A. 0197-4580/87$3.00 + .00 Recovery From GABA-Mediated Hemiplegia

    E-print Network

    Knight, Robert T.

    chronically with saline or GABA infusioninto the somatomotor region also failed to alter the clinical of homovanillic acid (HVA) in the CSF [35,38] and a decreased number of binding sites for various dopaminergic hypothalamic self-stimulation [40] and to the dopamine depleting effect of intracerebral injections

  3. Hyperpolarizing Inhibition Develops without Trophic support by GABA in Cultured Rat Midbrain Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Titz, Stefan; Hans, Michael; Kelsch, Wolfgang; Lewen, Andrea; Swandulla, Dieter; Misgeld, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    During a limited period of early neuronal development, GABA is depolarizing and elevates [Ca2+]i, which mediates the trophic action of GABA in neuronal maturation. We tested the attractive hypothesis that GABA itself promotes the developmental change of its response from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing (Ganguly et al. 2001). In cultured midbrain neurons we found that the GABA response changed from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing, although GABAA receptors had been blocked throughout development. In immature neurons prolonged exposure of the cells to nanomolar concentrations of GABA or brief repetitive applications of GABA strongly diminished the elevation of [Ca2+]i by GABA. As revealed by gramicidin perforated-patch recording, reduced [Ca2+]i responses were due to a diminished driving force for Cl?. This suggests that immature neurons do not have an efficient inward transport that can compensate the loss of cytosolic Cl? resulting from sustained GABAA receptor activation by ambient GABA. Transient increases in external K+, which can induce voltage-dependent Cl? entry, restored GABA-induced [Ca2+]i elevations. In mature neurons, GABA reduced [Ca2+]i provided that background [Ca2+]i was elevated by the application of an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist. This was probably due to a hyperpolarization of the membrane by Cl? currents. K+-Cl? cotransport maintained the gradient for hyperpolarizing Cl? currents. We conclude that in immature midbrain neurons an inward Cl? transport is not effective although the GABA response is depolarizing. Further, GABA itself is not required for the developmental switch of GABAergic responses from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in cultured midbrain neurons. PMID:12938674

  4. Anesthesia of a dental patient with Angelman syndrome -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Sung; Kim, Si Oh

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome is characterized by a partial deficit of paired autosomal chromosome 15, which contains a subunit of the GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) receptor. Many drugs that act on the CNS (Central Nerve System) during anesthesia are believed to exert their effects via the GABA receptors. We describe the anesthesia of a 7 year-old female patient with Angelman syndrome who underwent surgery for dental caries. The basic factors that needed to be considered when administering anesthesia to this patient were epilepsy, significant dominance of the vagal tone, craniofacial abnormalities and peripheral muscular atrophy. Inhalational anesthetics (sevoflurane) were employed for this patient. The patient had an uneventful peri-operative period and was discharged home on the same day of the operation. PMID:20498802

  5. Allosteric modulators induce distinct movements at the GABA-binding site interface of the GABA-A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sancar, Feyza; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) and barbiturates exert their CNS actions by binding to GABA-A receptors (GABARs). The structural mechanisms by which these drugs allosterically modulate GABAR function, to either enhance or inhibit GABA-gated current, are poorly understood. Here, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method to examine and compare structural movements in the GABA-binding site interface triggered by a BZD positive (flurazepam), zero (flumazenil) and negative (3-carbomethoxy-4-ethyl-6, 7-dimethoxy-?-carboline, DMCM) modulator as well as the barbiturate pentobarbital. Ten residues located throughout the GABA binding site interface were individually mutated to cysteine. Wild-type and mutant ?1?2?2 GABARs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and functionally characterized using two-electrode voltage clamp. We measured and compared the rates of modification of the introduced cysteines by sulfhydryl-reactive methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents in the absence and presence of BZD-site ligands and pentobarbital. Flurazepam and DMCM each accelerated the rate of reaction at ?1R131C and slowed the rate of reaction at ?1E122C, whereas flumazenil had no effect indicating that simple occupation of the BZD binding site is not sufficient to cause movements near these positions. Therefore, BZD-induced movements at these residues are likely associated with the ability of the BZD to modulate GABAR function (BZD efficacy). Low, modulating concentrations of pentobarbital accelerated the rate of reaction at ?1S68C and ?2P206C, slowed the rate of reaction at ?1E122C and had no effect at ?1R131C. These findings indicate that pentobarbital and BZDs induce different movements in the receptor, providing evidence that the structural mechanisms underlying their allosteric modulation of GABAR function are distinct. PMID:21093460

  6. Distinct roles for GABA across multiple timescales in mammalian circadian timekeeping.

    PubMed

    DeWoskin, Daniel; Myung, Jihwan; Belle, Mino D C; Piggins, Hugh D; Takumi, Toru; Forger, Daniel B

    2015-07-21

    The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the central circadian pacemakers in mammals, comprise a multiscale neuronal system that times daily events. We use recent advances in graphics processing unit computing to generate a multiscale model for the SCN that resolves cellular electrical activity down to the timescale of individual action potentials and the intracellular molecular events that generate circadian rhythms. We use the model to study the role of the neurotransmitter GABA in synchronizing circadian rhythms among individual SCN neurons, a topic of much debate in the circadian community. The model predicts that GABA signaling has two components: phasic (fast) and tonic (slow). Phasic GABA postsynaptic currents are released after action potentials, and can both increase or decrease firing rate, depending on their timing in the interspike interval, a modeling hypothesis we experimentally validate; this allows flexibility in the timing of circadian output signals. Phasic GABA, however, does not significantly affect molecular timekeeping. The tonic GABA signal is released when cells become very excited and depolarized; it changes the excitability of neurons in the network, can shift molecular rhythms, and affects SCN synchrony. We measure which neurons are excited or inhibited by GABA across the day and find GABA-excited neurons are synchronized by-and GABA-inhibited neurons repelled from-this tonic GABA signal, which modulates the synchrony in the SCN provided by other signaling molecules. Our mathematical model also provides an important tool for circadian research, and a model computational system for the many multiscale projects currently studying brain function. PMID:26130805

  7. Distinct roles for GABA across multiple timescales in mammalian circadian timekeeping

    PubMed Central

    DeWoskin, Daniel; Myung, Jihwan; Belle, Mino D. C.; Piggins, Hugh D.; Takumi, Toru; Forger, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the central circadian pacemakers in mammals, comprise a multiscale neuronal system that times daily events. We use recent advances in graphics processing unit computing to generate a multiscale model for the SCN that resolves cellular electrical activity down to the timescale of individual action potentials and the intracellular molecular events that generate circadian rhythms. We use the model to study the role of the neurotransmitter GABA in synchronizing circadian rhythms among individual SCN neurons, a topic of much debate in the circadian community. The model predicts that GABA signaling has two components: phasic (fast) and tonic (slow). Phasic GABA postsynaptic currents are released after action potentials, and can both increase or decrease firing rate, depending on their timing in the interspike interval, a modeling hypothesis we experimentally validate; this allows flexibility in the timing of circadian output signals. Phasic GABA, however, does not significantly affect molecular timekeeping. The tonic GABA signal is released when cells become very excited and depolarized; it changes the excitability of neurons in the network, can shift molecular rhythms, and affects SCN synchrony. We measure which neurons are excited or inhibited by GABA across the day and find GABA-excited neurons are synchronized by—and GABA-inhibited neurons repelled from—this tonic GABA signal, which modulates the synchrony in the SCN provided by other signaling molecules. Our mathematical model also provides an important tool for circadian research, and a model computational system for the many multiscale projects currently studying brain function. PMID:26130805

  8. Asymmetric redistribution of GABA receptors during GABA gradient sensing by nerve growth cones analyzed by single quantum dot imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigues, Cédric; Morel, Mathieu; Triller, Antoine; Dahan, Maxime

    2007-01-01

    During development of the nervous system, the tip of a growing axon, the growth cone (GC), must respond accurately to stimuli that direct its growth. This axonal navigation depends on extracellular concentration gradients of numerous guidance cues, including GABA. GCs can detect even weak directional signals, yet the mechanisms underlying this sensitivity remain unclear. Past studies in other eukaryotic chemotactic systems have pointed to the role of the spatial reorganization of the transduction pathway in their sensitive response. Here we have developed a single-molecule assay to observe individual GABAA receptors (GABAARs) in the plasma membrane of nerve GCs subjected to directional stimuli. We report that in the presence of an external GABA gradient GABAARs redistribute asymmetrically across the GC toward the gradient source. Single-particle tracking of GABAARs shows that the redistribution results from transient interactions between the receptors and the microtubules. Moreover, the relocalization is accompanied by an enhancement in the asymmetry of intracellular calcium concentration. Altogether, our results reveal a microtubule-dependent polarized reorganization of chemoreceptors at the cell surface and suggest that this polarization serves as an amplification step in GABA gradient sensing by nerve GCs. PMID:17592112

  9. Interaction of GABA-mimetics with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6) in hyperosmotic treated Caco-2, LLC-PK1 and rat renal SKPT cells.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rune Nørgaard; Lagunas, Candela; Plum, Jakob; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2016-01-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if basic GABA-mimetics interact with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6), and to find a suitable cell based model that is robust towards extracellular changes in osmolality during uptake studies. Taurine uptake was measured in human Caco-2 cells, porcine LLC-PK1 cells, and rat SKPT cells using radiolabelled taurine. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by incubation with raffinose (final osmolality of 500mOsm) for 24h prior to the uptake experiments. Expression of the taurine transporter, TauT, was investigated at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Uptake of the GABA-mimetics gaboxadol and vigabatrin was investigated in SKPT cells, and quantified by liquid scintillation or HPLC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. The uptake rate of [(3)H]-taurine was Na(+) and Cl(-) and concentration dependent with taurine with an apparent Vmax of 6.3±1.6pmolcm(-2)min(-1) and a Km of 24.9±15.0?M. ?-alanine, nipecotic acid, gaboxadol, GABA, vigabatrin, ?-ALA and guvacine inhibited the taurine uptake rate in a concentration dependent manner. The order of affinity for TauT was ?-alanine>GABA>nipecotic acid>guvacine>?-ALA>vigabatrin>gaboxadol with IC50-values of 0.04, 1.07, 2.02, 4.19, 4.94, 31.4 and 39.9mM, respectively. In conclusion, GABA mimetics inhibited taurine uptake in hyperosmotic rat renal SKPT cells. SKPT cells, which seem to be a useful model for investigating taurine transport in the short-term presence of high concentrations of osmolytes. Furthermore, analogues of ?-alanine appear to have higher affinities for TauT than GABA-analogues. PMID:26631583

  10. Synaptic inhibition and ?-aminobutyric acid in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    OBATA, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission through synapses connecting two neurons is mediated by release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic axon terminals and activation of its receptor at the postsynaptic neurons. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), non-protein amino acid formed by decarboxylation of glutamic acid, is a principal neurotransmitter at inhibitory synapses of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous system. On one hand glutamic acid serves as a principal excitatory neurotransmitter. This article reviews GABA researches on; (1) synaptic inhibition by membrane hyperpolarization, (2) exclusive localization in inhibitory neurons, (3) release from inhibitory neurons, (4) excitatory action at developmental stage, (5) phenotype of GABA-deficient mouse produced by gene-targeting, (6) developmental adjustment of neural network and (7) neurological/psychiatric disorder. In the end, GABA functions in simple nervous system and plants, and non-amino acid neurotransmitters were supplemented. PMID:23574805

  11. Biodiversity and ?-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24?h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7?mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus. PMID:25802859

  12. Discovery of novel insomnia leads from screening traditional Chinese medicine database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Su-sen; Chan, Yueh-Chiu; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a prominent modern disease that affects an increasing population. Undesirable side effects of commercial drugs highlight the need to develop novel insomnia drugs. Virtual screening of traditional chinese medicine Database@Taiwan (TCM Database@Taiwan) identified 2-O-Caffeoyl tartaric acid (1), 2-O-Feruloyl tartaric acid (2), and Mumefural (3) as potential agonists for both gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) or benzodiazepine (BZ) binding sites. The TCM candidates exhibited higher affinity than GABA and Zolpidem, a phenomenon that could be attributed to higher quantity of stabilizing H-bonds. Efficacy profiles using support vector machines and pharmacophore contour also suggest drug potential of the TCM candidates. Fragments added to the de novo derivatives 3a, 3b, 3c for GABA binding site, and 1a, 2a, and 3d for BZ binding site contributed to new binding sites and structural stability, further optimizing binding to GABA or BZ binding sites. Increased opening of the ion channel by candidate ligands provide strong support for their potential biological functions. The dual binding properties of the TCM candidates present a unique opportunity to develop twin-targeting drugs with less side effects. Derivative structures can be used as starting points for developing high affinity GABAA receptor agonists with specificity towards GABA binding site and BZ binding site. PMID:23730798

  13. Ionotropic GABA Receptor From Lobster Olfactory Projection A. B. ZHAINAZAROV,1

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Anne

    Ionotropic GABA Receptor From Lobster Olfactory Projection Neurons A. B. ZHAINAZAROV,1 M. WACHOWIAK and B. W. Ache. Ionotropic GABA receptor from lobster olfactory additional diversity within these two lobster and analyzed by whole cell and of crustacean (Dudel and Hatt 1976).cell-free patch-clamp recording

  14. Evidence That Different Cation Chloride Cotransporters in Retinal Neurons Allow Opposite Responses to GABA

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Evidence That Different Cation Chloride Cotransporters in Retinal Neurons Allow Opposite Responses of Human Physiology, Davis, California 95616 GABA gating an anion channel primarily permeable to chloride to GABA should express different chloride transporters. To test this, we immunostained retina for the K

  15. GABA exerts protective and regenerative effects on islet beta cells and reverses diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Nepton; Qiu, Hongmin; Aleksic, Mila; Glinka, Yelena; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Nina; Chakrabarti, Rabindranath; Jin, Tianru; Zhang, Haibo; Lu, Wei-Yang; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Prud'homme, Gerald J.; Wang, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulitis and islet ?-cell loss. Thus, an effective therapy may require ?-cell restoration and immune suppression. Currently, there is no treatment that can achieve both goals efficiently. We report here that GABA exerts antidiabetic effects by acting on both the islet ?-cells and immune system. Unlike in adult brain or islet ?-cells in which GABA exerts hyperpolarizing effects, in islet ?-cells, GABA produces membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, leading to the activation of PI3-K/Akt–dependent growth and survival pathways. This provides a potential mechanism underlying our in vivo findings that GABA therapy preserves ?-cell mass and prevents the development of T1D. Remarkably, in severely diabetic mice, GABA restores ?-cell mass and reverses the disease. Furthermore, GABA suppresses insulitis and systemic inflammatory cytokine production. The ?-cell regenerative and immunoinhibitory effects of GABA provide insights into the role of GABA in regulating islet cell function and glucose homeostasis, which may find clinical application. PMID:21709230

  16. Phasic, Nonsynaptic GABA-A Receptor-Mediated Inhibition Entrains Thalamocortical Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Rovó, Zita; Mátyás, Ferenc; Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Lecci, Sandro; Pellegrini, Chiara; Astori, Simone; Dávid, Csaba; Hangya, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    GABA-A receptors (GABA-ARs) are typically expressed at synaptic or nonsynaptic sites mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. These two forms of inhibition conjointly control various network oscillations. To disentangle their roles in thalamocortical rhythms, we focally deleted synaptic, ?2 subunit-containing GABA-ARs in the thalamus using viral intervention in mice. After successful removal of ?2 subunit clusters, spontaneous and evoked GABAergic synaptic currents disappeared in thalamocortical cells when the presynaptic, reticular thalamic (nRT) neurons fired in tonic mode. However, when nRT cells fired in burst mode, slow phasic GABA-AR-mediated events persisted, indicating a dynamic, burst-specific recruitment of nonsynaptic GABA-ARs. In vivo, removal of synaptic GABA-ARs reduced the firing of individual thalamocortical cells but did not abolish slow oscillations or sleep spindles. We conclude that nonsynaptic GABA-ARs are recruited in a phasic manner specifically during burst firing of nRT cells and provide sufficient GABA-AR activation to control major thalamocortical oscillations. PMID:24849349

  17. Interchangeable discharge patterns of neurons in caudal nucleus tractus solitarii in rat slices: role of GABA and NMDA.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, J C; Chan, S H

    1997-01-01

    1. We characterized in rat brain slices the discharge patterns of spontaneously active neurons in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) and the neuromodulatory role of GABA and glutamate, via GABAA and NMDA receptors. 2. Spontaneous action potentials recorded intracellularly from cNTS neurons manifested either a regular or an irregular discharge pattern, alongside characteristic waveforms of the action potentials. These discharge patterns were interchangeable, and were highly sensitive to fluctuations in membrane potentials. In addition, the repolarizing rate of the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) in cNTS neurons that exhibited a regular discharge pattern was significantly higher than that of neurons that displayed irregular discharges. 3. cNTS neurons that manifested a regular discharge pattern were converted to irregular discharges upon superfusion with GABA (200 microM). This was accompanied by a reduction in the repolarizing rate of the AHP of both spontaneous and evoked action potentials. Conversion of discharge patterns in the opposite direction was elicited by superfusion with NMDA (6.8 microM). 4. The irregular discharges of spontaneous or evoked cNTS neurons were converted to a regular discharge pattern by bicuculline (200 microM). Subsequent application of D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (250 microM) essentially led the neuronal discharges to revert to an irregular pattern. 5. Our results support the presence of two interchangeable modes of electrophysiological manifestations from the same cNTS neuronal population. They also showed that GABA and glutamate, via GABAA and NMDA receptors, may provide a novel form of neuromodulation at the cNTS by switching the patterns of neuronal discharges. PMID:9401969

  18. Effect of GABA agonists and GABA-A receptor modulators on cocaine- and food-maintained responding and cocaine discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Mello, Nancy K; Caine, S Barak

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that GABAergic ligands modulate abuse-related effects of cocaine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mechanistically diverse group of GABAergic ligands on the discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats. One group of rats was trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-reinforced, drug discrimination procedure. In two other groups, responding was maintained by cocaine (0-3.2 mg/kg/injection) or liquid food (0-100%) under a fixed ratio 5 schedule. Six GABA agonists were tested: the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, the GABA transaminase inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), and three GABA-A receptor modulators (the barbiturate pentobarbital, the high-efficacy benzodiazepine midazolam, and the low-efficacy benzodiazepine enazenil). When tested alone, none of the compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. As acute pretreatments, select doses of midazolam and pentobarbital produced 2.2- to 3.6-fold rightward shifts in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, GVG, and enazenil failed to alter the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. In assays of cocaine- and food-maintained responding, midazolam and pentobarbital decreased cocaine self-administration at doses 9.6- and 3.3-fold lower, respectively, than those that decreased food-maintained responding. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, and GVG decreased cocaine self-administration at doses that also decreased food-maintained responding. Enazenil failed to alter cocaine self-administration. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that among mechanistically diverse GABA agonists, high-efficacy GABA-A modulators may be the most effective for modifying the abuse-related effects of cocaine. PMID:16033912

  19. GABA/glutamate co-release controls habenula output and is modified by antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Piriz, Joaquin; Malinow, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb), a key regulator of monoaminergic brain regions, is activated by negatively-valenced events. Its hyperactivity is associated with depression. While enhanced excitatory input to the LHb has been linked to depression, little is known about inhibitory transmission. We discovered that GABA is co-released with its functional opponent, glutamate, from long-range basal ganglia inputs (which signal negative events) to limit LHb activity in rodents. At this synapse, the balance of GABA/glutamate signaling is shifted towards reduced GABA in a model of depression and increased GABA by antidepressant treatment. GABA and glutamate co-release therefore controls LHb activity, and regulation of this remarkable form of transmission may be important for determining the impact of negative life events on mood and behavior. PMID:25237099

  20. Supersensitivity to allosteric GABA(A) receptor modulators and alcohol in mice lacking PKCepsilon.

    PubMed

    Hodge, C W; Mehmert, K K; Kelley, S P; McMahon, T; Haywood, A; Olive, M F; Wang, D; Sanchez-Perez, A M; Messing, R O

    1999-11-01

    Several of the actions of ethanol are mediated by gamma-aminobutyrate type A (GABA(A)) receptors. Here we demonstrated that mutant mice lacking protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) were more sensitive than wild-type littermates to the acute behavioral effects of ethanol and other drugs that allosterically activate GABA(A) receptors. GABA(A) receptors in membranes isolated from the frontal cortex of PKCepsilon null mice were also supersensitive to allosteric activation by ethanol and flunitrazepam. In addition, these mutant mice showed markedly reduced ethanol self-administration. These findings indicate that inhibition of PKCepsilon increases sensitivity of GABA(A) receptors to ethanol and allosteric modulators. Pharmacological agents that inhibit PKCepsilon may be useful for treatment of alcoholism and may provide a non-sedating alternative for enhancing GABA(A) receptor function to treat other disorders such as anxiety and epilepsy. PMID:10526339

  1. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Whissell, Paul D; Cajanding, Janine D; Fogel, Nicole; Kim, Jun Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behavior. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV) than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1, and Aud1). The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favor the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labeling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism. PMID:26441554

  2. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Whissell, Paul D.; Cajanding, Janine D.; Fogel, Nicole; Kim, Jun Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behavior. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV) than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1, and Aud1). The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favor the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labeling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism. PMID:26441554

  3. Sensory integration in mouse insular cortex reflects GABA circuit maturation

    PubMed Central

    Gogolla, Nadine; Takesian, Anne E.; Feng, Guoping; Fagiolini, Michela; Hensch, Takao K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Insular cortex (IC) contributes to a variety of complex brain functions, such as communication, social behavior and self-awareness through the integration of sensory, emotional and cognitive content. How the IC acquires its integrative properties remains unexplored. We compared the emergence of multisensory integration (MSI) in the IC of behaviorally distinct mouse strains. While adult C57BL/6 mice exhibited robust MSI, this capacity was impaired in the inbred BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of idiopathic autism. The deficit reflected a compromised postnatal pruning of cross-modal input by weakened inhibition. Transient pharmacological enhancement by diazepam in BTBR mice during an early sensitive period rescued GABA circuits and integration in the adult IC. Moreover, impaired MSI was common across three other monogenic models (GAD65, Shank3, Mecp2 knockout mice) displaying behavioral phenotypes and altered parvalbumin-positive GABA circuitry. Our findings offer developmental insight into a key neural circuit relevant to neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia and autism. PMID:25088363

  4. Mechanism of inactivation of ?-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase by (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunbeom; Doud, Emma H; Wu, Rui; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Juncosa, Jose I; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L; Silverman, Richard B

    2015-02-25

    ?-Aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian cells. When the concentration of GABA falls below a threshold level, convulsions can occur. Inhibition of GABA-AT raises GABA levels in the brain, which can terminate seizures as well as have potential therapeutic applications in treating other neurological disorders, including drug addiction. Among the analogues that we previously developed, (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115) showed 187 times greater potency than that of vigabatrin, a known inactivator of GABA-AT and approved drug (Sabril) for the treatment of infantile spasms and refractory adult epilepsy. Recently, CPP-115 was shown to have no adverse effects in a Phase I clinical trial. Here we report a novel inactivation mechanism for CPP-115, a mechanism-based inactivator that undergoes GABA-AT-catalyzed hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group to a carboxylic acid with concomitant loss of two fluoride ions and coenzyme conversion to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The partition ratio for CPP-115 with GABA-AT is about 2000, releasing cyclopentanone-2,4-dicarboxylate (22) and two other precursors of this compound (20 and 21). Time-dependent inactivation occurs by a conformational change induced by the formation of the aldimine of 4-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid and PMP (20), which disrupts an electrostatic interaction between Glu270 and Arg445 to form an electrostatic interaction between Arg445 and the newly formed carboxylate produced by hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group in CPP-115, resulting in a noncovalent, tightly bound complex. This represents a novel mechanism for inactivation of GABA-AT and a new approach for the design of mechanism-based inactivators in general. PMID:25616005

  5. Altered ?-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission in major depressive disorder: a critical review of the supporting evidence and the influence of serotonergic antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that central nervous system ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been present since at least 1980, and this idea has recently gained support from more recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. These observations have led to the assumption that MDD’s underlying etiology is tied to an overall reduction in GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. In this paper, we review the mechanisms that govern GABA and glutamate concentrations in the brain, and provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the clinical data supporting reduced GABA neurotransmission in MDD. This review includes an evaluation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy data, as well as data on the expression and function of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA neuron-specific cell markers, such as parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin, and the GABAA and GABAB receptors in clinical MDD populations. We explore a potential role for glial pathology in MDD-related reductions in GABA concentrations, and evidence of a connection between neurosteroids, GABA neurotransmission, and hormone-related mood disorders. Additionally, we investigate the effects of GABAergic pharmacological agents on mood, and demonstrate that these compounds have complex effects that do not universally support the idea that reduced GABA neurotransmission is at the root of MDD. Finally, we discuss the connections between serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and show that two serotonin-focused antidepressants – the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine – modulate GABA neurotransmission in opposing ways, despite both being effective MDD treatments. Altogether, this review demonstrates that there are large gaps in our understanding of the relationship between GABA physiology and MDD, which must be remedied with more data from well-controlled empirical studies. In conclusion, this review suggests that the simplistic notion that MDD is caused by reduced GABA neurotransmission must be discarded in favor of a more nuanced and complex model of the role of inhibitory neurotransmission in MDD. PMID:25653499

  6. ?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-15

    The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

  7. Quantitative changes of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14-day hindlimb unloading by tail suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating quantitatively gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. A reduction in the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-containing terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system of hindlimb-suspended animals, it is suggested that the unloading due to hindlimb suspension alters afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the reduction in immunoreactivity of local circuit GABAergic neurons and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  8. Golden age of RyR and GABA-R diamide and isoxazoline insecticides: common genesis, serendipity, surprises, selectivity, and safety.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2015-04-20

    The serendipitous observation of the insecticidal activity of a candidate herbicide was the first in a series of surprises that changed the course of insecticide research and opened the "Golden Age of Diamide and Isoxazoline Insecticides" which have a common genesis. Two novel modes of action were discovered, one involving the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor of the chloride channel and the other the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium-activated calcium channel. These are old insecticide targets, but physiological assays and radioligand binding studies reveal that the new diamides and isoxazolines act at previously unrecognized sites without cross-resistance to other chemotypes and more important differing between insects and mammals resulting in selective toxicity and mechanistically based safety. The phthalic diamide flubendiamide and anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole act at an allosteric site of the RyR to activate calcium release in insects but not mammals. They are the most important insecticide introductions of the past decade. Isoxazoline and meta-diamide insecticides and their previously unrecognized GABA-R target are more recent discoveries. Isoxazolines are currently important in flea and tick control in dogs and cats, and meta-diamides show promise for pest management and crop protection. These 21st century RyR and GABA-R diamides and isoxazolines were serendipitous discoveries and developments showing the importance of mechanism studies in maintaining the arsenal of safe and effective insecticides. PMID:25688713

  9. Spillover Transmission Is Mediated by the Excitatory GABA Receptor LGC-35 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jobson, Meghan A.; Valdez, Chris M.; Gardner, Jann; Garcia, L. Rene

    2015-01-01

    Under most circumstances, GABA activates chloride-selective channels and thereby inhibits neuronal activity. Here, we identify a GABA receptor in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that conducts cations and is therefore excitatory. Expression in Xenopus oocytes demonstrates that LGC-35 is a homopentameric cation-selective receptor of the cys-loop family exclusively activated by GABA. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that LGC-35 evolved from GABA-A receptors, but the pore-forming domain contains novel molecular determinants that confer cation selectivity. LGC-35 is expressed in muscles and directly mediates sphincter muscle contraction in the defecation cycle in hermaphrodites, and spicule eversion during mating in the male. In the locomotory circuit, GABA release directly activates chloride channels on the muscle to cause muscle relaxation. However, GABA spillover at these synapses activates LGC-35 on acetylcholine motor neurons, which in turn cause muscles to contract, presumably to drive wave propagation along the body. These studies demonstrate that both direct and indirect excitatory GABA signaling plays important roles in regulating neuronal circuit function and behavior in C. elegans. PMID:25673867

  10. D4 and D1 dopamine receptors modulate [3H] GABA release in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the rat.

    PubMed

    Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Hernández-Chan, Nancy; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco; Sierra, Arturo; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2009-12-01

    Neurons of the globus pallidus express dopamine D4 receptors that can modulate transmitter release by their axon terminals. Indeed, GABA release from pallidal terminals in the subthalamic nucleus and in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus is inhibited by activation of D4 receptors. Here we investigated whether GABA release by pallidal projections to the substantia nigra reticulate (SNr) is also modulated by D4 receptors. Dopamine-stimulated depolarization-induced GABA release in slices of the SNr; however, after selective blockade of D1 receptors, dopamine inhibited release. The selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 (IC(50) = 5.30 nM) mimicked the inhibition of release while the selective D4 antagonist L-745,870 blocked the inhibition. To identify the source of D1 and D4 modulated terminals, we unilaterally injected kainic acid in either the GP or the striatum. After lesions of the pallidum, the D4 induced inhibition of release was blocked while the D1 induced stimulation was still significant. Lesions of the striatum had the converse effects. We conclude that release of dopamine in the SNr enhances GABA release mainly through activation of D1 receptors in striatonigral projections and inhibits release mainly through activation of D4 receptors in pallidonigral projections. Because deficient D4 receptor signaling in globus pallidus terminals will lead to disinhibition of impulse traffic through the thalamus we speculate that the D4 abnormalities observed in ADHD patients may be important in the generation of the syndrome. PMID:19715708

  11. Alleviation of glutamate mediated neuronal insult by piroxicam in rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia: a possible mechanism of GABA agonism.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2014-12-01

    Neurotransmitter imbalance is an inevitable outcome in cerebral ischemia that leads to neuronal death. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of piroxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on extracellular brain glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release, survival time, and neuronal cell death. Transient focal cerebral ischemia in male Charles Foster rat led to neuronal infarction and compromised intrinsic antioxidant status. Thirty-minute preadministration of piroxicam (10 mg/kg b.w.) showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in cerebral infarct volume and potentiation of the intrinsic antioxidant status. High-performance liquid chromatography of brain cortex and striatum revealed changes in extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters which were found to be 0.519 ± 0.44 pmole/mg (GABA); 1.18 ± 0.28 pmole/mg (glutamate), and 0.63 ± 0.21 pmole/mg (serotonin), respectively. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) adduct of salicylate in the frontal cortex and striatum in control, untreated, and treated groups was found to be 0.261 ± 0.06, 0.68?± 0.52, and 0.401 ± 0.68 pmole/mg, respectively. After stroke, the extracellular level of glutamate in rat brain increases continuously as compared to that of control group. However, piroxicam administration in stroke rat significantly reduced (P < 0.05) elevated extracellular cerebral glutamate. This indicates that piroxicam attenuates extracellular glutamate release and also reduces neuronal cell death due to reduction in oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia. Our results also indicate a consequent increase of extracellular GABA in brain regions administered with piroxicam, which hints that piroxicam alleviates glutamate excitotoxicity possibly by GABA agonism. PMID:25292423

  12. Electrical Wiring of the Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC with a Polymer Containing Osmium Redox Centers: Biosensors for Benzaldehyde and GABA.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Dierich, Marlen; Stiba, Konstanze; Schwuchow, Viola; Leimkühler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below -0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl). The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A "reagentless" biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10-150 µM and the detection limit of 5 µM (signal to noise ratio 3:1) of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13) for 200 µM benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T) and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. PMID:25587431

  13. Impulsivity and Aggression in Female BPD and ADHD Patients: Association with ACC Glutamate and GABA Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ende, Gabriele; Cackowski, Sylvia; Van Eijk, Julia; Sack, Markus; Demirakca, Traute; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Sobanski, Esther; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by high impulsivity and difficulties in controlling anger and aggression. In BPD, comorbid ADHD may further increase impulsivity. For both disorders, altered MR spectroscopy levels of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA as well as some correlations with impulsivity were previously reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA in relation to impulsivity and aggression as expressed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in groups of female patients with BPD and ADHD, respectively. Associations of glutamate and GABA levels with further BPD (symptom severity) and ADHD aspects (hyperactivity and inattention) were exploratively evaluated. 1H MR spectra were acquired at 3T to determine glutamate to total creatine ratios (Glu/tCr) and GABA levels from the ACC in a BPD group (n=26), an ADHD group (n=22), and a healthy control (HC) group (n=30); all participants were females. Both patient groups showed higher scores on self-reported impulsivity, anger, and aggression compared with HCs. ACC GABA levels were significantly lower in ADHD than HC. Although measures of impulsivity were positively related to glutamate and negatively to GABA, for aggression only a negative correlation with GABA could be demonstrated. These data provide human in vivo evidence for the role of ACC Glu/tCr and GABA in impulsivity and aggression. If distinct associations of Glu/tCr and GABA for BPD and ADHD can be confirmed in future studies, this might yield implications for more specific pharmacological treatments. PMID:26040503

  14. Endospore abundance and D:L-amino acid modeling of bacterial turnover in holocene marine sediment (Aarhus Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerhuus, Alice T.; Røy, Hans; Lever, Mark A.; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2012-12-01

    In order to study bacterial activity, and turnover times of bacterial necromass and biomass in marine sediment, two stations from the Aarhus Bay, Denmark were analyzed. Sediment cores were up to 11 m deep and covered a timescale from the present to ˜11,000 years ago. Sediment was analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), total hydrolysable amino sugars, the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers (L- and D-form) of aspartic acid. Turnover times of bacterial necromass and vegetative cells, as well as carbon oxidation rates were estimated by use of the D:L-amino acid racemization model. Diagenetic indicators were applied to evaluate the diagenetic state of the sedimentary organic matter. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon, and the ratio between the amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and their respective non protein degradation products, ?-alanine and ?-amino butyric acid, all indicated increasing degradation state of the organic matter with sediment depth and age. Quantification of DPA showed that endospores were abundant, and increased with depth relative to vegetative cells. Most of the amino acids (97%) could be ascribed to microbial necromass, i.e. the remains of dead bacterial cells. Model estimates showed that the turnover times of microbial necromass were in the range of 0.5-1 × 105 years, while turnover times of vegetative cells were in the range of tens to hundreds of years. The turnover time of the TOC pool increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that the TOC pool became progressively more refractory and unavailable to microorganisms with depth and age of the organic matter.

  15. Distribution of GABA-immunolabeling in the early zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain.

    PubMed

    Doldán, M J; Prego, B; Holmqvist, B I; de Miguel, E

    1999-04-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of GABA-expression in the brains of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos was studied by means of immunohistochemical techniques. GABA is said to exert neurotrophic actions in the early regulation of the differentiation of the central nervous system. In early stages GABAergic cells form distinct clusters throughout the CNS. As development progresses, more GABAergic clusters appear, and a pattern of GABAergic axonal projections is well defined. Although there is a corresponding pattern of distribution and appearance of GABA-expression in the brain of different teleosts, further studies are needed to establish its role during early morphogenesis of the CNS of vertebrates. PMID:10342443

  16. Structural Determinants for High-Affinity Zolpidem Binding to GABA-A receptors

    E-print Network

    Teissére, Jeremy Alden

    benzodiazepines (BZDs), zolpidem binds at the extracellular N-terminal / subunit interface of the GABA-A receptor to classic benzodiazepines (BZDs), such as flunitraz- epam and diazepam, zolpidem binds to the extracellular

  17. Cell and receptor type-specific alterations in markers of GABA neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David A; Hashimoto, Takanori; Morris, Harvey M

    2008-10-01

    Impairments in cognitive control, such as those involved in working memory, are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with schizophrenia. This dysfunction appears to result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA-mediated neurotransmission. In this paper, we review recent findings indicating that the altered DLPFC circuitry in subjects with schizophrenia reflects changes in the expression of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmission. Specifically, using a combination of methods, we found that subjects with schizophrenia exhibited expression deficits in GABA-related transcripts encoding presynaptic regulators of GABA neurotransmission, neuropeptide markers of specific subpopulations of GABA neurons, and certain subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. In particular, alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin suggested that GABA neurotransmission is impaired in the Martinotti subset of GABA neurons that target the dendrites of pyramidal cells. In contrast, none of the GABA-related transcripts assessed to date were altered in the DLPFC of monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications, suggesting that the effects observed in the human studies reflect the disease process and not its treatment. In concert with previous findings, these data suggest that working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia may be attributable to altered GABA neurotransmission in specific DLPFC microcircuits. PMID:19073429

  18. Multiple Forms of Endocannabinoid and Endovanilloid Signaling Regulate the Tonic Control of GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Ledri, Marco; Tóth, Blanka; Marchionni, Ivan; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Dudok, Barna; Kenesei, Kata; Barna, László; Szabó, Szilárd I.; Renkecz, Tibor; Oberoi, Michelle; Watanabe, Masahiko; Limoli, Charles L.; Horvai, George; Soltesz, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent CB1 cannabinoid receptor activity limits neurotransmitter release at various synapses throughout the brain. However, it is not fully understood how constitutively active CB1 receptors, tonic endocannabinoid signaling, and its regulation by multiple serine hydrolases contribute to the synapse-specific calibration of neurotransmitter release probability. To address this question at perisomatic and dendritic GABAergic synapses in the mouse hippocampus, we used a combination of paired whole-cell patch-clamp recording, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy super-resolution imaging, and immunogold electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, application of the CB1 antagonist and inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], but not the neutral antagonist NESS0327 [8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[2,3]cyclohepta[2,4-b]pyrazole-3-carboxamine], significantly increased synaptic transmission between CB1-positive perisomatic interneurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons. JZL184 (4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate), a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the presynaptic degrading enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), elicited a robust increase in 2-AG levels and concomitantly decreased GABAergic transmission. In contrast, inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by PF3845 (N-pyridin-3-yl-4-[[3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]oxyphenyl]methyl]piperidine-1-carboxamide) elevated endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide levels but did not change GABAergic synaptic activity. However, FAAH inhibitors attenuated tonic 2-AG increase and also decreased its synaptic effects. This antagonistic interaction required the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor TRPV1, which was concentrated on postsynaptic intracellular membrane cisternae at perisomatic GABAergic symmetrical synapses. Interestingly, neither AM251, JZL184, nor PF3845 affected CB1-positive dendritic interneuron synapses. Together, these findings are consistent with the possibility that constitutively active CB1 receptors substantially influence perisomatic GABA release probability and indicate that the synaptic effects of tonic 2-AG release are tightly controlled by presynaptic MGL activity and also by postsynaptic endovanilloid signaling and FAAH activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tonic cannabinoid signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. However, the mechanistic details of how persistent CB1 cannabinoid receptor activity inhibits neurotransmitter release have remained elusive. Therefore, electrophysiological recordings, lipid measurements, and super-resolution imaging were combined to elucidate those signaling molecules and mechanisms that underlie tonic cannabinoid signaling. The findings indicate that constitutive CB1 activity has pivotal function in the tonic control of hippocampal GABA release. Moreover, the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is continuously generated postsynaptically, but its synaptic effect is regulated strictly by presynaptic monoacylglycerol lipase activity. Finally, anandamide signaling antagonizes tonic 2-AG signaling via activation of postsynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid TRPV1 receptors. This unexpected mechanistic diversity may be necessary to fine-tune GABA release probability under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:26157003

  19. Independent Effects of ?-Aminobutyric Acid Transaminase (GABAT) on Metabolic and Sleep Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Sarah E; Rhoades, Seth; Chen, Wen-Feng; Sengupta, Arjun; Yue, Zhifeng; Lim, Jason C; Mitchell, Claire H; Weljie, Aalim M; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-08-14

    Breakdown of the major sleep-promoting neurotransmitter, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in the GABA shunt generates catabolites that may enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but it is unknown whether catabolic by-products of the GABA shunt actually support metabolic homeostasis. In Drosophila, the loss of the specific enzyme that degrades GABA, GABA transaminase (GABAT), increases sleep, and we show here that it also affects metabolism such that flies lacking GABAT fail to survive on carbohydrate media. Expression of GABAT in neurons or glia rescues this phenotype, indicating a general metabolic function for this enzyme in the brain. As GABA degradation produces two catabolic products, glutamate and succinic semialdehyde, we sought to determine which was responsible for the metabolic phenotype. Through genetic and pharmacological experiments, we determined that glutamate, rather than succinic semialdehyde, accounts for the metabolic phenotype of gabat mutants. This is supported by biochemical measurements of catabolites in wild-type and mutant animals. Using in vitro labeling assays, we found that inhibition of GABAT affects energetic pathways. Interestingly, we also observed that gaba mutants display a general disruption in bioenergetics as measured by altered levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, NAD(+)/NADH, and ATP levels. Finally, we report that the effects of GABAT on sleep do not depend upon glutamate, indicating that GABAT regulates metabolic and sleep homeostasis through independent mechanisms. These data indicate a role of the GABA shunt in the development of metabolic risk and suggest that neurological disorders caused by altered glutamate or GABA may be associated with metabolic disruption. PMID:26124278

  20. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  1. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid ?-aminobutyric acid by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Casado, Mercedes; Molero, Marta; Sierra, Cristina; García-Cazorla, Angels; Ormazabal, Aida; Artuch, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is suitable for investigating various neurological disorders. In this study, a sensitive and selective method for free GABA quantification in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been standardised. This method is based on CE with LIF detection using 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-F) as a derivatisating agent. The reaction conditions (NBD-F concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time) and the electrophoretic parameters (run buffer composition and pH and separation voltage) were optimised to obtain the maximum derivatisation efficiency and electrophoretic resolution. The best resolution was obtained using 200 mM sodium borate, 10 mM SDS, 8.5 mM ?-CD, pH 10 and 20 kV voltage. The method was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-1000 nM with good inter- and intra-assay precision values. The effects of CSF handling on free GABA concentrations were also evaluated. Our results show that the time delay between CSF collection and freezing strongly increases the CSF GABA values. Age-related reference values were established in 55 paediatric controls. The influence of antiepileptic therapy on free CSF GABA was studied in 38 neuropaediatric patients. Significantly, higher GABA values were obtained in patients taking valproic acid or vigabatrin therapy, which are antiepileptic drugs that modulate GABA metabolism. PMID:24338894

  2. Mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect of GABA against ischaemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shuhei; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Shintani, Takuya; Suzuki, Rie; Tsutsui, Hidenobu; Ohkita, Mamoru; Matsumura, Yasuo; Ayajiki, Kazuhide

    2015-03-01

    Excitation of the renal sympathetic nervous system is important for the development of ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. We reported that intravenous treatment with GABA has preventive effects against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced renal dysfunction with histological damage in rats; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects on renal injury remain unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify how GABA mechanistically affects ischaemic AKI in rats. Ischaemic AKI was induced in rats by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 min and then reperfusing the kidney to produce I/R-induced injury. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP52432 (100 nmol/kg, i.v., or 1 nmol/kg, i.c.v.) abolished the suppressive effects of 50 ?mol/kg, i.v., GABA on enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) during ischaemia, leading to elimination of the renoprotective effects of GABA. Intracerebroventricular treatment with 0.5 ?mol/kg GABA or i.v. treatment with 1 ?mol/kg baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevented the I/R-induced renal injury equivalent to i.v. treatment with GABA. Conversely, i.v. treatment with 10 ?mol/kg bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, failed to affect the preventive effects of GABA against ischaemic AKI. We therefore concluded that GABAB receptor stimulation in the central nervous system, rather than peripheral GABAB receptor stimulation, mediates the preventive effect of GABA against ischaemic AKI by suppressing the enhanced RSNA induced by renal ischaemia. PMID:25482107

  3. Acupuncture improves locomotor function by enhancing GABA receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Li, Fang; Du, Si-Qi; Wang, Lin-Peng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-02-19

    Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability among adults. Recent studies have found that GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a vital role in ameliorate locomotor damage after ischemic injury. Acupuncture has been widely used to improve locomotor function. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether GABA and GABA receptors are involved in the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One week after acupuncture at JiaJi acupoint, the locomotor function and infarct volumes were tested. Then level of GABA and the expressions of GABAA?2 and GABABR2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal group, GABAA?2 and GABABR2 expressions were decreased in striatum and spinal cord of the MCAO group. After acupuncture, the expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged. The present study suggests that acupuncture could reverse locomotor function by modulating the expressions of GABA receptors in MCAO rats. PMID:25556683

  4. Sensitivity of synaptic GABA(A) receptors to allosteric modulators in hippocampal oriens-alveus interneurons.

    PubMed

    Patenaude, C; Nurse, S; Lacaille, J C

    2001-07-01

    GABA(A) receptors are heteropentamers that are heterogeneously distributed at different synapses in the central nervous system. Although the modulation of GABA(A) receptors received much attention in hippocampal pyramidal cells, information is scarce regarding the pharmacology of these receptors in inhibitory interneurons. We investigated the pharmacological properties of GABA(A)-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in two morphologically identified types of hippocampal CA1 interneurons, horizontal and vertical cells of stratum oriens-alveus. The negative modulators zinc (200 microM) and furosemide (600 microM) significantly decreased the amplitude of mIPSCs. Benzodiazepine agonists also produced significant effects: 10 microM zolpidem increased the amplitude, rise time, and decay time constant (decay tau) of mIPSCs, whereas 10 microM flunitrazepam affected similarly the amplitude and decay tau, but not the rise time. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (10 microM) prolonged the decay tau of mIPSCs. Since these modulators act on different GABA(A) receptor subunits, this pharmacological profile suggests that GABA(A) receptors at spontaneously active inhibitory synapses onto vertical and horizontal interneurons are heterogeneous and formed by co-assembly of different combinations of subunits (alpha(1-5)beta(1-3)gamma(1-3)). Furthermore, these synaptic GABA(A) receptors appear in large part pharmacologically similar to those of pyramidal cells. PMID:11354011

  5. (1)H NMR metabolomics to study the effects of diazepam on anisatin induced convulsive seizures.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jun-Song; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The anticonvulsive properties of diazepam have been extensively studied, mainly focusing on the ?-amino butyrate (GABA) system. The aim of this investigation was to integrally analyze the metabolic events related to neuroprotection of diazepam on anisatin-induced convulsive seizures by a NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with histopathological examination and behavior examination. Multivariate analysis on metabolic profiles of the piriform cortex and cerebellum of mice revealed that diazepam could relieve mice suffering from the convulsive seizures by recovering destructed neurotransmitter and neuromodulator metabolism, ameliorating oxidative stress, alleviating the disturbance in energy, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism in anisatin intoxicated mice. This integrated metabolomics study provided a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate therapeutic effects and assessed the safety of diazepam. This study should be helpful for our understanding of convulsive seizures, and provide a holistic view of the treatment effects of benzodiazepine on convulsive seizures. PMID:26361344

  6. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased (P < 0.05) daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed consumption (DFC), the concentrations of Gln, glutamate (Glu), and GABA, and the activities of glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in breast muscle at 28, 35, and 42 days, while it increased (P < 0.05) the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved (P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased (P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased (P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA metabolism of broilers.

  7. Two-step production of gamma-aminobutyric acid from cassava powder using Corynebacterium glutamicum and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Kimani, Bernard Gitura; Xu, Meijuan; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from crop biomass such as cassava in high concentration is desirable, but difficult to achieve. A safe biotechnological route was investigated to produce GABA from cassava powder by C. glutamicum G01 and L. plantarum GB01-21. Liquefied cassava powder was first transformed to glutamic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with C. glutamicum G01, followed by biotransformation of glutamic acid to GABA with resting cells of L. plantarum GB01-21 in the reaction medium. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the maximum concentration of GABA reached 80.5 g/L with a GABA productivity of 2.68 g/L/h. This is the highest yield ever reported of GABA production from cassava-derived glucose. The bioprocess provides the added advantage of employing nonpathogenic microorganisms, C. glutamicum and L. plantarum, in microbial production of GABA from cassava biomass, which can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26115763

  8. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Results Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 ?g L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but toxic for S lice. Conclusions Avermectins are believed to exert their toxicity to invertebrates through interaction with glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride channels. Further potential drug targets include other Cys-loop ion channels such as nAChR. The present study demonstrates decreased transcript abundances of GABA-Cl and nAChR subunits in EMB-resistant salmon lice, suggesting their involvement in avermectin toxicity in caligids. PMID:23773482

  9. [Decrease in the activity of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism enzymes under the influence of kynurenines possessing convulsive activity].

    PubMed

    Lapin, I P; Nikitina, Z S; Sytinski?, I A

    1981-01-01

    Content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was unaltered in mouse brain and cerebellum after administration of D,L-kynurenine (50 mcg), quinolinic acid (5 mcg) and nicotinic acid (50 mcg) into brain ventricles. At the same time, after administration of kinurenine, quinolinic acid and nicotinic acid activity of GABA-transaminase in brain was decreased by 39%, 40% and 48, respectively; activity of glutamate decarboxylase was decreased by 27% and 36%, respectively, in this case nicotinic acid affected only slightly. Strong clonic convulsions occurred in 60% of mice after administration of kynurenine and quinolinic acid and only in 7% of mice after treatment with nicotinic acid. Deceleration in the GABA turnover and the subsequent weakening of the brain inhibitory systems were apparently essential in development of convulsions caused by the kynurenines. PMID:7467203

  10. Gastrodin decreases immunoreactivities of gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt enzymes in the hippocampus of seizure-sensitive gerbils.

    PubMed

    An, Sung-Jin; Park, Seung-Kook; Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, Sang Kook; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Jung, Sung Je; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Won, Moo Ho; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2003-02-15

    Gastrodin is one of the natural compound isolated from Gastrodia elata and has known anticonvulsant effects, although the exact pharmacological principles of this natural compound and its effects on other aspects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in vivo have not been explored. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of gastrodin on GABA metabolism in the gerbil hippocampus were examined, in an effort to identify the antiepileptic characteristics of this substance. Gastrodin reduced the seizure score in the treated group, although the immunoreactivities of GABA synthetic enzymes and GABA transporters were unaltered in gastrodin-treated animals. Interestingly, in the gastrodin-treated group, GABA transaminase (GABA-T) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, particularly in neurons, was significantly decreased. In the gastrodin-treated group, both succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) and succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) immunoreactivities in the hippocampus was also decreased significantly, which stood in contrast to the nontreated group, in which strong SSADH and SSAR immunoreactivities were detected. From the neuroanatomical viewpoint, these findings suggest that gastrodin may cause the elevation of GABA concentration by inhibiting the GABA shunt. PMID:12548709

  11. The GABA excitatory/inhibitory developmental sequence: a personal journey.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Y

    2014-10-24

    The developing brain is talkative but its language is not that of the adult. Most if not all voltage and transmitter-gated ionic currents follow a developmental sequence and network-driven patterns differ in immature and adult brains. This is best illustrated in studies engaged almost three decades ago in which we observed elevated intracellular chloride (Cl(-))i levels and excitatory GABA early during development and a perinatal excitatory/inhibitory shift. This sequence is observed in a wide range of brain structures and animal species suggesting that it has been conserved throughout evolution. It is mediated primarily by a developmentally regulated expression of the NKCC1 and KCC2 chloride importer and exporter respectively. The GABAergic depolarization acts in synergy with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated and voltage-gated calcium currents to enhance intracellular calcium exerting trophic effects on neuritic growth, migration and synapse formation. These sequences can be deviated in utero by genetic or environmental insults leading to a persistence of immature features in the adult brain. This "neuroarcheology" concept paves the way to novel therapeutic perspectives based on the use of drugs that block immature but not adult currents. This is illustrated notably with the return to immature high levels of chloride and excitatory actions of GABA observed in many pathological conditions. This is due to the fact that in the immature brain a down regulation of KCC2 and an up regulation of NKCC1 are seen. Here, I present a personal history of how an unexpected observation led to novel concepts in developmental neurobiology and putative treatments of autism and other developmental disorders. Being a personal account, this review is neither exhaustive nor provides an update of this topic with all the studies that have contributed to this evolution. We all rely on previous inventors to allow science to advance. Here, I present a personal summary of this topic primarily to illustrate why we often fail to comprehend the implications of our own observations. They remind us - and policy deciders - why Science cannot be programed, requiring time, and risky investigations that raise interesting questions before being translated from bench to bed. Discoveries are always on sideways, never on highways. PMID:25168736

  12. GABA modulates baroreflex in the ventral tegmental area in rat.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Masoumeh; Rasoulpanah, Minoo; Nasimi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    There are some reports demonstrating the cardiovascular functions of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). About 20-30% of the VTA neurons are GABAergic, which might play a role in baroreflex modulation. This study was performed to find the effects of GABAA, GABAB receptors and reversible synaptic blockade of the VTA on baroreflex. Drugs were microinjected into the VTA of urethane anesthetized rats, and the maximum change of blood pressure and the gain of the reflex bradycardia in response to intravenous phenylephrine (Phe) injection were compared with the preinjection and the control values. Microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 100 pmol/100 nl), a GABAA antagonist, into the VTA strongly decreased the Phe-induced hypertension, indicating that GABA itself attenuated the baroreflex. Muscimol, a GABAA agonist (30 mM, 100 nl), produced no significant changes. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist (1000 pmole/100 nl), moderately attenuated the baroreflex, however phaclofen, a GABAB receptor antagonist (1000 pmole/100 nl), had no significant effect. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated that GABAA receptors of the VTA strongly attenuate and GABAB receptors of the VTA moderately attenuate baroreflex in rat. Synapse 69:592-599, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26358962

  13. Reduced GABA neurotransmission underlies hyperalgesia induced by repeated forced swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Roca, Heberto; Leal, Lorena; Silva, José Antonio; Pinerua-Shuhaibar, Lorena; Quintero, Luis

    2008-05-16

    We determined if cutaneous hyperalgesia and pain-induced c-Fos overexpression in the spinal cord produced by repeated forced swimming (FS) stress in the rat were related to changes in GABA neurotransmission by studying spinal release of GABA and the effect of positive modulation of GABA-A receptors with diazepam. Male rats were daily submitted to 10-20 min of either forced swimming or sham swimming (SS) for 3 consecutive days. Two days later, spinal GABA release was estimated by in vivo microdialysis. In other set of rats, either diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered 1h before either SS or FS and inflammatory nociception was assessed with the formalin test; it was followed by removal of lumbar spinal cords for c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Basal and pain-evoked release of GABA in the spinal cord was lower in FS rats than in SS rats. In contrast, pain scores during formalin test late phase and pain-induced c-Fos expression in laminae I-VI of ipsilateral dorsal horn were significantly higher in FS rats than in SS rats. In FS rats, diazepam did not have effect on GABA release but reduced pain scores and overexpression of c-Fos whereas flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), an antagonist of the benzodiazepine binding site, reversed these effects. When diazepam was given only 1h before the formalin test, it slightly but significantly reduced pain scores during late phase in FS rats but not in SS rats. In conclusion, stress-induced reduction in GABA-A receptor activation is involved in the development of FS stress-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:18255166

  14. Ionic mechanisms of GABA-induced long-term potentiation in the rat superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    White, A M; Platt, B

    2001-10-01

    GABA-induced excitation and long-term potentiation (LTPG) have been demonstrated recently in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC). In other regions of the nervous system, GABA elicits excitatory responses via ionotropic GABA receptors under certain conditions. This excitation is proposed to be due to either a high neuronal chloride concentration favouring a depolarising chloride efflux, or to a bicarbonate efflux coupled to a chloride influx. The aim of this study was to characterise the mechanisms underlying excitation and prolonged increase in synaptic transmission induced by GABA in the SC. Extracellular field potentials were recorded from 1-month-old rat SC slices, and LTPG of these responses was evoked by application of 3 mM GABA. GABA-induced excitation and LTPG were significantly reduced by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration, but not by a decreased potassium concentration. Replacing the extracellular bicarbonate-buffered perfusion medium with a HEPES-buffered solution had no effect on LTPG but blocking the bicarbonate-generating enzyme carbonic anhydrase both intra- and extracellularly with ethoxyzolamide (50 microM) prevented LTPG. The chloride transport inhibitor bumetanide (50 microM) reduced but did not block LTPG. We therefore suggest that the contribution of the chloride equilibrium to LTPG is only of minor importance. The intracellular bicarbonate pool and related efflux provides the basis for the excitatory action of GABA, leading to a subsequent depolarisation and calcium influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels, thus causing long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission. PMID:11685402

  15. Differences in GABA-induced chloride ion influx in brain of inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, O.; Chiu, T.H.; Rosenberg, H.C.

    1986-03-01

    Audiogenic seizure-susceptible (AS) mice (DBA2J) are a widely used model of epilepsy. The precise pathophysiology of this mouse strain is not fully understood. One of the proposed mechanisms was a difference in GABA/BZ receptor affinity and population from that of audiogenic seizure resistant (ASR) mice. This study attempted to determine the difference in function of GABA/BZ receptor between DBA2J (AS) and C57BL6J (ASR) mice by directly measuring the GABA-induced chloride ion (/sup 36/Cl/sup -/) influx in twice washed crude brain homogenates. /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx was terminated by ice-cold buffer and collected by filtration. A concentration range of 2-1000 ..mu..M GABA and two age-matched groups (20-22 days and 40-42 days) were used. GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx was dose-dependent, and brain homogenates from DBA2J mice (20-22 days) were less sensitive to GABA-induced Cl/sup -/ ion influx than C57BL6J mice at both age groups. However, in older DBA2J mice (40-42 days), the sensitivity to GABA was intermediate between that of the younger AS mice and the control ASR mice. No significant difference in basal influx of Cl/sup -/ was observed between age groups and mouse strains, nor was there any significant difference between 20-22 days old and 40-42 days old C57BL6J mice. In conclusion, this study had demonstrated a malfunction may recover with age.

  16. Nutriepigenetic regulation by folate-homocysteine-methionine axis: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Seema; Tyagi, S C

    2014-02-01

    Although normally folic acid is given during pregnancy, presumably to prevent neural tube defects, the mechanisms of this protection are unknown. More importantly it is unclear whether folic acid has other function during development. It is known that folic acid re-methylates homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine by methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase-dependent pathways. Folic acid also generates high-energy phosphates, behaves as an antioxidant and improves nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial NO synthase. Interestingly, during epigenetic modification, methylation of DNA/RNA generate homocysteine unequivocally. The enhanced overexpression of methyl transferase lead to increased yield of Hcy. The accumulation of Hcy causes vascular dysfunction, reduces perfusion in the muscles thereby causing musculopathy. Another interesting fact is that children with severe hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) have skeletal deformities, and do not live past teenage. HHcy is also associated with the progeria syndrome. Epilepsy is primarily caused by inhibition of gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) receptor, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the neuronal synapse. Folate deficiency leads to HHcy which then competes with GABA for binding on the GABA receptors. With so many genetic and clinical manifestations associated with folate deficiency, we propose that folate deficiency induces epigenetic alterations in the genes and thereby results in disease. PMID:24213682

  17. A transcriptional study in mice with different ethanol-drinking profiles: possible involvement of the GABA(B) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Correia, Diego; Torres, Adriana Amorim; Boas, Gustavo Roberto Villas; Rueda, André Veloso Lima; Camarini, Rosana; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli; Brunialti-Godard, Ana Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ?-aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B)) receptor agonists effectively reduce ethanol intake. The quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction of Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 mRNA from the prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum in mice exposed to an animal model of the addiction developed in our laboratory was performed to evaluate the involvement of the GABA(B) receptor in ethanol consumption. We used outbred, Swiss mice exposed to a three-bottle free-choice model (water, 5% v/v ethanol, and 10% v/v ethanol) that consisted of four phases: acquisition (AC), withdrawal (W), reexposure (RE), and quinine-adulteration (AD). Based on individual ethanol intake, the mice were classified into three groups: "addicted" (A group; preference for ethanol and persistent consumption during all phases), "heavy" (H group; preference for ethanol and a reduction in ethanol intake in the AD phase compared to AC phase), and "light" (L group; preference for water during all phases). In the prefrontal cortex in the A group, we found high Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 transcription levels, with significantly higher Gabbr1 transcription levels compared with the C (ethanol-naive control mice), L, and H groups. In the hippocampus in the A group, Gabbr2 mRNA levels were significantly lower compared with the C, L, and H groups. In the striatum, we found a significant increase in Gabbr1 transcription levels compared with the C, L, and H groups. No differences in Gabbr1 or Gabbr2 transcription levels were observed in the hypothalamus among groups. In summary, Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 transcription levels were altered in cerebral areas related to drug taking only in mice behaviorally classified as "addicted" drinkers, suggesting that these genes may contribute to high and persistent ethanol consumption. PMID:22579910

  18. Perturbations in reward-related decision-making induced by reduced prefrontal cortical GABA transmission: Relevance for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Patrick T; Khayambashi, Shahin; Schluter, Magdalen G; Kutarna, Agnes; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for higher-order cognitive functions, including decision-making. In psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, prefrontal dysfunction co-occurs with pronounced alterations in decision-making ability. These alterations include a diminished ability to utilize probabilistic reinforcement in guiding future choice, and a reduced willingness to expend effort to receive reward. Among the neurochemical abnormalities observed in the PFC of individuals with schizophrenia are alterations in the production and function of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To probe how PFC GABA hypofunction may contribute to alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, we assessed the effects GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 50 ng in 0.5 ?l saline/hemisphere) infusion in the medial PFC of rats during performance on a series of well-validated cost/benefit decision-making tasks. Intra-PFC BIC reduced risky choice and reward sensitivity during probabilistic discounting and decreased the preference for larger rewards associated with a greater effort cost, similar to the behavioral sequelae observed in schizophrenia. Additional experiments revealed that these treatments did not alter instrumental responding on a progressive ratio schedule, nor did they impair the ability to discriminate between reward and no reward. However, BIC induced a subtle but consistent impairment in preference for larger vs. smaller rewards of equal cost. BIC infusion also increased decision latencies and impaired the ability to "stay on task" as indexed by reduced rates of instrumental responding. Collectively, these results implicate prefrontal GABAergic dysfunction as a key contributing factor to abnormal decision-making observed in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric conditions with similar neurobiological and behavioral alterations. PMID:26456353

  19. Vesicular glutamate (VGlut), GABA (VGAT), and acetylcholine (VACht) transporters in basal forebrain axon terminals innervating the lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Henny, Pablo; Jones, Barbara E

    2006-06-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) is known to play important roles in cortical activation and sleep, which are likely mediated by chemically differentiated cell groups including cholinergic, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and other unidentified neurons. One important target of these cells is the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which is critical for arousal and the maintenance of wakefulness. To determine whether chemically specific BF neurons provide an innervation to the LH, we employed anterograde transport of 10,000 MW biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) together with immunohistochemical staining of the vesicular transporter proteins (VTPs) for glutamate (VGluT1, -2, and -3), GABA (VGAT), or acetylcholine (ACh, VAChT). In addition, we applied triple staining for the postsynaptic proteins (PSPs), PSD-95 with VGluT or Gephyrin (Geph) with VGAT, to examine whether the BDA-labeled varicosities may form excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the LH. Axons originating from BDA-labeled neurons in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (MCPO) and substantia innominata (SI) descended within the medial forebrain bundle and extended collateral varicose fibers to contact LH neurons. In the LH, the BDA-labeled varicosities were immunopositive (+) for VAChT ( approximately 10%), VGluT2 ( approximately 25%), or VGAT ( approximately 50%), revealing an important influence of newly identified glutamatergic together with GABAergic BF inputs. Moreover, in confocal microscopy, VGluT2+ and VGAT+ terminals were apposed to PSD-95+ and Geph+ profiles respectively, indicating that they formed synaptic contacts with LH neurons. The important inputs from glutamatergic and GABAergic BF cells could thus regulate LH neurons in an opposing manner to stimulate vs. suppress cortical activation and behavioral arousal reciprocally. PMID:16572456

  20. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression by a distinct population of mouse vestibular supporting cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Tritto, Simona; Spaiardi, Paolo; Botta, Laura; Manca, Marco; Prigioni, Ivo; Masetto, Sergio; Russo, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The function of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is to convert glutamate in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Glutamate decarboxylase exists as two major isoforms, termed GAD65 and GAD67, that are usually expressed in GABA-containing neurons in the central nervous system. GAD65 has been proposed to be associated with GABA exocytosis whereas GAD67 with GABA metabolism. In the present immunofluorescence study, we have investigated the presence of the two GAD isoforms in the semicircular canal cristae of wild type and GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. While no evidence for GAD65 expression was found, GAD67 was detected in a distinct population of peripherally-located supporting cells, but not in hair cells or in centrally-located supporting cells. GABA, on the other hand, was found in all supporting cells. The present result indicate that only a discrete population of supporting cells use GAD67 to synthesize GABA. This is the first report of a marker that allows to distinguish two populations of supporting cells in the vestibular epithelium. On the other hand, the lack of GABA and GAD enzymes in hair cells excludes its involvement in afferent transmission. PMID:25565962

  1. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Coe, Brenda L; Smith, Lori L; Huo, Cheng-Jun; Dougherty, Charles T; Strickland, James R

    2008-07-23

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino acids (Phenomenex EZ:faast) and validated for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Extraction in ethanol/water (80:20, v/v) at ambient temperature yielded detectable amounts of GABA. Clean separation from other amino acids in 28 min was achieved by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID), using a 30 m, 5% phenyl/95% dimethylpolysiloxane column. The identity of the putative GABA peak was confirmed by GC with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The relatively small effects of the sample matrix on GABA measurement were verified by demonstrating slope parallelism of GABA curves prepared in the presence and absence of fescue extracts. Limits of quantification and detection were 2.00 and 1.00 nmol/100 microL, respectively. Method recoveries at two different spike levels were 96.4 and 94.2%, with coefficients of variation of 7.3 and 7.2%, respectively. PMID:18558696

  2. The pearl millet mitogen-activated protein kinase PgMPK4 is involved in responses to downy mildew infection and in jasmonic- and salicylic acid-mediated defense.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, S Ashok; Veena, Mariswamy; Shailasree, Sekhar; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John; Shetty, Shekar H; Kini, K Ramachandra

    2015-02-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) transduce signals required for the induction of immunity triggered by host recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a group B MPK (PgMPK4) from pearl millet. Autophosphorylation assay of recombinant PgMPK4 produced in Escherichia coli confirmed it as a kinase. Differential accumulation of PgMPK4 mRNA and kinase activity was observed between pearl millet cultivars 852B and IP18292 in response to inoculation with the downy mildew oomycete pathogen Sclerospora graminicola. This increased accumulation of PgMPK4 mRNA, kinase activity as well as nuclear-localization of PgMPK protein(s) was only detected in the S. graminicola resistant cultivar IP18292 with a ~tenfold peak at 9 h post inoculation. In the susceptible cultivar 852B, PgMPK4 mRNA and immuno-detectable nuclear PgMPK could be induced by application of the chemical elicitor ?-amino butyric acid, the non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, or by the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, kinase inhibitor treatments indicated that PgMPK4 is involved in the JA- and SA-mediated expression of three defense genes, lipoxygenase, catalase 3 and polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein. These findings indicate that PgMPK/s contribute to pearl millet defense against the downy mildew pathogen by activating the expression of defense proteins. PMID:25527312

  3. EFFECT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS ON BRAIN METABOLITES BY USING PROTON MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Santhakumari, Rajani; Reddy, Indla Yogananda; Archana, R

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism will be affected in T2DM either by chronic hyperglycemia or by chronic hypoxia. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain provides detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state and chemical environment of molecules. It also measures the levels of brain metabolites such as myo-inositol (mI), N acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). Several studies suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of cognitive impairment in comparison with the general population. The altered metabolites may cause cognitive dysfunction in T2DM. This review article concludes that in T2DM, metabolite levels were altered in different regions of brain. PMID:25568610

  4. PKC? and allopregnanolone: functional cross-talk at the GABAA receptor level

    PubMed Central

    Puia, Giulia; Ravazzini, Federica; Castelnovo, Luca Franco; Magnaghi, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Changes in GABAergic inhibition occur during physiological processes, during response to drugs and in various pathologies. These changes can be achieved through direct allosteric modifications at the ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptor protein level, or by altering the synthesis, trafficking and stability of the receptor. Neurosteroids (NSs) and protein kinase C (PKC) are potent modulators of GABAA receptors and their effects are presumably intermingled, even though evidence for this hypothesis is only partially explored. However, several PKC isoforms are able to phosphorylate the GABAA receptor, producing different functional effects. We focused on the ? isoform, that has been correlated to the sensitivity of the GABAA receptor to allosteric modulators and whose expression may be regulated in peripheral sensory neurons by NSs. The cross-talk between PKC-? and NSs, leading to changes in GABAA receptor functionality, is considered and discussed in this perspective. PMID:25852476

  5. Inhibition of radical reactions for an improved potassium tert-butoxide-promoted (11) C-methylation strategy for the synthesis of ?-(11) C-methyl amino acids.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chie; Kato, Koichi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Arano, Yasushi; Saga, Tsuneo

    2015-03-01

    ?-(11) C-Methyl amino acids are useful tools for biological imaging studies. However, a robust procedure for the labeling of amino acids has not yet been established. In this study, the (11) C-methylation of Schiff-base-activated ?-amino acid derivatives has been optimized for the radiosynthesis of various ?-(11) C-methyl amino acids. The benzophenone imine analog of methyl 2-amino butyrate was (11) C-methylated with [(11) C]methyl iodide following its initial deprotonation with potassium tert-butoxide (KOtBu). The use of an alternative base such as tetrabutylammonium fluoride, triethylamine, and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene did not result in the (11) C-methylated product. Furthermore, the KOtBu-promoted (11) C-methylation of the Schiff-base-activated amino acid analog was enhanced by the addition of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and inhibited by the addition of 1,10-phenanthroline. These results suggest that inhibition of radical generation induced by KOtBu improves the ?-(11) C-methylation of the Schiff-base-activated amino acids. The addition of a mixture of KOtBu and TEMPO to a solution of Schiff-base-activated amino acid ester and [(11) C]methyl iodide provided optimal results, and the tert-butyl ester and benzophenone imine groups could be readily hydrolyzed to give the desired ?-(11) C-methyl amino acids with a high radiochemical conversion. This strategy could be readily applied to the synthesis of other ?-(11) C-methyl amino acids. PMID:25690316

  6. Prefrontal/amygdalar system determines stress coping behavior through 5-HT/GABA connection.

    PubMed

    Andolina, Diego; Maran, Dario; Valzania, Alessandro; Conversi, David; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Coping is defined as the behavioral and physiological effort made to master stressful situations. The ability to cope with stress leads either to healthy or to pathogenic outcomes. The medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) and amygdala are acknowledged as having a major role in stress-related behaviors, and mpFC has a critical role in the regulation of amygdala-mediated arousal in response to emotionally salient stimuli. Prefrontal cortical serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is involved in corticolimbic circuitry, and GABA has a major role in amygdala functioning. Here, using mice, it was assessed whether amygdalar GABA regulation by prefrontal 5-HT is involved in processing stressful experiences and in determining coping outcomes. First (experiment 1), bilateral selective 5-HT depletion in mpFC of mice reduced GABA release induced by stress in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and passive coping in the Forced Swimming Test (FST) (experiment 2). Moreover, prefrontal-amygdala disconnection procedure that combined a selective unilateral 5-HT depletion of mpFC and infusion of an inhibitor of GABA synthesis into the contralateral BLA, thereby to disrupt prefrontal-amygdalar serial connectivity bilaterally, showed that disconnection selectively decreases immobility in the FST. These results point to prefrontal/amygdala connectivity mediated by 5-HT and GABA transmission as a critical neural mechanism in stress-induced behavior. PMID:23636466

  7. A Review of the Updated Pharmacophore for the Alpha 5 GABA(A) Benzodiazepine Receptor Model

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Terry; Poe, Michael M.; Rallapalli, Sundari; Biawat, Poonam; Savi?, Miroslav M.; Rowlett, James K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Stafford, Douglas C.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Cook, James M.

    2015-01-01

    An updated model of the GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor pharmacophore of the ?5-BzR/GABA(A) subtype has been constructed prompted by the synthesis of subtype selective ligands in light of the recent developments in both ligand synthesis, behavioral studies, and molecular modeling studies of the binding site itself. A number of BzR/GABA(A) ?5 subtype selective compounds were synthesized, notably ?5-subtype selective inverse agonist PWZ-029 (1) which is active in enhancing cognition in both rodents and primates. In addition, a chiral positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SH-053-2?F-R-CH3 (2), has been shown to reverse the deleterious effects in the MAM-model of schizophrenia as well as alleviate constriction in airway smooth muscle. Presented here is an updated model of the pharmacophore for ?5?2?2 Bz/GABA(A) receptors, including a rendering of PWZ-029 docked within the ?5-binding pocket showing specific interactions of the molecule with the receptor. Differences in the included volume as compared to ?1?2?2, ?2?2?2, and ?3?2?2 will be illustrated for clarity. These new models enhance the ability to understand structural characteristics of ligands which act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists at the Bz BS of GABA(A) receptors. PMID:26682068

  8. Mu opioid receptor modulation of somatodendritic dopamine overflow: GABA and glutamatergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chefer, V.I.; Denoroy, L.; Zapata, A.; Shippenberg, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of somatodendritic dopamine neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was investigated using conventional microdialysis in freely moving rats and mice. Reverse dialysis of the MOR agonist, DAMGO (50, 100 ?M), into the VTA of rats produced a concentration-dependent increase in dialysate DA concentrations. Basal dopamine overflow in the VTA was unaltered in mice lacking the MOR gene. However, basal GABA overflow in these animals was significantly increased, while glutamate overflow was decreased. Intra-VTA perfusion of DAMGO to wildtype (WT) mice increased dopamine overflow. GABA concentrations were decreased whereas glutamate concentrations in the VTA were unaltered. Consistent with the loss of MOR, no effect of DAMGO was observed in MOR knockout (KO) mice. These data provide the first direct demonstration of tonically active MOR systems in the VTA that regulate basal glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in this region. We hypothesize that increased GABAergic neurotransmission following constitutive deletion of MOR is due to the elimination of a tonic inhibitory influence of MOR on GABA neurons in the VTA, whereas decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission in MOR KO mice is a consequence of intensified GABA tone on glutamatergic neurons and/or terminals. As a consequence, somatodendritic dopamine release is unaltered. Furthermore, MOR KO exhibit no positive correlation between basal dopamine levels and the glutamate/GABA ratio observed in WT animals. Together our findings indicate a critical role of VTA MOR in maintaining an intricate balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs to dopaminergic neurons. PMID:19614973

  9. Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse

    PubMed Central

    Apostolides, Pierre F.; Trussell, Laurence O.

    2013-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter via the fusion of transmitter-filled, presynaptic vesicles is the primary means by which neurons relay information. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that supply neurotransmitter destined for vesicle filling, the endogenous transmitter concentrations inside presynaptic nerve terminals or the dynamics of vesicle refilling after exocytosis. We addressed these issues by recording from synaptically-coupled pairs of glycine/GABA co-releasing interneurons (cartwheel cells) of the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus. We find that the plasma membrane transporter GlyT2 and the intracellular enzyme glutamate decarboxylase supply the majority of glycine and GABA, respectively. Pharmacological block of GlyT2 or glutamate decarboxylase led to rapid and complete rundown of transmission, whereas increasing GABA synthesis via intracellular glutamate uncaging dramatically potentiated GABA release within one minute. These effects were surprisingly independent of exocytosis, indicating that pre-filled vesicles re-equilibrated upon acute changes in cytosolic transmitter. Titration of cytosolic transmitter with postsynaptic responses indicated that endogenous, non-vesicular glycine/GABA levels in nerve terminals are 5 to 7 mM, and that vesicular transport mechanisms are not saturated under basal conditions. Thus, cytosolic transmitter levels dynamically set the strength of inhibitory synapses in a release-independent manner. PMID:23486948

  10. A Review of the Updated Pharmacophore for the Alpha 5 GABA(A) Benzodiazepine Receptor Model.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Terry; Poe, Michael M; Rallapalli, Sundari; Biawat, Poonam; Savi?, Miroslav M; Rowlett, James K; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W; Kaczorowski, Catherine C; Stafford, Douglas C; Arnold, Leggy A; Cook, James M

    2015-01-01

    An updated model of the GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor pharmacophore of the ?5-BzR/GABA(A) subtype has been constructed prompted by the synthesis of subtype selective ligands in light of the recent developments in both ligand synthesis, behavioral studies, and molecular modeling studies of the binding site itself. A number of BzR/GABA(A) ?5 subtype selective compounds were synthesized, notably ?5-subtype selective inverse agonist PWZ-029 (1) which is active in enhancing cognition in both rodents and primates. In addition, a chiral positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (2), has been shown to reverse the deleterious effects in the MAM-model of schizophrenia as well as alleviate constriction in airway smooth muscle. Presented here is an updated model of the pharmacophore for ?5?2?2 Bz/GABA(A) receptors, including a rendering of PWZ-029 docked within the ?5-binding pocket showing specific interactions of the molecule with the receptor. Differences in the included volume as compared to ?1?2?2, ?2?2?2, and ?3?2?2 will be illustrated for clarity. These new models enhance the ability to understand structural characteristics of ligands which act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists at the Bz BS of GABA(A) receptors. PMID:26682068

  11. Prefrontal/Amygdalar System Determines Stress Coping Behavior Through 5-HT/GABA Connection

    PubMed Central

    Andolina, Diego; Maran, Dario; Valzania, Alessandro; Conversi, David; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Coping is defined as the behavioral and physiological effort made to master stressful situations. The ability to cope with stress leads either to healthy or to pathogenic outcomes. The medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) and amygdala are acknowledged as having a major role in stress-related behaviors, and mpFC has a critical role in the regulation of amygdala-mediated arousal in response to emotionally salient stimuli. Prefrontal cortical serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is involved in corticolimbic circuitry, and GABA has a major role in amygdala functioning. Here, using mice, it was assessed whether amygdalar GABA regulation by prefrontal 5-HT is involved in processing stressful experiences and in determining coping outcomes. First (experiment 1), bilateral selective 5-HT depletion in mpFC of mice reduced GABA release induced by stress in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and passive coping in the Forced Swimming Test (FST) (experiment 2). Moreover, prefrontal-amygdala disconnection procedure that combined a selective unilateral 5-HT depletion of mpFC and infusion of an inhibitor of GABA synthesis into the contralateral BLA, thereby to disrupt prefrontal-amygdalar serial connectivity bilaterally, showed that disconnection selectively decreases immobility in the FST. These results point to prefrontal/amygdala connectivity mediated by 5-HT and GABA transmission as a critical neural mechanism in stress-induced behavior. PMID:23636466

  12. The antidotal effects of high-dosage gamma-aminobutyric acid on acute tetramine poisoning as compared with sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Han, Jiyuan; Weng, Yuying

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice. Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied. PMID:17828500

  13. Effect of GABA on blood pressure and blood dynamics of anesthetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pengju; Li, Ting; Ji, Fanceng; Wang, Haibo; Pang, Juntao

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate GABA effects on blood pressure and blood dynamics of anesthetic rats by observing spontaneously hypertensive rats under both anesthesia and waking state. Materials and methods: 72 male waking Wistar-Kyokos (WKY) rats and 72 male anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were randomly divided into control group and experimental group (N = 36 each). Rats were further divided into three subgroups (N = 12 each), which received 15 ?mol GABA, 35 nmol muscimol, or 4 nmol dicentrine into unilateral paraventricular nucleus, respectively. Rats in the control group (WKY1) and experimental group (SHR1) were compared for the GABA effect on blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial baroreceptor reflex function (BRS) changes under waking state. Anesthetic WKY rats (WKY2) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR2) were compared for the GABA effect on those abovementioned indexes. Abdominal aorta mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and arterial baroreceptor reflex function changes were compared in all rats. Results: MAP, HR, and BRS were slightly lower in the rats under anesthetic state than in waking state before treatment (P < 0.05); they did not show significant changes between anesthetic and waking state, however, after treatment (P > 0.05). Unilateral paraventricular nucleus injection of GABA or muscimol elevated MAP, HR, and BRS in both normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats under waking or anesthetic state (P < 0.05). In addition, the amplitudes of changes of three indicators in spontaneously hypertensive group were markedly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). Dicentrine could induce MAP and HR to increase, while BRS decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The amplitudes of changes in spontaneously hypertensive group were larger than those of normal group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Centrally GABA injection can enhance the BRS function in spontaneously hypertensive rats and adjust heart rate to reduce the blood pressure fluctuation. It may play a role in reducing blood pressure and protecting cardiovascular function. PMID:26550413

  14. Rapid adaptation of rat brain and liver metabolism to a ketogenic diet: an integrated study using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy, Maggie; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Naulin, Jérôme; El Hamrani, Dounia; Gallis, Jean-Louis; Cunnane, Stephen C; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

    2015-07-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective alternative treatment for refractory epilepsy in children, but the mechanisms by which it reduces seizures are poorly understood. To investigate how the KD modifies brain metabolism, we infused control (CT) and 7-day KD rats with either [1-(13)C]glucose (Glc) or [2,4-(13)C2]?-hydroxybutyrate (?-HB). Specific enrichments of amino acids (AAs) measured by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR in total brain perchloric acid extracts were similar between CT and KD rats after [1-(13)C]Glc infusion whereas they were higher in KD rats after [2,4-(13)C2]?-HB infusion. This suggests better metabolic efficiency of ketone body utilization on the KD. The relative rapid metabolic adaptation to the KD included (1) 11%-higher brain ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)/glutamate (Glu) ratio versus CT, (2) liver accumulation of the ketogenic branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (ILeu), which were never detected in CT, and (3) higher brain Leu and ILeu contents. Since Glu and GABA are excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively, higher brain GABA/Glu ratio could contribute to the mechanism by which the KD reduces seizures in epilepsy. Increased BCAA on the KD may also contribute to better seizure control. PMID:25785828

  15. Exposure to novelty and forced swimming evoke stressor-dependent changes in extracellular GABA in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    de Groote, L; Linthorst, A C E

    2007-09-01

    In the hippocampus, a brain structure critically important in the stress response, GABA controls neuronal activity not only via synaptic inhibition, but also via tonic inhibition through stimulation of extrasynaptic GABA receptors. The extracellular level of GABA may represent a major determinant for tonic inhibition and, therefore, it is surprising that its responsiveness to stress has hardly been investigated. To clarify whether hippocampal extracellular GABA levels change in response to acute stress, we conducted an in vivo microdialysis study in rats. We found that dialysate GABA levels respond to various neuropharmacological manipulations such as reuptake inhibition, elevated concentrations of K(+), tetrodotoxin and baclofen, indicating that a large proportion of hippocampal extracellular GABA depends on neuronal release and that GABA re-uptake plays a role in determining the extracellular levels of this neurotransmitter. Next, rats were exposed to a novel cage or to forced swimming in 25 degrees C water. Interestingly, these two stressors resulted in opposite effects. Novelty caused a fast increase in GABA (120% of baseline), whereas forced swimming resulted in a profound decrease (70% of baseline). To discriminate between the psychological and physical aspects (i.e. the effects on body temperature) of forced swimming, another group of animals was forced to swim at 35 degrees C. This stressor, like novelty, caused an increase in hippocampal GABA, suggesting a stimulatory effect of psychological stress. The effects of novelty could not be blocked by the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). These results are the first to demonstrate stressor-dependent changes in hippocampal extracellular GABA; an observation which may be of particular significance for GABAergic tonic inhibition of hippocampal neurons. PMID:17693036

  16. Positive allosteric modulation of native and recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptors by 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) and its aldehyde analog CGP13501.

    PubMed

    Urwyler, S; Mosbacher, J; Lingenhoehl, K; Heid, J; Hofstetter, K; Froestl, W; Bettler, B; Kaupmann, K

    2001-11-01

    The compounds CGP7930 [2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol] and its close analog CGP13501 were identified as positive modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptor function. They potentiate GABA-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma[(35)S]) binding to membranes from a GABA(B(1b/2)) expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line at low micromolar concentrations and are ineffective in the absence of GABA. The structurally related compounds propofol and malonoben are inactive. Similar effects of CGP7930 are seen in a GTP gamma[(35)S] binding assay using a native GABA(B) receptor preparation (rat brain membranes). Receptor selectivity is demonstrated because no modulation of glutamate-induced GTP gamma[(35)S] binding is seen in a CHO cell line expressing the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2. Dose-response curves with GABA in the presence of different fixed concentrations of CGP7930 reveal an increase of both the potency and maximal efficacy of GABA at the GABA(B(1b/2)) heteromer. Radioligand binding studies show that CGP7930 increases the affinity of agonists but acts at a site different from the agonist binding site. Agonist affinity is not modulated by CGP7930 at homomeric GABA(B(1b)) receptors. In addition to GTP gamma[(35)S] binding, we show that CGP7930 also has modulatory effects in cellular assays such as GABA(B) receptor-mediated activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and Ca(2+) signaling in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Furthermore, we show that CGP7930 enhances the inhibitory effect of L-baclofen on the oscillatory activity of cultured cortical neurons. This first demonstration of positive allosteric modulation at GABA(B) receptors may represent a novel means of therapeutic interference with the GABA-ergic system. PMID:11641424

  17. The release of gamma-aminobutyric acid from horizontal cells of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina.

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, G S; Lam, D M

    1984-01-01

    Isolated horizontal cells from goldfish retinas were prepared by enzymatic dissociation using papain and separated from other cells by velocity sedimentation. In the intact retina, H1 horizontal cells possess a high-affinity mechanism for accumulating gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This property is retained in isolated cells, which also release the accumulated GABA in response to depolarization by elevated external K+. L-Glutamic acid and its analogues are highly effective at micromolar concentrations in eliciting the release of preloaded GABA from isolated cells. At saturating concentrations, L-aspartic acid stimulates about one-third as much release as L-glutamic acid. In contrast, the D-isomers of glutamate and aspartate are ineffective. In the intact retina, micromolar concentrations of L-glutamic acid analogues are also capable of eliciting GABA release from H1 horizontal cells. Release of the accumulated GABA from isolated H1 cells is largely independent of external Ca2+ concentrations. In the intact retina, H1 horizontal cells also possess a K+-stimulated GABA release mechanism that is independent of the Ca2+ concentrations in the medium. In addition, there appears to be a small but significant amount of [3H]GABA release that may be Ca2+ dependent. Under our conditions, [3H]GABA release from isolated cells is unaffected by external Na+ concentrations between 20 and 120 mM. However, concentrations of 10 mM or less significantly diminishes this release, with 70% curtailed in Na+-free solutions. Our results, together with morphological observations by a number of other investigators, suggest that there may be two distinct mechanisms for GABA release from goldfish H1 horizontal cells: one being a conventional vesicular mechanism which is Ca2+ dependent, while the other is Na+ driven and Ca2+ independent. H1 horizontal cells in the intact goldfish retina release the accumulated GABA in response to brief incubations in darkness, which is known to be the natural stimulus that depolarizes these neurones. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:6387085

  18. Gamma-Aminobutyric acid and benzodiazepine receptors in the kindling model of epilepsy: a quantitative radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, C.; Pedersen, H.B.; McNamara, J.O.

    1985-10-01

    Quantitative radiohistochemistry was utilized to study alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepine receptors in the kindling model of epilepsy. The radioligands used for GABA and benzodiazepine receptors were (TH) muscimol and (TH)flunitrazepam, respectively. GABA receptor binding was increased by 22% in fascia dentata of the hippocampal formation but not in neocortex or substantia nigra of kindled rats. Within fascia dentata, GABA receptor binding was increased to an equivalent extent in stratum granulosum and throughout stratum moleculare; no increase was found in dentate hilus or stratum lacunosummoleculare or stratum radiatum of CA1. The increased binding was present at 24 hr but not at 28 days after the last kindled seizure. The direction, anatomic distribution, and time course of the increased GABA receptor binding were paralleled by increased benzodiazepine receptor binding. The anatomic distribution of the increased GABA receptor binding is consistent with a localization to somata and dendritic trees of dentate granule cells. The authors suggest that increased GABA and benzodiazepine receptor binding may contribute to enhanced inhibition of dentate granule cells demonstrated electrophysiologically in kindled animals.

  19. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method

    PubMed Central

    Elsas, S.-M.; Rossi, D. J.; Raber, J.; White, G.; Seeley, C.-A.; Gregory, W. L.; Mohr, C.; Pfankuch, T.; Soumyanath, A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential mechanisms of Passiflora incarnata extracts and the effect of extraction methods on ingredients and biological effects were explored. Using the same batch of plant material, total flavonoid yields as measured by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) increased substantially with hot vs. cold extraction methods. Whole Passiflora extract induced prominent, dose-dependent direct GABAA currents in hippocampal slices, but the expected modulation of synaptic GABAA currents was not seen. GABA was found to be a prominent ingredient of Passiflora extract, and GABA currents were absent when amino acids were removed from the extract. Five different extracts, prepared from a single batch of Passiflora incarnata, were administered to CF-1 mice for one week in their drinking water prior to evaluation of their behavioral effects. Anticonvulsant effects against PTZ induced seizures were seen in mice that received two of the five Passiflora extracts. Instead of the anxiolytic effects described by others, anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus maze were seen in mice receiving any of the five Passiflora extracts. PMID:20382514

  20. Selective homonuclear polarization transfer for spectroscopic imaging of GABA at 7T.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Duckrow, R B; Spencer, D D; Avdievich, N I; Hetherington, H P

    2013-02-01

    We develop and implement a selective homonuclear polarization transfer method for the detection of 3.0 ppm C-4 GABA resonance by spectroscopic imaging in the human brain at 7T. This single shot method is demonstrated with simulations and phantoms, which achieves comparable efficiency of detection to that of J-difference editing. The macromolecule resonance that commonly co-edits with GABA is suppressed at 7T through use of a narrow band preacquisition suppression pulse. This technique is implemented in humans with an eight channel transceiver array and high degree B(0) shimming to measure supplementary motor area and thalamic GABA in controls (n = 8) and epilepsy patients (n = 8 total). We find that the GABA/N-acetyl aspartate ratio in the thalamus of control volunteers, well controlled and poorly controlled epilepsy patients are 0.053 ± 0.012 (n = 8), 0.090 ± 0.012 (n = 2), and 0.038 ± 0.009 (n = 6), respectively. PMID:22505305

  1. Selective homonuclear polarization transfer for spectroscopic imaging of GABA at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Pan, JW; Duckrow, RB; Spencer, DD; Avdievich, NI; Hetherington, HP

    2012-01-01

    We develop and implement a selective homonuclear polarization transfer method for the detection of 3.0ppm C-4 GABA resonance by spectroscopic imaging in the human brain at 7T. This single shot method is demonstrated with simulations and phantoms, which achieves comparable efficiency of detection to that of J-difference editing. The macromolecule resonance that commonly co-edits with GABA is suppressed at 7T through use of a narrow band pre-acquisition suppression pulse. This technique is implemented in humans with an 8 channel transceiver array and high degree B0 shimming to measure supplementary motor area and thalamic GABA in controls (n=8) and epilepsy patients (n=8 total). We find that the GABA/NAA (N-acetyl aspartate) ratio in the thalamus of control volunteers, well controlled and poorly controlled epilepsy patients are 0.053±0.012 (n=8), 0.090±0.012 (n=2), and 0.038±0.009 (n=6). PMID:22505305

  2. GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Patrick K.; Dulka, Brooke N.; Ortiz, Samantha; Riccio, David C.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of contextual memories, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of memory precision. Here, we demonstrate a rapid time-dependent decline in memory precision in GABA [subscript B(1a)] receptor knockout mice. First, we…

  3. DOSE RESPONSE DEETERMINATION OF NMDA ANTAGONISTS AND GABA AGONIST ON SUSTAINED ATTENTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown that acute inhalation of toluene impairs sustained attention as assessed with a visual signal detection task (SDT). In vitro studies indicate that the NMDA and GABA systems are primary targets of anesthetic agents and organic solvents such as toluene. Pharmacologica...

  4. GABA in the insula — a predictor of the neural response to interoceptive awareness

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Christine; Duncan, Niall W.; Tiret, Brice; Hayes, David J.; Marja?ska, Malgorzata; Doyon, Julien; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The insula has been identified as a key region involved in interoceptive awareness. Whilst imaging studies have investigated the neural activation patterns in this region involved in intero- and exteroceptive awareness, the underlying biochemical mechanisms still remain unclear. In order to investigate these, a well-established fMRI task targeting interoceptive awareness (heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (tone counting) was combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Controlling for physiological noise, neural activity in the insula during intero- and exteroceptive awareness was confirmed in an independent data sample using the same fMRI design. Focussing on MRS values from the left insula and combining them with neural activity during intero- and exteroceptive awareness in the same healthy individuals, we demonstrated that GABA concentration in a region highly involved in interoceptive processing is correlated with neural responses to interoceptive stimuli, as opposed to exteroceptive stimuli. In addition, both GABA and interoceptive signal changes in the insula predicted the degree of depressed affect, as measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale. On the one hand, the association between GABA concentration and neural activity during interoceptive awareness provides novel insight into the biochemical underpinnings of insula function and interoception. On the other, through the additional association of both GABA and neural activity during interoception with depressed affect, these data also bear potentially important implications for psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety, where GABAergic deficits, altered insula function and abnormal affect coincide. PMID:23618604

  5. GABA[subscript A] Receptors Determine the Temporal Dynamics of Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABA[subscript A] receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate…

  6. Channel Opening by Anesthetics and GABA Induces Similar Changes in the GABAA Receptor M2 Segment

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Ayelet; Bali, Moez; Horenstein, Jeffrey; Akabas, Myles H.

    2007-01-01

    For many general anesthetics, their molecular basis of action involves interactions with GABAA receptors. Anesthetics produce concentration-dependent effects on GABAA receptors. Low concentrations potentiate submaximal GABA-induced currents. Higher concentrations directly activate the receptors. Functional effects of anesthetics have been characterized, but little is known about the conformational changes they induce. We probed anesthetic-induced conformational changes in the M2 membrane-spanning, channel-lining segment using disulfide trapping between engineered cysteines. Previously, we showed that oxidation by copper phenanthroline in the presence of GABA of the M2 6? cysteine mutants, ?1T261C?1T256C and ?1?1T256C resulted in formation of an intersubunit disulfide bond between the adjacent ?-subunits that significantly increased the channels' spontaneous open probability. Oxidation in GABA's absence had no effect. We examined the effect on ?1T261C?1T256C and on ?1?1T256C of oxidation by copper phenanthroline in the presence of potentiating and directly activating concentrations of the general anesthetics propofol, pentobarbital, and isoflurane. Oxidation in the presence of potentiating concentration of anesthetics had little effect. Oxidation in the presence of directly activating anesthetic concentrations significantly increased the channels' spontaneous open probability. We infer that activation by anesthetics and GABA induces a similar conformational change at the M2 segment 6? position that is related to channel opening. PMID:17293408

  7. Synergistic GABA-Enhancing Therapy against Seizures in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, John C.; Cho, Alvin R.; Cheah, Christine S.; Scheuer, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Seizures remain uncontrolled in 30% of patients with epilepsy, even with concurrent use of multiple drugs, and uncontrolled seizures result in increased morbidity and mortality. An extreme example is Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset severe epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Studies in Scn1a heterozygous knockout mice demonstrate reduced excitability of GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that enhancement of GABA signaling may improve seizure control and comorbidities. We studied the efficacy of two GABA-enhancing drugs, clonazepam and tiagabine, alone and in combination, against thermally evoked myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, protected against myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tiagabine, a presynaptic GABA reuptake inhibitor, was protective against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but only minimally protective against myoclonic seizures and enhanced myoclonic seizure susceptibility at high doses. Combined therapy with clonazepam and tiagabine was synergistic against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but was additive against myoclonic seizures. Toxicity determined by rotorod testing was additive for combination therapy. The synergistic actions of clonazepam and tiagabine gave enhanced seizure protection and reduced toxicity, suggesting that combination therapy may be well tolerated and effective for seizures in DS. PMID:23424217

  8. Modulation of GABA and resting state functional connectivity by transcranial direct current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bachtiar, Velicia; Near, Jamie; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that network level functional connectivity in the human brain could be related to levels of inhibition in a major network node at baseline (Stagg et al., 2014). In this study, we build upon this finding to directly investigate the effects of perturbing M1 GABA and resting state functional connectivity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a neuromodulatory approach that has previously been demonstrated to modulate both metrics. FMRI data and GABA levels, as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, were measured before and after 20 min of 1 mA anodal or sham tDCS. In line with previous studies, baseline GABA levels were negatively correlated with the strength of functional connectivity within the resting motor network. However, although we confirm the previously reported findings that anodal tDCS reduces GABA concentration and increases functional connectivity in the stimulated motor cortex; these changes are not correlated, suggesting they may be driven by distinct underlying mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08789.001 PMID:26381352

  9. GABA-A Receptor Inhibition of Local Calcium Signaling in Spines and Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Marlin, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical interneurons activate GABA-A receptors to rapidly control electrical and biochemical signaling at pyramidal neurons. Different populations of interneurons are known to uniquely target the soma and dendrites of pyramidal neurons. However, the ability of these interneurons to inhibit Ca2+ signaling at spines and dendrites is largely unexplored. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, GABA uncaging and optogenetics to study dendritic inhibition at layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in slices of mouse PFC. We first show that GABA-A receptors strongly inhibit action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ signals at both spines and dendrites. We find robust inhibition over tens of milliseconds that spreads along the dendritic branch. However, we observe no difference in the amount of inhibition at neighboring spines and dendrites. We then examine the influence of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), or 5HT3a receptors. We determine that these populations of interneurons make unique contacts onto the apical and basal dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons. We also show that SOM and 5HT3a but not PV interneurons potently inhibit AP Ca2+ signals via GABA-A receptors at both spines and dendrites. These findings reveal how multiple interneurons regulate local Ca2+ signaling in pyramidal neurons, with implications for cortical function and disease. PMID:25429132

  10. GABA-A receptor inhibition of local calcium signaling in spines and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Joseph J; Carter, Adam G

    2014-11-26

    Cortical interneurons activate GABA-A receptors to rapidly control electrical and biochemical signaling at pyramidal neurons. Different populations of interneurons are known to uniquely target the soma and dendrites of pyramidal neurons. However, the ability of these interneurons to inhibit Ca(2+) signaling at spines and dendrites is largely unexplored. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, GABA uncaging and optogenetics to study dendritic inhibition at layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in slices of mouse PFC. We first show that GABA-A receptors strongly inhibit action potential (AP)-evoked Ca(2+) signals at both spines and dendrites. We find robust inhibition over tens of milliseconds that spreads along the dendritic branch. However, we observe no difference in the amount of inhibition at neighboring spines and dendrites. We then examine the influence of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), or 5HT3a receptors. We determine that these populations of interneurons make unique contacts onto the apical and basal dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons. We also show that SOM and 5HT3a but not PV interneurons potently inhibit AP Ca(2+) signals via GABA-A receptors at both spines and dendrites. These findings reveal how multiple interneurons regulate local Ca(2+) signaling in pyramidal neurons, with implications for cortical function and disease. PMID:25429132

  11. Fluorescence measurements of anion transport by the GABA receptor in reconstituted membrane preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.M.J.; Shelman, R.A.; Agey, M.W. )

    1989-03-21

    A fluorescence assay for measuring the functional properties of the GABA{sub A} receptor in reconstituted membrane vesicles is described. This assay is based on a method previously described to measure monovalent cation transport mediated by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in membranes from Torpedo electric organ. The GABA{sub A} receptor has been solubilized from bovine brain membranes and reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. Influx of chloride or iodide into the vesicles has been measured in stopped-flow experiments by monitoring the fluorescence quench of an anion-sensitive fluorophore trapped within the vesicles. Muscimol, a GABA{sub A} receptor agonist, stimulated a rapid uptake of either chloride or iodide. Stimulation of chloride influx was dependent on the concentration of muscimol, and the midpoint of the dose-response curve occurred at approximately 0.3 {mu}M. Agonist-stimulated uptake was enhanced by diazepam and blocked by desensitization and by the antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. These receptor-mediated effects are shown to be qualitatively similar to measurements of {sup 36}Cl{sup {minus}} and {sup 125}I{sup {minus}} efflux using synaptoneurosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex. The advantages of the fluorescence method in terms of its improved time resolution, sensitivity, and suitability for quantitating GABA{sub A} receptor function are discussed.

  12. The GABAA Receptor 1 Subunit Pro174 Segment Is Involved in GABA

    E-print Network

    Kemnitz, Joseph

    ); nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor); AChBP (acetylcholine binding protein). Copyright 2003 with the agonist-binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), the GABA-binding site is formed. Characterization of receptor-ligand interactions using site-directed mutagenesis and photo-labeling studies

  13. GABAA Receptor 2 Tyr97 Line the GABA-binding Site

    E-print Network

    Kemnitz, Joseph

    of ligand recognition is based on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) (10). The ligand-binding site superfamily of neurotransmitter receptors that includes nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and serotonin type 3GABAA Receptor 2 Tyr97 and Leu99 Line the GABA-binding Site INSIGHTS INTO MECHANISMS OF AGONIST

  14. CHRONIC ANTIDEPRESSANT TREATMENT ALTERS SEROTONERGIC REGULATION OF GABA TRANSMISSION IN PREFRONTAL CORTICAL

    E-print Network

    Yan, Zhen

    CHRONIC ANTIDEPRESSANT TREATMENT ALTERS SEROTONERGIC REGULATION OF GABA TRANSMISSION IN PREFRONTAL such as depression and anxiety. Currently, the most widely used treatment for these illnesses is selective serotonin investigated the alteration of 5-HT functions by long-term antidepressant treatment in pyramidal neurons

  15. The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA evokes long-lasting Ca(2+) oscillations in cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Letizia; Losi, Gabriele; Sessolo, Michele; Marcon, Iacopo; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    Studies over the last decade provided evidence that in a dynamic interaction with neurons glial cell astrocytes contribut to fundamental phenomena in the brain. Most of the knowledge on this derives, however, from studies monitoring the astrocyte Ca(2+) response to glutamate. Whether astrocytes can similarly respond to other neurotransmitters, including the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, is relatively unexplored. By using confocal and two photon laser-scanning microscopy the astrocyte response to GABA in the mouse somatosensory and temporal cortex was studied. In slices from developing (P15-20) and adult (P30-60) mice, it was found that in a subpopulation of astrocytes GABA evoked somatic Ca(2+) oscillations. This response was mediated by GABAB receptors and involved both Gi/o protein and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 ) signalling pathways. In vivo experiments from young adult mice, revealed that also cortical astrocytes in the living brain exibit GABAB receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevations. At all astrocytic processes tested, local GABA or Baclofen brief applications induced long-lasting Ca(2+) oscillations, suggesting that all astrocytes have the potential to respond to GABA. Finally, in patch-clamp recordings it was found that Ca(2+) oscillations induced by Baclofen evoked astrocytic glutamate release and slow inward currents (SICs) in pyramidal cells from wild type but not IP3 R2(-/-) mice, in which astrocytic GABAB receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevations are impaired. These data suggest that cortical astrocytes in the mouse brain can sense the activity of GABAergic interneurons and through their specific recruitment contribut to the distinct role played on the cortical network by the different subsets of GABAergic interneurons. GLIA 2016;64:363-373. PMID:26496414

  16. GABA representation in hypoxia sensing: a ventilatory study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tarakanov, I; Tikhomirova, L; Tarasova, N; Safonov, V; Bialkowska, M; Pokorski, M

    2011-01-01

    Phenibut, a nonspecific GABA derivative, is clinically used as an anxiolytic and tranquilizer in psychosomatic conditions. A GABA-ergic inhibitory pathway is engaged in respiratory control at both central and peripheral levels. However, the potential of phenibut to affect the O2-related chemoreflexes has not yet been studied. In this study we seek to determine the ventilatory responses to changes in inspired O2 content in anesthetized, spontaneously-breathing rats. Steady-state 5-min responses to 10% O2 in N2 and 100% O2 were taken in each animal before and 1 h after phenibut administration in a dose 450 mg/kg, i.p. Minute ventilation and its frequency and tidal components were obtained from the respiratory flow signal. We found that after a period of irregular extension of the respiratory cycle, phenibut stabilized resting ventilation at a lower level [20.0±3.3 (SD) vs 31.1±5.2 ml/min before phenibut; P<0.01]. The ventilatory depressant effect of phenibut was not reflected in the hypoxic response. In relative terms, this response was actually accentuated after phenibut; the peak hypoxic ventilation increased by 164% from baseline vs the 100% increase before phenibut. Regarding hyperoxia, its inhibitory effect on breathing was more expressed after phenibut. In conclusion, the GABA-mimetic phenibut did not curtail hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, despite the presence of GABA-ergic pathways in both central and peripheral, carotid body mechanisms mediating the hypoxic chemoreflex. Thus, GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition may be elaborated in a way to sustain the primarily defensive ventilatory chemoreflex. PMID:21880205

  17. GABA Regulates the Multidirectional Tangential Migration of GABAergic Interneurons in Living Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Miho; Uchida, Taku; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Wake, Hiroaki; Nemoto, Tomomi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Fukuda, Atsuo; Nabekura, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Cortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate at early developmental stages. To elucidate the characteristics of this migration of GABAergic interneurons in living animals, we established an experimental design specialized for in vivo time-lapse imaging of the neocortex of neonate mice with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. In vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mice from birth (P0) through P3, we observed multidirectional tangential migration of genetically-defined GABAergic interneurons in the neocortical marginal zone. The properties of this migration, such as the motility rate (distance/hr), the direction moved, and the proportion of migrating neurons to stationary neurons, did not change through P0 to P3, although the density of GABAergic neurons at the marginal zone decreased with age. Thus, the characteristics of the tangential motility of individual GABAergic neurons remained constant in development. Pharmacological block of GABAA receptors and of the Na+-K+-Cl? cotransporters, and chelating intracellular Ca2+, all significantly reduced the motility rate in vivo. The motility rate and GABA content within the cortex of neonatal VGAT-Venus transgenic mice were significantly greater than those of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, suggesting that extracellular GABA concentration could facilitate the multidirectional tangential migration. Indeed, diazepam applied to GAD67-GFP mice increased the motility rate substantially. In an in vitro neocortical slice preparation, we confirmed that GABA induced a NKCC sensitive depolarization of GABAergic interneurons in VGAT-Venus mice at P0-P3. Thus, activation of GABAAR by ambient GABA depolarizes GABAergic interneurons, leading to an acceleration of their multidirectional motility in vivo. PMID:22180776

  18. GABA estimation in the brains of children on the autism spectrum: measurement precision and regional cortical variation.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, W; Bloy, L; Wang, D J; Port, R G; Blaskey, L; Levy, S E; Roberts, T P L

    2014-02-01

    (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) and spectral editing methods, such as MEGA-PRESS, allow researchers to investigate metabolite and neurotransmitter concentrations in-vivo. Here we address the utilization of (1)H MRS for the investigation of GABA concentrations in the ASD brain, in three locations; motor, visual and auditory areas. An initial repeatability study (5 subjects, 5 repeated measures separated by ~5days on average) indicated no significant effect of reference metabolite choice on GABA quantitation (p>0.6). Coefficients of variation for GABA+/NAA, GABA+/Cr and GABA+/Glx were all of the order of 9-11%. Based on these findings, we investigated creatine-normalized GABA+ ratios (GABA+/Cr) in a group of (N=17) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (N=17) typically developing children (TD) for Motor, Auditory and Visual regions of interest (ROIs). Linear regression analysis of gray matter (GM) volume changes (known to occur with development) revealed a significant decrease of GM volume with Age for Motor (F(1,30)=17.92; p<0.001) and Visual F(1,16)=14.41; p<0.005 but not the Auditory ROI (p=0.55). Inspection of GABA+/Cr changes with Age revealed a marginally significant change for the Motor ROI only (F(1,30)=4.11; p=0.054). Subsequent analyses were thus conducted for each ROI separately using Age and GM volume as covariates. No group differences in GABA+/Cr were observed for the Visual ROI between TD vs. ASD children. However, the Motor and Auditory ROI showed significantly reduced GABA+/Cr in ASD (Motor p<0.05; Auditory p<0.01). The mean deficiency in GABA+/Cr from the Motor ROI was approximately 11% and Auditory ROI was approximately 22%. Our novel findings support the model of regional differences in GABA+/Cr in the ASD brain, primarily in Auditory and to a lesser extent Motor but not Visual areas. PMID:23707581

  19. GABA estimation in the Brains of Children on the Autism Spectrum: Measurement precision and regional cortical variation

    PubMed Central

    Gaetz, W.; Bloy, L.; Wang, DJ.; Port, R.G.; Blaskey, L.; Levy, S.E.; Roberts, T.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and spectral editing methods, such as MEGA-PRESS, allow researchers to investigate metabolite and neurotransmitter concentrations in-vivo. Here we address the utilization of 1H-MRS for the investigation of GABA concentrations in the ASD brain, in three locations; motor, visual and auditory areas. An initial repeatability study (5 subjects, 5 repeated measures separated by ~ 5 days on average) indicated no significant effect of reference metabolite choice on GABA quantitation (p > 0.6). Coefficients of variation for GABA+/NAA, GABA+/Cr and GABA+/Glx were all of the order of 9–11%. Based on these findings, we investigated creatine-normalized GABA+ ratios (GABA+/Cr) in a group of (n=17) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (n=17) typically developing children (TD) for Motor, Auditory and Visual regions of interest (ROIs). Linear regression analysis of grey matter (GM) volume changes (known to occur with development) revealed a significant decrease of GM volume with Age for Motor (F(1,30)=17.92; p<0.001) and Visual F(1,16)=14.41; p<0.005 but not the Auditory ROI(p=0.55). Inspection of GABA+/Cr changes with Age revealed a marginally significant change for the Motor ROI only (F(1,30)=4.11; p=0.054). Subsequent analyses was thus conducted for each ROI separately using Age and GM volume as covariates. No group differences in GABA+/Cr were observed for the Visual ROI between TD vs. ASD children. However, the Motor and Auditory ROI showed significantly reduced GABA+/Cr in ASD (Motor p<0.05; Auditory p<0.01). The mean deficiency in GABA+/Cr from the Motor ROI was approximately 11% and Auditory ROI was approximately 22%. Our novel findings support the model of regional differences in GABA+/Cr in the ASD brain, primarily in Auditory and to a lesser extent Motor but not Visual areas. PMID:23707581

  20. Effects of Nardostachys jatamansi on biogenic amines and inhibitory amino acids in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, V; Karanth, K S; Rao, A

    1994-04-01

    The effect of acute and subchronic administration of an alcoholic extract of the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine were studied in male albino Wistar rats. The acute oral administration of the extract did not change the level of NE and DA but resulted in a significant increase in the level of 5-HT and 5-HIAA. A significant increase in the level of GABA and taurine was observed in the drug-treated groups when compared to the controls. A 15-day treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of NE, DA, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and GABA. These data indicate that the alcoholic extract of the roots of N. jatamansi causes an overall increase in the levels of central monoamines and inhibitory amino acids. PMID:8202559

  1. Decreased GABAA receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in the anterior cingulate cortex in autism.

    PubMed

    Oblak, A; Gibbs, T T; Blatt, G J

    2009-08-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; BA 24) via its extensive limbic and high order association cortical connectivity to prefrontal cortex is a key part of an important circuitry participating in executive function, affect, and socio-emotional behavior. Multiple lines of evidence, including genetic and imaging studies, suggest that the ACC and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system may be affected in autism. The benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA(A) receptor complex is an important target for pharmacotherapy and has important clinical implications. The present multiple-concentration ligand-binding study utilized (3)H-muscimol and (3)H-flunitrazepam to determine the number (B(max)), binding affinity (K(d)), and distribution of GABA(A) receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites, respectively, in the ACC in adult autistic and control cases. Compared to controls, the autistic group had significant decreases in the mean density of GABA(A) receptors in the supragranular (46.8%) and infragranular (20.2%) layers of the ACC and in the density of benzodiazepine binding sites in the supragranular (28.9%) and infragranular (16.4%) lamina [corrected]. These findings suggest that in the autistic group this downregulation of both benzodiazepine sites and GABA(A) receptors in the ACC may be the result of increased GABA innervation and/or release disturbing the delicate excitation/inhibition balance of principal neurons as well as their output to key limbic cortical targets. Such disturbances likely underlie the core alterations in socio-emotional behaviors in autism. PMID:19650112

  2. PDZ-mediated interactions retain the epithelial GABA transporter on the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perego, C; Vanoni, C; Villa, A; Longhi, R; Kaech, S M; Fröhli, E; Hajnal, A; Kim, S K; Pietrini, G

    1999-01-01

    The PDZ target motifs located in the C-terminal end of many receptors and ion channels mediate protein-protein interactions by binding to specific PDZ-containing proteins. These interactions are involved in the localization of surface proteins on specialized membrane domains of neuronal and epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this PDZ protein-dependent polarized localization is still unclear. This study first demonstrated that the epithelial gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (BGT-1) contains a PDZ target motif that mediates the interaction with the PDZ protein LIN-7 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and then investigated the role of this interaction in the basolateral localization of the transporter. It was found that although the transporters from which the PDZ target motif was deleted were still targeted to the basolateral surface, they were not retained but internalized in an endosomal recycling compartment. Furthermore, an interfering BGT peptide determined the intracellular relocation of the native transporter. These data indicate that interactions with PDZ proteins determine the polarized surface localization of target proteins by means of retention and not targeting mechanisms. PDZ proteins may, therefore, act as a sort of membrane protein sorting machinery which, by recognizing retention signals (the PDZ target sequences), prevents protein internalization. PMID:10228153

  3. The role of the serotonergic and GABA system in translational approaches in drug discovery for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Olivier, Berend

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that genetic factors play an important role in anxiety disorders. In support, human genome-wide association studies have implicated several novel candidate genes. However, illumination of such genetic factors involved in anxiety disorders has not resulted in novel drugs over the past decades. A complicating factor is the heterogeneous classification of anxiety disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) and diverging operationalization of anxiety used in preclinical and clinical studies. Currently, there is an increasing focus on the gene × environment (G × E) interaction in anxiety as genes do not operate in isolation and environmental factors have been found to significantly contribute to the development of anxiety disorders in at-risk individuals. Nevertheless, extensive research on G × E mechanisms in anxiety has not resulted in major breakthroughs in drug discovery. Modification of individual genes in rodent models has enabled the specific study of anxiety in preclinical studies. In this context, two extensively studied neurotransmitters involved in anxiety are the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) system. In this review, we illustrate the complex interplay between genes and environment in anxiety processes by reviewing preclinical and clinical studies on the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, and GABAA receptor. Even though targets from the serotonin and GABA system have yielded drugs with known anxiolytic efficacy, the relation between the genetic background of these targets and anxiety symptoms and development of anxiety disorders is largely unknown. The aim of this review is to show the vast complexity of genetic and environmental factors in anxiety disorders. In light of the difficulty with which common genetic variants are identified in anxiety disorders, animal models with translational validity may aid in elucidating the neurobiological background of these genes and their possible role in anxiety. We argue that, in addition to human genetic studies, translational models are essential to map anxiety-related genes and to enhance our understanding of anxiety disorders in order to develop potentially novel treatment strategies. PMID:23781201

  4. Involvement of GABA Transporters in Atropine-Treated Myopic Retina As Revealed by iTRAQ Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, is known to inhibit myopia progression in several animal models and humans. However, the mode of action is not established yet. In this study, we compared quantitative iTRAQ proteomic analysis in the retinas collected from control and lens-induced myopic (LIM) mouse eyes treated with atropine. The myopic group received a (?15D) spectacle lens over the right eye on postnatal day 10 with or without atropine eye drops starting on postnatal day 24. Axial length was measured by optical low coherence interferometry (OLCI), AC-Master, and refraction was measured by automated infrared photorefractor at postnatal 24, 38, and 52 days. Retinal tissue samples were pooled from six eyes for each group. The experiments were repeated twice, and technical replicates were also performed for liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. MetaCore was used to perform protein profiling for pathway analysis. We identified a total of 3882 unique proteins with <1% FDR by analyzing the samples in replicates for two independent experiments. This is the largest number of mouse retina proteome reported to date. Thirty proteins were found to be up-regulated (ratio for myopia/control > global mean ratio + 1 standard deviation), and 28 proteins were down-regulated (ratio for myopia/control < global mean ratio - 1 standard deviation) in myopic eyes as compared with control retinas. Pathway analysis using MetaCore revealed regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the myopic eyes. Detailed analysis of the quantitative proteomics data showed that the levels of GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) were elevated in myopic retina and significantly reduced after atropine treatment. These results were further validated with immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis of atropine-treated mouse retina and suggests the involvement of GABAergic signaling in the antimyopic effects of atropine in mouse eyes. The GABAergic transmission in the neural retina plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of axial eye growth in mammals. PMID:25211393

  5. Structural analogues of the natural products magnolol and honokiol as potent allosteric potentiators of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Alexander; Baur, Roland; Schoeder, Clara; Sigel, Erwin; Müller, Christa E

    2014-12-15

    Biphenylic compounds related to the natural products magnolol and 4'-O-methylhonokiol were synthesized, evaluated and optimized as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABA(A) receptors. The most efficacious compounds were the magnolol analog 5-ethyl-5'-hexylbiphenyl-2,2'-diol (45) and the honokiol analogs 4'-methoxy-5-propylbiphenyl-2-ol (61), 5-butyl-4'-methoxybiphenyl-2-ol (62) and 5-hexyl-4'-methoxybiphenyl-2-ol (64), which showed a most powerful potentiation of GABA-induced currents (up to 20-fold at a GABA concentration of 3?M). They were found not to interfere with the allosteric sites occupied by known allosteric modulators, such as benzodiazepines and N-arachidonoylglycerol. These new PAMs will be useful as pharmacological tools and may have therapeutic potential for mono-therapy, or in combination, for example, with GABA(A) receptor agonists. PMID:25456080

  6. Conditionally Immortalized Cell Lines, Engineered to Produce and Release GABA, Modulate the Development of Behavioral Seizures1

    E-print Network

    Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    Conditionally Immortalized Cell Lines, Engineered to Produce and Release GABA, Modulate molecules, including neurotransmitters and growth factors. We have engineered immortalized mouse corti- cal), for example, have derived conditionally immortalized cells from embryonic rat striatum (8). Other groups

  7. Circadian Modulation of the Cl? Equilibrium Potential in the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Quinto, Daniel; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) constitute a circadian clock in mammals, where ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission prevails and participates in different aspects of circadian regulation. Evidence suggests that GABA has an excitatory function in the SCN in addition to its typical inhibitory role. To examine this possibility further, we determined the equilibrium potential of GABAergic postsynaptic currents (EGABA) at different times of the day and in different regions of the SCN, using either perforated or whole cell patch clamp. Our results indicate that during the day most neurons in the dorsal SCN have an EGABA close to ?30 mV while in the ventral SCN they have an EGABA close to ?60 mV; this difference reverses during the night, in the dorsal SCN neurons have an EGABA of ?60 mV and in the ventral SCN they have an EGABA of ?30 mV. The depolarized equilibrium potential can be attributed to the activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(?) (NKCC) cotransporter since the equilibrium potential becomes more negative following addition of the NKCC blocker bumetanide. Our results suggest an excitatory role for GABA in the SCN and further indicate both time (day versus night) and regional (dorsal versus ventral) modulation of EGABA in the SCN. PMID:24949446

  8. Effects of 17beta-estradiol on blood-brain barrier disruption in focal ischemia during GABA(A) receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chi, O Z; Hunter, C; Liu, X; Weiss, H R

    2005-04-01

    We performed this study to determine whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor inhibition could reverse the effect of 17beta-estradiol on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. Young ovariectomized rats were implanted with a 500 microg 17beta-estradiol 21-day release pellet or with a vehicle pellet 21 days before the experiments. Forty-five minutes after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, half of each group was infused with bicuculline (a GABA(A) receptor antagonist) 1 mg/kg/min for 2 min followed by 0.1 mg/kg/min up to the end of experiments. The other half was infused with the same volume of normal saline. The transfer coefficient (Ki) of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and the volume of 3H-dextran distribution (70,000 Daltons) were determined to measure the degree of BBB disruption one hour after MCA occlusion. In the control vehicle-treated animals, the Ki in the ischemic cortex (7.2 +/- 2.6 microl/g/min) was higher than in the contralateral cortex (2.5 +/- 1.4 microl/g/min). After bicuculline infusion, the Ki in the ischemic cortex increased (10.6 +/- 5.4 microl/g/min) although the increase was not statistically significant. In the 17beta-estradiol treated animals, the Ki in the ischemic cortex (3.8 +/- 1.6 microl/g/min) was lower than control vehicle-treated rats. With bicuculline infusion, the Ki in the ischemic cortex (14.5 +/- 6.8 microl/g/min) was markedly increased. In the non-ischemic cortex, there was no significant difference in Ki among the experimental groups. The volume of dextran distribution was not significantly different between the experimental groups in the ischemic or non-ischemic cortex. Our data suggests that part of the reason for the decreased BBB disruption in the focal ischemic area after 17beta-estradiol treatment could be due to the interaction between GABA(A) receptors and 17beta-estradiol. PMID:15952079

  9. Comparison of the properties of gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles isolated from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Fykse, E M; Christensen, H; Fonnum, F

    1989-03-01

    Rat brain synaptic vesicles exhibit ATP-dependent uptake of gamma-[3H]amino-n-butyric acid ([3H]GABA) and L-[3H]glutamate. After hypotonic shock, the highest specific activities of uptake of both L-glutamate and GABA were recovered in the 0.4 M fraction of a sucrose gradient. The uptakes of L-glutamate and GABA were inhibited by similar, but not identical, concentrations of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and the ionophores nigericin and gramicidin, but they were not inhibited by the K+ carrier valinomycin. N,N'-Dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide and N-ethylmaleimide, Mg2+-ATPase inhibitors, inhibited the GABA and L-glutamate uptakes similarly. Low concentrations of Cl- stimulated the vesicular uptake of L-glutamate but not that of GABA. The uptakes of both L-glutamate and GABA were inhibited by high concentrations of Cl-. These results indicate that the vesicular GABA and L-glutamate uptakes are driven by an electrochemical proton gradient generated by a similar Mg2+-ATPase. The vesicular uptake mechanisms are discussed in relation to other vesicle uptake systems. PMID:2465384

  10. The impact of sub-cellular location and intracellular neuronal proteins on properties of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Birnir, Bryndis; Korpi, Esa R

    2007-01-01

    Most studies of GABA(A) receptor accessory proteins have focused on trafficking, clustering and phosphorylation state of the channel-forming subunits and as a result a number of proteins and mechanisms have been identified that can influence the GABA(A) channel expression and function in the cell plasma membrane. In the light of a growing list of intracellular and transmembrane neuronal proteins shown to affect the fate, function and pharmacology of the GABA(A) receptors in neurons, the concept of what constitutes the native GABA(A) receptor complex may need to be re-examined. It is perhaps more appropriate to consider the associated proteins or some of them to be parts of the receptor channel complex in the capacity of ancillary proteins. Here we highlight some of the effects the intracellular environment has on the GABA-activated channel function and pharmacology. The studies demonstrate the need for co-expression of accessory proteins with the GABA(A) channel-forming subunits in heterologous expression systems in order to obtain the full repertoire of GABA(A) receptors characteristics recorded in the native neuronal environment. Further studies e.g. on gene-modified animal models are needed for most of the accessory proteins to establish their significance in normal physiology and in pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The challenge remains to elucidate the effects that the accessory proteins and processes (e.g. phosphorylation) plus the sub-cellular location have on the "fine-tuning" of the functional and pharmacological properties of the GABA(A) receptor channels. PMID:18045166

  11. GABA and glutamate pathways are spatially and developmentally affected in the brain of Mecp2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Rita; Panayotis, Nicolas; Matagne, Valérie; Ghata, Adeline; Villard, Laurent; Roux, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Proper brain functioning requires a fine-tuning between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, a balance maintained through the regulation and release of glutamate and GABA. Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene affecting the postnatal brain development. Dysfunctions in the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the neuropathology of RTT and a disruption of the balance between excitation and inhibition, together with a perturbation of the electrophysiological properties of GABA and glutamate neurons, were reported in the brain of the Mecp2-deficient mouse. However, to date, the extent and the nature of the GABA/glutamate deficit affecting the Mecp2-deficient mouse brain are unclear. In order to better characterize these deficits, we simultaneously analyzed the GABA and glutamate levels in Mecp2-deficient mice at 2 different ages (P35 and P55) and in several brain areas. We used a multilevel approach including the quantification of GABA and glutamate levels, as well as the quantification of the mRNA and protein expression levels of key genes involved in the GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways. Our results show that Mecp2-deficient mice displayed regional- and age-dependent variations in the GABA pathway and, to a lesser extent, in the glutamate pathway. The implication of the GABA pathway in the RTT neuropathology was further confirmed using an in vivo treatment with a GABA reuptake inhibitor that significantly improved the lifespan of Mecp2-deficient mice. Our results confirm that RTT mouse present a deficit in the GABAergic pathway and suggest that GABAergic modulators could be interesting therapeutic agents for this severe neurological disorder. PMID:24667344

  12. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase regulates GABA transmission at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Jennifer R.; Dube, Hitesh; Touroutine, Denis; Rush, Kristen M.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Carozza, Marc; Didier, Zachary; Francis, Michael M.; Juo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is critical for proper nervous system function. Aberrant synaptic signaling, including altered excitatory to inhibitory balance, is observed innumerous neurological diseases. The ubiquitin enzyme system controls the abundance of many synaptic proteins and thus plays a key role in regulating synaptic transmission. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase that was originally discovered as a key regulator of protein turnover during the cell cycle. More recently, the APC has been shown to function in postmitotic neurons, where it regulates diverse processes such as synapse development and synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses. Here we report that the APC regulates synaptic GABA signaling by acting in motor neurons to control the balance of excitatory (acetylcholine) to inhibitory (GABA) transmission at the Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Loss-of-function mutants in multiple APC subunits have increased muscle excitation at the NMJ; this phenotype is rescued by expression of the missing subunit in GABA neurons. Quantitative imaging and electrophysiological analyses indicate that APC mutants have decreased GABA release but normal cholinergic transmission. Consistent with this, APC mutants exhibit convulsions in a seizure assay sensitive to reductions in GABA signaling. Previous studies in other systems showed that the APC can negatively regulate the levels of the active zone protein SYD-2 Liprin-?. Similarly, we found that SYD-2 accumulates in APC mutants at GABAergic presynaptic sites. Finally, we found that the APC subunit EMB-27 CDC16 can localize to presynapses in GABA neurons. Together, our data suggest a model in which the APC acts at GABAergic presynapses to promote GABA release and inhibit muscle excitation. These findings are the first evidence that the APC regulates transmission at inhibitory synapses and have implications for understanding nervous system pathologies, such as epilepsy, that are characterized by misregulated GABA signaling. PMID:24321454

  13. Hypoglycemia induced behavioural deficit and decreased GABA receptor, CREB expression in the cerebellum of streptozoticin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sherin, A; Peeyush, K T; Naijil, G; Chinthu, R; Paulose, C S

    2010-11-20

    Intensive glycemic control during diabetes is associated with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia, which is the major barrier in blood glucose homeostasis during diabetes therapy. The CNS neurotransmitters play an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the present study, we showed the effects of hypoglycemia in diabetic and non- diabetic rats on motor functions and alterations of GABA receptor and CREB expression in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA binding in the cerebellum of diabetic hypoglycemic and control hypoglycemic rats showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in B(max) and K(d) compared to diabetic and control rats. Real-time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunit GABA(A?1) and GAD showed significant (P<0.001) down-regulation in the cerebellum of hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control rats. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in hypoglycemic rats. CREB mRNA expression was down-regulated during recurrent hypoglycemia. Both diabetic and non-diabetic hypoglycemic rats showed impaired performance in grid walk test compared to diabetic and control. Impaired GABA receptor and CREB expression along with motor function deficit were more prominent in hypoglycemic rats than hyperglycemic which showed that hypoglycemia is causing more neuronal damage at molecular level. These molecular changes observed during hypo/hyperglycemia contribute to motor and learning deficits which has clinical significance in diabetes treatment. PMID:20851745

  14. Signaling between periglomerular cells reveals a bimodal role for GABA in modulating glomerular microcircuitry in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Pirooz Victor; D'Souza, Rinaldo David; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2015-07-28

    In the mouse olfactory bulb glomerulus, the GABAergic periglomerular (PG) cells provide a major inhibitory drive within the microcircuit. Here we examine GABAergic synapses between these interneurons. At these synapses, GABA is depolarizing and exerts a bimodal control on excitability. In quiescent cells, activation of GABAA receptors can induce the cells to fire, thereby providing a means for amplification of GABA release in the glomerular microcircuit via GABA-induced GABA release. In contrast, GABA is inhibitory in neurons that are induced to fire tonically. PG-PG interactions are modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and our data suggest that changes in intracellular calcium concentrations triggered by nAChR activation can be amplified by GABA release. Our results suggest that bidirectional control of inhibition in PG neurons can allow for modulatory inputs, like the cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain, to determine threshold set points for filtering out weak olfactory inputs in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb via the activation of nAChRs. PMID:26170298

  15. GABA(A) receptor overexpression in the lateral hypothalamic area attenuates gastric ischemia?reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Zhu, Tao; Xie, Guilin; Lou, Xiangxin; Li, Shibao; Zhou, Yan; Deng, Zhenxu; Chu, Dechang; Lou, Jiyu; Du, Dongshu

    2015-02-01

    Excessive activation of the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) has previously been determined to contribute to the progression of gastric ischemia?reperfusion (GI?R) injury. The present study was designed to estimate the protective effects of GABAA receptor (GABA(A)R) overexpression in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) against GI?R injury. The GI?R injury model was induced in rats by clamping the celiac artery for 30 min and then reperfusing for 1 h. Microinjection of recombinant adenoviral vectors overexpressing GABA(A)R (Ad?GABA(A)R) or control adenoviral vectors (Ad?Con) into the LHA was conducted in GI?R and normal control rats. Significant protective effects were observed on day 2 after Ad?GABA(A)R treatment in the GI?R injury rats. Ad?GABA(A)R treatment reduced plasma norepinephrine levels, plasma angiotensin II levels and peripheral GSN activity, but increased the gastric mucosal blood flow, as compared with Ad?Con treatment. These results indicate that adenoviral vector?induced GABA(A)R overexpression in the LHA blunts GSN activity and subsequently alleviates the effects of gastric injury in GI?R rats. PMID:25354809

  16. Autonomous Vascular Networks Synchronize GABA Neuron Migration in the Embryonic Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Won, Chungkil; Lin, Zhicheng; Kumar T, Peeyush; Li, Suyan; Ding, Lai; Elkhal, Abdallah; Szabó, Gábor; Vasudevan, Anju

    2013-01-01

    GABA neurons, born in remote germinative zones in the ventral forebrain (telencephalon), migrate tangentially in two spatially distinct streams to adopt their specific positions in the developing cortex. The cell types and molecular cues that regulate this divided migratory route remains to be elucidated. Here we show that embryonic vascular networks are strategically positioned to fulfill the task of providing support as well as critical guidance cues that regulate the divided migratory routes of GABA neurons in the telencephalon. Interestingly, endothelial cells of the telencephalon are not homogeneous in their gene expression profiles. Endothelial cells of the periventricular vascular network have molecular identities distinct from those of the pial network. Our data suggest that periventricular endothelial cells have intrinsic programs that can significantly mold neuronal development and uncovers new insights into concepts and mechanisms of CNS angiogenesis from both developmental and disease perspectives. PMID:23857367

  17. Exonic variants of the GABA(B) receptor gene and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Sand, P G; Godau, C; Riederer, P; Peters, C; Franke, P; Nöthen, M M; Stöber, G; Fritze, J; Maier, W; Propping, P; Lesch, K P; Riess, O; Sander, T; Beckmann, H; Deckert, J

    2000-12-01

    The enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission has been closely linked to antipanic drug efficacy. This is the first study to investigate a putative association of exonic sequence variants of the human GABA(B) receptor 1 (GABA(B)R1) gene and susceptibility to panic disorder. Three DNA sequence variants in exons 1a1, 7 and 11 were assessed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism in a case-control study among patients with panic disorder with and without agoraphobia (DSM III-R criteria) and blood donors. There was no indication of an increased vulnerability to panic disorder or agoraphobia with respect to the allelic variants under study. PMID:11324945

  18. GABA promotes the competitive selection of dendritic spines by controlling local Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hayama, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Jun; Watanabe, Satoshi; Takahashi, Noriko; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Kasai, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    Activity-dependent competition of synapses plays a key role in neural organization and is often promoted by GABA; however, its cellular bases are poorly understood. Excitatory synapses of cortical pyramidal neurons are formed on small protrusions known as dendritic spines, which exhibit structural plasticity. We used two-color uncaging of glutamate and GABA in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that spine shrinkage and elimination were markedly promoted by the activation of GABAA receptors shortly before action potentials. GABAergic inhibition suppressed bulk increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, whereas it preserved the Ca2+ nanodomains generated by NMDA-type receptors, both of which were necessary for spine shrinkage. Unlike spine enlargement, spine shrinkage spread to neighboring spines (<15 ?m) and competed with their enlargement, and this process involved the actin-depolymerizing factor ADF/cofilin. Thus, GABAergic inhibition directly suppresses local dendritic Ca2+ transients and strongly promotes the competitive selection of dendritic spines. PMID:23974706

  19. Antiseizure Activity of Midazolam in Mice Lacking ?-Subunit Extrasynaptic GABA(A) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sandesh D; Younus, Iyan; Clossen, Bryan L; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2015-06-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant with rapid onset and short duration of action. Midazolam is the current drug of choice for acute seizures and status epilepticus, including those caused by organophosphate nerve agents. The antiseizure activity of midazolam is thought to result from its allosteric potentiation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors in the brain. However, there are indications that benzodiazepines promote neurosteroid synthesis via the 18-kDa cholesterol transporter protein (TSPO). Therefore, we investigated the role of neurosteroids and their extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor targets in the antiseizure activity of midazolam. Here, we used ?-subunit knockout (DKO) mice bearing a targeted deletion of the extrasynaptic receptors to investigate the contribution of the extrasynaptic receptors to the antiseizure activity of midazolam using the 6-Hz and hippocampus kindling seizure models. In both models, midazolam produced rapid and dose-dependent protection against seizures (ED50, 0.4 mg/kg). Moreover, the antiseizure potency of midazolam was undiminished in DKO mice compared with control mice. Pretreatment with PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide], a TSPO blocker, or finasteride, a 5?-reductase neurosteroid inhibitor, did not affect the antiseizure effect of midazolam. The antiseizure activity of midazolam was significantly reversed by pretreatment with flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist. Plasma and brain levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone were not significantly greater in midazolam-treated animals. These studies therefore provide strong evidence that neurosteroids and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are not involved in the antiseizure activity of midazolam, which mainly occurs through synaptic GABA(A) receptors via direct binding to benzodiazepine sites. This study reaffirms midazolam's use for controlling acute seizures and status epilepticus. PMID:25784648

  20. Overexpression and optimization of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 for high gamma-aminobutyric acid production

    PubMed Central

    Tajabadi, Naser; Baradaran, Ali; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Rahim, Raha A; Bakar, Fatimah A; Manap, Mohd Yazid A; Mohammed, Abdulkarim S; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive compound biosynthesized by microorganisms through decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In this study, a full-length GAD gene was obtained by cloning the template deoxyribonucleic acid to pTZ57R/T vector. The open reading frame of the GAD gene showed the cloned gene was composed of 1410 nucleotides and encoded a 469 amino acids protein. To improve the GABA-production, the GAD gene was cloned into pMG36e-LbGAD, and then expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum?Taj-Apis362 cells. The overexpression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and GAD activity, showing a 53?KDa protein with the enzyme activity increased by sevenfold compared with the original GAD activity. The optimal fermentation conditions for GABA production established using response surface methodology were at glutamic acid concentration of 497.973?mM, temperature 36°C, pH 5.31 and time 60?h. Under the conditions, maximum GABA concentration obtained (11.09?mM) was comparable with the predicted value by the model at 11.23?mM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful cloning (clone-back) and overexpression of the LbGAD gene from L.?plantarum to L.?plantarum cells. The recombinant Lactobacillus could be used as a starter culture for direct incorporation into a food system during fermentation for production of GABA-rich products. PMID:25757029

  1. The development of potential new fluorine-18 labelled radiotracers for imaging the GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alexander; Guilbert, Benedicte B; Plant, Stuart D; Goggi, Julian; Battle, Mark R; Woodcraft, John L; Gaeta, Alessandra; Jones, Clare L; Bouvet, Denis R; Jones, Paul A; O'Shea, Dennis M; Zheng, Penny Hao; Brown, Samantha L; Ewan, Amanda L; Trigg, William

    2013-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using the tracer [(11)C]Flumazenil has shown changes in the distribution and expression of the GABA(A) receptor in a range of neurological conditions and injury states. We aim to develop a fluorine-18 labelled PET agent with comparable properties to [(11)C]Flumazenil. In this study we make a direct comparison between the currently known fluorine-18 labelled GABA(A) radiotracers and novel imidazobenzodiazepine ligands. A focussed library of novel compound was designed and synthesised where the fluorine containing moiety and the position of attachment is varied. The in vitro affinity of twenty-two compounds for the GABA(A) receptor was measured. Compounds containing a fluoroalkyl amide or a longer chain ester group were eliminated due to low potency. The fluorine-18 radiochemistry of one compound from each structural type was assessed to confirm that an automated radiosynthesis in good yield was feasible. Eleven of the novel compounds assessed appeared suitable for in vivo assessment as PET tracers. PMID:23265897

  2. Gene expression changes in GABA(A) receptors and cognition following chronic ketamine administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sijie; Rudd, John A; Yew, David T

    2011-01-01

    Ketamine is a well-known anesthetic agent and a drug of abuse. Despite its widespread use and abuse, little is known about its long-term effects on the central nervous system. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term (1- and 3-month) ketamine administration on learning and memory and associated gene expression levels in the brain. The Morris water maze was used to assess spatial memory and gene expression changes were assayed using Affymetrix Genechips; a focus on the expression of GABA(A) receptors that mediate a tonic inhibition in the brain, was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Compared with saline controls, there was a decline in learning and memory performance in the ketamine-treated mice. Genechip results showed that 110 genes were up-regulated and 136 genes were down-regulated. An ontology analysis revealed the most significant effects of ketamine were on GABA(A) receptors. In particular, there was a significant up-regulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the alpha 5 subunit (Gabra5) of the GABA(A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, chronic exposure to ketamine impairs working memory in mice, which may be explained at least partly by up-regulation of Gabra5 subunits in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:21712993

  3. Interactions of pyrethroid insecticides with GABA sub A and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Devaud, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are potent proconvulsants in the rat. All pyrethroids evincing proconvulsant activity elicited a similar 25-30% maximal reduction of seizure threshold. The Type II pyrethroids were the most potent proconvulsants with 1R{alpha}S, cis cypermethrin having an ED{sub 50} value of 6.3 nmol/kg. The proconvulsant activity of both Type I and Type II pyrenthroids was blocked by pretreatment with PK 11195, the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PTBR) antagonist. In contrast, phenytoin did not antagonize the proconvulsant activity of either deltamethrin or permethrin. Pyrethroids displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 to rat brain membranes with a significant correlation between the log EC{sub 50} values for their activities as proconvulsants and the log IC{sub 50} values for their inhibition of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 binding. Both Ro5-4864 and pyrethroid insecticides were found to influence specific ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding in a GABA-dependent manner. PK 11195 and the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin antagonized the Ro5-4864-induced modulation of ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding. Pyrethroid insecticides, Ro5-4864 and veratridine influenced GABA-gated {sup 36}Chloride influx. Moreover, the Type II pyrethroids elicited an increase in {sup 36}chloride influx in the absence of GABA-stimulation. Both of these actions were antagonized by PK 11195 and tetrodotoxin.

  4. The developmental switch in GABA polarity is delayed in fragile X mice.

    PubMed

    He, Qionger; Nomura, Toshihiro; Xu, Jian; Contractor, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Delays in synaptic and neuronal development in the cortex are key hallmarks of fragile X syndrome, a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that causes intellectual disability and sensory deficits and is the most common known cause of autism. Previous studies have demonstrated that the normal progression of plasticity and synaptic refinement during the critical period is altered in the cortex of fragile X mice. Although the disruptions in excitatory synapses are well documented in fragile X, there is less known about inhibitory neurotransmission during the critical period. GABAergic transmission plays a crucial trophic role in cortical development through its early depolarizing action. At the end of cortical critical period, response properties of GABA transform into their mature hyperpolarizing type due to developmental changes in intracellular chloride homeostasis. We found that the timing of the switch from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing GABA is delayed in the cortex of fragile X mice and there is a concurrent alteration in the expression of the neuronal chloride cotransporter NKCC1 that promotes the accumulation of intracellular chloride. Disruption of the trophic effects of GABA during cortical development could contribute to the altered trajectory of synaptic maturation in fragile X syndrome. PMID:24403144

  5. ?-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor expression is needed for inhibition of N-type (Cav2.2) calcium channels by analgesic ?-conotoxins.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Hartmut; de Faoite, Andrew; Huynh, Thuan G; Yasuda, Takahiro; Berecki, Géza; Adams, David J

    2012-07-01

    ?-Conotoxins Vc1.1 and RgIA are small peptides isolated from the venom of marine cone snails. They have effective anti-nociceptive actions in rat models of neuropathic pain. Pharmacological studies in rodent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) show their analgesic effect is mediated by inhibition of N-type (Ca(v)2.2) calcium channels via a pathway involving ?-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor. However, there is no direct demonstration that functional GABA(B) receptors are needed for inhibition of the Ca(v)2.2 channel by analgesic ?-conotoxins. This study examined the effect of the GABA(B) agonist baclofen and ?-conotoxins Vc1.1 and RgIA on calcium channel currents after transient knockdown of the GABA(B) receptor using RNA interference. Isolated rat DRG neurons were transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting GABA(B) subunits R1 and R2. Efficient knockdown of GABA(B) receptor expression at mRNA and protein levels was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunocytochemical analysis, respectively. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings conducted 2-4 days after transfection showed that inhibition of N-type calcium channels in response to baclofen, Vc1.1 and RgIA was significantly reduced in GABA(B) receptor knockdown DRG neurons. In contrast, neurons transfected with a scrambled nontargeting siRNA were indistinguishable from untransfected neurons. In the HEK 293 cell heterologous expression system, Vc1.1 and RgIA inhibition of Ca(v)2.2 channels needed functional expression of both human GABA(B) receptor subunits. Together, these results confirm that GABA(B) receptors must be activated for the modulation of N-type (Ca(v)2.2) calcium channels by analgesic ?-conotoxins Vc1.1 and RgIA. PMID:22613715

  6. Down-Regulation of Benzodiazepine Binding to 5 Subunit-Containing -Aminobutyric AcidA Receptors in Tolerant Rat

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Down-Regulation of Benzodiazepine Binding to 5 Subunit- Containing -Aminobutyric AcidA Receptors Chronic benzodiazepine treatment can produce tolerance and changes in -aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors treatment known to produce tolerance and down-regu- lation of benzodiazepine binding, or a diazepam

  7. Effect of a vitamin A-free diet on [3H]diazepam and [3H]GABA binding in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Concas, A; Serra, M; Salis, M; Guarneri, P; Carbini, L; Padalino, A; Biggio, G

    1983-05-01

    Benzodiazepine and GABA binding sites in the rat retina are influenced by a vitamin A-free diet. In rats fed a vitamin A-free diet, the total number of [3H]GABA and [3H]diazepam binding sites was markedly higher than in rats given a balanced diet. No differences were found in the apparent affinities of [3H]GABA and [3H]diazepam for their specific binding sites. The results suggest that GABA and benzodiazepine binding sites have a role in the function of the retina. PMID:6307714

  8. Striatal and thalamic GABA level concentrations play differential roles for the modulation of response selection processes by proprioceptive information.

    PubMed

    Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Ma, Ruoyun; Yeh, Chien-Lin; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Snyder, Sandy; Zauber, S Elizabeth; Dydak, Ulrike; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-15

    The selection of appropriate responses is a complex endeavor requiring the integration of many different sources of information in fronto-striatal-thalamic circuits. An often neglected but relevant piece of information is provided by proprioceptive inputs about the current position of our limbs. This study examines the importance of striatal and thalamic GABA levels in these processes using GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (GABA-MRS) and a Simon task featuring proprioception-induced interference in healthy subjects. As a possible model of deficits in the processing of proprioceptive information, we also included Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in this study. The results show that proprioceptive information about unusual postures complicates response selection processes in controls, but not in PD patients. The well-known deficits of PD patients in processing proprioceptive information can turn into a benefit when altered proprioceptive information would normally complicate response selection processes. Striatal and thalamic GABA levels play dissociable roles in the modulation of response selection processes by proprioceptive information: Striatal GABA levels seem to be important for the general speed of responding, most likely because striatal GABA promotes response selection. In contrast, the modulation of response conflict by proprioceptive information is closely related to thalamic GABA concentrations with higher concentration being related to a smaller response conflict effect. The most likely explanation for this finding is that the thalamus is involved in the integration of sensorimotor, attentional, and cognitive information for the purpose of response formation. Yet, this effect in the thalamus vanishes when controls and PD patients were analyzed separately. PMID:26142275

  9. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid-activated Cl- currents in cultured rat hippocampal neurones by three volatile anaesthetics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M V; Brooks, P A; Harrison, N L

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of the volatile anaesthetics enflurane, halothane and isoflurane on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-mediated chloride currents were studied in cultured rat hippocampal neurones. Transient current responses were obtained by brief pressure application of GABA to the cell body of neurones under voltage clamp. 2. All three anaesthetics increased the peak amplitude and duration of current 2. All three anaesthetics increased the peak amplitude and duration of current responses to brief applications of GABA. These effects were fully reversible, and did not involve alterations in the reversal potential for GABA responses. 3. The experimental concentrations of anaesthetics were measured directly using gas chromatography. The enhancement of GABA currents increased with increasing anaesthetic concentration. Clinically effective concentrations of anaesthetics (between 1 and 1.5 times MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) produced significant enhancement of GABA currents. 4. These results demonstrate that the changes in the time course of synaptic inhibition reported in the presence of the volatile anaesthetics are likely to result from modification of the function of postsynaptic GABAA receptor-channel complexes. These findings also support the hypothesis that GABAA receptor complexes serve as common molecular target sites for a variety of structurally diverse anaesthetic molecules. PMID:1326046

  10. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its ?-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Most high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk. PMID:26245488

  11. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its ?-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-01-01

    Most high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk. PMID:26245488

  12. Investigation of cortical glutamate-glutamine and ?-aminobutyric acid in obsessive-compulsive disorder by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Helen B; Shungu, Dikoma C; Bender, James; Mao, Xiangling; Xu, Xiaoyan; Slifstein, Mark; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2012-11-01

    Glutamatergic abnormalities in corticostriatal brain circuits are thought to underlie obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whether these abnormalities exist in adults with OCD is not clear. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS) to test our hypothesis that unmedicated adults with OCD have reduced glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with healthy controls. Levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were also explored. Twenty-four unmedicated adults with OCD and 22 matched healthy control subjects underwent ¹H MRS scans at 3.0?T. Resonances of both Glx and GABA were obtained using the standard J-editing technique and assessed as ratios relative to voxel tissue water (W) in the MPFC (the region of interest) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore the regional specificity of any finding. In the MPFC, Glx/W did not differ by diagnostic group (p=0.98) or sex (p=0.57). However, GABA/W was decreased in OCD (2.16±0.46 × 10?³) compared with healthy controls (2.43±0.45 × 10?³, p=0.045); moreover, age of OCD onset was inversely correlated with MPFC GABA/W (r=-0.50, p=0.015). MPFC GABA/W was higher in females than in males. In the DLPFC, there were no main effects of diagnosis or gender on Glx/W or GABA/W. These data indicate that unmedicated adults with OCD do not have Glx abnormalities in a MPFC voxel that includes the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. However, they may have decreased MPFC GABA levels. How GABA abnormalities might contribute to corticostriatal dysfunction in OCD deserves further study. PMID:22850733

  13. Investigation of Cortical Glutamate–Glutamine and ?-Aminobutyric Acid in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Helen B; Shungu, Dikoma C; Bender, James; Mao, Xiangling; Xu, Xiaoyan; Slifstein, Mark; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamatergic abnormalities in corticostriatal brain circuits are thought to underlie obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Whether these abnormalities exist in adults with OCD is not clear. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to test our hypothesis that unmedicated adults with OCD have reduced glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with healthy controls. Levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were also explored. Twenty-four unmedicated adults with OCD and 22 matched healthy control subjects underwent 1H MRS scans at 3.0?T. Resonances of both Glx and GABA were obtained using the standard J-editing technique and assessed as ratios relative to voxel tissue water (W) in the MPFC (the region of interest) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore the regional specificity of any finding. In the MPFC, Glx/W did not differ by diagnostic group (p=0.98) or sex (p=0.57). However, GABA/W was decreased in OCD (2.16±0.46 × 10?3) compared with healthy controls (2.43±0.45 × 10?3, p=0.045); moreover, age of OCD onset was inversely correlated with MPFC GABA/W (r=?0.50, p=0.015). MPFC GABA/W was higher in females than in males. In the DLPFC, there were no main effects of diagnosis or gender on Glx/W or GABA/W. These data indicate that unmedicated adults with OCD do not have Glx abnormalities in a MPFC voxel that includes the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. However, they may have decreased MPFC GABA levels. How GABA abnormalities might contribute to corticostriatal dysfunction in OCD deserves further study. PMID:22850733

  14. Vesicular Glutamate (VGluT), GABA (VGAT), and Acetylcholine (VAChT) Transporters in Basal Forebrain Axon Terminals Innervating the Lateral Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    HENNY, PABLO; JONES, BARBARA E.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) is known to play important roles in cortical activation and sleep, which are likely mediated by chemically differentiated cell groups including cholinergic, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and other unidentified neurons. One important target of these cells is the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which is critical for arousal and the maintenance of wakefulness. To determine whether chemically specific BF neurons provide an innervation to the LH, we employed anterograde transport of 10,000 MW biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) together with immunohistochemical staining of the vesicular transporter proteins (VTPs) for glutamate (VGluT1, -2, and -3), GABA (VGAT), or acetylcholine (ACh, VAChT). In addition, we applied triple staining for the postsynaptic proteins (PSPs), PSD-95 with VGluT or Gephyrin (Geph) with VGAT, to examine whether the BDA-labeled varicosities may form excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the LH. Axons originating from BDA-labeled neurons in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (MCPO) and substantia innominata (SI) descended within the medial forebrain bundle and extended collateral varicose fibers to contact LH neurons. In the LH, the BDA-labeled varicosities were immunopositive (+) for VAChT (~10%), VGluT2 (~25%), or VGAT (~50%), revealing an important influence of newly identified glutamatergic together with GABAergic BF inputs. Moreover, in confocal microscopy, VGluT2+ and VGAT+ terminals were apposed to PSD-95+ and Geph+ profiles respectively, indicating that they formed synaptic contacts with LH neurons. The important inputs from glutamatergic and GABAergic BF cells could thus regulate LH neurons in an opposing manner to stimulate vs. suppress cortical activation and behavioral arousal reciprocally. PMID:16572456

  15. Synthesis of GABAA Receptor Agonists and Evaluation of their ?-Subunit Selectivity and Orientation in the GABA Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Michaela; Rabe, Holger; Strehle, Axelle; Dieler, Sandra; Debus, Fabian; Dannhardt, Gerd; Akabas, Myles H.; Lüddens, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Drugs used to treat various disorders target GABAA receptors. To develop ? subunit selective compounds, we synthesized 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL) derivatives. The 3-isoxazolol moiety was substituted by 1,3,5-oxadiazol-2-one, 1,3,5-oxadiazol-2-thione, and substituted 1,2,4-triazol-3-ol heterocycles with modifications to the basic piperidine substituent as well as substituents without basic nitrogen. Compounds were screened by [3H]muscimol binding and in patch-clamp experiments with heterologously expressed GABAA ?i?3?2 receptors (i = 1–6). The effects of 5-aminomethyl-3H-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-one 5d were comparable to GABA for all ? subunit isoforms. 5-piperidin-4-yl-3H-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-one 5a and 5-piperidin-4-yl-3H- [1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-thione 6a were weak agonists at ?3–, ?3–, and ?5–containing receptors. When coapplied with GABA they were antagonistic in?2–, ?4–, and ?6–containing receptors and potentiated ?3-containing receptors. 6a protected GABA binding site cysteine-substitution mutants ?1F64C and ?1S68C from reacting with methanethiosulfonate-ethylsulfonate. 6a specifically covalently modified the ?1R66C thiol, in the GABA binding site, through its oxadiazolethione sulfur. These results demonstrate the feasibility of synthesizing ? subtype selective GABA mimetic drugs. PMID:18651727

  16. Structure and functional interaction of the extracellular domain of human GABA[subscript B] receptor GBR2

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Yong; Xiong, Dazhi; Mosyak, Lidia; Malito, David L.; Kniazeff, Julie; Chen, Yan; Burmakina, Svetlana; Quick, Matthias; Bush, Martin; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Fan, Qing R.

    2012-10-24

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by GABA. The metabotropic GABA{sub B} receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor central to mammalian brain function. Malfunction of GABA{sub B} receptor has been implicated in several neurological disorders. GABA{sub B} receptor functions as a heterodimeric assembly of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits, where GBR1 is responsible for ligand-binding and GBR2 is responsible for G protein coupling. Here we demonstrate that the GBR2 ectodomain directly interacts with the GBR1 ectodomain to increase agonist affinity by selectively stabilizing the agonist-bound conformation of GBR1. We present the crystal structure of the GBR2 ectodomain, which reveals a polar heterodimeric interface. We also identify specific heterodimer contacts from both subunits, and GBR1 residues involved in ligand recognition. Lastly, our structural and functional data indicate that the GBR2 ectodomain adopts a constitutively open conformation, suggesting a structural asymmetry in the active state of GABA{sub B} receptor that is unique to the GABAergic system.

  17. Anxiety disorders and GABA neurotransmission: a disturbance of modulation

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Lines of evidence coming from many branches of neuroscience indicate that anxiety disorders arise from a dysfunction in the modulation of brain circuits which regulate emotional responses to potentially threatening stimuli. The concept of anxiety disorders as a disturbance of emotional response regulation is a useful one as it allows anxiety to be explained in terms of a more general model of aberrant salience and also because it identifies avenues for developing psychological, behavioral, and pharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety disorder. These circuits involve bottom-up activity from the amygdala, indicating the presence of potentially threatening stimuli, and top-down control mechanisms originating in the prefrontal cortex, signaling the emotional salience of stimuli. Understanding the factors that control cortical mechanisms may open the way to identification of more effective cognitive behavioral strategies for managing anxiety disorders. The brain circuits in the amygdala are thought to comprise inhibitory networks of ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) interneurons and this neurotransmitter thus plays a key role in the modulation of anxiety responses both in the normal and pathological state. The presence of allosteric sites on the GABAA receptor allows the level of inhibition of neurons in the amygdala to be regulated with exquisite precision, and these sites are the molecular targets of the principal classes of anxiolytic drugs. Changes in the levels of endogenous modulators of these allosteric sites as well as changes in the subunit composition of the GABAA receptor may represent mechanisms whereby the level of neuronal inhibition is downregulated in pathological anxiety states. Neurosteroids are synthesized in the brain and act as allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor. Since their synthesis is itself regulated by stress and by anxiogenic stimuli, targeting the neurosteroid-GABAA receptor axis represents an attractive target for the modulation of anxiety. PMID:25653526

  18. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 ?g/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. PMID:26596556

  19. Transmembrane AMPAR Regulatory Protein ?-2 Is Required for the Modulation of GABA Release by Presynaptic AMPARs

    PubMed Central

    Cull-Candy, Stuart G.

    2015-01-01

    Presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) play important roles in the control of synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter release, yet their regulation is poorly understood. In particular, the contribution of transmembrane auxiliary proteins, which profoundly shape the trafficking and gating of somatodendritic iGluRs, is unknown. Here we examined the influence of transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) on presynaptic AMPARs in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), a partial agonist at TARP-associated AMPARs, enhanced spontaneous GABA release in wild-type mice but not in stargazer mice that lack the prototypical TARP stargazin (?-2). These findings were replicated in mechanically dissociated Purkinje cells with functional adherent synaptic boutons, demonstrating the presynaptic locus of modulation. In dissociated Purkinje cells from stargazer mice, AMPA was able to enhance mIPSC frequency, but only in the presence of the positive allosteric modulator cyclothiazide. Thus, ordinarily, presynaptic AMPARs are unable to enhance spontaneous release without ?-2, which is required predominantly for its effects on channel gating. Presynaptic AMPARs are known to reduce action potential-driven GABA release from MLIs. Although a G-protein-dependent non-ionotropic mechanism has been suggested to underlie this inhibition, paradoxically we found that ?-2, and thus AMPAR gating, was required. Following glutamate spillover from climbing fibers or application of CNQX, evoked GABA release was reduced; in stargazer mice such effects were markedly attenuated in acute slices and abolished in the dissociated Purkinje cell-nerve bouton preparation. We suggest that ?-2 association, by increasing charge transfer, allows presynaptic AMPARs to depolarize the bouton membrane sufficiently to modulate both phasic and spontaneous release. PMID:25762667

  20. The betaine/GABA transporter and betaine: roles in brain, kidney, and liver

    PubMed Central

    Kempson, Stephen A.; Zhou, Yun; Danbolt, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological roles of the betaine/GABA transporter (BGT1; slc6a12) are still being debated. BGT1 is a member of the solute carrier family 6 (the neurotransmitter, sodium symporter transporter family) and mediates cellular uptake of betaine and GABA in a sodium- and chloride-dependent process. Most of the studies of BGT1 concern its function and regulation in the kidney medulla where its role is best understood. The conditions here are hostile due to hyperosmolarity and significant concentrations of NH4Cl and urea. To withstand the hyperosmolarity, cells trigger osmotic adaptation, involving concentration of a transcriptional factor TonEBP/NFAT5 in the nucleus, and accumulate betaine and other osmolytes. Data from renal cells in culture, primarily MDCK, revealed that transcriptional regulation of BGT1 by TonEBP/NFAT5 is relatively slow. To allow more acute control of the abundance of BGT1 protein in the plasma membrane, there is also post-translation regulation of BGT1 protein trafficking which is dependent on intracellular calcium and ATP. Further, betaine may be important in liver metabolism as a methyl donor. In fact, in the mouse the liver is the organ with the highest content of BGT1. Hepatocytes express high levels of both BGT1 and the only enzyme that can metabolize betaine, namely betaine:homocysteine –S-methyltransferase (BHMT1). The BHMT1 enzyme removes a methyl group from betaine and transfers it to homocysteine, a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Finally, BGT1 has been proposed to play a role in controlling brain excitability and thereby represents a target for anticonvulsive drug development. The latter hypothesis is controversial due to very low expression levels of BGT1 relative to other GABA transporters in brain, and also the primary location of BGT1 at the surface of the brain in the leptomeninges. These issues are discussed in detail. PMID:24795654

  1. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, are antagonists of the insect Rdl GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Wells, Jennina; Brooke, Basil D; Bermudez, Isabel; Jones, Andrew K

    2015-11-01

    A mutation in the second transmembrane domain of the GABA receptor subunit, Rdl, is associated with resistance to insecticides such as dieldrin and fipronil. Molecular cloning of Rdl cDNA from a strain of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which is highly resistant to dieldrin revealed this mutation (A296G) as well as another mutation in the third transmembrane domain (T345M). Wild-type, A296G, T345M and A296G + T345M homomultimeric Rdl were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and their sensitivities to fipronil, deltamethrin, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), imidacloprid and spinosad were measured using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Spinosad and DDT had no agonist or antagonist actions on Rdl. However, fipronil, deltamethrin and imidacloprid decreased GABA-evoked currents. These antagonistic actions were either reduced or abolished with the A296G and the A296G + T345M mutations while T345M alone appeared to have no significant effect. In conclusion, this study identifies another mutation in the mosquito Rdl that is associated with insecticide resistance. While T345M itself does not affect insecticide sensitivity, it may serve to offset the structural impact of A296G. The present study also highlights Rdl as a potential secondary target for neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. We show for the first time that deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid insecticide) act directly on the insect GABA receptor, Rdl. Our findings highlight Rdl as a potential secondary target of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids mutations in which may contribute to resistance to these widely used insecticides. PMID:26296809

  2. Diversity of GABA(A) receptor synaptic currents on individual pyramidal cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Ing, Timothy; Poulter, Michael O

    2007-02-01

    Miniature GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in cortical pyramidal neurons have previously been categorized into two types: small amplitude mIPSCs with a mono-exponential deactivation (mono-mIPSCs) and relatively larger mIPSCs with bi-exponential deactivation (bi-mIPSCs). The aim of this study was to determine if the GABA(A) channels that underlie these mIPSCSs are molecularly distinct. We found, using non-stationary noise analysis, that the difference in their amplitude could be not accounted for by their single channel conductance (both were 40 pS). Next, using alpha subunit selective GABA(A) receptor modulators, we examined the identity of the alpha subunits that may be expressed in the synapses that give rise to these mIPSCs. Zolpidem (100 and 500 nM, alpha1 selective) affected the deactivation of a subset of the mono-mIPSCs, indicating that alpha1 subunits are not highly expressed in these synapses. However, zolpidem (100 nM) prolonged the deactivation of all bi-mIPSCs, indicating a high abundance of alpha1 subunits in these synapses. SB-205384 (alpha3 selective) had no effect on the mono-mIPSCs but the bi-mIPSCs were prolonged. Furosemide (alpha4 selective) reduced the amplitude of only the mono-mIPSCs. L655,708 (alpha5 selective) reduced the amplitude of both populations and shortened the duration of the mono-mIPSCs. Finally, we found that the neuroactive steroid pregesterone sulphate reduced the amplitude of both mIPSC types. These results provide pharmacological evidence that synapses on cortical pyramidal neurons are molecularly distinct. The purpose of these different types of synapses may be to provide different inhibitory timing patterns on these cells. PMID:17313570

  3. GABAergic dysfunction mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Chen, Hongmei; Samaco, Rodney C.; Xue, Mingshan; Chahrour, Maria; Yoo, Jong; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Gong, Shiaoching; Lu, Hui-Chen; Heintz, Nathaniel; Ekker, Marc; Rubenstein, John L.R.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Rosenmund, Christian; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the X-linked MECP2, which encodes the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause Rett syndrome (RTT) and several neurodevelopmental disorders including cognitive disorders, autism, juvenile-onset schizophrenia, and encephalopathy with early lethality. RTT is characterized by apparently normal early development followed by regression, motor abnormalities, seizures, and features of autism, especially stereotyped behaviors. The mechanisms mediating these striking features are poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking Mecp2 from ?-amino-butyric-acid-(GABA)-ergic neurons recapitulate numerous RTT and autistic features, including repetitive behaviors. Loss of MeCP2 from a subset of forebrain GABAergic neurons also recapitulates many features of RTT. MeCP2-deficient GABAergic neurons show reduced inhibitory quantal size consistent with presynaptic reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase-1 and -2 levels and GABA immunoreactivity. These data demonstrate that MeCP2 is critical for normal GABAergic neuronal function and that subtle dysfunction of GABAergic neurons contributes to numerous neuropsychiatric phenotypes. PMID:21068835

  4. A bird's eye view of anisatin induced convulsive seizures in brain by a (1)H NMR based metabolic approach.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Ge-Dong; Guo, Ping-Ping; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Anisatin is the main convulsant component in plants of the genus Illicium, many of which are important spices or folk medicines. The neurotoxicity of anisatin has been widely investigated, mainly focusing on its action on the ?-amino butyrate (GABA) system; however, little is known about the metabolic alterations that it causes. In this study, a NMR-based metabolomic approach was performed on the extracts of cortexes and cerebellums of mice administered with anisatin to explore the metabolic events associated with its intoxication. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed many differential metabolites that indicated metabolic disturbance in neurotransmission and neuromodulation (GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and taurine), stress of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (ascorbate, phosphatidylcholine, choline, and ethanolamine), energy metabolism (NAD(+)i.e., nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, lactate, citrate, fumarate, creatine/phosphocreatine, and creatinine), amino acid metabolism (leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, alanine, threonine, and glycine) and nucleic acid metabolism (NAD(+), nicotinamide/niacinamide, adenosine, and guanosine). This pilot metabolomic study on anisatin intoxication should help to develop a holistic view of convulsive seizures induced by anisatin, and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms. PMID:25133938

  5. Membrane transporters mediating root signalling and adaptive responses to oxygen deprivation and soil flooding.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Sergey; Shabala, Lana; Barcelo, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    This review provides a comprehensive assessment of a previously unexplored topic: elucidating the role that plasma- and organelle-based membrane transporters play in plant-adaptive responses to flooding. We show that energy availability and metabolic shifts under hypoxia and anoxia are critical in regulating membrane-transport activity. We illustrate the high tissue and time dependence of this regulation, reveal the molecular identity of transporters involved and discuss the modes of their regulation. We show that both reduced oxygen availability and accumulation of transition metals in flooded roots result in a reduction in the cytosolic K(+) pool, ultimately determining the cell's fate and transition to programmed cell death (PCD). This process can be strongly affected by hypoxia-induced changes in the amino acid pool profile and, specifically, ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) accumulation. It is suggested that GABA plays an important regulatory role, allowing plants to proceed with H2 O2 signalling to activate a cascade of genes that mediate plant adaptation to flooding while at the same time, preventing the cell from entering a 'suicide program'. We conclude that progress in crop breeding for flooding tolerance can only be achieved by pyramiding the numerous physiological traits that confer efficient energy maintenance, cytosolic ion homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) control and detoxification. PMID:24689809

  6. CNS depressants accelerate the dissociation of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding and GABA enhances their displacing potencies

    SciTech Connect

    Maksay, G.; Ticku, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The specific binding of /sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) was studied in synaptosomal membranes of rat cerebral cortex. The displacing potencies of eleven CNS depressants and three convulsants were determined in the presence of 1 /sup +/M GABA and 10 nM R 5135. GABA enhanced the displacing potencies of depressants of most diverse chemical structures: diaryltriazine (LY 81067), pyrazolopyridine (etazolate), cinnamide, glutarimide, 2,3-benzodiazepine (tofizopam) and alcohol derivatives, barbiturates, (+)etomidate, methaqualone and meprobamate. In contrast, the IC/sub 50/ values of convulsants (picrotoxinin, pentetrazol and the barbiturate enantiomer S(+)MPPB) were not significantly affected. The depressants accelerated either basal or GABA-augmented dissociation of /sup 35/-TBPS mainly by increasing the contribution of its rapid first phase.

  7. [GABA(A)-Coupled Cl-/HCO3(-)-ATPase: Candidate for an Novel Primary Active Transporter in Neuronal Membranes].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A

    2015-01-01

    Cl(-)-transport systems in cell membranes from various origins (including neurons) play an important role in different processes of their vital functions. Various transport mechanisms involved in the maintenance of intracellular concentration of Cl- that differs from concentration equilibrium have been considered. This review provides the biochemical properties of the GABA(A)-coupled Cl-/HCO3(-)-ATPase which is a candidate for an novel primary active system in neuronal membranes. Special emphasis has been placed on a review of the prerequisites for the existence of the GABA(A)-coupled ATPase. This work provides data for the benefit not only functional but also the alleged structural coupling of the enzyme with GABA(A)-receptors. It is concluded on the importance of the found ATPase in primary active transport processes across the plasma membrane of neuronal cells with different level of the organization. PMID:26155667

  8. eQTL and receptor pharmacology implicate Arg1 and the GABA-A receptor as therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Christopher S.; Quigley, David A.; Wong, Robyn A.; Chen, Justin; Cheng, Christine; Song, Young K.; Wei, Jun S.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Bao, Yun; Goldenberg, David D.; Nguyen, Kim; Gustafson, W. Clay; Rallapalli, Sundari K.; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Cook, James M.; Kozlov, Serguei; Mao, Jian-Hua; Van Dyke, Terry; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Khan, Javed; Balmain, Allan; Fan, QiWen; Weiss, William A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The development of targeted therapeutics for neuroblastoma, the third most common tumor in children, has been limited by a poor understanding of growth signaling mechanisms unique to the peripheral nerve precursors from which tumors arise. In this study, we combined genetics with gene expression analysis in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system to implicate arginase 1 and GABA signaling in tumor formation in vivo. In human neuroblastoma cells, either blockade of ARG1 or benzodiazepine-mediated activation of GABA-A receptors induced apoptosis and inhibited mitogenic signaling through AKT and MAPK. These results suggest that ARG1 and GABA influence both neural development and neuroblastoma, and that benzodiazepines in clinical use may have potential for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:25437558

  9. differentially control circadian rhythms and synchrony in clock neuronsi/oGABA and G Sara J. Aton, James E. Huettner, Martin Straume, and Erik D. Herzog

    E-print Network

    Huettner, James E.

    differentially control circadian rhythms and synchrony in clock neuronsi/oGABA and G Sara J. Aton, see: Notes: #12;GABA and Gi/o differentially control circadian rhythms and synchrony in clock neurons. GABAA and GABAB antagonism increased circadian peak firing rates and rhythm precision of cultured SCN

  10. Impairment of GABA release in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Soukupová, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Roncon, Paolo; Palma, Eleonora; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Simonato, Michele

    2014-07-01

    The alterations in GABA release have not yet been systematically measured along the natural course of temporal lobe epilepsy. In this work, we analyzed GABA extracellular concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high K(+)-evoked conditions) and loss of two GABA interneuron populations (parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons) in the ventral hippocampus at different time-points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat, i.e. during development and progression of epilepsy. We found that (i) during the latent period between the epileptogenic insult, status epilepticus, and the first spontaneous seizure, basal GABA outflow was reduced to about one third of control values while the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was reduced by about 50% and that of somatostatin-positive cells by about 25%; nonetheless, high K(+) stimulation increased extracellular GABA in a proportionally greater manner during latency than under control conditions; (ii) at the time of the first spontaneous seizure (i.e., when the diagnosis of epilepsy is made in humans) this increased responsiveness to stimulation disappeared, i.e. there was no longer any compensation for GABA cell loss; (iii) thereafter, this dysfunction remained constant until a late phase of the disease. These data suggest that a GABAergic hyper-responsiveness can compensate for GABA cell loss and protect from occurrence of seizures during latency, whereas impaired extracellular GABA levels can favor the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and the maintenance of an epileptic state. PMID:24768627

  11. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ORGANOTYPIC CO-CULTURES: EXPERIMENTAL DOPAMINE DEPLETION PREVENTS REDUCTIONS IN GABA

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Gregory D.; Seegal, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been demonstrated to be toxic to the dopamine (DA) systems of the central nervous system. One proposed mechanism for PCB-induced DA neurotoxicity is inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT); such inhibition results in increased levels of unsequestered DA and DA metabolism leading to oxidative stress. We have used an organotypic co-culture system of developing rat striatum and ventral mesencephalon (VM) to determine whether alterations in the vesicular storage of DA, resulting from PCB exposure and consequent induction of oxidative stress, leads to GABA and DA neuronal dysfunction. 24 hr exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs reduced tissue DA and GABA concentrations, increased medium levels of DA and measures of oxidative stress in both the striatum and VM. Alterations in neurochemistry and increases in measures of oxidative stress were blocked in the presence of n-acetylcysteine (NAC). Although NAC treatment did not alter PCB-induced changes in DA neurochemistry, it did protect against reductions in GABA concentration. To determine whether alterations in the vesicular storage of DA were responsible for PCB-induced oxidative stress and consequent reductions in GABA levels, we depleted DA from the co-cultures using ?-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT). AMPT reduced striatal and VM DA levels by 90% and 70%, respectively. PCB exposure, following DA depletion, neither increased levels of oxidative stress nor resulted in GABA depletion. These results suggest that PCB-induced alterations in the vesicular storage of DA, resulting in increased levels of unsequestered DA, leads to increased oxidative stress, depletion of tissue glutathione, and consequent reductions in tissue GABA concentrations. PMID:18262273

  12. Glucose prevents the fall in ventromedial hypothalamic GABA that is required for full activation of glucose counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanling; Czyzyk, Daniel; Paranjape, Sachin A; Zhou, Ligang; Horblitt, Adam; Szabó, Gábor; Seashore, Margretta R; Sherwin, Robert S; Chan, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Local delivery of glucose into a critical glucose-sensing region within the brain, the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), can suppress glucose counterregulatory responses to systemic hypoglycemia. Here, we investigated whether this suppression was accomplished through changes in GABA output in the VMH. Sprague-Dawley rats had catheters and guide cannulas implanted. Eight to ten days later, microdialysis-microinjection probes were inserted into the VMH, and they were dialyzed with varying concentrations of glucose from 0 to 100 mM. Two groups of rats were microdialyzed with 100 mM glucose and microinjected with either the K(ATP) channel opener diazoxide or a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. These animals were then subjected to a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp. As expected, perfusion of glucose into the VMH suppressed the counterregulatory responses. Extracellular VMH GABA levels positively correlated with the concentration of glucose in the perfusate. In turn, extracellular GABA concentrations in the VMH were inversely related to the degree of counterregulatory hormone release. Of note, microinjection of either diazoxide or the GABA(A) receptor antagonist reversed the suppressive effects of VMH glucose delivery on counterregulatory responses. Some GABAergic neurons in the VMH respond to changes in local glucose concentration. Glucose in the VMH dose-dependently stimulates GABA release, and this in turn dose-dependently suppresses the glucagon and epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia. These data suggest that during hypoglycemia a decrease in glucose concentration within the VMH may provide an important signal that rapidly inactivates VMH GABAergic neurons, reducing inhibitory GABAergic tone, which in turn enhances the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. PMID:20304763

  13. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of ?-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P?GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  14. Disruption of pknG enhances production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing glutamate decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a building block of the biodegradable plastic polyamide 4, is synthesized from glucose by Corynebacterium glutamicum that expresses Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) B encoded by gadB. This strain was engineered to produce GABA more efficiently from biomass-derived sugars. To enhance GABA production further by increasing the intracellular concentration of its precursor glutamate, we focused on engineering pknG (encoding serine/threonine protein kinase G), which controls the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Odh) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle branch point leading to glutamate synthesis. We succeeded in expressing GadB in a C. glutamicum strain harboring a deletion of pknG. C. glutamicum strains GAD and GAD ?pknG were cultured in GP2 medium containing 100 g L?1 glucose and 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5?-phosphate. Strain GAD?pknG produced 31.1?±?0.41 g L?1 (0.259 g L?1 h?1) of GABA in 120 hours, representing a 2.29-fold higher level compared with GAD. The production yield of GABA from glucose by GAD?pknG reached 0.893 mol mol?1. PMID:24949255

  15. Monitoring Technology for Gamma-Aminobutyric acid Production in Polished Mochi Barley Grains using a Carbon Dioxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Kawata, Kohki; Watanabe, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has many biological functions, including the inhibition of blood pressure increases and acceleration of growth hormone secretion. In this study, we discovered the utility of measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dissolved in the reaction solution, for development of a real-time and convenient technique to estimate GABA production. In addition to mochi barley bran, we examined the polished grains of three species: mochi barley (a variant of hulless barley), barley, and Japanese millet, all soaked in l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) solution at pH 4.5. We found a positive correlation between GABA and CO2 concentrations, and the production of CO2 was suppressed in the absence of l-Glu at pH 4.5. These results suggest that GABA content can be easily predicted by measuring the aqueous CO2 content using a CO2 sensor, during the process of GABA production in polished mochi barley grains and bran. PMID:25916326

  16. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant’s reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant’s relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant’s metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth—promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to ?-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone. PMID:26067663

  17. Molecular and functional differences in voltage-activated sodium currents between GABA projection neurons and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-12-01

    GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (Na(V)) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA neurons, Na(V) channels in SNr GABA neurons have higher density, faster kinetics, and less cumulative inactivation. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis on immunohistochemically identified nigral neurons indicated that mRNAs for pore-forming Na(V)1.1 and Na(V)1.6 subunits and regulatory Na(V)?1 and Na(v)?4 subunits are more abundant in SNr GABA neurons than SNc DA neurons. These ?-subunits and ?-subunits are key subunits for forming Na(V) channels conducting the transient Na(V) current (I(NaT)), persistent Na current (I(NaP)), and resurgent Na current (I(NaR)). Nucleated patch-clamp recordings showed that I(NaT) had a higher density, a steeper voltage-dependent activation, and a faster deactivation in SNr GABA neurons than in SNc DA neurons. I(NaT) also recovered more quickly from inactivation and had less cumulative inactivation in SNr GABA neurons than in SNc DA neurons. Furthermore, compared with nigral DA neurons, SNr GABA neurons had a larger I(NaR) and I(NaP). Blockade of I(NaP) induced a larger hyperpolarization in SNr GABA neurons than in SNc DA neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that Na(V) channels expressed in fast-spiking SNr GABA neurons and slow-spiking SNc DA neurons are tailored to support their different spiking capabilities. PMID:21880943

  18. An improved process for high quality and nutrition of brown rice production.

    PubMed

    Watchararparpaiboon, W; Laohakunjit, N; Kerdchoechuen, O

    2010-04-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) of two popular Thailand varieties, Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) and Chainat 1, with improved nutritional composition, was obtained by optimizing water soaking conditions. Different water pH (3, 4, 6 and 8), temperatures (25 °C, 35 °C and 45 °C), and soaking times (12 and 24 h) were tested. Using the response surface methodology (RSM), the best condition for producing GBR of both varieties was soaking in water with pH 6 and temperature of 35 °C for 24 h. It caused a 4- to 5-fold increase in gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) content which, together with protein and lipid contents, were highest among treatments. Intermediate levels of thiamine (vitamin B1) and phytic acid (IP6) were obtained. In GBR of KDML 105 variety, GABA, vitamin B1 and IP6 contents were 16.48, 0.526 and 501.06 mg/100 g, respectively, while protein and lipid contents were 10.50% and 4.00%, respectively. For Chainat 1 variety, GABA, vitamin B1 and IP6 contents were 14.50, 0.436 and 486.03 mg/100 g, respectively, while protein and lipid contents were 9.80% and 3.99%, respectively. Carbohydrate and amylose contents differed by only less than 1-2% among treatments. Supplemental aeration during water soaking decreased GABA, protein and lipid contents, but increased vitamin B1 and IP6 contents in both varieties. Furthermore, cooked GBR of both varieties had softer texture than cooked ordinary brown rice. PMID:21339130

  19. BMSCs transplantation improves cognitive impairment via up-regulation of hippocampal GABAergic system in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Long, Q; Hei, Y; Luo, Q; Tian, Y; Yang, J; Li, J; Wei, L; Liu, W

    2015-12-17

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation can ameliorate cognitive impairment in chronic ischemic brain injury, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. It is considered that the hippocampus holds the capabilities of memory consolidation and spatial navigation, and the gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic system plays an important role in the control of learning and memory processes. Herein, we investigated whether transplantation of BMSCs could improve cognitive impairment via regulating the hippocampal GABAergic system in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Animals treated with permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) (a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion) received intravenous injections of BMSCs or saline as experimental group and control group I, the sham-operated rats received intravenous injections of BMSCs or saline as the sham group and control group II. Four weeks later, the Morris Water Maze was employed to evaluate the cognitive changes of each group, immunohistochemistry and western blotting was used to investigate the GABAergic system expression including GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) or GABAB receptor 1 (GABABR1) in the hippocampus. Our results showed that the 2VO model presented decreased capacities of learning and memory and down-regulated the expression of GABA, GAD67 or GABABR1 in the hippocampal CA1 subfield in comparison to the sham group (P<0.05), while administration of BMSCs (experimental group) manifested increased performances of learning sessions and probe tasks, as well as up-regulated expression of GABA, GAD67 or GABABR1 compared with the control group I (P<0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that transplantation of BMSCs is capable of improving cognitive impairment via up-regulating the hippocampal GABAergic system in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Hence, BMSCs transplantation could serve as an important tool for cell therapy in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion disorders. PMID:26545982

  20. Posterior cingulate ?-aminobutyric acid and glutamate/glutamine are reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and are unrelated to amyloid deposition and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Riese, Florian; Gietl, Anton; Zölch, Niklaus; Henning, Anke; O'Gorman, Ruth; Kälin, Andrea M; Leh, Sandra E; Buck, Alfred; Warnock, Geoffrey; Edden, Richard A E; Luechinger, Roger; Hock, Christoph; Kollias, Spyros; Michels, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The biomarker potential of the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for the in vivo characterization of preclinical stages in Alzheimer's disease has not yet been explored. We measured GABA, glutamate + glutamine (Glx), and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels by single-voxel MEGA-PRESS magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the posterior cingulate cortex of 21 elderly subjects and 15 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Participants underwent Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping, and neuropsychological examination. GABA, Glx, and NAA levels were significantly lower in patients. NAA was lower in Pittsburgh Compound B-positive subjects and APOE ?4 allele carriers. GABA, Glx, and NAA levels were positively correlated to CERAD word learning scores. Reductions in GABA, Glx, and NAA levels may serve as metabolic biomarkers for cognitive impairment in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Because GABA and Glx do not seem to reflect amyloid ? deposition or APOE genotype, they are less likely biomarker candidates for preclinical Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25169676

  1. Spontaneous GABA(A)-dependent synchronous periodic activity in adult rat ventral hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Kostopoulos, George

    2002-02-01

    The present study shows that adult rat transverse slices from the ventral hippocampus perfused with standard medium persistently generate spontaneous synchronous field potentials. In CA1 st. pyramidale this regular ventral hippocampus spontaneous synchronous activity (VHSSA) was positive with mean amplitude 0.18 +/- 0.02 mV (n=80 slices) and occurred every 0.48 +/- 0.02 s. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons demonstrated that concomitant hyperpolarizations invariably occurred in association to this field activity and could thus constitute its electrical generators. These hyperpolarizations, had mean amplitude 2.7 +/- 0.6 mV, duration at half amplitude 44.8 +/- 6.6 ms, they reversed at -72.6 +/- 1.5 mV (n=10 cells), they effectively suspended the depolarization-induced tonic neuronal firing of all ten pyramidal neurons and they were reversibly abolished, together with field potentials, by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 microM, n=4). VHSSA was also dependent on fast glutamatergic transmission, since it was blocked by the antagonist of AMPA/kainate receptors 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium (10 microM, n=3). We propose that, under standard in vitro conditions, synchronous GABA(A)-mediated hyperpolarizing potentials are spontaneously generated in pyramidal neurons presumably resulting from the phasic quasi-rhythmic discharge of a local interneuronal network of ventral hippocampus. PMID:11814643

  2. The lignan (-)-hinokinin displays modulatory effects on human monoamine and GABA transporter activities.

    PubMed

    Timple, Julie Marie V; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Souza Rezende, Karen Cristina; Pereira, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Andrade e Silva, Márcio Luis; Mortensen, Ole Valente; Fontana, Andréia C K

    2013-10-25

    The neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family play critical roles in the regulation of neurotransmission and are the primary targets of therapeutic agents used to treat clinical disorders involving compromised neurotransmitter signaling. The dopamine and norepinephrine transporters have been implicated in clinical disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse. The GABA transporters (GATs) serve as a target for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiepileptic therapies. In this work, the interaction with neurotransmitter transporters was characterized for a derivative of the lignan (-)-cubebin (1), namely, (-)-hinokinin (2). Using in vitro pharmacological assays, 2 selectively inhibited the human dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, in a noncompetitive manner possibly mediated by binding to a novel site within the transporters, and displayed low affinity for the serotonin transporter. Compound 2 also specifically inhibited the GAT-1 GABA transporter subtype. Compound 2 is not a substrate of the carriers as it had no effect on the efflux of either of the neurotransmitters investigated. This compound is inactive toward glutamate and glycine transporters. These results suggest that 2 may serve as a tool to develop new therapeutic drugs for ADHD and anxiety that target the DAT, NET, and GAT-1 transporters. PMID:24112084

  3. Fragile X Syndrome FMRP Co-localizes with Regulatory Targets PSD-95, GABA Receptors, CaMKII?, and mGluR5 at Fiber Cell Membranes in the Eye Lens.

    PubMed

    Frederikse, Peter H; Nandanoor, Anoop; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2015-11-01

    Fmr1 and FMRP underlie Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and are linked with related autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Fmr1 also has an essential role in eye and lens development. Lenses express FMRP along with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs), post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), Tyr-phosphatase STEP, CaMKII? and Alzheimer's disease A? precursor protein, which are verified targets of FMRP regulation in neurons and outline major topics in FXS/ASD research. PSD-95 as well as CaMKII? transcripts undergo polypryimidine tract binding protein dependent alternative splicing in lens, consistent with PSD-95 translation in lens. At least 13 GABAR subunits and GAD25/65/67 GABA metabolism enzymes are expressed in lenses beginning in embryonic development, matching neural development. Interestingly, GABAergic drugs (e.g. baclofen) studied as FXS/ASD therapeutics are shown to resolve developmental vision defects in experimental myopia. Here, we demonstrated that FMRP co-localizes at fiber cell membranes with PSD-95, GABAA?, GABAA?3, GABBR1, STEP, CaMKII?, and mGluR5 in young adult lenses. GAD65 and GABA detection was greatest at the peri-nuclear lens region where fiber cell terminal differentiation occurs. These findings add to an extensive list of detailed parallels between fiber cell and neuron morphology and their lateral membrane spine/protrusions, also reflected in the shared expression of genes involved in the morphogenesis and function of these membrane structures, and shared use of associated regulatory mechanisms first described as distinguishing the neuronal phenotype. Future studies can determine if GABA levels currently studied as a FXS/ASD biomarker in the brain, and generated by GAD25/65/67 in a comparable cell environment in the lens, may be similarly responsive to Fmr1 mutation in lens. The present demonstration of FMRP and key regulatory targets in the lens identifies a potential for the lens to provide a new research venue, in the same individual, to inform about Fmr1/FMRP pathobiology in brain as well as lens. PMID:26298628

  4. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103

    2013-12-15

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (E{sub GABA}). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (g{sub GABA-extra}) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in g{sub GABA-extra} and E{sub GABA} influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40–100?Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30–40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting (?74?mV), but failed to alter average FS-BC frequency when E{sub GABA} was depolarizing (?54?mV). When FS-BCs were activated by biologically based dendritic synaptic inputs, enhancing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting and increased average FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was depolarizing. Shifting E{sub GABA} from shunting to depolarizing potentials consistently increased network frequency to and above high gamma frequencies (>80?Hz). Since gamma oscillations may contribute to learning and memory processing [Fell et al., Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1259 (2001); Jutras et al., J. Neurosci. 29, 12521 (2009); Wang, Physiol. Rev. 90, 1195 (2010)], our demonstration that network oscillations are modulated by extrasynaptic inhibition in FS-BCs suggests that neuroactive compounds that act on extrasynaptic GABA receptors could impact memory formation by modulating hippocampal gamma oscillations. The simulation results indicate that the depolarized FS-BC GABA reversal, observed after experimental seizures, together with enhanced spillover extrasynaptic GABA currents are likely to promote generation of focal high frequency activity associated with epileptic networks.

  5. Endogenously released 5-HT inhibits A and C fiber-evoked synaptic transmission in the rat spinal cord by the facilitation of GABA/glycine and 5-HT release via 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(3) receptors.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeyuki; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ohta, Toshio; Ito, Shigeo

    2013-02-28

    Serotonin (5-HT) released from descending fibers plays important roles in spinal functions such as locomotion and nociception. 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors are suggested to contribute to spinal antinociception, although their activation also contributes to neuronal excitation. In the neonatal spinal cord, DL-p-chloroamphetamine (pCA), a 5-HT releaser, inhibited both A fiber-evoked monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and C fiber-evoked slow ventral root potential (sVRP). The pCA-mediated inhibition was reversed by ketanserin (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and tropisetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). Bath-applied 5-HT also inhibited MSR and sVRP; in this case, the actions of 5-HT were antagonized by ketanserin, but not by tropisetron. The pCA-evoked inhibition of sVRP was reduced by bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) and strychnine (a glycine receptor antagonist). Furthermore, ketanserin inhibited the pCA-evoked release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, while tropisetron inhibited the pCA-evoked release of 5-HT. These results suggest that 5-HT released by pCA activates 5-HT2A receptors, which in turn stimulates the release of GABA/glycine and thereby blocks the spinal nociceptive pathway. 5-HT3 receptors may be involved in the facilitation of 5-HT release via a positive feedback process. PMID:23399761

  6. Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974

  7. Erythropoietin Attenuates Loss of Potassium Chloride Co-Transporters Following Prenatal Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jantzie, L.L.; Getsy, P. M.; Firl, D. J.; Wilson, C.G.; Miller, R.H; Robinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic agents that restore the inhibitory actions of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) by modulating intracellular chloride concentrations will provide novel avenues to treat stroke, chronic pain, epilepsy, autism, neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders. During development upregulation of the potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, and the resultant switch from excitatory to inhibitory responses to GABA guides the formation of essential inhibitory circuits. Importantly, maturation of inhibitory mechanisms is also central to the development of excitatory circuits and proper balance between excitatory and inhibitory networks in the developing brain. Loss of KCC2 expression occurs in postmortem samples from human preterm infant brains with white matter lesions. Here we show late gestation brain injury in a rat model of extreme prematurity impairs the developmental upregulation of potassium chloride co-transporters during a critical postnatal period of circuit maturation in CA3 hippocampus by inducing a sustained loss of oligomeric KCC2 via a calpain-dependent mechanism. Further, administration of erythropoietin (EPO) in a clinically relevant postnatal dosing regimen following the prenatal injury protects the developing brain by reducing calpain activity, restoring oligomeric KCC2 expression and attenuating KCC2 fragmentation, thus providing the first report of a safe therapy to address deficits in KCC2 expression. Together, these data indicate it is possible to reverse abnormalities in KCC2 expression during the postnatal period, and potentially reverse deficits in inhibitory circuit formation central to cognitive impairment and epileptogenesis. PMID:24983520

  8. Perinatal hypoxia: different effects of the inhibitors of GABA transporters GAT1 and GAT3 on the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake by cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina; Yatsenko, Ludmila; Himmelreich, Nina; Krupko, Olga; Borisova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To analyze the effects of highly selective blocker GAT1, NO-711, and substrate inhibitor GAT3, ?-alanine, on the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake by cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) after perinatal hypoxia. Methods Animals were divided into two groups: control (n?=?17) and hypoxia (n?=?12). Rats in the hypoxia group underwent hypoxia and seizures (airtight chamber, 4% O2 and 96% N2) at the age of 10-12 postnatal days and were used in the experiments 8-9 weeks after hypoxia. Results In cortical synaptosomes, the effects of NO-711 (30 ??) and ?-alanine (100 ??) on [3H]GABA uptake were similar in control and hypoxia groups. In hippocampal synaptosomes, NO-711 inhibited 84.3% of the initial velocity of [3H]GABA uptake in normal conditions and 80.1% after hypoxia, whereas the effect of ?-alanine was increased after hypoxia from 14.4% to 22.1%. In thalamic synaptosomes, the effect of NO-711 was decreased by 79.6% in controls and by 70.9% in hypoxia group, whereas the effect of ?-alanine was increased after hypoxia from 20.2% to 30.2%. Conclusions The effectiveness of ?-alanine to influence GABA uptake was increased in hippocampal and thalamic nerve terminals as a result of perinatal hypoxia and the effectiveness of NO-711 in thalamic nerve terminals was decreased. These results may indicate changes in the ratio of active GAT1/GAT3 expressed in the plasma membrane of nerve terminals after perinatal hypoxia. We showed a possibility to modulate non-GAT1 GABA transporter activity in different brain regions by exogenous and endogenous ?-alanine. PMID:24891283

  9. Neurochemical characterization of a neuroprotective compound from Parawixia bistriata spider venom that inhibits synaptosomal uptake of GABA and glycine.

    PubMed

    Beleboni, Renê Oliveira; Guizzo, Renato; Fontana, Andréia Cristina Karklin; Pizzo, Andrea Baldocchi; Carolino, Ruither Oliveira Gomes; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    The major contribution of this work is the isolation of a neuroprotective compound referred to as 2-amino-5-ureidopentanamide (FrPbAII) (M(r) = 174) from Parawixia bistriata spider venom and an investigation of its mode of action. FrPbAII inhibits synaptosomal GABA uptake in a dose-dependent manner and probably does not act on Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) channels, GABA(B) receptors, or gamma-aminobutyrate:alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase enzyme; therefore, it is not directly dependent on these structures for its action. Direct increase of GABA release and reverse transport are also ruled out as mechanisms of FrPbAII activities as well as unspecific actions on pore membrane formation. Moreover, FrPbAII is selective for GABA and glycine transporters, having slight or no effect on monoamines or glutamate transporters. According to our experimental glaucoma data in rat retina, FrPbAII is able to cross the blood-retina barrier and promote effective protection of retinal layers submitted to ischemic conditions. These studies are of relevance by providing a better understanding of neurochemical mechanisms involved in brain function and for possible development of new neuropharmacological and therapeutic tools. PMID:16551783

  10. A new strategy for in vivo spectral editing. Application to GABA editing using selective homonuclear polarization transfer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Yang, Jehoon; Choi, In-Young; Li, Shizhe Steve; Chen, Zhengguang

    2004-10-01

    A novel single-shot in vivo spectral editing method is proposed in which the signal to be detected, is regenerated anew from the thermal equilibrium magnetization of a source to which it is J-coupled. The thermal equilibrium magnetization of the signal to be detected together with those of overlapping signals are suppressed by single-shot gradient dephasing prior to the signal regeneration process. Application of this new strategy to in vivo GABA editing using selective homonuclear polarization transfer allows complete suppression of overlapping creatine and glutathione while detecting the GABA-4 methylene resonance at 3.02 ppm with an editing yield similar to that of conventional editing methods. The NAA methyl group at 2.02 ppm was simultaneously detected and can be used as an internal navigator echo for correcting the zero order phase and frequency shifts and as an internal reference for concentration. This new method has been demonstrated for robust in vivo GABA editing in the rat brain and for study of GABA synthesis after acute vigabatrin administration.

  11. The clinical efficacy of -DOPA and STN-DBS share a common marker: reduced GABA content in the motor thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, A; Fedele, E; Vitek, J; Pierantozzi, M; Galati, S; Marzetti, F; Peppe, A; Bassi, M S; Bernardi, G; Stanzione, P

    2011-01-01

    At odd with traditional views, effective sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, may increase the discharge rate of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the internal globus pallidus (GPi), in combination with increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. How these changes affect the basal ganglia (BG) output to the motor thalamus, the crucial structure conveying motor information to cortex, is critical. Here, we determined the extracellular GABA concentration in the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) during the first delivery of STN-DBS (n=10) or following levodopa (LD) (n=8). Both DBS and subdyskinetic LD reversibly reduced (?30%) VA GABA levels. A significant correlation occurred between clinical score and GABA concentration. By contrast, only STN-DBS increased GPi cGMP levels. Hence, STN-ON and MED-ON involve partially different action mechanisms but share a common target in the VA. These findings suggest that the standard BG circuitry, in PD, needs revision as relief from akinesia may take place, during DBS, even in absence of reduced GPi excitability. However, clinical amelioration requires fast change of thalamic GABA, confirming, in line with the old model, that VA is the core player in determining thalamo-cortical transmission. PMID:21544093

  12. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  13. The potential use of GABA agonists in psychiatric disorders: evidence from studies with progabide in animal models and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K G; Morselli, P L; Depoortere, H; Fournier, V; Zivkovic, B; Scatton, B; Broekkamp, C; Worms, P; Bartholini, G

    1983-06-01

    Progabide, a new antiepileptic GABA agonist of moderate affinity for GABA receptors, has been studied in a number of psychiatric disorders and the results compared with the action of this drug in animal models. In an animal model for anxiety (the aversive response to periaqueductal grey stimulation in the rat) progabide had a similar action to that of diazepam. However in clinical trials to date the effect of the GABA agonist was inferior to that of benzodiazepines. As progabide diminishes both the nigrostriatal dopamine neuron activity and the effects of striatal dopamine receptor activation, a trial in schizophrenic patients was undertaken. Progabide was devoid of any evident antipsychotic action. However a certain improvement in responsiveness to the environment and in social interactions was noticed in hebephrenic and schizoaffective syndromes. This lack of antipsychotic effect of progabide may be a reflection of the weak activity of GABA agonists on limbic dopamine neurons. In these various clinical trials a definite improvement of affect and mood was noted in those patients receiving progabide. In clinical trials in depressed patients progabide produces a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, an action similar to that of imipramine both for the global clinical rating and the HRSD. This antidepressant activity is reflected by the action of progabide in behavioural models of depression such as olfactory bulbectomy, learned helplessness and the sleep-wake cycle. PMID:6351106

  14. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation and GABA concentration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ashley D; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Anderson, Brian A; Yantis, Steven; Pekar, James J; Barker, Peter B; Edden, Richard A E

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought. PMID:25699994

  15. Multi-Regional Investigation of the Relationship between Functional MRI Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) Activation and GABA Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley D.; Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven; Pekar, James J.; Barker, Peter B.; Edden, Richard A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought. PMID:25699994

  16. Aging reduces the GABA-dependent /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ flux in rat brain membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Concas, A.; Pepitoni, S.; Atsoggiu, T.; Toffano, G.; Biggio, G.

    1988-01-01

    The function of the chloride channel associated to GABA/sub A/ receptor complex was analyzed in the brain of aged rats by measuring the chloride flux across the neuronal membrane and its modulation by drugs acting at the level of the GABA receptor complex and /sup 35/S-TBPS binding. The basal /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by brain membrane vesicles of aged rats was higher than that observed in those of adult rats. The higher /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake found in cortical membrane vesicles of senescent rats was not sensitive to the action of bicuculline indicating that it was not the consequence of a tonic GABAergic modulation. Moreover, the stimulation of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake induced by GABA was markedly lower in membrane vesicles of aged rats than that observed in those of adult rats. Accordingly, the stimulation of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux elicited by GABA and pentobarbital was higher in membrane vesicles of adult rats with respect to that of old rats. Finally a significant decrease of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding was observed in membrane preparation from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of aged-rats.

  17. Relative Neurotoxicity of Ivermectin and Moxidectin in Mdr1ab (?/?) Mice and Effects on Mammalian GABA(A) Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ménez, Cécile; Sutra, Jean-François; Prichard, Roger; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The anthelmintics ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) display differences in toxicity in several host species. Entrance into the brain is restricted by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, while toxicity is mediated through the brain GABA(A) receptors. This study compared the toxicity of IVM and MOX in vivo and their interaction with GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Drug toxicity was assessed in Mdr1ab(?/?) mice P-gp-deficient after subcutaneous administration of increasing doses (0.11–2.0 and 0.23–12.9 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX in P-gp-deficient mice and half lethal doses (LD50) in wild-type mice). Survival was evaluated over 14-days. In Mdr1ab(?/?) mice, LD50 was 0.46 and 2.3 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX, respectively, demonstrating that MOX was less toxic than IVM. In P-gp-deficient mice, MOX had a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio and entered into the brain more slowly than IVM. The brain sublethal drug concentrations determined after administration of doses close to LD50 were, in Mdr1ab(?/?) and wild-type mice, respectively, 270 and 210 pmol/g for IVM and 830 and 740–1380 pmol/g for MOX, indicating that higher brain concentrations are required for MOX toxicity than IVM. In rat ?1?2?2 GABA channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, IVM and MOX were both allosteric activators of the GABA-induced response. The Hill coefficient was 1.52±0.45 for IVM and 0.34±0.56 for MOX (p<0.001), while the maximum potentiation caused by IVM and MOX relative to GABA alone was 413.7±66.1 and 257.4±40.6%, respectively (p<0.05), showing that IVM causes a greater potentiation of GABA action on this receptor. Differences in the accumulation of IVM and MOX in the brain and in the interaction of IVM and MOX with GABA(A) receptors account for differences in neurotoxicity seen in intact and Mdr1-deficient animals. These differences in neurotoxicity of IVM and MOX are important in considering their use in humans. PMID:23133688

  18. Heterogeneous expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-associated receptors and transporters in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Michael A; Yarom, Yosef; Pickard, Gary E

    2008-02-01

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary mammalian circadian clock that regulates rhythmic physiology and behavior. The SCN is composed of a diverse set of neurons arranged in a tight intrinsic network. In the rat, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-containing neurons are the dominant cell phenotypes of the ventral SCN, and these cells receive photic information from the retina and the intergeniculate leaflet. Neurons expressing vasopressin (VP) are concentrated in the dorsal and medial aspects of the SCN. Although the VIP/GRP and VP cell groups are concentrated in different regions of the SCN, the separation of these cell groups is not absolute. The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is expressed in most SCN neurons irrespective of their location or peptidergic phenotype. In the present study, immunoperoxidase labeling, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry were used to examine the spatial distribution of several markers associated with SCN GABAergic neurons. Glutamate decarboxylase, a marker of GABA synthesis, and vesicular GABA transporter were more prominently observed in the ventral SCN. KCC2, a K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter, was highly expressed in the ventral SCN in association with VIP- and GRP-producing neurons, whereas VP neurons in the dorsal SCN were devoid of KCC2. On the other hand, GABA(B) receptors were observed predominantly in VPergic neurons dorsally, whereas, in the ventral SCN, GABA(B) receptors were associated almost exclusively with retinal afferent fibers and terminals. The differential expression of GABAergic markers within the SCN suggests that GABA may play dissimilar roles in different SCN neuronal phenotypes. PMID:18067149

  19. GET73 increases rat extracellular hippocampal CA1 GABA levels through a possible involvement of local mGlu5 receptor.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; O'Connor, William Thomas; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Antonelli, Tiziana; Loche, Antonella; Tanganelli, Sergio; Cacciaglia, Roberto; Ferraro, Luca

    2013-10-01

    N-[(4-trifluoromethyl) benzyl] 4-methoxybutyramide (GET73) is a newly synthesized compound displaying anti-alcohol and anxiolytic properties. In light of the importance of the hippocampal CA1 subregion in alcohol addiction and anxiety-like behaviors-this in vivo microdialysis study characterized the effect of GET73 on extracellular GABA levels in the hippocampal CA1 region of the freely moving rat-including a possible role for mGlu5 receptor in mediating this effect. Both intraperitoneal administration (2-10 mg/kg) and local intra-hippocampal CA1 perfusion with GET73 (50-1000 nM) were associated with a transient, step-wise increase in dialysate hippocampal CA1 GABA levels. The GET73 (10 mg/kg)-induced increase in GABA levels was not affected by intra-CA1 perfusion with either the GABA reuptake inhibitor SKF89976A (0.5 mM) or by local GABAA (bicuculline; 1?M) and GABAB (CGP35348; 500 ?M) receptor antagonists. On the contrary, the GET73-induced increase in GABA levels was partially counteracted by the intra-CA1 perfusion with the mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator MPEP (300 µM). Interestingly, GET73 at the lowest (2 mg/kg) dose tested, by itself ineffective, fully counteracted the increase in GABA levels induced by the mGlu5 receptor agonist CHPG (1000 µM). Taken together, these findings suggest that the GET73-induced increase in hippocampal CA1 GABA levels operates independently of local GABA reuptake and/or GABAA or GABAB receptors. Furthermore, the present data lead to hypothesize a possible interaction between GET73 and mGluR5-mediated regulation of hippocampal CA1 GABA transmission, an effect which may be relevant to the ability of GET73 to reduce alcohol intake in an alcohol-preferring rat strain. PMID:23564259

  20. GABA induces thee differentiation of small into large cholangiocytes by activation of Ca2+/CaMK I-dependent adenylyl cyclase 8

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, Romina; Franchitto, Antonio; Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Onori, Paolo; DeMorrow, Sharon; Francis, Heather; Venter, Julie; Carpino, Guido; Baker, Kimberley; Han, Yuyan; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Large but not small cholangiocytes: (i) secrete bicarbonate by interaction with secretin receptors (SR) through activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride bicarbonate anion exchanger 2 (Cl?/HCO3? AE2) and adenylyl cyclase 8 (AC8) (proteins regulating large biliary functions); and (ii) proliferate in response to bile duct ligation (BDL) by activation of cAMP signaling. Small, mitotically dormant cholangiocytes are activated during damage of large cholangiocytes by activation of IP3/Ca2+-CaMK I. GABA affects cell functions by modulation of Ca2+-dependent signaling and AC. We hypothesized that GABA induces the differentiation of small into large cholangiocytes by the activation of Ca2+/CaMK I-dependent AC 8. Methods In vivo, BDL mice were treated with GABA in the absence/presence of BAPTA/AM or W7 before evaluating apoptosis and ductal mass (IBDM) of small and large cholangiocytes. In vitro, control- or CaMK I-silenced small cholangiocytes were treated with GABA for 3 days before evaluating apoptosis, proliferation, ultrastructural features and the expression of CFTR, Cl?/HCO3? AE2 and AC8, and secretin-stimulated cAMP levels. Results In vivo administration of GABA induces the apoptosis of large but not small cholangiocytes, and decreases large IBDM but increased de novo small IBDM. GABA-stimulation of small IBDM was blocked by BAPTA/AM and W7. Following GABA in vitro treatment, small cholangiocytes de novo proliferate and acquire ultrastructural and functional phenotypes of large cholangiocytes and respond to secretin. GABA-induced changes were prevented by BAPTA/AM, W7 and by stable knockdown of CaMK I gene. Conclusion GABA damages large but not small cholangiocytes that differentiate into large cholangiocytes. The differentiation of small into large cholangiocytes may be important in the replenishment of the biliary epithelium during damage of large, senescent cholangiocytes. PMID:23389926

  1. The Glutamate–Glutamine (GABA) Cycle: Importance of Late Postnatal Development and Potential Reciprocal Interactions between Biosynthesis and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Leif

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for studies of glutamate–glutamine (GABA) cycling and its connections to brain biosynthesis from glucose of glutamate and GABA and their subsequent metabolism are the elegant in vivo studies by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), showing the large fluxes in the cycle. However, simpler experiments in intact brain tissue (e.g., immunohistochemistry), brain slices, cultured brain cells, and mitochondria have also made important contributions to the understanding of details, mechanisms, and functional consequences of glutamate/GABA biosynthesis and degradation. The purpose of this review is to attempt to integrate evidence from different sources regarding (i) the enzyme(s) responsible for the initial conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to glutamate; (ii) the possibility that especially glutamate oxidation is essentially confined to astrocytes; and (iii) the ontogenetically very late onset and maturation of glutamine–glutamate (GABA) cycle function. Pathway models based on the functional importance of aspartate for glutamate synthesis suggest the possibility of interacting pathways for biosynthesis and degradation of glutamate and GABA and the use of transamination as the default mechanism for initiation of glutamate oxidation. The late development and maturation are related to the late cortical gliogenesis and convert brain cortical function from being purely neuronal to becoming neuronal-astrocytic. This conversion is associated with huge increases in energy demand and production, and the character of potentially incurred gains of function are discussed. These may include alterations in learning mechanisms, in mice indicated by lack of pairing of odor learning with aversive stimuli in newborn animals but the development of such an association 10–12?days later. The possibility is suggested that analogous maturational changes may contribute to differences in the way learning is accomplished in the newborn human brain and during later development. PMID:23750153

  2. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  3. Cogeneration of retrogradely labeled corticocortical projection and GABA-immunoreactive local circuit neurons in cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Miller, M W

    1985-12-01

    The times of origin of cortico-cortical projection neurons and local circuit neurons in rat visual cortex were determined. The birthdates of the projection neurons were assessed using a technique that combined retrograde labeling with lectin-bound horseradish peroxidase and tritiated thymidine autoradiography. The birthdates of some cortical local circuit neurons were determined by combining GABA immunocytochemistry with [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Double-labeled neurons (those with retrograde or immunoreactive label in their perikarya and autoradiographic silver grains over their nuclei) were born during the third week of gestation. Projection and local circuit neurons born on gestational day 14, 15, 17, 19 or 20 were located primarily in layer VIb, VIa, V, III or II, respectively. Thus, both populations of neurons are generated by parallel and concurrent inside-to-outside patterns. PMID:3910166

  4. GABA-mediated repulsive coupling between circadian clock neurons in the SCN encodes seasonal time.

    PubMed

    Myung, Jihwan; Hong, Sungho; DeWoskin, Daniel; De Schutter, Erik; Forger, Daniel B; Takumi, Toru

    2015-07-21

    The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) forms not only the master circadian clock but also a seasonal clock. This neural network of ?10,000 circadian oscillators encodes season-dependent day-length changes through a largely unknown mechanism. We show that region-intrinsic changes in the SCN fine-tune the degree of network synchrony and reorganize the phase relationship among circadian oscillators to represent day length. We measure oscillations of the clock gene Bmal1, at single-cell and regional levels in cultured SCN explanted from animals raised under short or long days. Coupling estimation using the Kuramoto framework reveals that the network has couplings that can be both phase-attractive (synchronizing) and -repulsive (desynchronizing). The phase gap between the dorsal and ventral regions increases and the overall period of the SCN shortens with longer day length. We find that one of the underlying physiological mechanisms is the modulation of the intracellular chloride concentration, which can adjust the strength and polarity of the ionotropic GABAA-mediated synaptic input. We show that increasing day-length changes the pattern of chloride transporter expression, yielding more excitatory GABA synaptic input, and that blocking GABAA signaling or the chloride transporter disrupts the unique phase and period organization induced by the day length. We test the consequences of this tunable GABA coupling in the context of excitation-inhibition balance through detailed realistic modeling. These results indicate that the network encoding of seasonal time is controlled by modulation of intracellular chloride, which determines the phase relationship among and period difference between the dorsal and ventral SCN. PMID:26130804

  5. Prefrontal cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission and cognitive function: drawing links to schizophrenia from preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Tse, Maric T; Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is one of the most pervasive and debilitating aspects of the disorder. Among the numerous neural abnormalities that may contribute to schizophrenia symptoms, perturbations in markers for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), particularly within the frontal lobes, are some of the most reliable alterations observed at postmortem examination. However, how prefrontal GABA dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unclear. We provide an overview of postmortem GABAergic perturbations in the brain affected by schizophrenia and describe circumstantial evidence linking these alterations to cognitive dysfunction. In addition, we conduct a survey of studies using neurodevelopmental, genetic, and pharmacologic rodent models that induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments, highlighting the convergence of these mechanistically distinct approaches to prefrontal GABAergic disruption. We review preclinical studies that have directly targeted prefrontal cortical GABAergic transmission using local application of GABAA receptor antagonists. These studies have provided an important link between GABA transmission and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia because they show that reducing prefrontal inhibitory transmission induces various cognitive, emotional, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble aspects of the disorder. These converging clinical and preclinical findings provide strong support for the idea that perturbations in GABA signaling drive certain forms of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future studies using this approach will yield information to refine further a putative "GABA hypothesis" of schizophrenia. PMID:25442792

  6. In vivo single-shot three-dimensionally localized multiple quantum spectroscopy of GABA in the human brain with improved spectral selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, In-Young; Lee, Sang-Pil; Shen, Jun

    2005-01-01

    A single-shot multiple quantum filtering method is developed that uses two double-band frequency selective pulses for enhanced spectral selectivity in combination with a slice-selective 90°, a slice-selective universal rotator 90°, and a spectral-spatial pulse composed of two slice-selective universal rotator 45° pulses for single-shot three-dimensional localization. The use of this selective multiple quantum filtering method for C3 and C4 methylene protons of GABA resulted in improved spectral selectivity for GABA and effective suppression of overlapping signals such as creatine and glutathione in each single scan, providing reliable measurements of the GABA doublet in all subjects. The concentration of GABA was measured to be 0.7 ± 0.2 ?mol/g (means ± SD, n = 15) in the fronto-parietal region of the human brain in vivo.

  7. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat ?1?2?2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  8. Engagement of the GABA to KCC2 Signaling Pathway Contributes to the Analgesic Effects of A3AR Agonists in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Amanda; Castonguay, Annie; Cottet, Martin; Little, Joshua W.; Chen, Zhoumou; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M.; Doyle, Timothy; Egan, Terrance M.; Vanderah, Todd W.; De Konnick, Yves; Tosh, Dilip K.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    More than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain, yet current treatment strategies often lack efficacy or have deleterious side effects in patients. Adenosine is an inhibitory neuromodulator that was previously thought to mediate antinociception through the A1 and A2A receptor subtypes. We have since demonstrated that A3AR agonists have potent analgesic actions in preclinical rodent models of neuropathic pain and that A3AR analgesia is independent of adenosine A1 or A2A unwanted effects. Herein, we explored the contribution of the GABA inhibitory system to A3AR-mediated analgesia using well-characterized mouse and rat models of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The deregulation of GABA signaling in pathophysiological pain states is well established: GABA signaling can be hampered by a reduction in extracellular GABA synthesis by GAD65 and enhanced extracellular GABA reuptake via the GABA transporter, GAT-1. In neuropathic pain, GABAAR-mediated signaling can be further disrupted by the loss of the KCC2 chloride anion gradient. Here, we demonstrate that A3AR agonists (IB-MECA and MRS5698) reverse neuropathic pain via a spinal mechanism of action that modulates GABA activity. Spinal administration of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, disrupted A3AR-mediated analgesia. Furthermore, A3AR-mediated analgesia was associated with reductions in CCI-related GAD65 and GAT-1 serine dephosphorylation as well as an enhancement of KCC2 serine phosphorylation and activity. Our results suggest that A3AR-mediated reversal of neuropathic pain increases modulation of GABA inhibitory neurotransmission both directly and indirectly through protection of KCC2 function, underscoring the unique utility of A3AR agonists in chronic pain. PMID:25878279

  9. Presynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor-mediated stimulation of glutamate and GABA release in the rat striatum in vivo: a dual-label microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Patel, D R; Young, A M; Croucher, M J

    2001-01-01

    The existence of presynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate autoreceptors on glutamate nerve terminals in vitro has recently been demonstrated using synaptosomal and brain slice preparations. In the present study we have used a modification of a rapid dual-label intracerebral microdialysis method, previously developed by Young and co-workers(80,81) for the study of presynaptic mechanisms of neurotransmitter release, to investigate whether presynaptic AMPA receptors also play a role in the control of striatal glutamate release in vivo. For comparative purposes, the action of locally applied AMPA on striatal GABA release in vivo was also monitored. Local application of AMPA (0.01-100 microM), by reverse dialysis, into the striatum resulted in concentration-dependent increases in the Ca(2+)-dependent efflux of both [3H]L-glutamate and [14C]GABA. Maximum responses reached 142.0+/-6.5% and 166.8+/-7.7% of basal efflux for [3H]L-glutamate and [14C]GABA, respectively. No marked behavioural changes were observed at any dose of the agonist. Unexpectedly, the AMPA-evoked responses were not potentiated by the AMPA receptor desensitization inhibitors cyclothiazide (10-100microM) or aniracetam (1mM). Consistent with this finding, AMPA-stimulated [3H]L-glutamate and [14C]GABA efflux were significantly attenuated by co-perfusion with the selective, competitive AMPA receptor antagonist 6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo(F)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (100microM) but not 1-(aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylendioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (100microM), a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist known to interact with the cyclothiazide site to control AMPA receptor function. The broad spectrum ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (100-1000microM) also markedly inhibited the AMPA-evoked responses in the striatum in vivo. None of the antagonists, when given alone, influenced basal efflux of [3H]L-glutamate suggesting a lack of tonic regulatory control of glutamate release via presynaptic AMPA-type autoreceptors in the rat striatum. These results demonstrate the presence of presynaptic AMPA receptors, of a novel cyclothiazide- and aniracetam-insensitive subtype, on presynaptic nerve terminals in the rat striatum in vivo, acting to enhance glutamate and GABA release. Our data support the concept of AMPA receptor heterogeneity in vivo, a finding which may facilitate the development of novel, more selective drugs for the treatment of a range of neurological disorders associated with abnormal cerebral glutamate release. The pharmacological profile of these novel presynaptic receptors is currently under investigation. PMID:11226673

  10. Amino acids as central synaptic transmitters or modulators in mammalian thermoregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bligh, J.

    1981-11-01

    Of the amino acids that affect the activity of central neurons, aspartate and glutamate (which exert generally excitatory influences) and glycine, taurine, and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (which generally exert inhibitory influences) are the strongest neurotransmitter candidates. As with other putative transmitter substances, their effects on body temperature when injected into the cerebral ventricles or the preoptic hypothalamus tend to vary within and between species. These effects are uninterpretable without accompanying information regarding effector activity changes and the influences of dose and ambient temperature. Observations necessary for analysis of apparent action have been made in studies of the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of these amino acids into sheep. Aspartate and glutamate have similar excitatory effects on the pathway from cold sensors, whereas taurine and GABA exert inhibitory influences on the neural pathways that activate both heat production and heat loss effectors. Glycine appears to be without effect.

  11. Competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists increase the proportion of functional high-affinity alpha6 subunit-containing receptors in granule cells of adult rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wall, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the properties of alpha6 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from granule cells in adult rat cerebellar slices. In control, only currents evoked by low concentrations of GABA were significantly reduced in amplitude by furosemide, the alpha6 subunit-containing receptor antagonist. However, in the presence of competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the furosemide block of currents evoked by higher GABA concentrations was markedly increased. Zinc, which preferentially blocks alpha6 subunit-containing receptors, also produced an increased block in the presence of bicuculline. To investigate whether similar effects occurred at synaptic receptors, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded. In most cells, furosemide produced little or no reduction in evoked IPSC amplitude. However in the presence of SR95531, a competitive antagonist, furosemide markedly reduced IPSC amplitude. One hypothesis, which could account for these observations, is that competitive antagonists prevent the continual activation of alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors by endogenous GABA and thus prevent their desensitisation. This hypothesis appears feasible as prolonged applications of low concentrations of GABA to recombinant alpha6beta2gamma2s receptors resulted in their desensitisation. PMID:12559122

  12. Evidence that synaptosomal high-affinity carriers for amino acid neurotransmitters are glycosylated

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of removal of surface sialic acid from synaptosomes on the high-affinity, Na/sup +/-dependent uptake systems for amino acid neurotransmitters was evaluated. Synaptosomes from rat forebrain were preincubated with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae for 20 min at 34/sup 0/. After washing and resuspension, their ability to transport /sup 14/C-GABA and the acidic amino acid, /sup 3/H-aspartate was studied. Pretreatment with neuraminidase resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the uptake of both amino acids while the influx of /sup 3/H-L-leucine was unaffected. Inhibition was a function of the amount of sialic acid released from membranes. The analysis of the kinetic parameters of amino acid uptake revealed that inhibition resulted from a decrease of Vmax without any change in the Km. Neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the internal concentration of potassium ions was affected by the pretreatment with neuraminidase. The maximum accumulation ratios for both amino acids remained largely unaltered. It is concluded that the GABA and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of carrier proteins directly and not through modification of the driving forces responsible for amino acid transport.

  13. Spasmogenic and potentiating actions of some amino acids on the guinea-pig myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Bedwani, J.R.; Ishizawa, M.; Pickles, V.R.; Suwankrughasn, Surang

    1977-01-01

    1 Thirty-three amino acids were applied separately in concentrations of 2 to 10 mM to guinea-pig uterine horns in vitro at pH 7.4. About half the acids regularly produced contractions. 2 Glycine and the straight-chain L-?-amino acids up to norleucine were active (longer ones not tested); D-isomers were less potent or inactive in these concentrations. The ?-amino acids ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ?-aminovaleric, and the ?,?-diamino acids L-?,?-diaminopropionic and L-?,?-diaminobutyric were active, whereas others of similar chain-length such as ?-alanine and lysine were not. The diacidic acids, glutamic and homocysteic, were more active than the amido-amino acids, glutamine and asparagine. Histidine and phenylalanine showed little or no activity. 3 The use of appropriate blocking agents indicated that the responses to representative acids were not mediated by histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline or by prostaglandins. Attempts to block the actions of glycine and GABA with strychnine, thebaine, picrotoxin, bicuculline or tetramethylenedisulphotetramine (TETS) were unsuccessful. 4 When some of the acids that were spasmogenic at 2 to 10 mM were applied at sub-spasmogenic doses, they transiently potentiated other spasmogens such as oxytocin or acetylcholine. This effect was also shown by a mixture of amino acids at approximately the normal plasma concentrations. 5 There is some similarity between the spasmogenic activities of different amino acids and their known abilities to depolarize neurones. PMID:922251

  14. Postsynaptic localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters and receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the goldfish retina: An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Jan; Nunes Cardozo, Bob; Yazulla, Stephen; Kamermans, Maarten

    2004-06-14

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of the goldfish retina was studied via light and electron immunohistochemistry. The subcellular distributions of immunoreactivity (-IR) of plasma membrane GABA transporters GAT2 and GAT3, the alpha1 and alpha3 subunits of the ionotropic GABA(A) receptor, and the rho1 subunit of the ionotropic GABA(C) receptor were determined. The localization of the GAT2-IR and GAT3-IR to horizontal cell dendrites at the base of the cone synaptic complex was the main characteristic at the ultrastructural level. Very rarely, GAT2-IR and GAT3-IR were found in horizontal cell dendrites innervating rod spherules. alpha1-IR and alpha3-IR were seen in wide bands in the OPL, whereas rho1-IR appeared as a narrow band in the OPL. Most alpha1-IR was intracellular in rod and cone terminals. Membrane-associated alpha1-IR was observed in cone pedicles but not in rod spherules; postsynaptic elements were also labeled. alpha3-IR was concentrated in the lateral elements of horizontal cell dendrites in cone pedicles. In contrast, rho1-IR was found mainly on the spinules of the horizontal cell dendrites in cone pedicles. In addition, in another type of cone pedicle, rho1-IR was found at the position of OFF-bipolar cell dendrites. alpha3-IR and rho1-IR were rarely found in horizontal cell dendrites innervating rods. We suggest that two GABAergic pathways exist in the outer retina- first, a GABAergic positive loop with GABA receptors mainly on the horizontal cell dendrites and spinules and, second, a GABAergic feedback pathway involving GABA receptors on cone pedicles and GABA transporters on horizontal cells and that this pathway presumably modulates feedback strength from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:15156579

  15. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Elgueta, Claudio; Vielma, Alex H.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major retinal neurotransmitter that modulates visual processing through a large repertoire of cholinergic receptors expressed on different retinal cell types. ACh is released from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) under scotopic conditions, but its effects on cells of the rod pathway have not been investigated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in slices of rat retina, we found that ACh application triggers GABA release onto rod bipolar (RB) cells. GABA was released from A17 amacrine cells and activated postsynaptic GABAA and GABAC receptors in RB cells. The sensitivity of ACh-induced currents to nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonists (TMPH ~ mecamylamine > erysodine > Dh?E > MLA) together with the differential potency of specific agonists to mimic ACh responses (cytisine >> RJR2403 ~ choline), suggest that A17 cells express heteromeric nAChRs containing the ?4 subunit. Activation of nAChRs induced GABA release after Ca2+ accumulation in A17 cell dendrites and varicosities mediated by L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and intracellular Ca2+ stores. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase depolarized A17 cells and increased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RB cells, indicating that endogenous ACh enhances GABAergic inhibition of RB cells. Moreover, injection of neostigmine or cytisine reduced the b-wave of the scotopic flash electroretinogram (ERG), suggesting that cholinergic modulation of GABA release controls RB cell activity in vivo. These results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RB cell inhibition and complement our understanding of the neuromodulatory control of retinal signal processing. PMID:25709566

  16. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Elgueta, Claudio; Vielma, Alex H; Palacios, Adrian G; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major retinal neurotransmitter that modulates visual processing through a large repertoire of cholinergic receptors expressed on different retinal cell types. ACh is released from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) under scotopic conditions, but its effects on cells of the rod pathway have not been investigated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in slices of rat retina, we found that ACh application triggers GABA release onto rod bipolar (RB) cells. GABA was released from A17 amacrine cells and activated postsynaptic GABAA and GABAC receptors in RB cells. The sensitivity of ACh-induced currents to nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonists (TMPH ~ mecamylamine > erysodine > Dh?E > MLA) together with the differential potency of specific agonists to mimic ACh responses (cytisine > RJR2403 ~ choline), suggest that A17 cells express heteromeric nAChRs containing the ?4 subunit. Activation of nAChRs induced GABA release after Ca(2+) accumulation in A17 cell dendrites and varicosities mediated by L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase depolarized A17 cells and increased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RB cells, indicating that endogenous ACh enhances GABAergic inhibition of RB cells. Moreover, injection of neostigmine or cytisine reduced the b-wave of the scotopic flash electroretinogram (ERG), suggesting that cholinergic modulation of GABA release controls RB cell activity in vivo. These results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RB cell inhibition and complement our understanding of the neuromodulatory control of retinal signal processing. PMID:25709566

  17. Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptor subunit composition in human pluripotent stem cell-derived excitatory cortical neurones

    PubMed Central

    James, Owain T; Livesey, Matthew R; Qiu, Jing; Dando, Owen; Bilican, Bilada; Haghi, Ghazal; Rajan, Rinku; Burr, Karen; Hardingham, Giles E; Chandran, Siddharthan; Kind, Peter C; Wyllie, David J A

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed, using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), the properties and composition of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyRs) expressed by excitatory cortical neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hECNs). The agonists GABA and muscimol gave EC50 values of 278 ?m and 182 ?m, respectively, and the presence of a GABAAR population displaying low agonist potencies is supported by strong RNA-seq signals for ?2 and ?3 subunits. GABAAR-mediated currents, evoked by EC50 concentrations of GABA, were blocked by bicuculline and picrotoxin with IC50 values of 2.7 and 5.1 ?m, respectively. hECN GABAARs are predominantly ? subunit-containing as assessed by the sensitivity of GABA-evoked currents to diazepam and insensitivity to Zn2+, together with the weak direct agonist action of gaboxadol; RNA-seq indicated a predominant expression of the ?2 subunit. Potentiation of GABA-evoked currents by propofol and etomidate and the lack of inhibition of currents by salicylidine salycylhydrazide (SCS) indicate expression of the ?2 or ?3 subunit, with RNA-seq analysis indicating strong expression of ?3 in hECN GABAARs. Taken together our data support the notion that hECN GABAARs have an ?2/3?3?2 subunit composition – a composition that also predominates in immature rodent cortex. GlyRs expressed by hECNs were activated by glycine with an EC50 of 167 ?m. Glycine-evoked (500 ?m) currents were blocked by strychnine (IC50 = 630 nm) and picrotoxin (IC50 = 197 ?m), where the latter is suggestive of a population of heteromeric receptors. RNA-seq indicates GlyRs are likely to be composed of ?2 and ? subunits. PMID:25172951

  18. Glucose prevents the fall in ventromedial hypothalamic GABA that is required for full activation of glucose counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wanling; Czyzyk, Daniel; Paranjape, Sachin A.; Zhou, Ligang; Horblitt, Adam; Szabó, Gábor; Seashore, Margretta R.; Sherwin, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Local delivery of glucose into a critical glucose-sensing region within the brain, the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), can suppress glucose counterregulatory responses to systemic hypoglycemia. Here, we investigated whether this suppression was accomplished through changes in GABA output in the VMH. Sprague-Dawley rats had catheters and guide cannulas implanted. Eight to ten days later, microdialysis-microinjection probes were inserted into the VMH, and they were dialyzed with varying concentrations of glucose from 0 to 100 mM. Two groups of rats were microdialyzed with 100 mM glucose and microinjected with either the KATP channel opener diazoxide or a GABAA receptor antagonist. These animals were then subjected to a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp. As expected, perfusion of glucose into the VMH suppressed the counterregulatory responses. Extracellular VMH GABA levels positively correlated with the concentration of glucose in the perfusate. In turn, extracellular GABA concentrations in the VMH were inversely related to the degree of counterregulatory hormone release. Of note, microinjection of either diazoxide or the GABAA receptor antagonist reversed the suppressive effects of VMH glucose delivery on counterregulatory responses. Some GABAergic neurons in the VMH respond to changes in local glucose concentration. Glucose in the VMH dose-dependently stimulates GABA release, and this in turn dose-dependently suppresses the glucagon and epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia. These data suggest that during hypoglycemia a decrease in glucose concentration within the VMH may provide an important signal that rapidly inactivates VMH GABAergic neurons, reducing inhibitory GABAergic tone, which in turn enhances the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. PMID:20304763

  19. Taurine selectively modulates the secretory activity of vasopressin neurons in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, M; Ludwig, M; Singewald, N; Ebner, K; Sabatier, N; Lubec, G; Landgraf, R; Wotjak, C T

    2001-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that a 10-min forced swimming session triggers the release of vasopressin from somata and dendrites, but not axon terminals, of neurons of the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system. To further investigate regulatory mechanisms underlying this dissociated release, we forced male Wistar rats to swim in warm (20 degrees C) water and monitored release of the potentially inhibitory amino acids gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and taurine into the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus using microdialysis. Forced swimming caused a significant increase in the release of taurine (up to 350%; P < 0.05 vs. prestress release), but not GABA. To reveal the physiological significance of centrally released taurine, the specific taurine antagonist 6-aminomethyl-3-methyl-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide was administered into the supraoptic nucleus via retrodialysis. Administration of this antagonist caused a significant increase in the release of vasopressin within the supraoptic nucleus and into the blood both under basal conditions and during stress (up to 800%; P < 0.05 vs. basal values), without affecting hypothalamic or plasma oxytocin. Local administration of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline, in contrast, failed to influence vasopressin secretion at either time point. In a separate series of in vivo electrophysiological experiments, administration of the same dosage of the taurine antagonist into the supraoptic nucleus via microdialysis resulted in an increased electrical activity of identified vasopressinergic, but not oxytocinergic, neurons. Taken together our data demonstrate that taurine is released within the supraoptic nucleus during physical/emotional stress. Furthermore, at the level of the supraoptic nucleus, taurine inhibits not only the electrical activity of vasopressin neurons but also acts as an inhibitor of both central and peripheral vasopressin secretion during different physiological states. PMID:11683896

  20. Ventral tegmental area dopamine and GABA neurons: Physiological properties and expression of mRNA for endocannabinoid biosynthetic elements.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Collin B; Friend, Lindsey N; Newton, Scott T; Hopkins, Zachary H; Edwards, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in adaptive reward and motivation processing and is composed of dopamine (DA) and GABA neurons. Defining the elements regulating activity and synaptic plasticity of these cells is critical to understanding mechanisms of reward and addiction. While endocannabinoids (eCBs) that potentially contribute to addiction are known to be involved in synaptic plasticity mechanisms in the VTA, where they are produced is poorly understood. In this study, DA and GABAergic cells were identified using electrophysiology, cellular markers, and a transgenic mouse model that specifically labels GABA cells. Using single-cell RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, we investigated mRNA and proteins involved in eCB signaling such as diacylglycerol lipase ?, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, and 12-lipoxygenase, as well as type I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Our results demonstrate the first molecular evidence of colocalization of eCB biosynthetic enzyme and type I mGluR mRNA in VTA neurons. Further, these data reveal higher expression of mGluR1 in DA neurons, suggesting potential differences in eCB synthesis between DA and GABA neurons. These data collectively suggest that VTA GABAergic and DAergic cells have the potential to produce various eCBs implicated in altering neuronal activity or plasticity in adaptive motivational reward or addiction. PMID:26553597

  1. Modeling GABA alterations in schizophrenia: a link between impaired inhibition and altered gamma and beta range auditory entrainment.

    PubMed

    Vierling-Claassen, Dorea; Siekmeier, Peter; Stufflebeam, Steven; Kopell, Nancy

    2008-05-01

    The disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia, including severely disordered thought patterns, may be indicative of a problem with the construction and maintenance of cell assemblies during sensory processing and attention. The gamma and beta frequency bands (15-70 Hz) are believed relevant to such processing. This paper addresses the results of an experimental examination of the cortical response of 12 schizophrenia patients and 12 control subjects when presented with auditory click-train stimuli in the gamma/beta frequency band during measurement using magnetoencephalography (MEG), as well as earlier work by Kwon et al. These data indicate that control subjects show an increased 40-Hz response to both 20- and 40-Hz stimulation as compared with patients, whereas schizophrenic subjects show a preference for 20-Hz response to the same driving frequencies. In this work, two computational models of the auditory cortex are constructed based on postmortem studies that indicate cortical interneurons in schizophrenic subjects have decreased GAT-1 (a GABA transporter) and GAD(67) (1 of 2 enzymes responsible for GABA synthesis). The models transition from control to schizophrenic frequency response when an extended inhibitory decay time is introduced; this change captures a possible effect of these GABA alterations. Modeling gamma/beta range auditory entrainment in schizophrenia provides insight into how biophysical mechanisms can impact cognitive function. In addition, the study of dynamics that underlie auditory entrainment in schizophrenia may contribute to the understanding of how gamma and beta rhythms impact cognition in general. PMID:18287555

  2. Co-release of glutamate and GABA from single vesicles in GABAergic neurons exogenously expressing VGLUT3

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Herman, Melissa A.; Rosenmund, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The identity of the vesicle neurotransmitter transporter expressed by a neuron largely corresponds with the primary neurotransmitter that cell releases. However, the vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 3 (VGLUT3) is mainly expressed in non-glutamatergic neurons, including cholinergic, serotonergic, or GABAergic neurons. Though a functional role for glutamate release from these non-glutamatergic neurons has been demonstrated, the interplay between VGLUT3 and the neuron’s characteristic neurotransmitter transporter, particularly in the case of GABAergic neurons, at the synaptic and vesicular level is less clear. In this study, we explore how exogenous expression of VGLUT3 in striatal GABAergic neurons affects the packaging and release of glutamate and GABA in synaptic vesicles (SVs). We found that VGLUT3 expression in isolated, autaptic GABAergic neurons leads to action potential evoked release of glutamate. Under these conditions, glutamate and GABA could be packaged together in single vesicles release either spontaneously or asynchronously. However, the presence of glutamate in GABAergic vesicles did not affect uptake of GABA itself, suggesting a lack of synergy in vesicle filling for these transmitters. Finally, we found postsynaptic detection of glutamate released from GABAergic terminals difficult when bona fide glutamatergic synapses were present, suggesting that co-released glutamate cannot induce postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering. PMID:26441632

  3. Ventral tegmental area dopamine and GABA neurons: Physiological properties and expression of mRNA for endocannabinoid biosynthetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Collin B.; Friend, Lindsey N.; Newton, Scott T.; Hopkins, Zachary H.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in adaptive reward and motivation processing and is composed of dopamine (DA) and GABA neurons. Defining the elements regulating activity and synaptic plasticity of these cells is critical to understanding mechanisms of reward and addiction. While endocannabinoids (eCBs) that potentially contribute to addiction are known to be involved in synaptic plasticity mechanisms in the VTA, where they are produced is poorly understood. In this study, DA and GABAergic cells were identified using electrophysiology, cellular markers, and a transgenic mouse model that specifically labels GABA cells. Using single-cell RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, we investigated mRNA and proteins involved in eCB signaling such as diacylglycerol lipase ?, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, and 12-lipoxygenase, as well as type I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Our results demonstrate the first molecular evidence of colocalization of eCB biosynthetic enzyme and type I mGluR mRNA in VTA neurons. Further, these data reveal higher expression of mGluR1 in DA neurons, suggesting potential differences in eCB synthesis between DA and GABA neurons. These data collectively suggest that VTA GABAergic and DAergic cells have the potential to produce various eCBs implicated in altering neuronal activity or plasticity in adaptive motivational reward or addiction. PMID:26553597

  4. Determination of aniracetam's main metabolite, N-anisoyl-GABA, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Wang, Lei

    2012-05-15

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of 4-p-anisamidobutyric acid (ABA; or N-anysoyl-?-aminobutiryc acid, N-anisoyl-GABA), a major active metabolite of aniracetam, in human plasma. After protein precipitation of plasma sample with methanol, ABA and the internal standard lisinopril were separated on a Venusil ASB C?? column at 25 °C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-ammonium acetate (10 mmol/L) (30:70, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with an ESI source in negative ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the precursor?product ion combinations of m/z 235.8?m/z 106.6, and m/z 403.8?m/z 113.6 was used to quantify ABA and lisinopril, respectively. This is the first LC-MS/MS method for ABA with advantages of short analysis time (4.5 min per sample run) and high selectivity attributable to the MRM detection and optimized HPLC conditions. The response was linear in a concentration range of 0.0485-19.4 ?g/mL in plasma. The extraction recovery of ABA was between 89.1% and 100.7%. The precision (RSD) and accuracy (RE) of the method were evaluated to be within 7.3% and from 2.5% to 6.9%. The validated method has been applied to the pharmacokinetic study after a single oral administration of aniracetam dispersible tablets to human beings. PMID:22552003

  5. Modeling Neuronal Nicotinic and GABA Receptors: Important Interface Salt-Links and Protein Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Law, Richard J.; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2009-01-01

    Protein motions in the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion receptors that govern the gating mechanism are still not well understood. The details as to how motions in the ligand-binding domain are translated to the transmembrane domain and how subunit rotations are linked to bring about the cooperative movements involved in gating are under investigation. Homology models of the ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and ?2?1?2 GABA receptors were constructed based on the torpedo neuromuscular-like nicotinic receptor structure. The template constructed for the full electron microscopy structure must be considered more reliable for structure-function studies due to the preservation of the E45–R209 salt-link. Many other salt-links are seen to transiently form, including switching off of the E45–R209 link, within a network of potential salt-links at the binding domain to the transmembrane domain interface region. Several potentially important intersubunit salt-links form in both the nAChR and GABAR structures during the simulation and appear conserved across many subunit combinations, such as the salt-link between ?4.E262 and ?2.K255 in nAChR (?2.E262 and ?1.K263 in GABAR), at the top of the pore-lining M2 helices, and the intersubunit link of R210 on the M1-linker to E168 on the ?8-sheet of the adjacent subunit in the GABA receptor (E175–K46 being the structurally equivalent link in the nAChR, with reversed polarity). A network of other salt-links may be vital for transmitting the cooperative gating motions between subunits that become biased upon ligand binding. The changes seen in the simulations suggest that this network of salt-links helps to set limits and specific states for the conformational changes involved in gating of the receptor. We hope that these hypotheses will be tested experimentally in the near future. PMID:19751663

  6. Effects of inhaled alpha 2-adrenoceptor and GABAB receptor agonists on citric acid-induced cough and tidal volume changes in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Callaway, J K; King, R G

    1992-09-22

    The effects of alpha 2-adrenoceptor and GABA receptor agonists on citric acid-induced cough and increased tidal volume were investigated in conscious guinea pigs. Inhalation of low doses of B-HT 920 (5-allyl-2-amino 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-thiazolo[4,5-d]azepine dihydrochloride), and xylazine significantly inhibited citric acid-induced cough and tidal volume increases. Intraperitoneal administration of higher doses of B-HT 920 than those given by aerosol were ineffective. The inhibitory effects of B-HT 920 were antagonised by prior intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine, but not atropine. Inhalation of GABA or baclofen inhibited tidal volume increases, but had no effect on cough. Inhaled alpha 2-adrenoceptor or GABA agonists had no effect on the reduced respiratory rate after citric acid inhalation. It is concluded that alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists inhibit cough via a mechanism which may not be related to their ability to reduce citric acid-induced tidal volume increases, since GABA and baclofen inhibited tidal volume increases but not cough. We suggest that alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of cough. PMID:1358650

  7. PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES AND THE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (ALPHA) RECEPTOR COMPLEX: MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE IN THE RAT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two behavioral tests, locomotor activity and the acoustic startle response (ASR), were utilized to test for dose-addition of cismethrin, a Type I, or deltamethrin, a Type II pyrethroid, with compounds active to the gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor complex (picrotoxin, musc...

  8. Hilar somatostatin interneurons contribute to synchronized GABA activity in an in vitro epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Sabine; Queenan, Bridget N; Lalchandani, Rupa R; Vicini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by excessive synchronized neural activity. The hippocampus and surrounding temporal lobe structures appear particularly sensitive to epileptiform activity. Somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons within the hilar region have been suggested to gate hippocampal activity, and therefore may play a crucial role in the dysregulation of hippocampal activity. In this study, we examined SST interneuron activity in the in vitro 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) model of epilepsy. We employed a multi-disciplinary approach, combining extracellular multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings with patch-clamp recordings and optical imaging using a genetically encoded calcium sensor. We observed that hilar SST interneurons are strongly synchronized during 4-AP-induced local field potentials (LFPs), as assayed by Ca(2+) imaging as well as juxtacellular or intracellular recording. SST interneurons were particularly responsive to GABA-mediated LFPs that occurred in the absence of ionotropic glutamatergic transmission. Our results present evidence that the extensive synchronized activity of SST-expressing interneurons contribute to the generation of GABAergic LFPs in an in vitro model of temporal lobe seizures. PMID:24465989

  9. Elevated BDNF after cocaine withdrawal facilitates LTP in medial prefrontal cortex by suppressing GABA inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Lim, Byung Kook; Khoshnevisrad, Nina; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be involved in relapse after cocaine withdrawal, but the underlying cellular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report that after terminating repeated cocaine exposure in rats, a gradual increase in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the mPFC facilitates activity-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses on layer V pyramidal neurons. This enhanced synaptic plasticity could be attributed to BDNF-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the mPFC by reducing the surface expression of GABA(A) receptors. The BDNF effect was mediated by BDNF-TrkB-phosphatase 2A signaling pathway. Downregulating TrkB expression bilaterally in the mPFC reduced the locomotor hypersensitivity to cocaine 8 days after cocaine withdrawal. Thus, elevated BDNF expression after cocaine withdrawal sensitizes the excitatory synapses in the mPFC to undergo activity-induced persistent potentiation that may contribute to cue-induced drug craving and drug-seeking behavior. PMID:20826313

  10. Effect of ?-aminobutyric acid on kidney injury induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion in male and female rats: Gender-related difference

    PubMed Central

    Vafapour, Marzieh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Monajemi, Ramesh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Talebi, Ardeshir; Talebi, Nahid; Shirdavani, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most important cause of kidney injury is renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which is gender-related. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA (against IRI in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six female and male wistar rats were assigned to six experimental groups. The IRI was induced by clamping renal vessels for 45 min then was performed reperfusion for 24 h. The group sex posed to IRI were pretreated with GABA and were compared with the control groups. Results: Serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score increased in the IRI alone groups, (P < 0.05), while GABA decreased these parameters in female significantly (P < 0.05), but not in male rats. Uterus weight decreased significantly in female rats treated with GABA. Testis weight did not alter in male rats. Serum level of nitrite and kidney level of malondialdehyde (MDA) had no significant change in both female and male rats. Kidney level of nitrite increased significantly in female rats experienced IRI and serum level of MDA increased significantly in males that were exposed to IRI (P < 0.05). Conclusion: GABA could ameliorate kidney injury induced by renal IRI in a gender dependent manner. PMID:26380243

  11. Evaluation of ?- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p?GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats. PMID:25328194

  12. [Turtle isthmic complex of visual nuclei: immunohistochemical study of gamma-aminobutyric acid, choline acetyltransferase, calcium-binding proteins and cytochrome oxidase activity].

    PubMed

    Belekhova, M G; Kenigfest, N V

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), calcium-binding proteins (CaBPr) and histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase activity (CO) was studied in turtles (Testudo horsfieldi, Emys orbicularis) isthmal complex of visual nuclei. Magnocellular nucleus (IMc) was shown to reveal mainly the strongly stained GABA-, parvalbumin (PV)-ir neurons and CO-positive cells, as well as variable both in number and degree of intensity of ChAT-, cal- bindin (CB)-, and calretinin (CR)-ir cells. After the local tracer injection into the optic tectum GABA-ir neurons containing also retrograde label were found in IMc. The most caracteristic of the parvocellular nucleus (IPc) was the content of strongly stained ChAT-ir neurons, dense GABA-ir and CO-active terminal fields, as well as the neurons variable by the amount and the degree of immunoreactivity for CaBPr and GABA. Principal similarity in these features in the turtle IMc and IPc and of those in the avian isthmal nuclei of the same name allows suggesting their homology and consequently the same participation in selective processing of the visual information flow. The comparison with lower vertebrates confirms the evolutionary conservatism of visual isthmal complex among vertebrates and the existence of its progressive differentiation in the process of evolution. PMID:25786321

  13. Effects of single and combined administration of fermented barley extract and gamma-aminobutyric acid on the development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Hokazono, Hideki; Omori, Toshiro; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects single and combined administration of fermented barley extract P (FBEP), prepared from barley-shochu distillery by-products, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Single administration of FBEP and GABA dose-dependently reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions in mice. GABA reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions by suppressing serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and splenocyte interleukin (IL)-4 production, while FBEP reduced skin lesions without affecting the IgE or cytokine production. However, in mice with induced AD-like skin lesions, combined administration of FBEP and GABA decreased serum IgE levels and splenic cell IL-4 production, and increased splenic cell interferon-gamma production. These results suggest that combined administration of FBEP and GABA alleviated AD-like skin lesions in the NC/Nga mice by adjusting the Th1/Th2 balance to a Th1-predominant immune response. PMID:20057128

  14. Stress-induced hyperalgesia is associated with a reduced and delayed GABA inhibitory control that enhances post-synaptic NMDA receptor activation in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Luis; Cardenas, Ricardo; Suarez-Roca, Heberto

    2011-08-01

    GABA and glutamate are both affected by stress and are involved in nociception. Thus, we determined whether stress-induced enhancement of inflammatory hyperalgesia is mediated by an imbalance between glutamate and GABA neurotransmission. Male rats were subjected daily to 10 to 20 minutes per day of either forced swimming (FS) or sham swimming for 3 consecutive days; nonconditioned rats served as controls. Some rats were treated i.p. with ketamine (5 mg/kg), diazepam (2 mg/kg), flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg), or vehicle (0.9% NaCl), 30 to 60 minutes before each conditioning session or nociception assessment. Pain behavior, spinal nociceptive neuronal activation and GABA and glutamate release were respectively evaluated by the formalin test, the expression of c-Fos and in vivo microdialysis of superficial laminae of the lumbar spinal cord, 48 hours after the last conditioning session. Nitric oxide metabolites (NO(x)) were determined as markers of post-synaptic NMDA receptor activation. FS stress enhanced formalin-induced hyperalgesia, increased pain-elicited c-Fos expression, decreased basal and delayed pain-induced GABA release, and increased basal and induced glutamate release. Hyperalgesia and c-Fos overexpression were blocked only by prestress treatment with diazepam and post-stress treatment with ketamine, whereas changes in GABA and glutamate release were reversed by prestress treatment with diazepam. Diazepam effects were blocked by flumazenil. NO(x) increased in lumbar spinal cord of FS rats by a mechanism antagonized by ketamine. Thus, stress-induced hyperalgesia is initiated by a decreased and delayed GABA release and GABA-A receptor activation, whereas it is maintained by increased glutamate release and NMDA glutamate receptor activation at the spinal level. PMID:21636214

  15. Differences in prefrontal cortex GABA/glutamate ratio after acute restraint stress in rats are associated with specific behavioral and neurobiological patterns.

    PubMed

    Drouet, J-B; Fauvelle, F; Maunoir-Regimbal, S; Fidier, N; Maury, R; Peinnequin, A; Denis, J; Buguet, A; Canini, F

    2015-01-29

    In patients suffering from stress-related pathologies and depression, frontal cortex GABA and glutamate contents are reported to decrease and increase, respectively. This suggests that the GABA and/or glutamate content may participate in pathological phenotype expression. Whether differences in frontal cortex GABA and glutamate contents would be associated with specific behavioral and neurobiological patterns remains unclear, especially in the event of exposure to moderate stress. We hypothesized that an increase in prefrontal cortex GABA/glutamate ratio would be associated with a blunted prefrontal cortex activation, an enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and changes in behavior. Rats being restrained for 1-h were then tested in an open-field test in order to assess their behavior while under stress, and were sacrificed immediately afterward. The GABA/glutamate ratio was assessed by (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-HRMAS-MRS). The neurobiological response was evaluated through prefrontal cortex mRNA expression and plasma corticosterone levels. The stressed rats were distributed into two subgroups according to their high (H-G/g) or low (L-G/g) GABA/glutamate ratio. Compared to the L-G/g rats, the H-G/g rats exhibited a decrease in c-fos, Arc, Npas4, Nr4a2 mRNA expression suggesting blunted prefrontal cortex activation. They also showed a more pronounced stress with an enhanced rise in corticosterone, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, as well as behavioral disturbances with decreased locomotion speed. These changes were independent from prefrontal cortex energetic status as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway activities were similar in both subpopulations. The differences in GABA/glutamate ratio in the frontal cortex observed in the stressed animals may participate in shaping individual differences in psychophysiological reactions. PMID:25451275

  16. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  17. Determination of theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea by high performance- liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yunfei; Yang, Xiufang; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2012-02-01

    A method of precolumn derivatization-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the determination of theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in tea was established. o-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) were chosen as the derivatization reagents. The effects of teapolyphenol (Tp), proline (Pro) and Vitamin C (Vc) on derivatization yields were investigated. The results indicated that Vc not only stabilized the stock solution of OPA, but also enhanced the yield of GABA derivative. However, the yield of theanine derivative was less affected. The HPLC separation system was also optimized. The resolution of the derivatives was improved by adjusting the pH value and phosphate-citric buffer concentration of the mobile phase. The limits of detection (LODs) for GABA and theanine were 3.01 x 10(-5) mmol/L and 7.98 x 10(-5) mmol/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 9.99 x 10(-5) mmol/L and 2.658 x 10(-4) mmol/L, respectively. The linear ranges of GABA and theanine were 0.01 - 0.4 mmol/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.996 and 0.05 - 0.8 mmol/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.995, respectively. The main recoveries for GABA and theanine in green tea, Oolong tea, and black tea, ranged from 99.29% to 119.60% and from 62.88% to 141.06% respectively. The method with simple procedure and efficient separation was proved to be suitable for the determination of GABA and theanine in tea. PMID:22679834

  18. Straightforward and effective synthesis of ?-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 2-selective acyl-substituted azaspiro[4.5]decanes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofeng; Lubin, Hodney; Ioja, Enik?; Kékesi, Orsolya; Simon, Ágnes; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I; Héja, László; Kardos, Julianna; Markó, István E

    2016-01-15

    Supply of major metabolites such as ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ?-alanine and taurine is an essential instrument that shapes signalling, proper cell functioning and survival in the brain and peripheral organs. This background motivates the synthesis of novel classes of compounds regulating their selective transport through various fluid-organ barriers via the low-affinity ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtype 2 (GAT2). Natural and synthetic spirocyclic compounds or therapeutics with a range of structures and biological activity are increasingly recognised in this regard. Based on pre-validated GABA transport activity, straightforward and efficient synthesis method was developed to provide an azaspiro[4.5]decane scaffold, holding a variety of charge, substituent and 3D constrain of spirocyclic amine. Investigation of the azaspiro[4.5]decane scaffold in cell lines expressing the four GABA transporter subtypes led to the discovery of a subclass of a GAT2-selective compounds with acyl-substituted azaspiro[4.5]decane core. PMID:26706177

  19. An Epilepsy-Related Region in the GABAA Receptor Mediates Long-Distance Effects on GABA and Benzodiazepine Binding SitesS?

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, David A.; Petrou, Steven; Jones, Mathew V.

    2010-01-01

    The GABAA receptor mutation ?2R43Q causes absence epilepsy in humans. Homology modeling suggests that ?2Arg43, ?2Glu178, and ?2Arg117 participate in a salt-bridge network linking the ?2 and ?2 subunits. Here we show that several mutations at these locations exert similar long-distance effects on other intersubunit interfaces involved in GABA and benzodiazepine binding. These mutations alter GABA-evoked receptor kinetics by slowing deactivation, enhancing desensitization, or both. Kinetic modeling and nonstationary noise analysis for ?2R43Q reveal that these effects are due to slowed GABA unbinding and slowed recovery from desensitization. Both ?2R43Q and ?2R117K also speed diazepam dissociation from the receptor’s benzodiazepine binding interface, as assayed by the rate of decay of diazepam-induced potentiation of GABA-evoked currents. These data demonstrate that ?2Arg43 and ?2Arg117 similarly regulate the stability of both the GABA and benzodiazepine binding sites at the distant ?/? and ?/? intersubunit interfaces, respectively. A simple explanation for these results is that ?2Arg43 and ?2Arg117 participate in interactions between the ?2 and ?2 subunits, disruptions of which alter the neighboring intersubunit binding sites in a similar fashion. In addition, ?2Arg43 and ?2Glu178 regulate desensitization, probably mediated within the transmembrane domains near the pore. Therefore, mutations at the ?/? intersubunit interface have specific long-distance effects that are propagated widely throughout the GABAA receptor protein. PMID:19846749

  20. Effects of GABA receptor antagonists on thresholds of P23H rat retinal ganglion cells to electrical stimulation of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Ralph J.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III

    2011-06-01

    An electronic retinal prosthesis may provide useful vision for patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In animal models of RP, the amount of current needed to activate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is higher than in normal, healthy retinas. In this study, we sought to reduce the stimulation thresholds of RGCs in a degenerate rat model (P23H-line 1) by blocking GABA receptor mediated inhibition in the retina. We examined the effects of TPMPA, a GABAC receptor antagonist, and SR95531, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on the electrically evoked responses of RGCs to biphasic current pulses delivered to the subretinal surface through a 400 µm diameter electrode. Both TPMPA and SR95531 reduced the stimulation thresholds of ON-center RGCs on average by 15% and 20% respectively. Co-application of the two GABA receptor antagonists had the greatest effect, on average reducing stimulation thresholds by 32%. In addition, co-application of the two GABA receptor antagonists increased the magnitude of the electrically evoked responses on average three-fold. Neither TPMPA nor SR95531, applied alone or in combination, had consistent effects on the stimulation thresholds of OFF-center RGCs. We suggest that the effects of the GABA receptor antagonists on ON-center RGCs may be attributable to blockage of GABA receptors on the axon terminals of ON bipolar cells.

  1. Saturable binding of /sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the sites linked to the GABA receptor and the interaction with gabaergic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Bymaster, F.P.; Squires, R.F.

    1984-02-27

    /sup 35/-S-t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (/sup 35/S-TBPS) binds in a concentration-saturable manner to specific sites on membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Using a filtration assay at 25/sup 0/C, in 250 mM NaCl, specific binding of /sup 35/S-TBPS constitutes about 84 to 94 percent of total binding, depending on radioligand concentrations. /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is optimal in the presence of NaCl or NaBr and substantially less in the presence of NaI or NaF. It is sensitive to the treatment with 0.05 percent Triton X-100 but not to repeated freezing and thawing, procedures which increase /sup 3/H-GABA binding. Pharmacological studies show that /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is strongly inhibited by GABA-A receptor agonists (e.g., GABA and muscimol) and by the noncompetitive antagonist, picrotoxin, but not the competitive antagonist, bicuculline. Compounds which enhance binding of radioactive GABA and benzodiazepines, such as the pyrazolopyridines, cartazolate and trazolate, and a diaryl-triazine, LY81067, are also potent inhibitors of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding, with LY81067 being the most effective. The effects of GABA, picrotoxin

  2. Effect of ?-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens. PMID:26104406

  3. Effect of ?-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens. PMID:26104406

  4. Octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), an ultraviolet (UV) filter, alters LHRH and amino acid neurotransmitters release from hypothalamus of immature rats.

    PubMed

    Szwarcfarb, B; Carbone, S; Reynoso, R; Bollero, G; Ponzo, O; Moguilevsky, J; Scacchi, P

    2008-02-01

    OMC (octyl-methoxycinnamate), is an endocrine disruptor with estrogenic activity, which is used in sunscreen creams as a UV filter. We studied its " IN VITRO" effects on the hypothalamic release of LHRH as well as on the amino acid neurotransmitter system in immature rats of 15 (prepubertal) and 30 (peripubertal) days of age. OMC decreased the LH-RH release significantly in male and female rats of both age. In male rats OMC increased the release of GABA while in the female ones It diminished the excitatory amino acid aspartate (ASP) and Glutamate (GLU) without modifications in the hypothalamic GABA release. These results suggest that during sexual maturation the inhibitory effect of OMC on LH-RH release appears to be related to its action on the inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters in male and female rats. PMID:18286425

  5. Modes of action of anthelmintic drugs.

    PubMed

    Martin, R J

    1997-07-01

    Modes of action of anthelmintic drugs are described. Some anthelmintic drugs act rapidly and selectively on neuromuscular transmission of nematodes. Levamisole, pyrantel and morantel are agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of nematode muscle and cause spastic paralysis. Dichlorvos and haloxon are organophosphorus cholinesterase antagonists. Piperazine is a GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) agonist at receptors on nematode muscles and causes flaccid paralysis. The avermectins increase the opening of glutamate-gated chloride (GluCl) channels and produce paralysis of pharyngeal pumping. Praziquantel has a selective effect on the tegument of trematodes and increases permeability of calcium. Other anthelmintics have a biochemical mode of action. The benzimidazole drugs bind selectively to beta-tubulin of nematodes, cestodes and fluke, and inhibit microtubule formation. The salicylanilides: rafoxanide, oxyclozanide, brotianide and closantel and the substituted phenol, nitroxynil, are proton ionophores. Clorsulon is a selective antagonist of fluke phosphoglycerate kinase and mutase. Diethylcarbamazine blocks host, and possibly parasite, enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, and enhances the innate, nonspecific immune system. PMID:9265850

  6. Acute Effects of Alcohol on Stimulus-Induced Gamma Oscillations in Human Primary Visual and Motor Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anne E; Sumner, Petroc; Singh, Krish D; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a rich drug affecting both the ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems. Recent findings from both modeling and pharmacological manipulation have indicated a link between GABAergic activity and oscillations measured in the gamma frequency range (30–80?Hz), but there are no previous reports of alcohol's modulation of gamma-band activity measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). In this single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 16 participants completed two study days, on one day of which they consumed a dose of 0.8?g/kg alcohol, and on the other day a placebo. MEG recordings of brain activity were taken before and after beverage consumption, using visual grating and finger abduction paradigms known to induce gamma-band activity in the visual and motor cortices respectively. Time–frequency analyses of beamformer source reconstructions in the visual cortex showed that alcohol increased peak gamma amplitude and decreased peak frequency. For the motor task, alcohol increased gamma amplitude in the motor cortex. These data support the notion that gamma oscillations are dependent, in part, on the balance between excitation and inhibition. Disruption of this balance by alcohol, by increasing GABAergic inhibition at GABAA receptors and decreasing glutamatergic excitation at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors, alters both the amplitude and frequency of gamma oscillations. The findings provide further insight into the neuropharmacological action of alcohol. PMID:24622470

  7. Thalamic circuitry and thalamocortical synchrony.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edward G

    2002-01-01

    The corticothalamic system has an important role in synchronizing the activities of thalamic and cortical neurons. Numerically, its synapses dominate the inputs to relay cells and to the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic cells of the reticular nucleus (RTN). The capacity of relay neurons to operate in different voltage-dependent functional modes determines that the inputs from the cortex have the capacity directly to excite the relay cells, or indirectly to inhibit them via the RTN, serving to synchronize high- or low-frequency oscillatory activity respectively in the thalamocorticothalamic network. Differences in the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subunit composition of receptors at synapses formed by branches of the same corticothalamic axon in the RTN and dorsal thalamus are an important element in the capacity of the cortex to synchronize low-frequency oscillations in the network. Interactions of focused corticothalamic axons arising from layer VI cortical cells and diffuse corticothalamic axons arising from layer V cortical cells, with the specifically projecting core relay cells and diffusely projecting matrix cells of the dorsal thalamus, form a substrate for synchronization of widespread populations of cortical and thalamic cells during high-frequency oscillations that underlie discrete conscious events. PMID:12626002

  8. GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area receive dual GABA/enkephalin-mediated inhibitory inputs from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takehiro; Konno, Kohtarou; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Sora, Ichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    Activation of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) disinhibits dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through inhibition of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. This mechanism is thought to play a pivotal role in mediating reward behaviors. Here, we characterised VTA-projecting enkephalinergic neurons in the anterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and investigated their targets by examining MOR expression in the VTA. In the BST, neurons expressing preproenkephalin mRNA were exclusively GABAergic, and constituted 37.2% of the total GABAergic neurons. Using retrograde tracer injected into the VTA, 21.6% of VTA-projecting BST neurons were shown to express preproenkephalin mRNA. Enkephalinergic projections from the BST exclusively formed symmetrical synapses onto the dendrites of VTA neurons. In the VTA, 74.1% of MOR mRNA-expressing neurons were GABAergic, with the rest being glutamatergic neurons expressing type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter mRNA. However, MOR mRNA was below the detection threshold in dopaminergic neurons. By immunohistochemistry, MOR was highly expressed on the extrasynaptic membranes of dendrites in GABAergic VTA neurons, including dendrites innervated by BST-VTA projection terminals. MOR was also expressed weakly on GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals in the VTA. Given that GABAA ?1 is expressed at GABAergic BST-VTA synapses on dendrites of GABAergic neurons [T. Kudo et al. (2012) J. Neurosci., 32, 18035-18046], our results collectively indicate that the BST sends dual inhibitory outputs targeting GABAergic VTA neurons; GABAergic inhibition via 'wired' transmission, and enkephalinergic inhibition via 'volume' transmission. This dual inhibitory system provides the neural substrate underlying the potent disinhibitory control over dopaminergic VTA neurons exerted by the BST. PMID:24580812

  9. Postsynaptic Depolarization Enhances GABA Drive to Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Neurons through Somatodendritic Cholecystokinin Release.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Karen M; Baimoukhametova, Dinara V; Bains, Jaideep S; Pittman, Quentin J

    2015-09-23

    Somatodendritically released peptides alter synaptic function through a variety of mechanisms, including autocrine actions that liberate retrograde transmitters. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide expressed in neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in satiety and stress. There are clear demonstrations that exogenous CCK modulates food intake and neuropeptide expression in the DMH, but there is no information on how endogenous CCK alters synaptic properties. Here, we provide the first report of somatodendritic release of CCK in the brain in male Sprague Dawley rats. CCK is released from DMH neurons in response to repeated postsynaptic depolarizations, and acts in an autocrine fashion on CCK2 receptors to enhance postsynaptic NMDA receptor function and liberate the retrograde transmitter, nitric oxide (NO). NO subsequently acts presynaptically to enhance GABA release through a soluble guanylate cyclase-mediated pathway. These data provide the first demonstration of synaptic actions of somatodendritically released CCK in the hypothalamus and reveal a new form of retrograde plasticity, depolarization-induced potentiation of inhibition. Significance statement: Somatodendritic signaling using endocannabinoids or nitric oxide to alter the efficacy of afferent transmission is well established. Despite early convincing evidence for somatodendritic release of neurohypophysial peptides in the hypothalamus, there is only limited evidence for this mode of release for other peptides. Here, we provide the first evidence for somatodendritic release of the satiety peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) in the brain. We also reveal a new form of synaptic plasticity in which postsynaptic depolarization results in enhancement of inhibition through the somatodendritic release of CCK. PMID:26400945

  10. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Rajput, Padmesh S.; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA) in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS)-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary. PMID:26389591

  11. Differential expression of metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors at neocortical glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Luca; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bassi, Silvia; Milanese, Marco; Bonanno, Giambattista; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) and GABAB receptors are highly expressed at presynaptic sites. To verify the possibility that the two classes of metabotropic receptors contribute to axon terminals he